Bilging

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Bilging

© All Rights Reserved

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PERMEABILITY

Flooding, damage stability calculations

Syllabus Requirements

Bilging a single compartments in a box-shaped

vessels.

Calculations include

Bilging of an empty midships compartment

Bilging of a midships compartment containing cargo

Bilging of either of the above with a watertight flat

Bilging of an empty side compartment

Bilging of an empty end compartments with or without a

watertight flat

Definition

Bilging

damaged.

Permeability ()

of a space is the proportion of the immersed volume of that

space which can be occupied by water.

Methods

Lost Buoyancy Method

Flooded compartment dose not supply buoyancy

Displacement dose not change

Centre of gravity remains the same

No free surface effect

Added Weight Method

Flooded compartment is part of the ship

Displacement changes

Centre of gravity changes

Free surface effect accounted for

LOST BUOYANCY

METHOD

Bilging of an empty midships compartment without

watertight flat

When a vessel floats in still water it displaces its own

weight

B

L

B

The buoyancy provided by the bilged compartment is lost.

The draft has increased and the vessel now floats at the

The buoyancy is regained from intact compartments.

W1

W

L1

y

X

V

X represents the increase in draft due to bilging.

volumes y and z.

W1

W

L1

y

X

V

Let A be the area of the water-plane before bilging, and

W

1

W

L1

y

a

W1

L1

y

X

V

Example

A box shaped vessel 150m x 24m x 12m, even keel draft

20m long. Find the new draft and new GM

Increase in draft =

20 x 24 x 5

(150 20) x 24

= 0.77 m

Example

Although the position of G has not changed, the KM

certainly has:

With the increase in draft, the KB has increased.

With a loss in intact water plane area, the BM has

reduced

For ship shaped vessel

For box shaped vessel

KB= Simpsons Rules

LB3

BM=

12V =

LBBB

12 * L B d

1

2

B2

12d

Draft

Example

Old KB =

2

Old BM =

B2

12d

242

12 x 5

B

d

= 9.6 m

1

New KB =

2

a

LB3

New BM =

12V

New BM =

12 x 150 x 24 x5

= 8.32 m

Example

New KM = New KB + New BM = (2.89 + 8.32) = 11.21 m

Old KG = Old KM Old GM = 12.1 0.9 = 11.2 m

New GM = New KM Old KG = 11.21 11.2 = 0.01 m

G

B

Example 2

A box shaped vessel, length 90m, breadth 30m floats on

5m. An empty midship compartment 30m long is bilged.

Calculate the new draft, and the new GM

Example 2

L = 90 m, B = 30 m, d =4.0 m, KG =5 m

compartment = 30 m

Intact WPA = ( 90 m 30 m ) x 30m = 1800 m

Increase in draft = 3600 1800 = 2m.

The new draft = 4 + 2 = 6m.

KM1 = KB1 + BM1 = 2m + ( B2 12d )

KM1 = KB1 + BM1 = 2m + ( 30 x 30 12 x 4 ) = 20.75m

GM1 =KM1~ KG = 20.75 ~ 5 = 15.75m

KM2 = KB2 + BM2 = 3m + ( LB 12V )

KM2 = 3m + (( 60 x 30 x 30 x 30) (12 x 90 x 30 x 4 ))=15.5m

GM2 = KM2 ~ KG = 15.5m ~ 5m = 10.5m

LOST BUOYANCY

METHOD

Bilging of an empty midships compartment with a

watertight flat Below Water Line

Example

A box shaped barge is 90m long, 40m wide, she has three

mean draft of 5m. The empty midships double bottom

compartment 30m in length & 2m in depth is bilged.

Calculate the new draft and the change in GM.

W1

L1

Example

Increase in draft =

L = 90 m, B = 40 m, d =5.0 m,

compartment = 30 m x 2 m

30 x 40 x 2

= 0.666m

90 x 40

W1

L1

W of

BUT: the new KB is not half the new draft as the centroids

compartments.

