.- XHU Pack #1 -. . Introduction . Description of Programs . Closing .- Introduction -.

XHU stands for Xenocide's Hacking Utilities written by me, Xenocide. They mainly deal with hacking, security, and cryptography. You may use the programs anyway you like, but I would like to hear your comments. You can reach me on Static Line (806.747.0802) or by Internet at dan.keisling@windmill.com or at xenocide@big12.metrobbs.com - Xenocide .- Description of Programs -. The archive has these files packaged in them: . . . . . . . . . brute dzip fakelog isprime netware passwd permute primes winsscrk

If you are missing any of these files, please contact me so that I can send you them. brute: Brute is a program to show the user why a brute-force attack is a bad idea in gaining a key. If you do not understand what a brute-force attack is, read the below explanation: For this explanation, I will be using the example of the PKZIP password, since everyone is familiar with the program. Generally, there are three types of attacks used to gain a password (key) : . Cryptanalysis - mathematical attack used to calculate the key. Usually the fastest and best option; although usually the most difficult. . Dictionary Attack (see dzip) - using a set of words to guess the key (usually a password). Usually very slow, but easy to create. . Brute-force Attack - trying every possible combination of a key until the key fits. Usually the slowest, but the only way to solve the equation. In simple terms, suppose K=key and our equation we have to solve is K=2*10 (two times five = ?)

Note that this is an extremely bad example. This is just to give you a basic example of finding a key. Encryption is much more stronger than this. We could probably rule out the attack of a dictionary since we aren't dealing with letters (see dzip). From a cryptanalysis stand point, we would compute 2*5 to find the key. Although encryption usually has another variable stopping us from simple computing the left of the equal sign, this example will suffice. If you use brute-force, we would try every possible combination of K. Since brute-force usually starts at the lowest possible value and goes up, we would start at K=0. Since 0=2*5 isn't true, we would try 1. Then 2, 3, 4, etc until we ended up at 10. Since 10 equal 2 times 5, the program would halt, giving us the solution to K. So far, we have only been working with numbers. Now we will be using letters, in order to conform to a PKZIP password. So, if our PKZIP password is "XHU", how would be go about finding that using brute force? Since brute force usually begins at the lowest possible value and works its way up, we would begin at the letter 'a.' For now, we will say that P is the PKZIP password (in this case, XHU) and P' is the password being tried. So when we find that P'=P we have solved the password. Our first try comes out false, since a=xhu is false. We would then try the letter 'b' and then 'c' and all the way to 'z'. Since none of these work, what now? We have to "loop" around to the characters "aa". Since aa=xhu is false, we would then try "ab" then "ac" all the way to "az". Once this is reached, we have to "loop" around to "ba." We will go all the way to "bz" then "ca" and to "cz". All in all, we will finish the 2 character length with "zz". We will then loop around to "aaa" and try that. Then we will go to "aab" and so forth. Once "aaz" is reached, we loop to "aba" and try "abb" then "abc" until we get to "abz" which loops around to "aca". After we reach "azz" we loop around to "baa". We only get to a fourth character string right after "zzz" is reached. (seems like a long time). In dealing with the three character string, we combination "xhu" sometime in the middle giving us: xhu=xhu in which case is true, halting the understand C, then we can think of: for (p'=a; p'<zzzz; p'++) { if (p'=p) { printf("We found the password"); abort(); } else {} } Remember, password. though, that a PC is extremely fast at finding this It would generally take a matter of a few seconds to find program and returning P'. If you will reach the

the password "xhu." If you think password, think about these points:

you

now

can crack any PKZIPPED

. Passwords are generally more than 5 characters in length . Passwords in PKZIP are case-sensitive ('a' and 'A' are totally different passwords) So far we have been only using lower case letters . Secure passwords contain numbers, punctuation keys, high ASCII, and spaces within them. All of these factors contribute into increasing the time in finding the password immensely. First, run brute with 5 characters as the password. If you think it didn't take that long to show them all, remember that it is just displaying them to the screen. When trying to find the password, it uses this sequence: a) b) c) d) e) Compute password Try computed password with equation Return results of try If false, goto a; if true, goto e Exit with success

