1

This

INTRODUCTION chapter begins with the

background and the purpose of the PGDM Project Report. Goals are specified and delimitations are presented. The chapter ends with disposition and reading directives of the Project Report.

Page | 1

1 INTRODUCTION This chapter begins with the background and the purpose of the PGDM Project Report. Goals are specified and delimitations are presented. The chapter ends with disposition and reading directives of the Project Report. 1.1 BACKGROUND Many industries have experienced an intensified global competition in just a few years. The reasons for this are many and some relate to: deregulation, forming of trade unions, improved transportation facilities and better information and communication technology. The intensified competition has increased the interest of purchasing and storing. Since most companies spend more than half their sales turnover on purchased parts & services, efficient supplier relationships are of great importance to the company’s short term financial position and long term competitive strength. Today if a company saves 1% of its total materials then its profit will increase up to 23%. So issuing and storing of materials is an important task in construction industry. Gammon India specializes in the areas of bulk storage structures; energy projects and high-rise structures; ground engineering and environment protection; hydraulic works and irrigation projects; industrial structures; marine structures; tunnel engineering; public utility structures; and transport engineering. As on Mar 2009, it has executed 69 projects out of which 32 were in transport engineering, 17 in energy and high-rise projects, 10 in hydro-power/tunnel/irrigation projects, and five in pipeline projects, to name a few. The company also undertakes PPP projects in sectors like ports, highways, power, bridges etc through its subsidiary Gammon Infrastructure Projects Ltd. Some PPP projects include the 53-km Rajahmundry-Dharmavaram road project, and two multipurpose berths (EQ-8 and EQ-9) at Vishakhapatnam port. Hydro-electric projects include Teesta HRT and Parbati Stage II and III amongst others. As on Mar 2007, the company’s order book position was Rs 70 bn. Some of its major ongoing projects include the 99.5-km Vadape-Gonde road project and the Gorakhpur bypass project etc.

Page | 2

1.2 PURPOSE The purpose of this report is to examine if and how the internal customers’ understanding deviates from the store’s perception regarding the task of the store department i.e. Issue of materials. The purpose is also to create a communication package with the purpose of increasing the internal customers understanding of what is the actual method of preparing issue slips. 1.3 GOALS The goals of this project report are:

a. To do a gap-analysis concerning the internal customers’ and the store’s
perception of the task of the issue of materials method.

b. To create a communication package consisting of material and instructions ready
to use. 1.4 DELIMITATIONS

a. All materials are not included in this report. b. Because of the time frame and the fact that this project report was c. This report includes only GIL’s DMRC project only.
1.5 DISPOSITION The report is divided into ten chapters and the content of the chapters are presented below. Chapter 2: Gammon facts – This chapter gives the reader an introduction to Gammon India Ltd and the stores. Chapter 3: Methodology – This chapter explains the method used in the project report and also explains the authors’ course of action. Chapter 4: Theory – This chapter describes issuing theory regarding why issuing is
Page | 3

performed

in Gammon’s internal customers including PRW and pretty contractors.

important and what a store department should do. It also contains communication theory regarding internal communication, communication strategy and communication planning. Chapter 5: Present situation – This chapter describes what the store does and who are their internal customers? Chapter 6: Empirical data – This chapter presents the empirical data gathered from the survey which later is used in the gap analysis. Chapter 7: Analysis & Finding – This chapter covers the gap analysis and findings. Chapter 8: Finding – This chapter describe this report’s findings. Chapter 9: Results & Suggestions – This chapter describes the communication package which was created in the result of analysis and suggestions are given. Chapter 10: Conclusions & Limitations – This chapter presents the conclusions from the findings of the thesis and discusses some problems which the authors came across and future research is suggested. 1.6 READING DIRECTIVES Reading directives are given in this section. A person from Gammon’s store’s interested in the authors’ course of action and the background to the conclusions – This reader should read chapter 3 and forward. A person from Gammon’s store’s interested in the results from the gap analysis – This reader should read chapter 6 and 7. Person from Gammon interested in the communication package – This reader should read chapter 8. External readers without former knowledge of Gammon and Gammon’s store department of DMRC Project – This reader is recommended to read chapter 2 and forward.

Page | 4

2
done.

