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know his parentage. There are various conjectural genealogies, but none is documented. As Bishop of Metz, he was an important counselor to Theudebert II, and was Mayor of the Palace (Maiordomus) to Dagobert I of Austrasia. His wife's name was Dode or Ode; they had a son Clodulph (died 696) who married an Austrasian princess and was also Bishop of Metz, and was canonized as St Cloud. Arnulf also had a son Ansegisel (died 694), who married Begga, a daughter of Pepin of Landen, Mayor of the Palace to Clothaire II II of Austrasia. After an active political career, Arnulf retired as a hermit to the Vosges. Both Arnulf and Begga were later canonized. Arnulf is my favorite saint, being the patron saint of beer brewing. Ansegisel and Begga were the parents of Pepin II of Héristal (635-714), who was at different times Mayor of the Palace in Neustria, Austrasia and Burgundy. After defeating Theuderic III and his rival Mayor in 687, Pepin was effectively the ruler of all the Frankish lands. He called himself dux et princeps Francorum, and put his sons into various high offices, but never actually declared himself King. He married a German princess, Plectrude, who brought extensive Moselle Valley lands into the family. They had two sons: (1) Grimoald II (died 714), Maiordomus in Neustria 698; married Theodelinda, daughter of Radbod, a Frisian chief; and (2) Drogo of Champagne (died 708). They both had children, but both died before their father; and so his successor was his illegitimate son by his mistress Alpaida or Alpaïs: (3) Charles (689-741), known as Charles Martel (see below). They also had a younger son Childebrand, duke of Burgundy; and possibly also a daughter. Charles Martel made himself famous throughout Christendom by defeating the Moorish invaders at Tours (or Poitiers) in 732, probably saving Europe from becoming Muslim. He is largely responsible for establishing the early feudal military and land tenure systems, and when Theuderic IV died in 737, he left the throne vacant and ruled as "dux Francorum." He married first Chrotrude (died 724), daughter of Leutwinus, Bishop of Trier, five children; then Swanhilde (one child); and he had several illegitimate children. Charles Martel's children by Chrotrude are (1) Hiltrude (died 741), married Odilo I of Bavaria; (2) Carloman, Maiordomus in Austrasia (c715-755); had a son Bernard, Comte de Saint-Quentin, whose daughter Gondres (maybe) married Pepin of Italy, see below; (3) Landres, married Sigrand, Count of Hesbaye (their great-granddaughter married Louis I the Pious, see below); (4) Aude, married Thierry IV of Autun and Toulouse; and (5) Pepin III 'the Short', King of the Franks; see below. By his second wife, Charles Martel was the father of (6) Griffon of Bavaria (died 753) not clear whether he had descendants. By his mistress(es), Charles was the father of Bernhard, who married Gundelindis and may be the father of the Gondres who married Pepin of Italy (see above and below); (7) Remigius of Rouen; and (8) Hieronymus. Pepin III 'the Short', King of the Franks (714-768) married Bertrada, daughter of Charibert, comte de Laon. She was a great-granddaughter of the Merovingian king Theuderic III.When his father died, Pepin was Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia, but he quickly installed the Merovingian Childeric III as king and ruled through him. His half-brother Griffon, whom he had imprisoned, escaped and fled to their sister Hiltrude in Bavaria, in hopes of seizing power in the Frankish kingdoms; but Pepin invaded Bavaria and forced Odilo to recognize him as overlord. Odilo soon died, and Pepin installed Tassilo III there. He then declared himself King of the Franks, with papal support. Before his death he expanded his territories into northern Italy, and created the longstanding alliance with the papacy through the 'Donation of Pepin.' His children: (1) Carloman II (751-771), King of Burgundy, Provence, Septimania, Aquitania Orientale, Thuringia and Hesse, two sons, no further descendants; and (2) Charlemagne, see below; (3) Gisela, Abbess of Chelles, who was apparently married before taking vows, and had a son Roland of Ingelheim the hero of the Chanson de Roland - whose daughter Juliana married Charlemagne's son Charles, see below; and (4) Redburh or Redburga, who married Egbert, King of Wessex and was
ancestor of the first English royal family; see Wessex. Charlemagne (742-814), properly Charles - King of the Franks (754-814); King of the Lombards (774-814), Holy Roman Emperor (800-814) - too well known for a biography here. No one knows what he looked like; but I like the painting above - he resembles Almighty God in that Monty Python movie. He married first Himiltrude; they had a son (1) Pepin 'the Hunchback' (c767-813), died in a monastery after joining a rebellion, no descendants. He then married in 770 (evidently without divorcing Himiltrude) Gerberga (died 776), daughter of Didier, King of the Lombards; divorced within a year; no children. His third wife was Hildegarde, daughter of Graf Gerold I von Vinzgau and Imma of Swabia. They had (2) Rotrude, married Rociron de Rennes, Comte du Maine; (3) Charles, King of the East Franks, see below; (4) Adelaide, born and died 774; (5) King Pepin I of Italy and the Lombards, see farther below; (6) Emperor Louis I 'the Pious,' see farther below; (7) Bertha, married Augilbert "the Saint" of Ponthieu, ancestor of that comital family; (8) Lothair (778-780); (9) Gisela (c781-800); and (10) Hildegarde, (782-783). Charlemagne's fourth wife was Fastrada, daughter of Rodolfo III, Count of Franconia. They had further children: (11) Theodrada (c785-844), a nun and abbess; and (12) Hiltrude (c786-800), married Richwin of Padua and died giving birth to Ricbodo (800-844). Charlemagne married fifth Luitgarde; no children. He also had mistresses, most of whose names we know. By Madelgarde he had a daughter (13) Rothilde, an abbess at Faremoutiers. By Gerswinde of Saxony he was father of Adeltrude. By Regine he had a son (14) Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz, and (15) Hugues (died 844), Abbot of St.Quentin. By Adeline: (16) Dietrich, a monk. By another mistress: (17) Hruodhaid (c784-c800). As Charlemagne's empire was divided among several of his sons, we will treat their lines separately. I. Charles, King of the East Franks (772-811) married Juliana; they had one son, Ingelram, who