So we must find the new KB by taking volumetric

moments about the keel.

L = 90 m, B = 40 m, d =5.0 m,

compartment = 30 m x 2 m

Example

Centroid V2 = (New draft Tank depth) / 2

Centroid V2 = (5.666 2) / 2 = 1.833

KB (V2) = 1.833 + 2 = 3.833 m

W1

L1

V2

V3

B2

B3

B1

V1

Example

L = 90 m, B = 40 m, d =5.0 m,

compartment = 30 m x 2 m

V3 = 30 x 40 x 5.666 = 6799.2 m KB = 2.833 m

V2 = 30 x 40 x 3.666 = 4399.2 m KB = 3.833 m

W1

L1

V2

V3

V1

Example

Volume

KB

Moment

V1

6799.2 m

2.833 m

19,262.13 m

V2

6799.2 m

2.833 m

19,262.13 m

V3

4399.2 m

3.833 m

16,862.13 m

Total

17997.6 m

55386.39 m

New KB = 55386.39 17997.6 = 3.077 m

Full WPA intact no change in BM

change in GM = KB1 ~ KB2

change in GM = 2.5m ~ 3.077m = 0.577 m

INCREASE

G

B

LOST BUOYANCY

METHOD

Bilging of an empty midships compartment with a

watertight flat Above Water Line

Example

A box shaped barge is 90m long, 30m wide, she has three

mean draft of 5m. The empty midships double bottom

compartment 30m in length & 6 m in depth is bilged.

Calculate the new draft and the change in GM.

W1

L1

Example

Compartment= 30m x 6m

Buoyancy still to be recover = Lost buoyancy Recoverable Buoyancy

Volume of Lost Buoyancy = l x b x draft

Recoverable Buoyancy = ( L l ) x B x ( Depth Draft )

W1

L1

Compartment= 30m x 6m

Example

Volume lost = 30 x 30 x 5 = 4500m

Recoverable Buoyancy = ( L l ) x B x ( Depth Draft )

Volume recovered to the watertight flat = (90-30) x 30 x (6-5)= 1800m

Buoyancy still to be recover = Lost buoyancy Recoverable Buoyancy

Buoyancy still to be recover = 4500 1800= 2700 m

Volume still to recover @ a Full waterplane area intact = 2700 m

W1

W

L1

L

Example

Compartment= 30m x 6m

To find the Final Draft, add the Sinkage to Tanks height

New mean draft = 6 + 1 = 7m

Compartment= 30m x 6m

Example OR 1

Volume lost = compartment Volume up to the draft

Volume lost = 30 x 30 x 5 = 4500m

Volume Gained = {L x B x increase in Draft (X)} {l x b x(6-5) depth-draft}

Volume Gained = 90 x 30 x (X) 30 x 30 x1

Volume Gained = 2700 (X) 900

Volume of Lost Buoyancy = Volume of Gained Buoyancy

4500 = 2700 (X) 900

increase in Draft (X) = 4500 + 900 / 2700 = 2 m

New mean draft = 5 + 2 = 7m

W1

W

L1

L

Example OR 2

Increase in draught =

TPC =

A 1.025

100

Compartment= 30m x 6m

TPC

= 90 x 30 x 1.025 /100 = 27.675 t

New mean draft = 7 m

Compartment= 30m x 6m

New draft = 7m

Example

KB (centroid V1) = 7 / 2 = 3.5 m

KB (centroid V3) = 7 / 2 = 3.5 m

Centroid V2 = (New draft Tank depth) / 2 =

Centroid V2 = (7 6) / 2 = 0.5

KB (V2) = 0.5 + 6 = 6.5 m

W1

L1

V2

W

V3

B3

B2

W

B1

V1

Example

Compartment= 30m x 6m

New draft = 7m

V1 = 30 x 40 x 7 = 8,400 m KB = 3.5 m

V3 = 30 x 40 x 7 = 8,400 m KB = 3.5 m

V2 = 30 x 40 x 1 = 1,200 m KB = 6.5 m

W1

L1

V2

W

V3

W

V1

Example

Volume

KB

Moment

V1

8,400 m

3.5 m

29,400 m

V2

8,400 m

3.5 m

29,400 m

V3

1,200 m

6.5 m

7,800 m

Total

18,000 m

66,600 m

New KB = 66,600 18,000 = 3.7 m

Full WPA intact no change in BM

change in GM = KB1 ~ KB2

change in GM = 2.5m ~ 3.7m = 1.2 m INCREASE

G

B

PERMEABILITY ( )