GAMMON FACTS

This chapter introduces the reader to Gammon and the store department of GIL DMRC project, Delhi, which is the department where the report was

Page | 5

2 GAMMON FACTS This chapter introduces the reader to Gammon and the store department of GIL DMRC project, Delhi, which is the department where the report was done. 2.1 GAMMON THE COMPANY Gammon India specializes in the areas of bulk storage structures; energy projects and high-rise structures; ground engineering and environment protection; hydraulic works and irrigation projects; industrial structures; marine structures; tunnel engineering; public utility structures; and transport engineering. As on Mar 2007, it has executed 64 projects out of which 29 were in transport engineering, 15 in energy and high-rise projects, 10 in hydro-power/tunnel/irrigation projects, and five in pipeline projects, to name a few. 2.1.1 ABOUT FOUNDER In the beginning was a man and his vision a colossus throbbing with dynamism and pulsating with energy. A man born to build. A man whose very presence was a source of inspiration. Mr. John C. Gammon. The founder of Gammon India Limited. A Civil Engineer who can more aptly be called 'The Sculptor of Concrete in India'. A man who preached and practiced order and functional expression in structures - the enduring values that helped build the Gammon edifice.

 From monuments and bridges to reservoirs and jetties, his innovative vision and
engineering skill, his intuitive understanding of the materials and systems of construction sought and fought answers to some of the most challenging examples in civil engineering projects.

 His abiding faith in people and their abilities inspired them to meet challenge
after challenge.

 Mr. Gammon had several firsts to his credit. The RCC pile foundations for the
Gateway of India, the thin shell structures of the Meerut Garages, the colloidal grouting process at Mundali Weir, the hyperbolic cooling towers at Sabarmati Page | 6

are but a few of his outstanding achievements. Bridges like Bonum and Patalganga, built by him have stood the test of time as monuments to his ingenious skill.

 Today, Gammon India Ltd., not only carries his name and vision, but stands out
as a Gateway for technological excellence in civil engineering. 2.2 HISTORY OF GAMMON YEAR EVENTS 1922 - The Company was incorporated and then converted into a public Ltd. company on 31st April 1962. The main object of the company was Builders and contractors, reinforced concrete specialists, engineers, architects, surveyors’ estimators and designers. 1956 - At the time of incorporation, the name of the Company was J.C. Gammon (Mumbai) Ltd. The name was changed to Gammon India Ltd. 1975 - On 23rd August, Gammon Nirma Ltd., was incorporated as a subsidiary of the company. 10,200 equity shares of Rs. 100 each out of 10,204 shares issued a held by Gammon India Ltd. Gammon Turnkeys Ltd., is a subsidiary of the Company with a holding of 9,990 No. of equity shares of Rs. 100 each out of 10,000 No. of equity shares issued. Bhagirathi Bridge Construction Co. Ltd., is an associated company of Gammon India Ltd., while Gammon-Shah is a partnership firm with 50% share for Gammon India Ltd. 1977 - The company is associated with Gammon Eastern Union Ltd., Hong Kong, who promoted Gammon Midest Ltd. joint venture company in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates with a participation of Dh. 7,85,000 representing 50% of the capital of the joint venture entered with Dh. 27,15,000 (Dh. 1 = Rs.2.2 approximately) as term loan for three years. This joint venture company was incorporated in April, and was to undertake construction and service contracts in the Middle East and elsewhere.

Page | 7

1979 - The Company entered into a collaboration agreement with Koninklijke Machinenfabrick Stork B.V. Hengelo, Netherlands for a period of 5 years for the manufacture of fiberglass impeller blades for cooling towers. A new joint venture company, Heitkamp Gammon Ltd., was being established with Gammon India Ltd., and Heitkamp Rohrbau GmbH, West Germany as the principal promoter shareholder. 1989 - The R&D Division undertook development of energy efficient GFRP bladed fans for ID Cooling towers and PP splash grid modular packing system for ND/ID covering towers, alternative packing systems etc. Also, development and manufacture of places booms for concreting, mobile shuttering systems complete with hydraulic arrangement. For jacking and lowering up to a height of 2.5 mm, integrated serried vibration systems for deck concreting, spiral tube making machine up to 200 mm dia. for prestressing cables etc. were undertaken. 1990 - A turnkey contract of the approximate value of Rs. 120.00 crores secured from International Youth Travel Bureau of USSR and `SPUTNIK', Moscow, USSR for the contraction of a 900 bed hotel in Moscow. Contracts valued at Rs. 100 crores were under negotiation. 1994 - The company was awarded a time bound large size Civil Engineering contract for construction of three bridges with approach road replacing flood damaged bridge of Prithvi Highway towards Noubise and Malekhu section of sakkar, Nepal. R & D division developed, fabricated and put into commission the headmast and tailmast for 700 m span cable ropeway for Alamatti Dam as also 1500 mm dia. double-wall casing for executing the pile foundations for transmission towers at Tezpur for 60 m deep piles. The R & D division designed and manufactured a special reverse circulation pilling rig for 1500 mm diameter piles capable for depths up to 75 m. The R&D division also developed special techniques for installation of 1500 mm diameter piles through the reinforced concrete well steining for a Bridge across Brahmaputra River at Jogighopa.