is very probably the ancestor of the first dynasty of Counts of Flanders. Another son, probably illegitimate, was Roland of Neustria, who may have been the male-line ancestor of both the counts of Blois and the de Burgh family of Britain. If so, the later Burghs, Burkes, Boroughs, etc of England, Scotland and Ireland are all male-line descendants of Charlemagne. II. Pepin I of Italy and the Lombards (773-810) died before his father, and so his descendants were not Holy Roman Emperors. In 795 he married Bertha, a daughter of Guillaume of Toulouse. They had (it is thought) five daughters, including (1) Adelaide, married Gui I, Duke of Spoleto, and (2) a daughter who married Lambert of Nantes. He married second (date unknown) his cousin Gondres, whose paternity is uncertain; see above. They had one son (though some sources say he was illegitimate), King Bernard I of Italy (797-818), who rebelled against his uncle Louis the Pious, was defeated and blinded , and died of his injuries. He married Cunegonde of Laon (died 835), and had one son, Pepin II Quentin, Count of Vermandois, Senlis et Peronne - ancestor of the house of Vermandois; see that page. III. Louis 'the Fair' or 'the Pious', in French "Louis le Débonnaire," King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor (778-840). His father named him his successor in 813, and he was crowned by the Pope in 816. He divided his empire among his three sons, a decision that has had repercussions down to the present day (in effect, it created France and Germany as separate states, and caused a thousand-year dispute about the lands in between, originally given to the third son). He was at war through most of his reign, with Slavs on the borders of Lombardy, with the Visigoths in Spain, and with rebels in his own kingdoms. After his death at Ingelheim, his sons fought a three-way civil war over the division of the empire, settled by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Louis married first Ermengarde of Hesbaye (c778-818, see above), six children: (1) Alpais (c794-852), married Beggo, Count of Paris - their son Clerhardus is ancestor of the Franconian dynasty; and their son Leutard, Count of Paris, was father of Ingeltrude of Orléans, married Eudes of Orléans; their daughter Ermentrude was wife of Charles the Bald, see below; (2) Emperor Lothair I, see below; (3) Pepin I, King of Aquitaine, see farther below; (4) Rotrude (800-841), married Gerard I, Count of Auvergne, and Rather de Limoges; (5) Hildegarde or Matilda, Abbess of Laon (802-841); and
(6) Louis II 'the German', King of Bavaria, Holy Roman Emperor, see farther below. Louis the Pious married second Judith von Altdorf (800-843), daughter of Welf (see Welf). They had three children: (7) Gisela (c819-876), married Everhard, Margrave of Friuli (see Spoleto); (8) Charles II 'the Bald', King of the West Franks, Holy Roman Emperor, see farther below; and (9) Adelaide, married Robert, Count of Paris (see Capet). Louis also had a son Arnulf de Sens; it is not certain whether he was legitimate or not. Next we look at the male-line descendants of Louis the Pious: I. Emperor Lothair I (795-855) married three times; his first wife we know only by the name "Thionville"; the second was Doda; the third is unknown. Doda was the mother of Carloman, the last child listed below; Thionville was the mother of all the others. (1) Louis II, King of Italy, Emperor of the East Franks (c822-875), who married Engelburge of Spoleto (died 890) and had two daughters, (a) Gisele, 853-868, and (b) Ermengarde, who married Boso (Boson) V, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine, etc - see Arles; (2) Ermengarde, married Giselbert II von Maasgau, Count of Hainault - see Hainault and Lorraine; (3) Lothair II, King of Lotharingia, see below; (4) Charles, King of Burgundy and Provence (a845-863); (5) Hiltrude (c826-866), married Berengar di Spoleto - probably ancestors; (6) Rotrude (c840), married Lambert II de Nantes; (7) Bertha, c830-852; and (8) Gisela, c830-856. The last child (by Doda) was (9) Carloman, born in 853 but evidently died young. Lothair II, King of Lotharingia (c829-869) married first Teutberge of Arles, daughter of Boso III, Count of Turin; one son, (1) Hugo, Duke of Els (c857-895), evidently no descendants. He married second his mistress Waldrada (c836-868); they were the parents of (2) Bertha (866-925), married first Theodebert, Count of Arles, by whom she was mother of King Hugh of Provence; see Arles; and second Adalbert II 'the Rich' of Lucca, Marquis of Tuscany (she is our ancestor by both marriages); (3) Gisela (died 908), married Godfrey 'the Dane' and was mother of Siegfried the Dane, 1st Count of Guisnes, see that page; and (3) Irmgard. Lothar II has no male-line descendants. II. Pepin I, King of Aquitaine (c797-c838) married Ingeltrude, daughter of Theodebert, Count of Madrie. Four children: (1) King Pepin II of Aquitaine (c824-864), no descendants; (2) Charles, Archbishop of Mainz (c827-863); (3) Bertha, married Gerard, Duke of Acquitaine, evidently as a second wife, no children; and (4) a daughter, married Rather, Count of Limoges. I do not think we have a descent from Pepin. III. Louis II 'the German', King of Bavaria, Holy Roman Emperor (c804-876) married (827) Hemma, daughter of Welf, Graf in Swabia (see Welf). They were the parents of seven children: (1) Carloman, King of Bavaria and Italy (c828-880), see below; (2) Louis III, King of Saxony, Thuringia and Franconia (c830-882), married Liutgard of Saxony (two children, no grandchildren); he also had an illegitimate son Hugo, evidently no descendants; (3) Charles III 'the Fat' (839888), King of the Franks, Holy Roman Emperor (two children, one illegitimate; no grandchildren known); (4) Gisela, married Count Erchanger I of Swabia; (5) Hildegarde; (6) Irmgard; (7) Bertha. No descent from Louis II, unless it is illegitimate. Carloman, King of Bavaria and Italy (c828-880) married Liutswinde, and had one son, Arnulf, Duke of Carinthia, Emperor (c850-899). He married Oda of Bavaria and had three children, including Louis IV 'the Child', King of the East Franks (893-911), but apparently no grandchildren. IV. Charles II 'the Bald', King of the West Franks, Holy Roman Emperor (823-877) married Ermentrude, daughter of Eudes I, Count of Orléans (see Angoulême). Nine children: (1) Judith (c844-p870), married two kings of Wessex, Æthelwulf and Æthelbald, no children by either marriage; and then Baldwin I of Flanders (see Flanders), many descendants; (2) Louis II 'the Stammerer', King of the Franks, see below; (3) Charles 'the Child', King of Aquitaine (848-865); (4) Carloman (c849-876), an abbot; (5) Lothair (c847-865), an abbot; (6) Erementrude (c854877), an abbess; (7) Hildegarde (c856), died young; (8) Gisela (c858-874); and (9) Rotrude (862-
