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ME2114-2

MATRICULATION NUMBER: A0094506A

CLASS: 2I1

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

Objectives

The objectives of the experiment include:

1. Analysing bending and torsion stresses by applying St. Venants principle and the

principle of superpostition, as well as the strain gauge technique

2. Determining the elastic constants of the test material and calculating the stress

components using Hookes law equations

3. Validating the experimental results against the theoretical results

Experimental Results:

(A) Determination of elastic constants

Table 1: Measurement of diameter of test specimen

Diameter of Tensile Test Piece (m)

d1

9.47E-03

d2

9.48E-03

Cross-Sectional Area

(m2)

dave

9.48E-03

7.05E-05

Load P (N)

Stress,

x (MPa)

Longitudinal Strain,

x (x10-6)

Transverse Strain,

y (x10-6)

0.000

200

2.836

-4

400

5.673

28

-11

600

8.509

51

-20

800

11.346

83

-31

1000

14.182

125

-45

Load

Stress ,

MPa

Area

16

14

12

y = 0.1085x + 1.741

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

25

-2

50

75

100

125

150

0

-5

25

50

75

100

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

y = -0.3591x - 0.7827

-45

-50

125

150

Sample Calculations

Normal Stress, x = P/A

Using P = 200N and A = 7.05 x 10-5 m2

x = P/A

= 200 / 7.16 x 10-5

= 2.84 MPa

Youngs Modulus, E = x / x is the gradient of the longitudinal stress versus longitudinal

strain graph (Graph 1) and is found to be E = 108.5 GPa.

Poissons Ratio, = - y / x and it is the negative gradient of the longitudinal strain versus

transverse strain graph (Graph 2) and is found to be = 0.359.

E

2(1 v )

= (108.5 x 109) x 0.5 / (1 + 0.359)

= 39.92 GPa

Shear Modulus, G

Table 3: Measurement of a, b & d

a (m)

0.15

b (m)

0.10

0.016

Strain (x 10-6)

Load (kg)

0.0

0.5

18

-9

-23

14

1.0

38

-20

-47

26

1.5

54

-30

-71

38

2.0

79

-40

-96

51

2.5

117

-50

-120

62

3.0

133

-60

-144

75

Table 5: Tabulation of strain readings using a full bridge and a quarter bridge configuration

Quarter-Bridge Configuration (x 10-6)

Load

(kg)

0.0

0.5

64

18

68

22

1.0

131

39

138

45

1.5

193

57

207

68

2.0

266

84

275

91

2.5

349

125

342

115

3.0

412

142

409

137

Table 6: Tabulation of experimental and theoretical values of bending stress, x and shear

stress, xy

Experimental Stress (MPa)

Load (kg)

xy

xy

0.0

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.5

0.677

1.078

1.232

0.915

1.0

2.032

2.315

2.464

1.830

1.5

2.709

3.353

3.696

2.744

2.0

4.740

4.750

4.928

3.659

2.5

9.311

6.666

6.160

4.574

3.0

9.819

7.704

7.392

5.489

12.000

10.000

8.000

6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000

0.0

0.5

1.0

-2.000

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

2.5

3.0

3.5

Load (kg)

Theoretical Stress

Experimental Stress

9.000

8.000

7.000

6.000

5.000

4.000

3.000

2.000

1.000

0.000

-1.000

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Load (kg)

Theoretical Stress

Experimental Stress

3.5

3.0

Load (kg)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

100

200

-0.5

300

400

500

Strain, a (x 10-6)

Full Bridge

Quarter-Bridge

Linear (Quarter-Bridge)

3.5

3.0

Load (kg)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

25

50

75

Strain, b (x

Full Bridge

Quarter-Bridge

100

125

10-6)

Linear (Quarter-Bridge)

150

Sample Calculations

Using Load = 1.5 kg

P = Load x g = 1.5 x 9.81 = 14.715 N

Theoretical Bending Stress at point A is given by

32bP

= (32 x 0.10 x 14.715) / ( x 0.0163)

x

3

d

= 3.70 MPa

Experimental Bending Stress at point A is given by

E

9

-6

-6

x

(1 4 ) = (108.5 x 10 ) x (54 x 10 38 x 10 ) / (1 0.359)

1 v

= 2.71 MPa

Theoretical Shear Stress at Point A is given by

16aP

= (16 x 0.15 x 14.715) / ( x 0.0163)

xy

3

d

= 2.74 MPa

Experimental Shear Stress at point A is given by

E

xy

( 1 2 ) = (108.5 x 109) x 0.5 x (54 x 10-6 + 30 x 10-6) / (1 + 0.359)

2(1 v)

= 3.35 MPa

Using Quarter-Bridge Configuration,

a = (1 + 4) (2 + 3)

= [(54 + 38) (-30 + 71)] x 10-6

= 193 x 10-6

b = (1 + 2) (3 + 4)

= [(54 - 30) (-71 + 38)] x 10-6

= 57 x 10-6

Discussion

1. Compare the theoretical stresses with the experimental values. Discuss possible

reasons for the deviations if any, in the results obtained.