Page | 8

2.3 GAMMON WORLDWIDE Gammon India Ltd (Gammon India), established in 1919, and is engaged in engineering and construction activities. It became public in 1962. Its core business includes transportation, power projects, pipelines, ground engineering and environment protection projects, irrigation projects etc. The company has a presence across India as well as in the Middle East, North and West Africa, and in the SAARC countries. The company also undertakes PPP projects in sectors like ports, highways, power, bridges etc through its subsidiary Gammon Infrastructure Projects Ltd. Some PPP projects include the 53-km Rajahmundry-Dharmavaram road project, and two multipurpose berths (EQ-8 and EQ-9) at Vishakhapatnam port. Hydro-electric projects include Teesta HRT and Parbati Stage II and III amongst others. As on Mar 2007, the company’s order book position was Rs 70 bn. Some of its major ongoing projects include the99.5-km Vadape-Gonde road project and the Gorakhpur bypass project etc. 2.3 AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS

ACCE-L&T Endowment Award for Excellence in The Arch of Europe construction of Haldia Gold Award Ganga Induced Draught

Cooling Towers, 2001

Bridge, 1987

Award By Gujarat Electricity Board Gujarat Electricity Board 1965

IFAWPCA Certificate for Thane Creek Bridge Thane Creek Bridge, 1971

IIBE-7th Annual Award Nite for Noida Bridge at Delhi Noida Bridge at Delhi 2001Towers, 2001

And many more………….

Page | 9

2.4 THE STORE DEPARTMENT OF GIL DMRC PROJECT, DELHI The store department is a unit in Gammon India Ltd DMRC project, New Delhi. Currently the whole store is divided into four site-stores in which one is called main store. Currently GIL is having three site stores in Noida Sector-94, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi and Kalkaji, New Delhi. One main store has been established in Noida Sector- 37. The main works of these stores are to receive the materials and issue it’s to its indenter and maintaining the store accounting for the further reference. The hierarchy of stores in Gammon India Ltd in DMRC Project, New Delhi are as follows; shown in figure-2.4

Figure- 2.4 Hierarchy of Store in GIL in DMRC Project, Delhi

Page | 10

3

METODOLOGY

In this chapter the research strategy, course of action and collection of data is described. The reliability and validity of the report are discussed in the end of this chapter.

Page | 11

3 METHODOLOGY In this chapter the research strategy, course of action and collection of data is described. The reliability and validity of the report are discussed in the end of this chapter. 3.1 RESEARCH STRATEGY The research strategy is a general plan of how to answer the purpose of the study. There are four main strategies; experiment, survey, case study and action research. This PGDM’s report is considered a survey because the characteristics of a survey fit with the purpose of the report. American Statistical Association (web) defines the following as the characteristics of a survey:

a. A wide and extensive coverage: In the concept of “survey” lies an implicit idea of
that the research should have a broad coverage.

b. Focus on a specific moment in time: The purpose is often to get a general view of
a variety of things at the time of the data collection.

c. Dependent on empirical data: A survey includes looking for details in concrete
things that can be measured and registered. The whole group of internal customers was considered in this study which implies that a survey was suitable. Also, the gap-analysis needed empirical data and it was important to examine what the gap was at the moment. It is important to be aware of the fact that a survey approach is a research strategy and not a method. Researchers choosing this strategy can use different methods: questionnaires, interviews, printed sources and observations. (Web) 3.2 COURSE OF ACTION The work of this report began with defining the purpose and the forming of a research strategy. At the same time a pre-study was performed by conducting interviews with internal customers, and managers at the store department. Information was also gathered from Gammon’s intranet and the books published by GIL. The aim of the pre-study was to get an understanding of what the store department does, how the internal customers
Page | 12

acquire material and services, and to identify the internal customers. Next a questionnaire was designed, and sent to internal customers, store managers, in order to be able to perform the gap-analysis and their tasks. The result from the survey was then analyzed with the help from store theory which was gathered in a literature study. When the gaps had been identified a communication package was produced. The communication package was made with input from the gap-analysis and from a literature study covering communication. The pre-study also provided information which was included in the communication package. Finally the communication package was tested on a small group of internal customers. The “pilot” groups of internal customers were interviewed about the communication package for further improvements and then the communication package was finalized. The course of action is illustrated in figure 3.1.