c911), an abbess. Charles the Bald married second Richilde, a sister of Richard 'the Justiciar', Duke of Burgundy, etc (see Burgundy and Arles). They had further children: (10) Rothaut (c870), married Hughes, Count of Bourges; their daughter Richilde was the wife of the first Thibaut of Blois and ancestor of that family; (11) Rothilde of Neustria (c871-928), married Roger of Maine; (12) Drogo (c873-874); (13) Pepin (c872-873); (14) Hersent of Lorraine (c870); and (15) Charles (876-877). Louis II 'the Stammerer', King of the Franks (846-879) married first Ansgarde, daughter of Hardouin, Count of Burgundy (not an ancestor of the later Burgundians). They had four children but no grandchildren: (1) Louis III, King of the East Franks (876-882), Emperor (879-882); (2) Carloman, King of the West Franks (879-882)+(882-884), Emperor (882-884); (3) Hildegarde, and (4) Gisela, both of whom seem to have died unmarried. Louis II married secondly Adelaide, daughter of Beggo or Adalhard, Count of Paris. They had further children: (5) Charles III 'the Simple', Holy Roman Emperor, see below; and (6) Ermentrude; perhaps died young. Charles III 'the Simple', Holy Roman Emperor (879-929), King of the West Franks (893-923), Emperor (898-929), married first Frederuna, and had four daughters; two were married; but no grandchildren. He married second Eadgifu, daughter of Edward 'the Elder', King of England, by Elfleda. They had two sons: the younger was Rociro of Laon, a bishop; the elder was Louis IV "d'Outre Mer" (921-954), King of the West Franks (936-954), Emperor, etc. He married Gerberge of Saxony, daughter of Henry I, Duke of Saxony, King of Germany, and Mathilde of Ringelheim. They were the parents of six children: (1) Lothar IV, King of the West Franks (941-954-986), who married Emma of Italy and had two sons: (a) Louis V "le Fainéant", King of West Franks (967986-987), Emperor; married twice but no children; and (b) Eudes, a priest; (2) Charles of Laon, Duke of Lower Lotharingia (953-991), see below; (3) Mathilde (943-991?), married as his second wife Conrad 'the Peaceful', King of Burgundy (our ancestors via Blois); (4) Carloman (945-953); and (5) Henry (born and died 953). Charles of Laon, Duke of Lower Lotharingia (953-991) married first Agnes, daughter of of Heribert de Vermandois, and had a daughter Gerberge (977-1018), who married Lambert I of Louvain and was ancestor of the dukes of Lorraine, Brabant, etc, as well as of the Percy family in England. Charles married second Adelaide, and had further children: Eudes, Louis, and Charles, who seem to have no descendants; and Adelaide, who married Count Albert I of Namur and was ancestor of the Namur, Luxembourg and other Low Country dynasties. The legitimate male line of the Carolingians comes to an end with Louis V "le Fainéant" in 987, though there are illegitimate male lines that become noble houses in Great Britain and France. The first dynasty of Counts of Flanders may be legitimate male-line descendants; that line ended in 1216, but there were junior lines among the minor nobility of the Low Countries; very probably Charlemagne's Y-chromosome survives today. Female descents come through virtually every major western European noble and royal family, but especially Vermandois, Burgundy, Capet and the Low Countries duchies like Flanders and Hainault. By the High Middle Ages, there was no European monarch who was not a Carolingian descendant. see the euweb page and the stirnet page on this dynasty. There is an The International Society of the Descendants of Charlemagne - see their website - it's hilarious. They don't quite seem to realize that one-quarter of the world's population is eligile (if not one-third).
2 Mr. Mathias GHERARDINI b: Abt. 900
3 Lord Otterus (Othoer) GHERARDINI 1: Baron of Gherardini 2: Lord in Tuscany b: 934 Gherardini, Italia d: 996 in Italia?
4 Lord Gherardo GHERARDINI Baron (Lord) of Windsor b: 980 Italia? d: Aft. 1006 in Italia? Residence: Florence, Italia
5 Dominus Otho b 1: 1006 Florence, Italia b 2: 1010 Florence, Italia Immigration: 1042 Italia to Normandie, France/Wales to England d: Aft. 1042 in Surrey, England
6 Mr. Walter FITZ OTHO of Windsor 1: 1078 Castellan of Windsor Castle 2: Bet. 1066 - 1087 Warden of Forests in Berkshire (c.1066-87) 3: 1100 Keeper of the Forest b 1: 1037 b 2: 1050 Living: Bet. 1066 - 1087 d: Aft. 1100 in England Reference #: (Ä178:2) / -- Otho (Othoer) of TUSCANY / | or: Gherardine (Gherardo) of FLORENCE / -- Otho (Other DOMINUS) GERALDINUM (? - by 1100) Founder of family of windsor 4th in descent from RAINERO
/ -- Walter FitzOTHO (FitzOTHER) (1045? - 1099+)
- Gerald FitzWALTER de WINDSOR
\ -- Beatrice (poss. de OFFALY) walter fitz-otho de windsor gerald fitzwalter de windsor maurice fitzgerald de windsor gerald fitz-maurice maurice fitzgerald thomas fitzgerald john fitzgerald
maurice fitzthomas fitzgerald john fitzthomas chief of geraldines slane by sir richard bochell (capell) d1261 HYBRIUM) OR colin (COILIMIM HYHERNUM)(CAILEAN)(CALLAN)(COLINUM (CALINUS HIBERNUS)(COLINE GERALD)( COLINO HYBERNO) COLIN FITZGERALD of Kintail b 1200 d 1278 Donan castle Scotland kenneth (Coinneah macolin) of Kintail 11 b 1250-1304 Iona monastery Iona Argyll murdoch mackenneth of Kintail kenneth mackenzie b -1338 kenneth mackenzie of Kintail 111 na NA SROINE b -1346 Perth murdoch mackenzie of Kintail V NA HUAGH b 1340-1375 murdoch mackenzie of Kintail 1111x NA DROCHAID b 1370-1416 alexander mackenzie of Kintail 111x IONRAIC b 1413 Lochbroom d 1488 Kinellan kenneth mackenzie
of Kintail 11x A BHLAIR b 1454 -1492 Kinellan john mackenzie of Kintail 1x b 1481-1561 Inverchonan House kenneth mackenzie of Kintail x NA CUIRC b 1543 -1568 Beauly Inverness colin mackenzie of Kintail x1 CAM b 1556 Kintail d 1594 Redcastle Rosshire roderick mackenzie of Tarbat b 1577 -1626 Kintail Rosshire john mackenzie of Tarbat b 1608 Inverteil Fife d 1654 alexander mackenzie of Ardoch 1 b 1642 Kinghorn Fife john mackenzie of Ardloch 11 b 1664 -1726 alexander mckenzie of Ardloch 111 b m 1732 d 1772 robert mckenzie of Ardloch V b 1743 -1809 alexander mckenzie of Tarbat d 1839 Calcutta India donald mckenzie b 1815 killiemuir Skye Inverness