Comparing the theoretical stresses and experimental values, it is observed that the values

between the two do not differ significantly, the difference between the two being roughly at

+1 MPa. However, at larger load of 2.5 kg onwards, it is observed that the difference between

the two exceeds 1 MPa for both bending and shear stress values. This observation may be

caused by the following factors:

a) The specimen that is tested has been used for a long period of time and applying

stresses on it over a number of experiments may lead to some changes in the property

of the specimen and thus affecting the experimental results.

b) Orientation of the rosette is that any gauge makes an angle of 45 degrees with the axis

of the shaft. However, given the small size and the curved surface of the shaft, it is

difficult to ensure that the angle is maintained.

c) The values of loads used in the experiment do not include the weight of the hanger and

the offset bar.

d) Plane cross sections do not remain plane after bending. The values of a and b would

have been affected.

e) All the above contributed to inaccurate readings which in turn causes an inaccurate

value of the Youngs Modulus, E, to be obtained. The Youngs Modulus is being used

to calculate the experimental stresses and hence will generate inaccurate values.

2. From the results of step (B5), deduce the type of strain the strain-meter readings

represent.

xy

1 2

sin 2

12

cos2

2

2

2

direction of the gauge numbers 1 and 2 respectively.

Given that

Since = 45o, xy 1 2

Likewise, for gauge numbers 3 and 4, xy 4 3 .

Since a (1 4 ) ( 2 3 )

Rearranging,

a ( 1 4 ) ( 2 3 )

( 1 2 ) ( 4 3 )

2 xy

Thus, configuration a of the strain-meter will measure the shear strain experienced by the

specimen.

A yA xA yA

xy

1 x

cos2

sin 2

2

2

2

2 1 xA yA xy

or

where superscript A refers to the point A on the shaft.

At point A, xA

2 1 xy

1

Similarly at point B, Bx

2 4 xy

1

( xA Bx ) 1 4

x

2

1

or

2 3 x (1 )

Likewise,

1 4 = x (1-)

b ( 1 2 ) ( 3 4 )

( 1 4 ) ( 2 3 )

2 x (1 )

Hence, configuration b of the strain-meter will measure the axial strain experienced by the

specimen.

Apart from the uniaxial tension method used in this experiment, how can the elastic

constants be determined.

Young's modulus can be worked out using the cantilever beam. In this method, weights are

hung from the beam successively at several locations along it. The resulting deflections can

wL3

be measured using a dial-gauge. The governing equation is v

where I is the second

3EI

moment of area, and which can be calculated easily from the dimensions of the beam.

We can vary v with L, plot a graph whose gradient represents the remaining terms, and from

the gradient, work out E.

TL

We can

GI

vary T with , plot a graph whose gradient represents the remaining terms, and from the

gradient, work out G.

Shear modulus can be found using the torsion test. The governing equation is

Poisson's Ratio v can be worked out using the expression with the values of E and G.

3.

Instead of using Equations (3) and (8) for strains, develop alternative equations

to enable the determination of strains from the four gauges readings.

Equations (3) and (8) made use of gauges 1 and 4 to determine strain. However, we can

actually choose to use gauges 2 and 3.

Given

xy

2

3 4

2

sin 2

34

2

cos2

substituting =-45o,

xy 3 4 .

Also

xA yA

2

xA yA

2

cos2

xy

2

sin 2

After simplifying,

2 2 xA yA xy

And since yA xA ,

xA

2 2 xy

1

2 xy

Bx 3

1

Hence, bending strain at A is given by

( A Bx ) 2 3

x x

2

1

Thus, the alternative equation to enable the determination of strains from the four gauges

readings,

b ( 1 2 ) ( 3 4 )

( 1 4 ) ( 2 3 )

2 x (1 )

( 4 ) ( 2 3 )

x 1

2(1 )

.

4.

Develop stress equations for combined bending, and twisting, of hollow shafts

with K as the ratio of inside to outside diameter.

The magnitude of the maximum bending stress at any point b of a hollow shaft of ratio of

inner to outer diameter K is given by

M xy

Iz

I z = the second moment of area

=

64

d 4 1 K 4

d

bP

2

d 4 1 K 4

64

32bP

=- 3

d 1 K 4

where d is the outer diameter of shaft, b is the distance of any point on the shaft to the point

of application of force and P is the applied force.

5.

torsional and bending loads. Would the strain gauge arrangement for this

experiment be acceptable to the determination of stresses?

Give reasons for your answer. For simplicity, a solid shaft may be

considered.

Axial load F will cause an increase in axial strain, which will be registered by the strain

gauge arrangement for the experiment. However, the readings taken will register the sum of

that due to both bending and tensile/compressive effects and it would not be possible to

determine the amount of strain contributed by each force. The axial stress determined will be

the resultant of that due to all the axial forces involved. In conclusion, the arrangement used

in the experiment is acceptable in determining the stresses experienced by the specimen.

Conclusion

The strain gauge technique provides a relatively accurate way of measuring the strains and

stresses in a shaft subjected to simultaneous bending and twisting. The bending and torsion

stresses were analysed through the use of St. Venants principle and the principle of

superpostition, and the stress components were determined through Hookes law equations.

However, the experimental and theoretical values of stresses differed, but within an

acceptable range. This is attributed to the presence of many sources of errors, which have

been aforementioned. All in all, the experimental set up has been proven to be effective and

quite accurate and the objectives of the experiment have been met.

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