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FuncHy Workshop 2007

FZK - Karlsruhe 21 November 2007

ludwig blkow
systemtechnik

Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Sources


Reinhold Wurster
wurster@lbst.de

Ludwig-Blkow-Systemtechnik GmbH
Ottobrunn/ Germany
www.lbst.de
www.lbst.de
1

Content
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Global Future Energy Trends


Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Sources Compared
to Other Alternative Fuels
Potentials of Renewable Energy Sources for the
Production of Hydrogen as Transport Fuel
Cost of Hydrogen as Transport Fuel Compared to Other
Alternative Fuels

www.lbst.de
2

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Global Future Energy Trends

www.lbst.de
3

Global future energy trends


Peak of fossil energy supply

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14,000
12,000
10,000
Oil Peak or Peak Oil:
the point at which
supply cannot match
demand anymore

8,000
OIL PEAK
2005~2010

6,000
4,000
2,000

1930

Legend
Oil

Source: LBST

Production in [Mtoe per year]

16,000

Oil
1950

1970

1990

2010

2030

2050

2070

2090

Scenario assumption: decline rate after peak of 2.7%/yr


Actual experience: decline rates of 10%/yr and beyond (e.g. Alaska, Mexico, Norway, Oman, UK)

www.lbst.de

Global future energy trends


Peak of fossil energy supply

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systemtechnik

14,000
12,000

Legend
Gas
Oil

10,000
GAS PEAK
2015~2025

8,000
6,000

Gas
4,000
2,000

1930

Source: LBST

Production in [Mtoe per year]

16,000

Oil
1950

1970

1990

2010

2030

2050

2070

2090
www.lbst.de

Global future energy trends


Peak of fossil energy supply

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14,000
12,000
10,000

COAL PEAK
2030~2040
Bituminous +
subbituminous

8,000

Lignite coal

6,000
Gas
4,000
2,000

1920

Legend
Coal lignite
Coal bit+subbit
Gas
Oil

Source: LBST

Production in [Mtoe per year]

16,000

Oil
1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

For details on coal resource/reserve analysis, see EWG Report No. 1/ 2007 "Coal:
http://www.lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2007EWG-coal__e.html

2100
www.lbst.de

Global future energy trends


Peak of fossil energy supply

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systemtechnik

14,000
12,000
10,000

Legend
Nuclear
Coal lignite
Coal bit+subbit
Gas
Oil

NUCLEAR PEAK
2015~2020
Bituminous +
subbituminous

8,000

Lignite coal
Nuclear

6,000
Gas
4,000
2,000

1920

Oil
1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

For details on nuclear resource/reserve analysis, see EWG Report No. 1/2006 "Uranium:
http://www.lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2006EWG-uranium__e.html
7

Source: LBST

Production in [Mtoe per year]

16,000

2100
www.lbst.de

Global future energy trends


Peak of fossil energy supply

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systemtechnik

14,000
12,000
10,000

WEO 2006 scenario

Legend
Nuclear
Coal lignite
Coal bit+subbit
Gas
Oil

FOSSIL+NUCLEAR PEAK
2015~2020
Bituminous +
subbituminous

8,000

Lignite coal
Nuclear

6,000
Gas
4,000
2,000

1920

Source: LBST

Production in [Mtoe per year]

16,000

Oil
1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

2100

www.lbst.de
8

Global future energy trends


Alternative World Energy Outlook by LBST
2030

20,000

15,000

10,000

Legend
Geothermal
Hydro
Wind
Biomass
Solar collectors
SOT
PV
Uranium
Coal
Gas
Oil

Geothermal
WEO 2006

Wind power

Biomass
Hydropower
Solar
collectors

Uranium

SOT

Coal
PV

Gas

5,000

Source: LBST

Total primary energy supply in [Mtoe]

2004

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Oil

1930

1950

1970

1990

2010

2030

2050

2070

2090
www.lbst.de

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Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Sources


Compared to Other Alternative Fuels

www.lbst.de
10

Alternative Transport Fuels (i.e. non petroleum-based)

Today available alternatives:

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Fatty acid methyl ester (bio-diesel)


Virgin plant oil
Bio-ethanol
Natural Gas (CNG)

Compilation: LBST

Electricity (battery electric vehicles)


