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machine design, Vol.5(2013) No.

1, ISSN 1821-1259

pp. 57-60
Research paper

3-DIMENSIONAL EXPERIMENTAL AND FINITE ELEMENT STRESS ANALYSIS OF C.I.


WEDGE OF SLUICE VALVE
Narayan DHARASHIVAKAR 1, * - Prashant PATIL1 - Krishnakumar JOSHI 1
1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, TKIET Warananagar, Shivaji University, Kolhapur

Abstract: The sluice valves of various capacities are generally used for controlling flow rate of fluids. During
operation of sluice valve, the wedge is moved to & fro manually by means of screw. The construction is such that the
wedge is reciprocated by the rotation of the screw in a T-Nut which is fixed inside the gap of wedge.
The entire experimental work has been carried out on a wedge to control the flow of water, in M/s. Sarvodaya Sugar
Industries, Ashta, Maharashtra. While operating, it has been observed that the CI wedge frequently breaks due to load
coming on the wedge. It seems that due to eccentric loading, there is a peculiar tearing of the part of the C.I. wedge.
Thus this is a problem of 3dimensional stress analysis. We can analyze the stress pattern by using 3D photo elasticity
and verify the results with FE method.
Key words: Sluice Valve, 3d Photoelastic Analysis, FEA

1. INTRODUCTION
There is an ever increasing use of flow control valves in
industries like Agricultural, Sugar and Chemical. These
valves are working under abnormal conditions of
temperature, Pressure and other conditions. This has
given special importance to analytical and experimental
methods for determining their working stresses. In such
valves, the knowledge of these stresses will help us to
avoid their failure.
The sluice valves of various capacities are generally used
for controlling flow rate of fluids in various industries.
During operation of sluice valve, the wedge is moved to
& fro manually by means of screw. The construction is
such that the wedge is reciprocated by the rotation of the
screw in a T-Nut which is fixed inside the gap of wedge
as shown in Figure 1.

the wedge, made up of cast iron, frequently breaks due to


load coming on the post system of the wedge above the TNut, the shape of which is intricate. It seems that due to
eccentric loading, there is a peculiar tearing of the part of
the C.I. wedge. The crack is initiated just near to high
stress-concentration region.
Thus this is a problem of 3dimensional stress analysis.
We can analyze the stress pattern by using 3 dimensional
stress analysis using 3D photo elasticity and verify the
results with FE method.

2. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
Here we have carried out Experimental analysis by using
3 dimensional Photoelastic Technique, which involves the
following steps:

2.1. Model Making


As the accuracy of the Photoelastic model has got the
major effects on the results obtained, the preparation of
the model bears its own importance in the whole problem
of Photoelastic Stress Analysis. The Photoelastic model
for investigation should satisfy the following
requirements:
The model should be free from all residual stresses.
The model exhibits all properties of good Photoelastic
material.
The material used for the model should be sufficiently
transparent.
The model should not show any Time-Age Effect.

Fig.1. Sluice Gate Valve


The entire experimental work has been carried out on a
wedge of a sluice valve which is used to control the flow
of water at M/s. Sarvodaya Sugar Industries, Ashta,
Maharashtra. While operating, it has been observed that

Considering all requirements of a good Photoelastic


model, one would come to know that the preparation of a
model is a sort of technique which needs not only great
care but a lot of experience and practice.
During casting, first we prepared the wooden pattern of
the wedge which was then used to manufacture the mould
of the synthetic rubber. Owing to the complexity of the

*Correspondence Authors Address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, TKIET, Shivaji University, Kolhapur.
nsdharashivkar@tkietwarana.org

Narayan Dharashivakar, Prashant Patil, Krishnakumar Joshi: 3-Dimensional Experimental and Finite Element Stress Analysis of C.I.
Wedge of Sluice Valve; Machine Design, Vol.5(2013) No.1, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 57-60

geometry, it was decided to split the pattern into two.


Finally, we prepared the photoelastic model of the wedge
using this mould and photoelastic material (Araldite AY103 and Hardener HY-951.) as shown in Figure 2.

disc was also placed in a separate loading frame and kept


inside the stress freezing oven. A stress freezing oven
(Han-Yong make) having PX09 Process Controller was
used for stress freezing purpose. The total Stress Freezing
cycle lasts for 34 hours. This cycle involves three distinct
steps, Heating, Soaking and Cooling, as shown in figure.
Figure 5.