mary mckenzie b 1849 Kinglassie Fife andrew foster b 1868 Kirkcaldy Fife thomas henderson foster b 1903 Kirkcaldy Fife jane shiela foster b 1934 Kirkcaldy Fife paul kay Mary Magdalene Follower of Christ, understood by modern scholarship to have been his “companion.” What the word is supposed to mean is a recurring theme at the heart of The Da Vinci Code. Orthodox tradition has portrayed Mary as a sinner, often as a prostitute; newer interpretations of the Magdalene, mainly derived from the Gnostic Gospels found at Nag Hammadi, position her as an influential and intimate companion of Jesus, perhaps even his wife (see Chapter 1). Merovingians The Merovingians, according to Leigh Teabing in The Da Vinci Code, were the Frankish royal family that the descendents of Jesus and Mary Magdalene married into, thus perpetuating the holy bloodline. The bloodline supposedly reached down to Godefroi de Bouillon, the founder of the Priory of Sion. The Merovingians traced their ancestry back to Merovée, a semimythical personage who was born of two fathers: a king named Clodio and a sea monster that seduced his mother when she was swimming in the sea. Because of their ancestry, Merovée and his descendents were reputed to have supernatural powers and unnaturally long lifetimes. Other legends connected their origins to Noah and other Jewish patriarchs as well as ancient Troy. Other claims—that the Merovingians were descended from aliens, that they were the progeny of “nephilim” or fallen angels, and that George Bush and Jeb Bush are both descendents of Merovée—have received less attention. One homage to the red-haired monarchs almost made Merovingian a household word: a character in the blockbuster Matrix series is named “the Merovingian.” Historically, King Clovis consolidated the Merovingian hold over the Franks in the last part of the fifth century. During a battle with another tribe, Clovis swore to convert to Catholicism if he was allowed victory. He did, and France was won for the Catholic Church. From this point on, the Merovingian line became more and more diffused, ruling over a group of tiny, warring countries. The conflict between these groups culminated in the murder of Dagobert II, the last effective Merovingian king. Within a few generations the kingship passed to the Carolingian line, most famously in the reign of Charlemagne. Leaving no connection unturned, the infamous Dossiers Secrets supposedly claim that Dagobert’s child survived and carried the Merovingian bloodline into the present-day family of . . . Pierre Plantard. Miriam Another name for Mary Magdalene.
Tuscany in the ninth century was a "march" or boderland, because it was between the Carolingian dominions and the papal states. Therefore the Carolingian emperors appointed margraves or marquises to rule there. It was technically part of the 'kingdom of Italy.' Lucca was the usual capital. Richbald, probably from one of the earlier Lombard families that had ruled in the valley of the Arno before Charlemagne's time, was the father of Bonifacio I, father of Bonifacio II (died p811), father of Bonifacio III of Tuscany, Count of Lucca (died p829), father of Adalbert I (died 886), appointed marchese of Tuscany in 843. Adalbert was variously referred to as duke of Lucca, and of Tuscany, as well as marquis. He married Rohaut, daughter of Guido II, Duke of Spoleto. They were the parents of three children: (1) Adalbert, see below; (2) Bonifacio (died c894) and (3) Reginsinda, a nun at Brescia. Adalbert II "the Rich" (c855-915) married Bertha, daughter of Lothar II, King of Lotharingia and his second wife Waldrada; and widow of Count Theodebert of Arles; she is our ancestor by both marriages. They had three children: (1) Guido, see below; (2) Lambert, see farther below; and (3) Ermengarde (c900-p932), who married as his second wife Adalbert, Margrave of Ivrea, Count of Parma; two sons, not certain if they are our ancestors; but Margrave Adalbert is our ancestor via Italy and Burgundy by his first wife. Guido of Lucca, Duke of Tuscany (died c929) married Marozia (or maybe she was his mistress), daughter of the Roman senator Theophylact (see Crescentii). She is also our ancestor by other marriages (or liaisons). They were the parents of several children, including Theodora, but it is not known whether they had further descendants, according to FMG. However, Stirnet makes them the parents of Adalbert III, who is not mentioned by FMG. Adalbert III of Lucca and Este, Marquis of Tuscany was the father of (1) Humberto, see below; and (2) Adalbert, Marquis of Este, who married Gisela of Vincenza and maybe had a son (a) Anselm I, Marquis of Savona. However, most sources make this Anselmo one of the Aleramo family (see Montferrat and Saluzzo). Humberto I, Count of Lucca, Marquis of Este (died 975) married Willa, daughter (probably) of Bonifacius, Duke of Spoleto. They had at least one daughter, Maria, who married Hugo I (c976-1014) of Genoa and Milan - ancestors of the house of Este. Lambert of Spoleto (died c932), younger brother of Guido of Lucca, was deposed and blinded in 931 by Ugo, King of Italy. He was (maybe) the father of Giovanni, Count of Laurino, who married Gaitelgrima, daughter of Atenolfo, Count of Teano. They were the ancestors of the later princes of Salerno - see that page. This family (usually called the Bonifacii) was dispossessed by King Ugo after 931, and the title was held by members of Ugo's family for the next century. Then the marquisate was given to the Canossa family (which had various other titles, including Spoleto, Brescia, Reggio, Modena, etc) but ended with the death of the famous Matilda of Canossa in 1115. As far as I can tell, we have no Canossa descent. After 1115 there were no marquises; Tuscany came under the control of the republic of Florence. see the FMG page on this family. Despite certain poorly-conceived books and movies swallowed whole by a gullible public, there is no reason to think that the sacred "long-haired kings" of Dark Ages