Further future alternatives:
Synthetic liquid hydrocarbons from biomass (BtL)
Synthetic liquid hydrocarbons from coal (CtL)
Purified biogas (Compressed Methane Gas from biogas)
Hydrogen (CGH2, LH2) from all hydrocarbons or water containing sources
www.lbst.de
11

Conventional and Renewable Transportation Fuel Supply Paths

Natural Gas

Electric Power (fossil, nuclear)


Electric Power (renewable)
Biomass (Lignocellulosis)

Biomass (Sugar Beet, Wheat)


Biomass (Oil Plants)

Biogas
12

Gasoline
Diesel
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Methanol
FT-Diesel, FT-Naphtha
Hydrogen (CGH2, LH2)
Hydrogen (CGH2, LH2)
Electricity
Hydrogen (CGH2, LH2)
Electricity
Hydrogen (CGH2, LH2)
Methanol
Ethanol
FT-Diesel, FT-Naphtha (BTL)
Ethanol
Plant Oil
FAME
BTL-like fuel (NExBTL)
Methane from Biogas
Hydrogen (CGH2)

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systemtechnik

Compilation: LBST

Crude Oil

www.lbst.de

Compressed Hydrogen (CGH2) from Biomass Gasification


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systemtechnik

Gasification of
Wood Chips (WC)
DM2

Water

Gasifier
(allothermal)

Gas Engine/
MCFC
Grid

CO, H2

Splgas

CO Shift

Pressure Swing Adsorption

(PSA)

Electricity

Compression
Compressed Hydrogen
(for 70 MPa Vehicle Tanks)

13

Compilation: LBST

WC

50www.lbst.de
%

Compressed Hydrogen (CGH2) from Renewable Electricity


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WKA = 100 %
Compressed Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity

Electricity

Electrolysis

Water

Concept for CGH2 Refuelling Station


(Hydrogen Systems)

Compilation: LBST

Hydrogen

Compression

Compressed Hydrogen
(for 70 MPa Vehicle Tanks)

60 %
www.lbst.de

14

Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) from Renewable Electricity


Liquid Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity
Electricity

Electrolysis

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Water

Hydrogen

WKA = 100 %
Liquefaction

Compilation: LBST

LH2 trailer

Distribution

Liquid
Hydrogen
15

50 %
www.lbst.de

Acreage Yields for Several Renewably Produced Transportation Fuels


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systemtechnik
Assumptions H2:

700

Area occupied with PV: 33%

600

Solar irradiation: 900 kWh/(m2 yr)

500

Performance Ratio: 75%


Efficiency CGH2 supply: 60%

Efficiency PV panels: 15%

400

*)

Efficiency LH2 supply: 54%


4.8 wind

300

*)

turbines/km2

2000 kW/wind turbine


Equivalent full load period WT: 1800 h/yr

200

Bandwidth

100

er

*) more than 99% of the land area can still


be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture
16

Source: LBST

wi
n

po
LH

in
d
w

po
w

er

PV
2
LH
CG
H2

PV
CG
H2

sh

or
t

ro

ta
tio
n

fo

re

st

st
ry
fo
re
n

ti o
ot
a
LH

CG
H2

sh

or
tr

rt
r
ho
no
ls
ha
Et

ry

L
BT

ne
ha
et
m

oBi

fo
re

ot
a

tio

no
lw

Et
ha

st

he

M
(R
el
ie
s
od
Bi

ry

at

0
E)

Yield [GJ final fuel/(ha yr)]

800

www.lbst.de

Flchenertrge fr verschiedene erneuerbare Kraftstoffe


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systemtechnik

Ertrag [GJ

KS /(ha

a)]

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

Annahmen H2:
Anteil Flche PV-Module: 33%
Solare Einstrahlung: 900 kWh/(m2 a)
Wirkungsgrad PV-Module: 15%
Performance Ratio (PR): 75%
Wirkungsgrad CGH2-Bereitstellung: 60%
Wirkungsgrad LH2-Bereitstellung: 54%
*)

4,8 Windkraftanlagen/km2

*)