Permeability ( )

Permeability () of a space is the proportion of the

immersed volume of that space which can be occupied by

water.

Permeability ( )

Example

A box shaped vessel, length 60m, breadth 20m, is floating

20m long and contains cargo with a permeability of 30%.

Calculate the new draft and change in GM if this

compartment is bilged.

Example

Compartment = 20 m 30%

Effective length of waterplane = 60 6 = 54m.

Sinkage = ( 6 x 20 x 4) ( 54 x 20 ) = 480 1080 = 0.4m

New draft = 4 + 0.4 = 4.4m

change in GM = KM1 ~ KM2

Example 2

A box shaped barge is 90m x 30m with an initial mean

length bilged.

The compartment is tightly stowed with grain.

R.D. of grain = 0.95 t/m.

The stowage factor of the cargo = 1.46 m/tonne.

Calculate the new draft.

Example 2

Compartment = 30 m

R.D= 0.95 t/m, SF =1.46 m/tonne

Example 2

Compartment = 30 m

R.D= 0.95 t/m, SF =1.46 m/tonne

Sinkage = lost volume IWPA

Sinkage = ( 8.4 x 30 x 4 ) ( 81.6 x 30 ) = 1008 2448 = 0.41m

New draft = 4.41m.

BILGING OF AN EMPTY

SIDE COMPARTMENT

Introduction

When a compartment in a

provided by that

compartment is lost.

This causes the centre of

buoyancy of the ship to

move directly away from the

centre of the lost buoyancy

and,

unless the centre of gravity

of the compartment is on the

ship's centre line, a listing

moment will be created,

Introduction

the ship will sink to the waterline W1L1.

the layer between WL and W1L1.

The centre of buoyancy will move from B to

B1, directly away from the centre of gravity

of the lost buoyancy, and

the distance BB1 is equal to w * d / W

where w represents the lost buoyancy and

d represents the distance between the

ship's centre of buoyancy and the centre of

the lost buoyancy.

The shift in the centre of buoyancy

produces a listing moment.

Tan = GX / XM

= BB1 / XM

height for the bilged condition.

Moments of inertia

The tendency of a body to resist acceleration; the

straight line motion to stay in motion in a straight line

unless acted on by an outside force.

To find the second moment of a rectangle about one of its

sides.

LB3

I side=

3

To find the second moment of a rectangle about an axis

parallel to one of its sides and passing through the

centroid.

LB3

LB3

I

I centroid =

BM =

= 12 V

12

V

the moment of inertia about any axis passing through the

centroid of a water plane area is equal to the moment of

inertia of the same water plane area about any parallel

axis, minus the area of the water plane multiplied by the

distance between the axes squared.

L

I

F

d

B

2

I

X

L

I

F

d

B

2

I

X

the centre of flotation)

is equal to the moment of inertia about the axis XX minus the

product of the water plane area and the distance between the

axes squared

III = Ixx - (A X d2)

A box-shaped vessel has length 20 m and breadth 6 m.

LB3

III =

= 20 * 6 * 6 * 6 / 12 = 360 m4

12

LB3

Ixx= 3 = 20 * 6 * 6 * 6 / 3 = 1440 m4

III = 1440 - (20 * 6 * 3 * 3) = 360 m4

L

I

B

2

When an amidships side compartment extending upwards

the full depth of the vessel becomes bilged the centre of

flotation (F) will move off the centre line (F 1) , its new

position with reference to side XX (axis XX) may be

calculated by taking moments of area about one side. This

will give the distance, d, between the two axes to be

considered.

