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Main Applications and Selection

ofGate Driver Optocouplers


Application Note 1335
Introduction
IGBTs are now commonly used as switching components in
both inverter and converter circuits used in power control
and motor drive applications. A typical power control and
motor drive system, as shown in Figure 1, requires isolation
between the high voltage devices (IGBT/MOSFET) and
the low voltage devices (micro-controller). In addition to
meeting the severe requirements for the isolation function,
Avago Technologies optocouplers provide customized
functionality such as direct gate drive for IGBTs or power
MOSFETs. This application note focuses on the use of Avago
Technologies Gate Drive Optocouplers.

Advantages of Using Optocouplers as Gate Drivers for IGBT/MOSFET


Low system solution cost
High reliability and long life
Variable speed/frequency capability
Ease and simplicity of design
Small size and footprint area
Low power dissipation
Safe optical isolation (galvanic isolation)
Regulatory and safety agency approvals

+HV
GATE
DRIVE

GATE
DRIVE

U+

V+

GATE
DRIVE

CURRENT
SENSE

W+
A

3-PHASE
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
SENSE

GATE
DRIVE

GATE
DRIVE

U-

V-

GATE
DRIVE
WB
CURRENT
SENSE

-HV
U+, U-, V+, V-,
W+, W-

A, B, C

ANALOG
ISOLATION

MICROCONTROLLER

MOTOR SPEED POSITION

Figure 1. Isolation Circuits for Power Control System Overview

6315-01 AN 1335

Block Diagrams of Main Applications of Gate Drive Optocouplers

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 2. VVVF Inverter (PWM)

6315-02 AN 1335
GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 3. VVVF Inverter (PAM)

6315-03 AN 1335
GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 4. CVCF Inverter (UPS)

6315-04 AN 1335

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 5. Low Power CVCF Inverter (UPS)

6315-05 AN 1335
GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 6. DC Servo

6315-06 AN 1335

MM

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 7. Switched Reluctance Drive

6315-07 AN 1335

LOAD
IRON POT

DC

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 8. DC Chopper

6315-08 AN 1335
Figure 9. Induction Cooker

GATE
DRIVER
LOAD
IRON POT

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 10. Series Resonant Induction Cooker

6315-09 AN 1335

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 11. Welder

GATE

DRIVER
6315-10 AN 1335

6315-11 AN 1335

Calculation of Minimum Output Current (IOL)


to Drive IGBT / MOSFET
The key requirement for any IGBT/
MOSFET gate drive optocoupler is
for it to supply the Minimum Output
Current (IOL) needed to switch the
IGBT/MOSFET to the low-impedance
state. A common misunderstanding
in selecting a gate drive optocoupler
is looking at the Maximum Peak
Output Currents [IOH(PEAK)/IOL(PEAK)]
in the Absolute Maximum Rating
Section of the data sheet. Though
Maximum Peak Output Currents are
no less important, they are meant
to define the maximum permissible
operational condition that could
result in the destruction of the
device, if exceeded.

The gate capacitance of the


IGBT / MOSFET determines how
much current is required from the
driver for basic switching:

VC(GE) =

VC(GE) =

1
Cge
1
Cge

= tsw
=0

Ig tsw

Cgc

ig()d

VB

Ig1

V XC
IG1 = B GC
tsw

Ig = Ig1 + Ig2

IG2 =

Ig2

VC(GE) X CGE

Cge

where,
Cgc - gate-to-collector capacitor
To determine the suitability of a gate Cge - gate-to-emitter capacitor
drive optocoupler, it is necessary
VC(GE) - Voltage across gate-to-emitter capacitor
to look at the Minimum Output
Ig - total gate current flows into gate
VB
VCC - VEE - VOL
Currents (IOH / IOL) of the gate
Cgc
Ig1 R
- gate
current
flows
into
C
gc
=
g
drive optocoupler in the Electrical
= tsw
1 IOLPEAK
Ig2 - gate
into
Cge
ig()d
VC(GE)
= current
Ig1
flows
Specifications Section of the data
Cge = 0
sheet. Particularly important, the
VB - bus voltage
Ig = Ig1 + Ig2
IOL needs to be specified at the
tsw - switching time
condition when VO is low, that is
1
when the gate drive optocoupler is VC(GE) = C Ig tsw
Figure 11. IGBT ge
/ MOSFET Parasitic Capacitances (Cge and Cgc)
Ig2
at the charging state. This is because
under this condition the load
Cge
draws the highest output current.
A gate resistor, Rg , must be selected
Avago Technologies specifies IOL
such that the maximum peak
at VO = VCC 10 V. Similarly for
output current rating, IOL(PEAK), is
IOH, it is important to specify the
not exceeded,
condition when VO is high, that is
when the gate drive optocoupler
VCC - VEE - VOL
is discharging. Avago Technologies
Rg =
specifies IOH at VO = VEE + 10 V.
I