2000 kW/Windkraftanlage
Jahresvollbenutzungsdauer WKA: 1800 h/a

Palml
Indonesien

Bandbreite

*) more than 99% of the land area can still


be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture
17

Source: LBST

W
in
d
LH
2

Bi
od
ie
se
l(
Et
RM
ha
no
E)
la
Et
ha
us
no
W
la
ei
ze
us
n
Ku
rz
um
M
tri
et
eb
ha
n
au
s
Bi
og
as
CG
H2
BT
au
s
L
Ku
rz
LH
um
2
tri
au
eb
s
Ku
rz
um
tri
eb
CG
H2
au
s
PV
LH
2
au
s
PV
CG
H2
W
in
d

www.lbst.de

Number of Passenger Cars (hybrid) which can be supplied per ha


Annual operating range passenger cars: 12,000 km

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systemtechnik

80
Assumptions H2:
Area occupied with PV: 33%

60

Solar irradiation: 900 kWh/(m2 yr)

50

Performance Ratio (PR): 75%


Efficiency CGH2 supply: 60%

Efficiency PV panels: 15%

40

*)

Efficiency LH2 supply: 54%

*)

4.8 wind turbines/km2

30

Compilation: LBST

[Passenger cars/ha]

70

2000 kW/wind turbine


Equivalent full load period WT: 1800 h/yr

20
10

Bandwidth
d
2
LH

CG
H2

in

in

PV
s
au
2

CG

H2

au

re
fo

ro

LH

ry
st

ry
st
n

tio
ot
a

Reference vehicle: VW Golf


*) more than 99% of the land area can still
be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture

18

Diesel engine
Otto engine

or
t
sh

LH

or
tr
sh
H2
CG

ta
tio
n

fo
re

et
m
oBi

rt
r
ho
no
ls
Et
ha

PV

L
BT

ne
ha

st
ry
fo
re

ot
a

tio

Et
ha

Bi

od

ie
s

el

no
lw

(R

he

E)

at

Fuel cell

www.lbst.de

Number of Passenger Cars (hybrid) which can be supplied per ha


Annual operating range passenger cars: 12,000 km

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systemtechnik

Assumptions H2:

40

Area occupied with PV: 33%

35

Solar irradiation: 900 kWh/(m2 yr)


Efficiency PV panels: 15%

30

Performance Ratio (PR): 75%


Efficiency CGH2 supply: 60%

25

Efficiency LH2 supply: 54%

20

*)

4.8 wind turbines/km2

Compilation: LBST

[Passenger cars/ha]

45

*)

2000 kW/wind turbine

15

Equivalent full load period WT: 1800 h/yr

10

Bandwidth

LH

sh

d
2
LH

CG
H2

in

in

PV
s
au
2

CG

H2

au

re
fo

or
t

ro

LH

ry
st

ry
st
n

tio
ot
a
or
tr
sh
H2
CG

ta
tio
n

fo
re

et
m
oBi

rt
r
ho
no
ls
Et
ha

PV

L
BT

ne
ha

st
ry
fo
re

ot
a

tio

Et
ha

Bi

od

ie
s

el

no
lw

(R

he

E)

at

Reference vehicle: VW Golf


*) more than 99% of the land area can still
be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture

19

Diesel engine
Otto engine
Fuel cell
www.lbst.de

Internal Combustion Engine

20

Fuel Cell

-1

Reference Vehicle: VW Golf

* Integrated ecological concept with recycling of residual products to the agricultural crop land
** Synthetic Diesel fuel from Fischer-Tropsch-Synthesis
www.lbst.de

Compilation: LBST

G
as
ol
in
e
Di Pe
es
t
el role
Pe u m
FA tr ol
M eum
E
(R
M
Et Eth
E)
a
h
Et
an no
ha
l
o
no l W Su
l W he ga
he at r Be
C
a
e
Et t B o al t
h a iog -C
HP
Et nol as
ha
W P
no as lan t
Et
t
*
l
h a Sh e W
no or
o
l R t R od
ot
BT esi
du atio
L
n
al
BT Wa
S
CG
st
tr
L
H2 Sh e W aw
o
Bi o rt
og
R od*
ot
*
a
CG s ( B atio
n*
H2 io
*
W
CG
W
as
H2 as
t
te e)
Sh
W
oo
LH ort
Ro d
2
LH Wa tat
io
s
2
Sh te W n
or
t R o od
ot
at
io
n

[MJ/km]