When an amidships side compartment extending upwards the

full depth of the vessel becomes bilged

The centre of flotation (F) will move off the centre line (F 1) its

new position with reference to side XX (axis XX) may be

calculated by taking moments of area about one side.

This will give the distance, d, between the two axes to be

considered.

L

I

F1

F

X

X

l

In order to calculate the BM in the bilged condition it will be

necessary to calculate the new value of the transverse

moment of inertia of the remaining intact water plane area

about the new longitudinal axis of rotation passing through

the new position of the centre of flotation (about axis II).

This is achieved by using the parallel axis theorem.

L

I

F1

F

X

X

l

Ixx=

LB3

3

lb3

3

lb3

3

A = LB lb

III ={

LB3

3

L

F1

F

X

X

l

Example

A box shaped vessel has length 96 m and breadth 18 m

m in salt water. An amidships side compartment of length

24 m extending in from the side 6 m is bilged. Calculate:

(a) the initial BM value;

(b) the BM in the damaged condition.

(c) the New draft

(d) the angle of list when this compartment becomes

bilged.

L= 96m, B = 18m, draft=4.6m, KG=5.8m, l= 24m, b=6m

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

L= 96m, B = 18m, draft=4.6m, KG=5.8m, l= 24m, b=6m

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

I

V

LB3

=

12 V

BM

initial

= 5.870 m

L= 96m, B = 18m, draft=4.6m, KG=5.8m, l= 24m, b=6m

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

3

LB3

lb

III ={

}

{(

LB lb) * d2}

3

3

Calculate the distance of the new CF from one side of the

WPA (XX)

Take moments of area about side XX

L

I

F1

F

X

X

l

L= 96m, B = 18m, draft=4.6m, KG=5.8m, l= 24m, b=6m

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

LB3

lb3

III ={ 3 - 3 } - {(LB lb)

Take moments of area about side XX

Area m2

* d2}

Dist. from XX m

Moment

Total Area

96 * 18

15552

24 * 6

432

1584

9.545

15120

Bilged Area

Total

L

I

F1

F

X

X

l

L= 96m, B = 18m, draft=4.6m, KG=5.8m, l= 24m, b=6m

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

d (XX-II) =9.545m

III ={

lb3

LB3

3

3

96 * 183

3

III ={

III = 40582 m4

24 * 63

}

{(

96 *18 24*6) *9.545 2}

3

L

F1

F

X

X

l

L= 96m, B = 18m, draft=4.6m, KG=5.8m, l= 24m, b=6m

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

d (XX-II) =9.545m, III=40582m4

I

V

BM =

BMdamaged =

40582

96 * 18 * 4.6

= 5.105 m

displacement remains constant

L

I

F1

F

X

X

l

L= 96m, B = 18m, draft=4.6m, KG=5.8m, l= 24m, b=6m

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

d (XX-II) =9.545m, III=40582m4 BMdamaged=5.105 m

Let x = sinkage

24 * 6 * 4.6 = {(96 * 18) (24 * 6) }x

662.4 = 1584 x

X = 0.418 m

New draft = 4.6 + .418 = 5.018 m

angle of list

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

d (XX-II) =9.545m, III=40582m4 BMdamaged=5.105 m

new draft = 5.018 m

centre line (FF1) that is found by taking moments of area

of the water plane area about one edge

D

M

Q

Vertical

distance

G to M

G

BH

angle of list

Find GM

KB

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

d (XX-II) =9.545m, III=40582m4 BMdamaged=5.105 m

new draft = 5.018 m

Bilged

= draft bilged / 2

KB bilged = 5.018 / 2 = 2.509 m

KM Bilged = KB bilged + BM bilged

KM Bilged = 2.509 + 5.105 = 7.614 m

GM Bilged = KM Bilged KG (constant)

GM Bilged = 7.614 5.8 = 1.814 m

bilged

BM initial and damaged, New draft, Angle of list

d (XX-II) =9.545m, III=40582m4 BMdamaged=5.105 m

new draft = 5.018 m, GM Bilged =1.814 m

angle of list

BBH is also equal to 0.545 m.