France were descended from Jesus and Mary Magdalene.They arose from the leading clans of the Salian Franks, a Germanic people who migrated westward along the northern borders of the Roman empire in the second and third centuries AD. At the time of their first leader whom we know by name (Chlodio) they were settled in what is now southern Belgium. Sometimes they fought the Romans; at other times worked with them, as in repelling the invasion of the Huns in 451. The eponymous 'founder' of the dynasty is Merovech (Latin Meroveus), probably a son but certainly a close relative of Chlodio. He was recognized by the Romans as 'king' of the Salian Franks in 447, and died in 458. Later (but pre-Christian) legend gave him two fathers: Chlodio, and a sea creature “bestæ Neptuni Quinotauri similis” that is, part bull, part human but aquatic. (His pregnant mother went swimming in the ocean, where she met this interesting personage.) Otherwise we know little about him. He was succeeded by his son Childeric I, who died in 482. Childeric and his men served as Roman mercenaries against other 'barbarians,' and he seems to have received an annual subsidy from Constantinople. His wife's name was Basina, and they had four children: Clovis, Audeflede, Alboflede, and Lantechilde. Because the Merovingians intermarried frequently among themselves and with other 'royal' families (Burgundians, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Lombards, Visigoths) we have many lines of descent from them. For simplicity, this page follows only two: a male-line descent from Meroveus to Theuderic III, whose daughter was a great-grandmother of Charlemagne; and from Theuderic's half-brother Sigebert III, whose daughter Adela is ancestral to the Carolingian counts of Hainault, Lorraine and Vermandois, among others. See Wessex for still more connections through the Anglo-Saxon kings. Clovis I (Chlodovich, Chlodwig, later gallicized as 'Louis') is the first well-documented French ruler, and the first to convert to Christianity. His baptism is pictured above, in a medieval manuscript. He was born about 463, succeeded as chief or king at the age of nineteen, and died in 511. In 486, in a great battle near Soissons, he defeated the Roman general Syagrius and effectively ended Roman control over Gaul. Subsequent campaigns brough much of modern France under his control. He married Chlotilda (475-545, later Ste Clothilde), daughter of the Burgundian king Chilperic, in 493; she was already a Christian. Clovis converted later that same year, whereupon an angel visited him and gave him an iris or lily - this became the royal fleur-delis. His death in 511 inaugurated a problem that would plague the Merovingian dynasty for the next several centuries: it was Frankish custom, dating from their nomadic period, that a chief's property be divided equally among his sons. Clovis had four sons, and so his kingdom was divided four ways. As generations passed France was divided, re-divided, and re-united many times, often violently. Clovis' eldest son Chlodomir became king of Orléans; Theuderic (Thierry) was king of Austrasia (northwestern France, excluding Bretagne); Chlotochar was king of Neustria (northeastern France and the Rhine valley); and Childebert got Paris (His daughter Bertha married King Ethelbert I of Kent.) Theuderic may not have been Chlothilda's son. He and Chlotochar both left many descendants. Chlotochar or Clothaire I (died 561) also had four sons by his wife Ingundis, all of them 'king' of something: Charibert I of Austrasia, Sigebert I of Austrasia, Chilperic I of Neustria, and Guntram of Burgundy. Chilperic I of Neustria (died 584) married Fredegund; they were the parents of: Clothaire II (died 629) who briefly reunited the kingdoms and was called "king of the Franks." His son Dagobert I (died 639) managed to keep the kingdom together for ten more years, and is regarded
as the last real Merovingian king; after him we see a series of "rois fainéants," do-nothing kings (some afflicted by mental retardation due to inbreeding). The real power after Dagobert was in the hands of the Mayors of the Palace, ancestors of the Carolingian dynasty (and of course related to the Merovingians too). Dagobetr was the first king buried at the royal necropolis of St-Denis; his tomb is still there, rudely emptied by the 1789 revolutionaries. By his second wife (and cousin) Nantechild, Dagobert was the father of Clothaire III, Childebert III and Theuderic III. The last-named was the father of Clovis IV, Childebert III, Clothaire IV, and Bertha, who married a minor noble at Laon (his name is lost) and was the mother of Herbert or Caribert, Count of Laon (died 747), whose daughter Bertha of Laon married (740) Pepin the Short, Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia; they were Charlemagne's parents. By his third wife (and cousin) Ragnetrud, Dagobert was also the father of St Sigebert III (died 656), who was the father of Dagobert II (died 679 or 680). His daughter Adela (mother's name unknown) married Aubri I, Count of Blois. Their granddaughter Theodelindis married Count Gaufroi or Gainfroi of Austrasia; through their son Giselbert they are ancestors of all the later counts and dukes of Brabant, Lorraine, etc. Go next to the Carolingians. There are two interrelated families that held the more or less interchangeable titles of Kings or Counts of Arles or Provence; I have somewhat arbitrarily treated them separately below as "Arles" and "Provence." The later dynasty of counts were a branch of the ruling family of Barcelona. Arles This family was originally among the Carolingian nobility of northern Italy, only later transplanted to southern France. Between the ninth and eleventh centuries we find quite a few families who held titles in both regions, and a lot of intermarriage. The first few generations are called the "Bosonides" by historians, as so many of the males were named Boso. Boso I, count of Turin, ruled in the early ninth century, when the region had not yet been added to the Carolingian empire; Boso was a Lombard chieftain. His son was Boso II; very little is known about these two. With the third generation we have more information, as northern Italy came under Frankish control. Boso III, "the Old," died in 855; Charlemagne or his sons evidently transferred him to southern France, where we find him as Count of Valois. (The countship of Turin was not re-created until 942). Boso married Engeltrude, and was the father of four children: (1) Boso, count of Valois, died in 874 evidently without children; (2) Hugobert, count of Valois and later abbot of the monastery of St-Maurice there, see below; (3) Richilde, who married Bivin, count of the Ardennes in modern Belgium, see further below under Provence; and (4) Teutberge, who married Lothair II of Lotharingia (one son, Hugo, Duke of Els; Lothair is our ancestor by a different wife). Hugobert, count of Valois (died 864) had a son Theodebert, who became Count of Arles, as Provence was reconquered from the Moors by the Carolingians. He married Bertha, daughter of the same Lothair II mentioned above, by his second wife Waldrada. Before his death the "kingdom of Provence" was created, with Arles (a major urban center in Roman times) as the capital; but Theodebert was not king; see just below. That title was held by his son Hugues, Count of Arles, King of Provence, and later King of Italy (880-947), who was one of the outstanding political figures of the Frankish empire in the tenth century. He was regent for Louis the Blind when still a young man (see under Provence below) and then in 911 he became King of Provence himself. In 924 he was also elected King of Italy (as leader of the faction opposing Berengar of Italy, who had recently become Emperor), and in 933 he gave up his Provençal lands and titles to concentrate on Italy. In 911 he married Willa of
Burgundy (whose father was Boso V of Provence, see Burgundy) but they had no children (she is our ancestor by her first husband Rudolf of Burgundy). He married second Alda (two children: Lothair II of Italy, see Italy; and Alda, who married Alberigo II di Spoleto, Count of Tuscany and was the mother of Pope John XII; see Crescentii and Tuscany; Alda is our ancestor via her illegitimate son Count John of Alba by Pope John XI; see Crescentii). His third wife was the notorious Marozia Crescentia (John XI's mother), and the fourth was Bertha, daughter of Bouchard II of Swabia; no children by either of these. By a mistress Waldelmonde of Ivrea he was the father of Umberto, Marquis of Tuscany, Duke of Spoleto; see Tuscany. By another mistress named Pezola, he had a daughter Eudoxia (married Romanos II of Byzantium; see Macedonians; our ancestor by another wife); also by Pezola, Hugh was father of Boso d'Arles, Bishop of Piacenza (941-951). He had three other acknowledged bastard children. King Hugh's younger brother was Boso or Boson, Count of Arles, Marquis of Tuscany (885-936), whose first wife's name is unknown. She was the mother of one son, Rotbald, who married Ermengarde of Acquitaine and was the father of Boso II (915-968 - note the recorded birthdate; it seems unlikely that the elder Boso was a grandfather at the age of 30). Boso II married Constance, daughter of Charles Constantine, Count of Vienne, see under Provence below). Their son Guillaume II "le Libérateur,” Comte d'Arles et Provence (c957-993) married as her fourth husband Adelaide of Anjou (daughter of Fulk II) and had four children: (1) Guillaume III of Arles and Provence, see just below; (2) Odile, who married Miron-Laget de Sisteron; (3) Constance, who married Robert II "the Pious" of France, see Capet; and (4) Toda, married Bernard I de Besalù. Guillaume III of Arles and Provence (died 1018) married Gerberge of Burgundy; they had three children: (1) Count Guillaume IV (died c10130), no children; (2) Foulques-Bertrand, see below; and (3) Geoffroi (died 1062), see farther below. Foulques-Bertrand (died 1051), count of Arles and Provence, married Hildegarde, possibly of the Toulouse family and was the father of (1) Geffroi, Comte de Forcalquier, no children; (2) Gerberge, see below; and (3) Guillaume-Bertrand (died c1067), Guillaume VI de Provence, who married first Teresa of Aragón (not children) and second Adelaide de Righino (sister of Gui, comte de Cavenez and daughter of Ardoino II of Ivrea; see Italy) and had one daughter, Adelaide, Comtesse de Forcalquier (died 1129), who married Armengol IV, count of Urgel (see Forcalquier). Gerberge (died 1118) became comtesse de Provence et d'Arles on her brother's death; she was the widow at that time of Gerbert de Gevaudun. They had two daughters: (1) Douce or Dulcia (died c1130), see below, and (2) Stephanie (died p1160), who married Raymond de Baux, seigneur de Berre - our ancestors via del Balzo (Baux). Douce de Gevaudun, comtesse de Provence (died c1130) married as his third wife Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona; from that time on most of Europe recognized their descendants as counts of Provence. But after the death of their granddaughter Douce (1172) the title was claimed by the kings of Aragón, the counts of Toulouse and various other relatives. The Barcelona claim descended to Charles I of Naples (see Anjou) in 1246, and to King Louis XI in 1481. Geoffroi (died 1062), younger brother of Foulques-Bertrand, was marquis and comte de Provence during the minority of his nephews. He married Étiennette, thought to be a daughter of Guillaume II, Vicomte de Marseille and his second wife Étiennette de Baux-Rians. They had three children: (1) Bertrand (died 1094), comte de Provence; married Mathilde; one daughter, Cecilie, who married Bernard-Aton IV of Carcassonne - not our ancestors, I think; (2) a daughter who married Raymond of Toulouse, comte de Saint-Gilles; and (3) Étiennette (died 1085), married Guillem "Trunus," comte de Besalú; see Foix. We return to Boso II's two sisters: Emma, who is supposed to have married Guillaume III de Toulouse, Count of Arles (their dates seem too far apart, but if correct, she is our ancestor; see
Toulouse); and Thetberge, who married Armengol I, Count of Urgel (our ancestors via Aragón). The second wife of Boso or Boson, Count of Arles, Marquis of Tuscany (885-936) was Willa, daughter of Rudolf I, King of Burgundy, by whom he had four daughters. Richilda and Gisela seem to have died young. Berthe of Tuscany, Countess of Arles and Vienne (930-965) married first Boso I of Provence (see under Provence, below) and second Raimund Pons I of Toulouse (no children; he is our ancestor by another wife). Berthe's sister Willa married Berengar II, Count of Milan, Margrave of Ivrea, King of Italy (see Italy and Burgundy). Provence The other related family which ruled Arles and Provence off and on, alongside the Bosonides, was descended from Richard, Count of Amiens (died 825), probably from a branch of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. Some sources make him Boso III's son, but son-in-law is no doubt correct; he married Boso's daughter Richilde. They were the parents of five children: (1) Boso (Boson) V, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine, etc (850-887), see