Energy Use "Well-to-Wheel hybrid


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systemtechnik

Renewable

Nuclear

Fossil

0
Credit for Electricity

160

140

21

Internal Combustion Engine

100

80

Fuel Cell

-40

Reference Vehicle: VW Golf

* Integrated ecological concept with recycling of residual products to the agricultural crop land
** Synthetic Diesel fuel from Fischer-Tropsch-Synthesis
www.lbst.de

Compilation: LBST

G
as
ol
in
e
Di Pe
es
t
el role
Pe u m
FA tr ol
M eum
E
(R
M
Et Eth
E)
h
a
Et
an no
ha
l
o
no l W Su
l W he ga
he at r Be
C
a
e
Et t B o al t
h a io
ga C H
n
P
o
Et
s
h a l W Pl
as an
n
t*
Et ol
t
h a Sh e W
no or
o
l R t R od
BT esi ota
du tio
L
n
al
W
CG BTL as Str
t
H2 Sh e W aw
oo
Bi o rt
og
d
R
as ota **
CG ( B tio
n*
io
H
CG 2 W Wa *
H2 as ste
Sh te W )
oo
LH ort
d
R
2
ot
W
LH
as atio
2
Sh te W n
or
t R o od
ot
at
io
n

[g CO2-Equivalent/km]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions "Well-to-Wheel hybrid


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systemtechnik

120

N2O

CH4

CO2

60

40

20

-20
Credit for Electricity

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systemtechnik

Potentials of Renewable Energy Sources


for the Production of Hydrogen
as Transport Fuel

www.lbst.de
22

Technical potential of different biofuels in the EU-27


Rail

PJ/a

Inland navigation

12500

Civil aviation

Without consideration of competing utilisation for


power and heat production

10000

7500

The potentials of different alternatives are shown and


can not be added.
including present utilization

Road transport

Plantation (short rotation forestry)

Plantation
(grasses: 10-25 t DM/ha/yr)

5000

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Residual wood, residual straw

5,75% share of biofuels

Via biogas
2500

Demand
(Transport)
2004 1)

1)
2)

min

max

Biogas
(Methane)

min

max

Hydrogen
(CGH2)

min

max

Hydrogen
(LH2)

min

max

BTL

min

max

Plant oil/
FAME 2)

min

max

Ethanol from
wheat 2)

min

max

Ethanol via
SSCF

Source: IEA-Statistics 2003-2004, 2006 edition


Gross (without the energy efforts for the supply of the fuels e.g. the use of external energy for the ethanol plant)

www.lbst.de
23

Compilation: LBST

15000

Technical potentials for hydrogen from renewable electricity in EU 27


PV (roof area, open land area)

22000

Solarthermal power stations

[PJ/yr]

20000

Inland navigation

Ocean power

Civil aviation

Geothermal

Road transport

Wind onshore

18000

Rail

16000

2)

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Wind offshore

14000
12000
10000

Compilation: LBST

8000
6000
4000
2000
0

Fuel consumption
(Transport 2004) 1)
1)

24

2)

min

CGH2

IEA Statistics 2003-2004, 2006 edition


Photovoltaic plants on open land area: 0.1% of total land area

max

min

Hydropower

max

LH2

www.lbst.de

Substitution of global fossil based transportation fuel by hydrogen


Comparison hydrogen from photovoltaic electricity (PV) versus plant oil from jatropha

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systemtechnik

LH2

1,975

1,975

1,975

1,975

22,964

22,964

0.60

0.54

38,086

42,851

1,300

1,300

Efficiency PV panel

0.15

0.15

Performance ratio

0.75

0.75

146

146

0.33

0.33

0.8

Fuel consumption transport 2004

Mtoe

~320 l gasoline/cap. @ 8 billion cap. TWh/yr


Efficiency fuel supply
Electricity demand fuel production
Solar insulation

Electricity yield PV panel area

TWh/yr
2

kWh/(m yr)

kWh/(m yr)

Fraction of area covered by PV panels


Yield plant oil

t/(ha yr)

Required area

Mill. km

Land area earth

Mill. km
%

Share of land area for fuel production

0.7 1)

2.7 2)

0.9

29.0

7.3

149

149

149

149

0.5

0.6

19.5

4.9

1)