Tan list =0.545 / 1.814 = 0.30044

list = 16.7

L

I

F1

F

X

X

l

A box shaped vessel floating upright on an even keel in

LengthBP: 150.00m Breadth: 28.00m Even keel draught:

8.60m KG: 9.20m

The vessel has two longitudinal bulkheads each 9.00m

from the side of the vessel.

Calculate the angle of heel if an amidship side

compartment 24.00m is bilged.

List = 12.5

Wallsided Formula

M

B1

GZ = GM Sin

GZ = (GM + MM1) Sin

So : GZ = ?

M1

M

B1

Wallsided Formula

GZ = Sin ( GM + MM1 ) and : MM1 = BM x Tan

So : GZ = Sin ( GM + BM x Tan )

M1

M

Z

B1

Righting Moment

Used when angle of heel is > 6 degrees

Only to be used on wallsided vessels with sides

Only valid up to the Angle of deck edge Immersion

COMPARTMENTS WITH OR

WITHOUT A WATERTIGHT

FLAT

The loss of buoyancy at the end of the vessel causes:

B will move vertically up to BV

but also longitudinally to BH

LCF will Move to the centre of the waterplan area

L

W1

W

L1

F1

F

BV

BH

L

B

l

G and B are no longer in a vertical line causing a trimming

lever BBH

trimming moment = W x BBH

L

W1

W

L1

F1

F

BV

BH

L

B

l

MCTC

WL2

G

F

Vol gained

WL2

x GML

MCTC =

100 x LBP

BV

BH

B1

Vol Lost

b

L is the full length of the vessel as the vessel

trims and sinks over the whole length.

If the KG is not given the question then:

Because B1 and G are very close to each other

then BML may be used instead of GML

This assumption must be stated

Example

6m

WL2

30 m

F

Vol gained

BV

BH

G

B

Vol Lost

b

4m

WL2

3m

an even keel draft of 4m in salt water. KG 2.00 m.

Calculate the drafts F and A if an empty forward end

compartment of length 3 m and full beam is bilged.

6m

WL2

30 m

G

F

Vol gained

BV

BH

Vol Lost

B

b

3m

Volume

Initial (constant)

L x B x d

30 x 6 x 4

30 x 6 x 4 x 1.025

Vol

Bilged

Comp

x

Sinkage =

IWPA

Sinkage = 3 x 6 x 4 x 1

[(30 3) x 6]

0.444 m

=720 m3

=738 t

4m

WL2

G

F

BV

BH

Vol Lost

B

4m

TMDBilged= 4.444m, BBH = 1.5m

Vol gained

= 738 t

WL

6m

WL2

30 m

3m

Initial draft

Sinkage

Bilged TMD

4.000

0.444

4.444

2

3 =1.5 m aft

2

6m

WL2

30 m

G

F

BV

BH

Vol Lost

B

4m

Vol gained

TMDBilged= 4.444m, BBH = 1.5m

= 738 t, Trimming Moment =1107 tm WL

3m

Trimming Moment =

w x s

738 x 1.5

MCTC

x GML

100 x L

1107 tm by head

6m

WL2

30 m

G

F

BV

BH

Vol Lost

B

b

3m

Bilged KB =

d

2

4.444

2

Bilged BML

IL

V

L 3B

12 V

2.222 m

273 x 6 13.669 m

(12 x 720)