IG1 =

IG2 =

VB X CGC
tsw
VC(GE) X CGE

OLPEAK

This Minimum Output Current


(IOL) required to switch IGBT/
MOSFET to the low-impedance
state can be easily calculated using
the gate capacitance charging
equations. Gate capacitance of
IGBT /MOSFET can be obtained
from the data sheet. After
calculating the Minimum Output
Current required to drive the IGBT/
MOSFET, the suitable gate drive
optocouplers can be selected from
Avago Technologies Gate Drive
Optocoupler Selection Guide.
5

tsw

where,
VCC
- Positive supply voltage of gate drive optocoupler
VEE
- Negative supply voltage of gate drive optocoupler
VOL
- Low level output voltage of gate drive optocoupler
IOL(PEAK) - Maximum peak output current of gate6315-11.EQUA
drive optocoupler
AN 1335

tsw

Other Key Parameters in Selecting a Gate


Drive Optocoupler
Other key parameters in selecting
a gate driver optocoupler are
propagation delay and common
mode rejection ratio. For typical
motor control applications, high
speed gate drive optocouplers
with propagation delays, tPLH,
tPHL 0.8 s and common mode
rejection ratio, CMR 10 kV /s @
VCM = 1000 V are recommended.
Avago Technologies gate drive
optocouplers meet all these basic
requirements.

Selection Guideline for IGBT Class and AC


Motor Rating
Different sizes of IGBT need different
gate drive optocouplers with
different output driving currents.
Tables 1 and 2 below list basic
selection guides based on operating
line voltage, IGBT ratings, AC motor
power ratings, and the appropriate
gate drive optocouplers.
References
1. Khan, J. N. Optocouplers for
Variable Speed Motor Control
Electronics in Consumer Home
Appliances. Avago Technologies
Publication Number 5980-1297
(5/00).

Table 1. Gate Drive Optocouplers Selection Guide for 220 Vac Operating Motor
IGBT
VCES (V )

IGBT
IC (A)

AC Motor Rating
kW
HP

Recommended Gate Drive Optocouplers

15

0.4

0.5

HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J

20

1.5

HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J

30

2.2

HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J

50

3.7

HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J

600 V

75

7.5

10

HCPL-0314/ 3140 /J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J

100

11

15

HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J

150

15

20

HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J

200

22

30

HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J

300

30

40

HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J

400

45

60

Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

600

55

75

Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

Note: The actual application depends on ventilation, power dissipation, heat sinking and other applications conditions.

VCES - Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage

IC - Collector Current

Table 2. Gate Drive Optocouplers Selection Guide for 440 Vac Operating Motor
IGBT
VCES (V )

IGBT
IC (A)

AC Motor Rating
kW
HP

Recommended Gate Drive Optocouplers

15

1.5

HCPL-0314/ 3140/ J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150 /315J

20

2.2

HCPL-0314/ 3140/ J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150 /315J

30

3.7

HCPL-0314/ 3140/ J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150 /315J

50

7.5

10

HCPL-3120/ J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J

75

11

15

HCPL-3120/ J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J

1200 V

100

15

20

HCPL-3120/ J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J

150

22

30

Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

200

37

50

Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

300

55

75

Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

400

75

100

Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

600

110

150

Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

Note: The actual application depends on ventilation, power dissipation, heat sinking and other applications conditions.

VCES - Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage

IC - Collector Current

FEATURES
UVLO
DESAT

HCPL-3120
HCPL-J312
HCNW3120

HCPL-3150
HCPL-315J**

UVLO

NO
UVLO
DESAT

GATE DRIVE
OPTOCOUPLER
+BUFFER

HCPL-316J

HCPL-0314
HCPL-3140
HCPL-J314
HCPL-314J**

G!

IN

OM

GATE DRIVE
OPTOCOUPLER
+BUFFER

GATE DRIVE
OPTOCOUPLER
+BUFFER

HCPL-3020

600 V
IGBT

1200 V
IGBT

0 15

30

50

75

0 0.4

2.2

3.7

7.5

0 15

20

100

Ic(A)

11
MOTOR RATING (kW)

30

50

150

200

15

22

75

100

11

15

Ic(A)
0 1.5

2.2

3.7

7.5
MOTOR RATING (kW)

* ESTIMATION, ACTUAL APPLICATION DEPENDS ON VENTILATION, HEAT SINKING AND OTHER


APPLICATION CONDITIONS.
** INDICATE DUAL CHANNEL DEVICE.

6315-13 AN 1335

Figure 13. Driving Capability of Gate Drive Optocouplers

For product information and a complete list of distributors, please go to our web site:

www.avagotech.com

Avago, Avago Technologies, and the A logo are trademarks of Avago Technologies, Pte. in the United States and other countries.
Data subject to change. Copyright 2006-2010 Avago Technologies Pte. All rights reserved. Obsoletes 5988-8560EN
5988-9009EN May 12, 2010