Fig.2. Mould of a Wedge

2.2. Design and Development of Loading Fixture


The basic requirement of the loading frame is to simulate
the actual working conditions of the Wedge. Working
conditions involve, tangential force caused due to fluid
pressure, frictional force between valve seat & wedge seat
and Weight of the wedge, as shown in Figure 3
While designing the loading frame, following aspects
have been considered:
a. Construction of the frame should be as simple as
possible.
b. It should be capable to apply the required load which
will simulate the loading conditions of the prototype.
c. It should provide proper constraint to the model.
d. It should provide easy and quick replacement of the
model.
It consists of a base plate on which a taper plate is
mounted. This plate simulates the actual support for the
surface of the wedge. The dead weight and lever
arrangement is used to apply forces in vertical direction.
A clamping pressure plate is used to apply pressure.
Figure 4

Fig.5. Stress Freezing Cycle

2.4. Slicing
Generally, in 3D Photoelasticity, the analysis is
performed on slices cut from the model after stress
freezing. The model is sliced to remove the planes of
interest which can then be examined individually to
determine the state of stress existing in that particular
plane or slice. The slice preparation involves three steps
viz. Layout, Cutting of the slices and flattening of the
slice surfaces. The particular slicing plan employed in
sectioning a 3D Photoelasticity model will of course
depend upon the geometry of the model and information
being sought in the analysis. The figure 6 shows the
slicing plan employed for the wedge model to remove and
examine the slices. The slices were cut by using high
speed horizontal milling machine and slicing saw of 1mm
thickness. The sufficient amount of cutting oil is spread at
the time of cutting. The slicing thickness was kept 3mm.
After cutting the slices, the surface of each slice was
finished manually with the help of Zero number polish
paper.

Fig.4. Loading Frame

2.3. Stress Freezing


The stress freezing technique is used to lock the stresses
permanently in the model. After mounting the model on a
loading frame, the model along with the loading frame
was placed in the stress freezing oven. The calibration
58

Fig.6. Slicing Plan

2.5. Experimental Observations


The finished slices were observed under polariscope to
find out fringe order at a point of interest to evaluate the

Narayan Dharashivakar, Prashant Patil, Krishnakumar Joshi: 3-Dimensional Experimental and Finite Element Stress Analysis of C.I.
Wedge of Sluice Valve; Machine Design, Vol.5(2013) No.1, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 57-60

stress pattern at that point, as shown in Figure 7. Also we


found out Fringe Order at the centre of circular calibration
disc to evaluate Material Fringe Value.

Slice 1

Slice 2

Slice 3

Slice 4

3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS:


ANSYS software is used to verify the results obtained by
Experimental method. The entire wedge model was
descretized using Solid 92 element. Figure 9 shows the
meshing and boundary conditions applied to the wedge
model and Figure 10 shows the variation of the stresses
along the width of post system of the wedge. Table II
shows the comparative study of the results obtained by
both the methods.

Fig.7. A Photoelastic fringe pattern showing the


isochromatics in longitudinal slices.
The actual stresses produced in the wedge were obtained
experimentally are as shown in the Table I.

Fig.9. Meshing & boundary conditions applied to wedge


model

Table 1. Stress Values Obtained By Experimental Method


Stresses Produced (N/mm2) for
343 N Tensile Force
A
B
C
D
0.67
0.41
0.38
0.70
0.51
0.36
0.37
0.52
0.33
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.32
0.28
0.25
0.33

Slice No.
1
2
3
4

It has been found that most of the failures take place at the
sections where the stress concentration is present that is at
places where abrupt changes in the form of part occur.
Even though the average stresses for cross section is kept
far below the elastic limit of the material, failures are
found to occur without warning.