2 t seed per ha and year, oil yield 0.34 kg/kg; without irrigation; 2) 8 t seed per ha and year, oil yield 0.34 kg/kg; with irrigation;
Source: Abhiskek Maharishi, Centre of Excellence for Jatropha Biodiesel Promotion, India; www.jatrophabiodiesel.org
25

For comparison: land area of the USA is about ~9.2 million km2

www.lbst.de

Compilation: LBST

Plant Oil (Jatropha)

CGH2

Unit

Energy Flux Densities Analysis


Energy flux densities (a comparison)
Global Energy Supply Systems:
Global Biomass Energy Flux Density:
Global Geothermal Heat Flux Density:
Global Kinetic Energy Dissipation:
Global Surface Solar Energy Flux Density:

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systemtechnik

~ 0,03 Wm-2
~ 0,10 Wm-2
~ 0,10 Wm-2
~ 3 Wm-2
~ 165 Wm-2

Conclusions:

In the long run, only the sun and the wind can be pillars
of the energy supply system.

Biomass energy clashes with food production.

Source: Prof. H. Gral, MPI

www.lbst.de
26

Primary Energy Supply: Contributions from Renewable Energies


Growth rates and methodology

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Photovoltaic (PV)

+ 24 % per year

Solar thermal power


plants (SOT)

+ 30 % per year

Solar collectors
(heat)

+ 11 % per year

Biomass

+ 2.3 % per year

Potential P:
available technical potential
[ecological limitations considered]
Logistic growth concept

Potential P

Potential
0.5 * P

Wind power

+ 16 % per year

Hydropower

+ 2.3 % per year

Geothermal
Source: LBST
27

+ 11 % per year
Average global growth rates

Compilation: LBST

History
(already developed)

T0

P
F=
1+e ( )
-T-T0
b

www.lbst.de

Role of hydrogen
Where does the hydrogen come from? Electricity by world region
70,000

Legend
Africa
Middle East
Latin America
East Asia
South Asia
China
Transition Economies
OECD Pacific
OECD Europe
OECD North America

Electricity production in [TWh/yr]

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

Electricity demand (2004)

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

17,500 TWh

10,000

10,000

PV
28

60,000

Source: LBST

70,000

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systemtechnik

SOT

Wind

Hydropower

Geothermal

Cumulative regional growth scenarios based on historic growth rates projected into the future via logarithmic function

www.lbst.de

Role of hydrogen
Where does the hydrogen come from? Heat by world region

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

12,000

Legend
Africa
Middle East
Latin America
East Asia
South Asia
China
Transition Economies
OECD Pacific
OECD Europe
OECD North America

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

Heat and transportation fuel


demand (2004): ~5,700 Mtoe

2,000

Source: LBST

Thermal energy production in [Mtoe/yr]

12,000

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systemtechnik

2,000

Biomass demand (2004):


~1,100 Mtoe

Biomass

29

Biogas

Geothermal heat

Solar thermal

Cumulative regional growth scenarios based on historic growth rates projected into the future via logarithmic function

www.lbst.de

Role of hydrogen
Which needs can it cover?

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systemtechnik

Alternative
Fuels ?

Transport sector:
Local production of hydrogen
(reduction of oil import dependency, long-term growth will not be

feasible with fossil fuels nor with biomass-derived fuels respectively


through imports)

Stationary sector:
Supply of back-up power via fuel cells (hospitals, telecom,
data processing, manufacturing processes, refrigeration, etc.)

Remote /re-electrification for electrical islands


(compensation for infrastructure deficits)

Load levelling of fluctuating electricity productionwww.lbst.de


30

Source: LBST

Infrastructure ?

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Cost of Hydrogen as Transport Fuel


Compared to Other Alternative Fuels

www.lbst.de
31

Fuel costs Well-to-Tank


1,60

Natural Gas

Oil

Biomass

Electricity

GE]