More or less. This can more than triple the time to find it all. Granted, finding the password "xhu" isn't long at all, but take into the factors listed above. For passwords with uppercase, we now have to try "aaA" and "gHA." Basically, every combination of upper and lowercase letters in the string. Since we are introducing 26 new characters (A through Z) we also have to introduce all punctuation keys (keys: ~`!@#$%^&*()_+|\=-}]{[:;"'?/>.<,), spaces (just one character - but it severely increases the time), numbers (0 through 9) and all high ASCII characters (161 characters) all greatly increase the time. Most security programs heavily encourage passwords that are more than 10 characters in length with spaces and alternative case. So, you can say that in a length of 10 characters, you will have the try of: kFi&; :l~� This won't usually be a password, but possible solution to the key. brute force has to check every

If you are using a program that uses brute-force, it is always wise to have the option of specifying what characters to use. Suppose you know that the password is only in lower case letters. Why would we waste all the other time to factor in upper case, spaces, numbers, and high ASCII? A brute-force program should have the option to specify only using lower case letters, or by only specifying numbers and upper case letters. If you STILL don't really know what a brute-force attack is, you should follow up to the newsgroup sci.crypt or by contacting me. dzip: Dzip stands for Dictionary Zip which cracks PKZIPPED passwords. A dictionary file (also called a wordlist) is simply a text file that has one word per line. The program checks that word against the password, and if it is false, it tries the next one. The dictionary

file that dzip looks for is called ZIP_DICT.TXT directory. Here is an example of the program: Suppose our ZIP_DICT.TXT file looked like this: oranges bananas apples zowie

in

the current

And the ZIP file with the password is called CRACKME.ZIP. We will assign the password "zowie" to CRACKME.ZIP. Now, dzip will more or less try the word "oranges" to the CRACKME.ZIP file. If PKZIP tells us that "that is not the right password" dzip will then try "bananas". Since "bananas" does not work, we will try "apples." It is not until we try "zowie" that PKZIP says the password is correct. The program now halts, giving us the password to CRACKME.ZIP. So how do you make a ZIP_DICT.TXT file? You certainly do not make up words yourself. Static Line has some available for download or you can ftp them from sable.ox.ac.uk in the pub/wordlists directory. All of these wordlists are setup with one word per line and usually English only (although there are different languages there). As you might notice, using a dictionary attack has it's limitations. What if the password was "sdf(unSdf"? Since most wordlists are usually only whole words, this limits us to only a brute-force attack (see brute). If you do not plan on making your own dictionary files, only use a dictionary attack if the password is a whole word. Also remember that "Apples" and "apples" are two separate passwords. Most dictionary files are in lower case. One thing about dzip is that it is very fast. I ran it through a one meg dictionary file (that's a lot of words; it took over five minutes just to type it to the screen) and it returned the password in 47 seconds. As with a brute-force attack, there is no way of knowing how long it will take to find the key. In brute-force, it happens only when the correct key is found. Since a dictionary attack starts at the top and goes down to the bottom of the file, the time limit is only how long it takes to get to the word in the file. If the password was somewhere in the middle, it will be quicker than finding the password if it was located at the bottom of the file. The password I used for the ZIP file was at the end of the one meg ZIP_DICT.TXT file. This theoretically means that it takes about 1 minute to try a meg of words. However, with the abundance of words in the English language, a one meg dictionary is pretty small. A common size is around 10 megs or more. If you do not know how to solve a password using cryptanalysis, it's always better to at least try a dictionary attack before a brute-force. Since it only (theoretically) takes 10 minutes for a 10 meg dictionary, you might get lucky and find the password - although very unlikely. I could simple make my password 10 times more secure against a dictionary attack by using these passwords: "apples1" "Apples" "applesoranges"