. /

Actual stress concentration factor (ka) has been


experimentally found to be 1.63.
By referring, Leven-Hartman Chart, the theoretical stress
concentration factor (kt) is found to be 1.53. Figure 8

Fig.8. Leven-Hartman Chart

Fig.10. Variations of the Stresses

4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:


In sluice and gate valves, wedge used to control the flow
of fluid is a very important component. The gland is
loaded in a similar manner to that of tensile loading by
means of a T-Nut. The reaction of this tensile loading is
on post system of the wedge symmetrically placed
tending it to fail due to bending and tension.
The stresses produced at any discontinuity are different in
magnitude from those calculated by elementary formulae.
It is observed that a small discontinuity in a part will have
effect of increasing the magnitude of stresses.
The measurement of stress concentration in machine
components is of considerable importance because
mechanical failures of such parts are frequently due to
fractures which are initiated through the sections having
stress concentrations.
Experimental stress analysis of wedge was carried out
considering the importance of the wedge in controlling
the flow of fluid, its geometry and loading.
It has been observed that 3 dimensional photoelastic
stress analysis technique using stress freezing
phenomenon is the best method for experimental
stress analysis of gland.
59

Narayan Dharashivakar, Prashant Patil, Krishnakumar Joshi: 3-Dimensional Experimental and Finite Element Stress Analysis of C.I.
Wedge of Sluice Valve; Machine Design, Vol.5(2013) No.1, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 57-60

Referring to Figure 12, it is observed that the stress


concentration factor goes on varying along the width of
the wedge
Stress Concentration factor

Low temperature curing epoxy mixture is a good


material for casting such type of component. Good
castings can be obtained by using silicon rubber
molds.
Only longitudinal slices are helpful in exhibiting the
stress pattern in the wedge.
The stress concentration factor at stress concentration
region is observed to be more that theoretically
required.
Referring to Figure 8 and 11, it is observed that stress
concentration factor goes on reducing with r/d ratio.
If we neglect tensile stresses created by bending at
inner edge, there is fairly good agreement between
theoretical, experimental and FE analysis as in Table
2.
There seems to be condition of impact between the
surface of T-Nut and that of post system of wedge as
there is a gap of 3-4mm between these two. The
failure may be because of the impact of T-Nut on
surface of wedge.

1.8
1.6

1.4
1.2

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

A
A

D
D
B
B
B
B

C
C
C

D
D

0.2
0
Distance (mm)
Slice1

Slice2

Slice3

Slice4

Fig.12. Variation of Stress concentration factor along the


width of the wedge

Fig.11. Variation of Stress concentration factor with r/D


ratio
Table 2. Stresses Produced (N/mm2) for 343 N Tensile
Force
Slice
A
B
No.
*E

*A

*V

*E

*A

*V

0.67

0.58

18

0.41

0.37

10

0.51

0.42

18

0.36

0.32

11

0.33

0.29

12

0.31

0.37

16

0.32

0.29

09

0.28

0.32

14

Slice
No.

*E

*A

*V

*E

*A

*V

0.38

0.32

16

0.70

0.58

17

0.37

0.32

14

0.52

0.40

19

0.32

0.34

09

0.34

0.29

15

0.25

0.32

20

0.33

0.37

12

*E: Experimental Value


*A: ANSYS Value
*V: Variation in Percentage
60

5. REFERENCES:
[1] Emerging Trends in Design Engineering (Vol.II)
[2] Ball & Roller Bearing Engineering, Published by Fag
Kugel Fischer and George Schafer & Co.
[3] Instruction Manual- Silicon Mould making materials
Published by Metroark Pvt. Ltd.
[4] 3D Photoelastic Photo analysis of Femur-C. Y. Lau
and H. Teoh, 1998
[5] 3D Photoelastic study of stresses in Rack gearsexperimental Mechanics, May 1979 by N. A. Rubayi
and H.W. Tam
[6] Designing by Photoelasticity, Chapman & Hall Ltd.
by R.B. Heywood
[7] 3D Photoelasticity by stress freezing-Experimental
Mechanics-Dec. 1980 by Jan Cernosek
[8] Machine Design- Paul H. Black, O. Eugene Adams
Jr. Published by McGraw-Hill Publishing,
International Edition, pp. 59-79
[9] Experimental Stress Analysis by J. W. Dally and W.
F. Riley- McGraw-Hill Book Co., pp-453-499
[10] Experimental Stress Analysis by Sadhu-Singh,
pp.165-379
[11] PSG Design data Book.PSG College of Engg.
Coimbatore
[12] Introduction to Finite Element in Engineering. Ashok
D. Belegundu