4m

TMDBilged= 4.444m, BBH = 1.5m

Vol gained

= 738 t, Trimming Moment =1107 tm WL

Bilged KB = 2.222 m,

Bilged BML13.669 m

Bilged KB

Bilged BML

Bilged KML

KG

Bilged GML

2.222

13.669

15.891

2.000

13.891

6m

WL2

30 m

G

F

BV

BH

Vol Lost

B

b

3m

4m

TMDBilged= 4.444m, BBH = 1.5m

Vol gained

= 738 t, Trimming Moment =1107 tm

WL

Bilged KB = 2.222 m,

Bilged BML13.669 m

Bilged GML13.891 m

MCTC

6m

WL2

30 m

G

F

BV

BH

Vol Lost

b

3m

x GML

100 x LBP

738 x 13.891 = 3.417

(100 x 30)

CoT=

3.417

MCTC

4m

TMDBilged= 4.444m, BBH = 1.5m

= 738 t, Trimming Moment =1107 tm

Vol gained

Bilged KB = 2.222 m,

WL

Bilged BML13.669 m

Bilged GML13.891 m

CoT = 324.0 cm

6m

WL2

30 m

G

F

BV

BH

Vol Lost

b

3m

LCF

= 15 1.5 = 13.5 m foap

CoTA

CoT

x

LCF

3.24

x

13.5

1.458

=

=

=

LBP

30

CoTF

4m

TMDBilged= 4.444m, BBH = 1.5m

= 738 t, Trimming Moment =1107 tm

Vol gained

Bilged KB = 2.222 m,

WL

Bilged BML13.669 m

Bilged GML13.891 m

CoT = 324.0 cm

6m

WL2

30 m

G

F

Vol gained

Vol Lost

B

b

3m

Fwd

Bilged TMD

4.444

CoTF/A

+ 1.782

Bilged Draft

6.226

Aft

4.444

- 1.458

2.986

4m

BV

BH

WL2

March 2010

A box shaped vessel floating on even keel in dock water

Length 130.00m Breadth 21.00m

Draught 8.000m MCTC (salt water) 300

There is an empty watertight forward end compartment,

length 10.00m, height 6.70m, extending the full width of

the vessel.

Calculate the draughts forward and aft, if this

compartment is bilged.

March 2010

Volume before bilging = 130 x 21 x 8 = 21840 m3

Permeability of the bilged compartment = 1.00

Volume of the compartment = 10 x 21 x 6.70 = 1407 m3

Intact water plane area = 130 x 21 = 2730 m2

Bilged TMD = 8.000 + 0.515 = 8.515m

March 2010

What If MCTC and KG NOT GIVEN?

Intact water plan area & BML same

x GML

MCTC =

100 x LBP

BML may be used instead of GML

This assumption must be stated

March 2010

What If MCTC NOT GIVEN But KG is given?

KB = take the moment about the keel

Intact water plan area & BML same

x GML

MCTC =

100 x LBP

Calculate and use GML

March 2010

Bilged TMD = 8.000 + 0.515 = 8.515m

Volume (m3)

130 x 21 x 8.515

(m)

65.0

1510986.75

() 1407

125.0

() 175875

21838.95

61.134

1335111.75

Trimming Moment = 22167.6 x 3.866 x 1.025= 85699.94 tm by

forward

March 2010

COT =

22167.6 1.025

= 288.5cm

300 1.015

height of compartment = 6.70m

LCF unchanged amidship

Ta=Tf= 288.5 / 2 = 144.3 cm

Draught Fwd = 8. 515 +1.443 = 9.958 m

Draught Aft = 8. 515 - 1.443 = 7.072 m

Close all water tight doors.

compartment.

Take measures to restrict ingress of water (other vessel to

stay in place initially and / or use of patch)

Cross flooding ballasting the other side of the vessel to

bring the ship upright (movement of weights may also be

considered).

Ballasting or movement of weight to raise the damaged

area of the hull above the water line.

Removal of weight, particularly from the upper parts of the

consider beaching.

Throughout the above, reference should be made to the

stability data on-board providing guidance for such

circumstances.

In addition the SMS should be brought into operation. This

usually involves informing ship owners of the situation and

gaining access to advice from experts associated with

Classification society and / or salvage association.

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