"apples " Remember that the space in the last example does mean that it is different from just "apples" with no space. A great more detail can be covered using a dictionary attack, but they are pretty simple to reason out. Using dzip against different passwords you made up and from the dictionary files you downloaded. One good example is to think of an English whole word and use that for the ZIP password (using all lower case letters). Then run dzip against a 10 meg dictionary and see what happens. The only specifications for dzip is: ZIP_DICT.TXT must be in the current directory The ZIP to be cracked must be in the current directory The ZIP file must have at least 3 files encrypted with the same password Although there has not been a real cryptanalysis attack on PKZIP (the only one being is that you must know the plain-text of the file to be cracked), there will be a day when a program will return the password in a matter of seconds. Until now, we are stuck with using brute-force and a dictionary attack. fakelog: Fakelog is a login trojan that is designed to capture user names and passwords on machines that use a "login" program. This is a demo copy simply because all logins are different on every machine. Fakelog will simulate the real login on your machine and ask for the user name and password. Once a user has entered these items, they will be written to a file and an error message will follow, then transferring control to real login for the user to enter his info again. The file that the passwords are written to is called PASSWD (you can change it if you wish to something less obvious) for you to view later. If I was to enter "Xenocide" as my user name and "xhu" as my password, the PASSWD file would look like: . Xenocide/xhu Each time a user logs in, it will be added to the end of the file. If it cannot find PASSWD in the current directory, Fakelog will create it. Here is an example of Fakelog's run time: . Novell NetWare Login . Login: Xenocide . Password: XHU . Wrong password entered. The PASSWD file would then look like: . Xenocide/XHU

The only problems with Fakelog is that if a user logs in many times, he will notice that he somehow mistypes his password the first time. In order for Fakelog to correctly work and fool a user, it must be made to look exactly like the real logon. Because I don't know what your logon looks like, you must contact me so I can customize it for you. You must give me these details: . . . . Welcome Screens (Any text shown before the login prompt) The login prompt (ie: Login: or login: or username: etc) The password prompt (ie: password: or Password: or pass> etc) The error message (That you may get if you mistype your password)

isprime: Isprime will tell you if a number you specified is prime. If it is false, it will return the reason why. For example, if you entered 10 as the number, it would return false with the reason that 2*5=10. Due to the limits of a personal computer, large numbers aren't handled very well. netware: Netware will encrypt a password using Novell NetWare's Password Encryption. It uses a simple hashing of the password into a 32 byte string and does some mixing and compression to it. Passwords can be up to 128 bytes and the hashing can be up to 128 bits. For example, if you enter XHU for the password, it will return 0E B2 B6 ED F3 8E A4 D9 B2 FF F8 23 07 8E B9 FD passwd: Passwd will let you make a UNIX-like passwd entry commonly found in /etc/passwd. It contains the same info (username, home directory, user number, etc) and prints it to the file called PASSWD in the current directory. This can be used for security programs that can check a users password in a specific file. One note is that passwd does not modify the strings in any way, such that at the Encryption Password: prompt, you must enter the encrypted password. No encryption has been implemented yet, although I hope for it to actually encrypt it with crypt(3) someday. permute: Permute will display all the permutations is 'ab' it will return: ab ba primes: Primes will calculate all the primes from 2 to 3067. It ends here because of the limitations of a personal computer. winsscrk: Winsscrk will decrypt the Windows v3.11 Screen Saver Password normally of a string. If the string

stored in control.ini. It does not specifically look for control.ini I have given you the choice of the file name. The only requirements is that the encryption password must be after a Password= prompt. (This is what control.ini looks like anyway). It has around a 99% success rate, because certain punctuation keys confuse the encryption. I have not tested Win '95's encryption (if it is different), but expect a Win '95 edition in the next pack. .- Closing -. Please note that these programs are just simple ones to give me a "test" for my knowledge. Although they may seem "useless" to you, they greatly helped me in learning how to program, and in some cases, information on basic (very basic) cryptography. Since these 9 programs took me a while to make and get all the bugs out of, I cannot say how long, if ever, an XHU Pack #2 will come out. I might also extend the releases from other people who would like to distribute these kinds of programs. If you would, contact me and we can arrange for it to be in a pack. My only thoughts on new programs are duplicated past programs (such as dzip), which is still quite a challenge, and to improve on them as much as possible. If you also would like to see a program made, please contact me so we can figure out how and we can release it into a pack some day. My only thanks are to Breed_X, who helped me with the Fakelog program. - Xenocide