Figure: 3.1 Course of action

3.3 COLLECTION OF DATA 3.3.1 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY Data can be categorized in two different categories depending on how it was collected; primary and secondary data. Primary data consists of data which the researcher gathers through observations, surveys and interviews. Secondary data, on the other hand, consists of data which has been collected in another context. In order to fulfill the purpose of this study, primary and secondary data was used jointly. Regarding primary data, there are many ways to collect information about people’s
Page | 13

attitude, behavior and knowledge. But when it comes to people answering questions, one can separate it into two different methods of collecting data. The first method is doing interviews directly in person or by phone. The second method is by implementing questionnaires. In this survey both interviews and questionnaires were used when collecting data. Secondary data is data collected by other people, and from books published by Gammon India Ltd. Secondary data was used when conducting the literature studies. The literature studies covered two areas; store and communication. The search for literature was conducted via Internet and books. Examples of keywords used when searching for store related material was; store and supply chain management. Keywords used when searching for communication related material was; internal communication, communication planning, communication strategy and persuasive communication. Secondary data was also collected from Gammon’s intranet and Internet. Intranet provided information about Gammon’s store process and organization for example. 3.3.2 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE There is not a clear distinction between quantitative and qualitative research. However they have some characteristics. The quantitative research often uses numbers as the central unit of analysis and the qualitative research has a tendency to use words as the central unit of analysis. The qualitative research is more often connected with description and the quantitative is more often connected to analysis. The qualitative research is most often used in smaller studies and the qualitative in larger studies. The interviews conducted in this study should be considered as qualitative because; they were of smaller scale, the interviewees were often asked to describe or clarify something, and the unit of analysis was words. The questionnaires and the analysis of the questionnaires were more of a quantitative character. Although the unit of analysis was both words and numbers the final analysis was based on numbers. The scope of the survey was also relatively large.

Page | 14

3.3.3 INTERVIEWS Interviews are usually classified as interviews with high or low degree of standardization. A high degree of standardization implies that the questions are formulated in advance and are of great extent. A low degree of standardization on the other hand implies that only the question areas are decided in advance and not the actual questions. The reason is to let the interviewer formulate questions in order to clarify or deepen the earlier answers of the respondent. The interviews conducted were of both a high and a low degree of standardization. Low degree interviews were often conducted when the authors needed something explained and high degree interviews were used when specific information was needed. 3.3.4 QUESTIONNAIRE Questionnaires were created and sent to both the store department and to the internal customers of the store department. The purpose of the questionnaires was to gather data for the gap analysis. Two different questions were used in order to examine the gap; the internal customers and employees at Gammon were asked to shortly describe what they believe that the process of the store department is. The internal customers and employees at Gammon were asked how often they would like the store department to be involved in several different stages of a store. Other kinds of questions were included with the purpose of gathering background information about the respondents. There were also questions included with the purpose of evaluating the store department, and those answers were used for other purposes besides the ones stated in this report. The questionnaires sent to the internal customers and stores are presented in appendix1 When designing the questionnaires relevant literature was studied, and the following section includes some of the things that were considered when making the questionnaires. According to Ejlertsson & Axelsson, a questionnaire is a form containing questions with predominantly set alternatives of answers. The most common ways to distribute questionnaires are by mail, e-mail or by handing them out directly to a preferred target group. There are some advantages using a questionnaire instead of an interview. The questionnaire can for instance easily be implemented on a great selection in relation to
Page | 15

cost and time and also within a great geographical area. Another benefit when using a questionnaire is that the respondent is not affected by an interviewer’s way of asking questions. The questionnaires were sent by e-mail in order to make them easy to distribute and easy to answer. When constructing a questionnaire there are a lot of things to consider, for instance the composition of questions. The following is stated as important when designing a questionnaire by both Ejlertsson & Axelsson and Andersson:

a. Keep the language simple b. Unambiguous questions c. Avoid leading questions if possible d. One question at a time, one answer at a time e. Avoid questions of sensitive issues f. Avoid long questions g. Avoid negation h. To instruct when questions are only relevant to some respondents i. Keep the same order of the answer alternatives j. Don’t forget questions about background
Ejlertsson & Axelsson mentions that when constructing a matrix question one has to be careful not to include too many sub questions and the questions should always have the same alternatives of answers. 3.3.5 SELECTION OF INTERNAL CUSTOMERS To map a target population in this report was complex, since there was not a list of all the internal customers of Gammon. A pre-study was carried out in order to find out who the internal customers were. Information was gathered by interviewing store managers and other employees. The selection of the survey was made by randomly choosing internal customers. The total amount of internal customers chosen to participate in the questionnaire was 20. The total number of internal customers at Gammon was unknown. And 100 issue slips
Page | 16