below; (2) Richard "le Justicier," ancestor of the Dukes of Burgundy, see that page); (3) Radbert, Bishop of Valencia; (4) Richilde, married Charles II 'the Bald' (one son Richard, archbishop of Bourges); and (5) a daughter who married Thierry I, comte de Châlon, our ancestors via Vermandois and Anjou. Boso (Boson) V, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine, etc (850-887) was married twice; no children by the first wife, whose name is unknown. The second wife was Ermengarde of Italy, daughter of Louis II, King of Italy, Emperor of the East Franks (see Carolingians). They had four children: (1) Louis III 'the Blind', King of Provence, King of Italy, Emperor (c883-928), who married first Anna, daughter of Leo VI, Emperor of Byzantium (see Amorians). They had sone son, Charles Constantine, Count of Vienne (c902-963), who married Theutberge of Sens and had four children. Richard and Hubert seem to have died young; Amedée married probably one of the Savoy family; and Constance married Boso II of Provence (above, son of Rotbald). Continuing with Charles Constantine's children, Louis the Blind had three sisters: (2) Ermengarde, married Manasses 'the Old' of Châlon; (3) Willa (873-939), married first Rudolf I of Upper Burgundy, our ancestors by many lines; and second King Hugh of Provence and Italy, see above); and (4) Engelberge, wife of Guillaume I of Acqitaine. In 1032, the kingdom of Provence or Arles passed to the Salian emperors, and the title(s) ceased to be commonly used; gradually Provence was swallowed up by France. The emperors continued to claim it until 1378 (which is why "king of Arles" was among their many titles). see the Provence page at stirnet. The duchy of Spoleto, founded by the Lombards in the sixth century, occupied a large region of east-central Italy, corresponding more or less to modern Umbria, the Marches, Perugia, and Abruzzi. The first duke, Faroald, based his power at Classe, the port of Ravenna, until recently capital of the western Roman empire. We know the names and dates of the dukes over the next two centuries, but not how or whether they were all related. Desiderius (died 774, see Italy) held the title for a while before he became king of the Lombards. The dukes were usually at war with their closest neighbors, the exarchate of Ravenna. We begin with the first certain ancestor (as certain as things can be this far back), Suppo, a Frank who was made duke of Spoleto by Charlemagne in 822. He had already been Count of Brescia, Parma, Piacenza, Modena and Bergamo. His wife's name is unknown, but she is thought to be Lombard, perhaps from one of the earlier ducal families. Children: (1) Mauring, who succeeded as duke but was dead by 824; and (2) Adelgis (died p861), duke from 824 to 861, who had three children: (1) Suppo II, see below; (3) Egfred, and (4) Arding.
Duke Suppo II (dates unknown) had five children: (1) Duke Adelgis II; (2) Wifred, Count of Piacenza, a powerful support of King Berengar; (3) Boso, Count of Parma; (4) Arding, Bishop of Brescia; and (5) Bertila (executed for adultery in 915), first wife of Berengar of Friuli (see Italy) their daughter Gisela married Adalbert of Ivrea, our ancestors via Burgundy, Montferrat and various other lines. Adelgis II was succeeded by Suppo III, obviously a member of the same family, but he cannot be positively placed. Louis II, king of Italy and later Emperor (see Carolingians) married Engelburge, also thought to be a member of this family; their only surviving child Ermengarde (c859-c896) married Boso (Boson) V, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine, etc - see Arles. The next family to hold the title were descendants of the Merovingian noble Bodilon of Poitiers, who married Sigrade of Alsace (died 677). Their son Warinus, Count of Poitiers (died 677) married Kunza, daughter of Clodulphe, Bishop of Metz, Duke of Austrasia, a son of St Arnolph of Héristal, Bishop of Metz, a great-grandson of King Clothaire I (see Merovingians). Two sons: (1) St Leutwinus, see below, and (2) Lambert of Hesbaye, ancestor of the counts of Narbonne. St Leutwinus, bishop of Trier (died 713) had two children: (1) Rotrude, the first wife of Charles Martel and thus ancestor of all the Carolingians, and (2) Gui, count of Trier, father of Lambert, count of Hornbach (died c783), who had four children: (1) Werner of Hornbach, had descendants in Germany; (2) Gui, see below; (3) Guibour of Hornbach (born c778), who married her cousin William, Count of Autun and Toulouse (Rotrude's grandson) and is our ancestor via Toulouse and also via her daughter Bertha, who married Pepin I of Italy; and (4) Waldrada, married first Hadrian, Count of Orléans (our ancestors via their granddaughter Ermentrude, wife of Charles II 'the Bald') and second Gorm of Jutland. Gui or Guido of Hornbach (died 814) was the father of Lambert I, Count of Nantes (died 836; his wife is thought to be an illegitimate daughter of Pepin I of Italy), father of (1) Guido, see below; (2) Lambert (killed in battle 852), one son who was count of Nantes, apparently no further descendants; (3) Doda, abbess of St Clement, Nantes; (4) Werner (killed 853 in Brittany); and (5) Konrad. Guido I, Marquis of Spoleto (died c858), was given the title by the emperor in opposition to Suppo II, who was backed by the Pope. He married Ita, daughter of Sico I of Benevento. Four children: (1) Lambert (died 880), Duke of Spoleto, renowned for fighting Saracen pirates, but excommunicated; one son, Guido II, who had no children; (2) Guido (855-894), elected King of Italy in 889, crowned emperor at Rome by Pope Stephen V, who opposed the Carolingian emperors; two sons but no known grandchildren; (3) Ita, married Guaimar I of Salerno, ancestors via Benevento; and (4) Rohaut or Rothildis (died c884), married Adalbert I of Lucca, Duke of Tuscany - see that page for our descent. After Lambert's son Guido IV was murdered in 897, his rival Alberico (died 924) was named Duke of Spoleto by the emperor Charles the Bald. He was the first husband of the notorious Marozia (see Crescentii), and their son Alberico, Patrician and Princeps of the Romans, was father (by a mistress) of Pope John XII. When Alberico died in 924, King Ugo of Italy made his supporter Anscar II (c915-940), already count and margrave of Ivrea, Duke and Margrave of Spoleto and Camerino. Anscar was a younger son of Adalbert, Margrave of Ivrea and his second wife Ermengarde of Lucca. He was killed by a rival, Saribono, who was then given the titles; he too was killed within two years. The next Duke and Marchese of Spoleto and Camerino was Uberto, illegitimate son of Ugo, King of Italy and his mistress Wandalmodis. Uberto seems to have died of natural causes (!) in about 970. See just below. While these changes were happening, there were rival dukes, descended from:
Hucbald (died 893), a Frankish knight of unknown parentage who settled in Tuscany and served as a palatine of Emperor Louis II. Hucbald married Andaberta, and had three children: (1) Ingelrada (died 899), married Martin, Duke of Ravenna; (2) Berta (died c893), Abbess of Sant' Andrea at Florence 852; and (3) Hucbald, a supporter of the "emperor" Guido of Spoleto (above). He had two children: (1) Berta, Abbess of Sant' Andrea at Florence by 892; and (2) Bonifazio (died 953) who was made duke and marquis of Spoleto in 945 (in opposition to Uberto) by his patron the King of Upper Burgundy. Bonifazio married c923 Waldrada, daughter of Rudolf I of Upper Burgundy and his wife Willa of Provence. They had four children: (1) Teobaldo, see below; (2) Willa, married her father's rival Uberto, see below; (3) Adalberto (died p1011), Count of Bologna, see farther below; and (4) Everardo, Bishop of Arezzo 979. Teobaldo (died c961), Marchese and Duke of Spoleto in 945, had (probably) two children: (1) Alberto, ancestor of the Conti Contalberti, and (2) Willa, who married Tedaldo, Count of Canossa and had descendants; see Tuscany. The marriage of Willa and Duke Uberto in 945 was intended to settle the disputed succession. They had two children: (1) Ugo (c950-1001), Duke and Marchese of Tuscany, Marchese and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino, who married Judith and had one child, Willa, who married Roberto, count of Canefro and then Arduino, count of Versiglia (one son by each marriage, no further descendants); and (2) our ancestor Waldrada (died p976), married Pietro Candiano III, Doge of Venice. Adalberto (died p1011), Count of Bologna, married Bertila and had four children; three sons were counts of Bologna, and one grandson, Ugo, was Duke of Spoleto 1043-1056. I do not find a descent from this family. In 966, the Spoleto titles were given by Emperor Otto I to Landolf IV of Capua; this family claimed Spoleto for several generations. In the 1030s, the Marquis of Spoleto was one Trasimundo (died c1035); he had two sons and further descendants, but apparently not us. During the next two centuries Spoleto was attached to and detached from Tuscany and Capua; the city itself was destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa (but later rebuilt); eventually it became a papal fief and later part of the Papal States. In the twentieth century, the title Duke of Spoleto was revived for the Italian prince Roberto (died 1948).
Crescentii singular Crescentius in Italian, Crescenzo/Crescenzi
When the Carolingians declined in the tenth century, abandoning their protective role in Rome and central Italy, several rival families battled for control of the city. Theophylact (c845-c915) was a vestiarius, consul and senator of Rome, whose marriage to Theodora (died 928) made him the most powerful man in the city. The parentage of both is unknown, but Theodora must have also come from an aristocratic family, as Theophylact was not called 'count of Tusculum' until after the marriage. She is supposed to have had affairs with Adalbert II, marquis of Tuscany, and with a deacon at Bologna, whose election in 914 as Pope John X she engineered. The scholar Liutprand of Cremona wrote of her as "a shameless whore...[who] exercised power on the Roman citizenry like a man."
Theophylact and Theodora had two daughters, Theodora 'the younger' (born c893) and the notorious Marozia (c 890-937), who was the real ruler of Rome in the 920s and 930s. She is pictured above in a contemporary church painting. Theodora had an affair with a Roman consul we know only as John, and by him had a son who was later Pope John XIII (c918-972). She married an aristocrat, John Crescentius, from whom the family took its name. They had a son Crescentius 'the Elder' (c920-984), who was Rome's virtual dictator for several decades; he made and unmade several popes, and spent the last three months of his life in a monastery. We do not know the name of his wife (or wives), but we know of three children: John Crescentius (born c950), who succeeded his father as "patricius" and arranged the election of John XV in 985; Stefania; and Crescentius II "the Younger", Patricius Romanorum (c955-998). Crescentius II led the rebellion against Pope Gregory V in 996, as a result of which the emperor Otto III attacked Rone; Crescentius was captured and executed. He had a son John II Crescentius (c975-1012), who forced Otto III and his puppet Pope Sylvester II to flee Rome in 1001. John II had a sister, whose name we do not know; her husband Octavius held the title "Patricius Romanorum" after John II's death. We know that several male members of the family survived its downfall in the early eleventh century; they later turn up as wealthy landowners in Latium and Tusculum, but were not involved in politics. They are probably descendants of Theodora the 'younger,' who had three daughters by her husband Gratianus; several bishops of Sabina are among her grandsons and greatgrandsons. The only provable descent that we (or anyone) has from the Crescentii comes from Marozia, Theophylact's daughter, who had three marriages or liaisons (it is not clear to whom she was really married, if anyone). By Duke Guido of Tuscany she was the mother of Adalbert III of Lucca and Este, Marquis of Tuscany (our ancestor via the Welfs). By Pope Sergius III (son of a Roman noble called Benedictus, a client of Theophylact) she was the mother of Pope John XI (reigned 931-935). By Alberic of Spoleto she was the mother of Alberic II, who was also Patricius Romanorum (he died in 954); he married Alda, a daughter of Hugues of Provence, King of Italy, and by her was the father of Octavian, Patricius Romanorum at age 18 and then Pope as John XII (c937-964). Alda also had a son by Pope John XI (Marozia's son); he was Count John of Alba (935-987), father of John II of Alba (969-1026), father of Count Gui I (995-1063), who married Adelaide of Beaujeu and was the father of Adelaide, the wife of Count Amadeus I of Savoy.
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