1,20

Fuel costs [/l

1,40

1,00

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systemtechnik

0,80
0,60
0,40

FCV fuels

ICEV fuels

0,20

Source: LBST

CG

H2

in

s it
e
ix

l- M
-E
EU

H2
CG

Crude oil based gasoline and diesel: price ex filling station without taxes in June 2006
32

on

lW

di
FT

ug
lS

Et

ha

no

es
e

Be
ar

FC
W
H2

et

H1

2
CH
CG

CG

H2

/o
00
40
ix-

-M
NG

CG

H2

ns
/o
ix

-N
EU
H2

CG

ns
it e

ite

G
GM

lr
em

ot

-4
0
M

et
ha

no

CN

NG

-4
NG

eN

00

0
00

es
el
Di

LH
2

Ga

so
l

in

0,00

www.lbst.de

Fuel costs versus GHG emissions Well-to-Wheel - hybrid powertrain


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systemtechnik

CTL

CGH2, LH2: FC
Methanol: FPFC
Diesel, RME, BTL, GTL,
CTL, DME: Diesel ICE
Gasoline, ethanol, CMG:
Otto ICE

CO2 equivalent [g/km]

250
CGH2 (hard coal)

200

CGH2 (EU electricity mix)


Methanol (NG)

150

Gasoline/Diesel
@50 /bbl w/o tax
LPG
CNG

100

GTL
EtOH (wheat)

CGH2 (NG)
Battery electric vehicle
(EU electricity mix)

50

0,01

RME

CMG (biogas)

0
0

Gasoline/Diesel
@50 /bbl w tax

DME (NG)

0,02

CGH2 (farmed wood)

EtOH (residual straw)


BTL (farmed wood)
CGH2 (wind)

0,03

Methanol (farmed wood)

0,04

Source: LBST

300

LH2 (wind)

0,05

Fuel costs [EUR/vehicle-km]


reference vehicle VW Golf
hybrid
33

www.lbst.de

Selected Literature Sources Energy Resources Situation:


Energy Watch Group:

ludwig blkow
systemtechnik

Oil Report:
http://www.energywatchgroup.org/Oil-report.32+M5d637b1e38d.0.html
http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG_Oilreport_10-2007.pdf [full report]
http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG_Oilreport_Summary_10-2007.pdf [executive summary]
http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG_Press_Oilreport_22-10-2007.pdf [press release]
Uranium Report:
http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG_Uraniumreport_12-2006.pdf
Coal Report:
http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG-Coalreport_10_07_2007.pdf

DWV:
"Woher kommt die Energie fr die Wasserstofferzeugung Status und Alternativen
http://192.168.1.217/www/lbst.de/publications/studies__d/2006/DWV_Woher-H2_NOV2006.pdf
http://www.dwv-info.de/publikationen/2006/woher.pdf
EHA:
EHA H2 Production Brochure April, 2007
http://www.h2euro.org/Publications/studies/EHA_H2Production_brochure_eng_0407.pdf
EC-JRC IPTS:
"Potential of hydrogen as a fuel for transport in the long term (2020 to 2030)
http://192.168.1.217/www/lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2004ipts__e.html
www.lbst.de
34

Selected Literature Sources Well-to-Wheel and LCA:


ludwig blkow
systemtechnik

EUCAR, CONCAWE, JRC Well to Wheel Reports


Well to Wheel Reports 2007, 2006, 2005 and 2003
http://192.168.1.217/www/lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2005eucar__e.html
http://ies.jrc.cec.eu.int/wtw.html
Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle
Systems A European Study
http://192.168.1.217/www/lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2002gmwtw__e.html
Einordnung und Vergleich biogener Kraftstoffe Well-to-Wheel-Betrachtungen
http://192.168.1.217/www/lbst.de/publications/articles2006/Schindler-Weindorf_LBST_Bio-KraftstoffeWtW_TA-TuP_April2006_scwe06a.pdf
Vergleich verschiedener Antriebskonzepte im Individualverkehr im Hinblick auf Energie- und
Kraftstoffeinsparung
http://192.168.1.217/www/lbst.de/publications/studies__d/2002_antriebe__d.html
Comparison of different propulsion systems in private transport in terms of energy saving and reduction
of greenhouse gases
http://192.168.1.217/www/lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2004propuls__e.html

www.lbst.de
35

Thank you for your attention !


ludwig blkow
systemtechnik

For further information


on hydrogen and fuel cells:

www.HyWeb.de

Basic information on H2 and fuel cells +


newsletter (operative since 1996)

www.h2mobility.org

Overview of all H2 and fuel cell vehicles worldwide


(operative since 2000)

www.h2stations.org

Overview of all H2 refuelling stations


(operative since 2000)

www.energiekrise.de

Overview of the availability of fossil energy sources


(operative since 2000)

www.lbst.de
36