are collected for the empirical data. It is important to mention that the selection of internal customers is not representative of all the internal customers of Gammon. The chosen selection does not fulfill the criteria of a random selection on a population basis because it was not possible to create one list of all the internal customers and from that list randomly select internal customers. To compile a list of all employees with a certain working title was not possible within a reasonable amount of time. Therefore a complete list of all the internal customers could not be made. The way the internal customers were selected was considered when the data was analyzed. Regarding the questionnaire sent to the store department and internal customers were chosen. 3.4 METHODOLOGY ISSUES Regarding the choice of research strategy, there were other alternative strategies which could have been relevant. For instance a case study would have been more suitable if researching for a more narrow coverage. But due to the fact that a broad and extensive coverage was preferred in order to cover a broad selection of internal customers the survey strategy was chosen. 3.4.1 RELIABILITY According to Svenning (1999) and Denscombe (2000) the definition of reliability is that if nothing changes in a population two surveys with the same purpose and method should give the same results. The reliability of the interviews was assured by selecting interviewees who had the right knowledge, and they were often chosen with the help of sourcing managers at the store department. Most of the interviews were also recorded and I took notes during the interviews in order to secure that the information was interpreted correct. The reliability of the questionnaires is dependent on the rate of response and the following measures were taken to increase the rate of response:

a. Store was asked to inform about the questionnaires and advise the internal
customers to answer before the questionnaires were sent.

b. E-mails were sent to the internal customers who did not answer within the stated
Page | 17

date in order to remind them to answer the questionnaire.

c. The compilation of the results from the questionnaires was handled confidential
and the internal customers were informed about this in the questionnaire. The reliability regarding the questionnaires was also improved by using relevant theory when designing them which increased the quality of the questionnaire. 3.4.2 VALIDITY Svenning (1999) defines the concept of validity as measuring what one really intends to measure. According to Sapsford & Jupp (1996) the definition of validity is: “The design of a research effort with the purpose of giving trustworthy conclusions and that the results and evidence that a survey leads to will form a strong support for the interpretations being made.” A pre-study was performed in order to get an understanding of the research object, which made it easier to design valid questions. The validity of the questionnaires was assured by reviewing and testing the questions on both internal customers and stores before sending them and thus making sure that the questions were unambiguous. The questionnaire was also designed with the help from literature which helped me to construct unambiguous questions.

Page | 18

4
The

THEORY

In this chapter store function and communication theory are presented. First of all store activities are presented and then the importance and the role of store are described. second section includes a description of the purpose of internal communication, planning strategy. and communication communication

Page | 19

4 THEORY In this chapter store function and communication theory are presented. First of all store activities are presented and then the importance and the role of store are described. The second section includes a description of the purpose of internal communication, communication planning and communication strategy. 4.1 STORE Store work start from the receiving of indent from its internal customers i.e. engineers and ends with the delivery of materials to its indenter. The major activity of a store is to maintain its account properly and make a health system to receive and issue of materials. There are following steps which are taken by store department. 4.1.1 REQUISITION SYSTEM At this site we have a single requisition system which is manual and it is made by the head of the department (engineers). When a need of materials is arises then head of the engineers came at store and in Indent Register made their requisition manually. Gammon India is having an ERP system of requisition also but this is not properly working at this site. In this site engineer came to store and in Indent register they write their material name, quantity required, status of requirement i.e. urgent or normal, and then they write the due date. In some materials cases a store keeper need to follow up the materials and at a minimum stock level he/she need to order that materials without asking anybody. Such materials include all the consumable items like Oxygen cylinder, LPG cylinder, welding rod and many more. 4.1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS: Requisition is made by the engineers to us and we as purchase manager/ officer or store keeper classified those materials according to the size availability and the quality availability. In each material we have to follow different-2 parameters and standards.

Page | 20

There are following examples of this classification according to the GIL at this site table no: 4.1.2 SN 1. 2 3 4 5 Name of Materials Cement Steel Aggregate Sand Diesel & Lubricant Classified By Client Client Quality Lab Quality Lab Company Table: 4.1.2 4.1.3 PROCESS OF RECEIVING MATERIALS Normally, we receive the materials through supply order/ purchase order and materials transferred from site to site (office to office). The processes of receiving materials are as followsa. The driver of the truck brining the goods first delivers the challan and other documents. b. A challan is known by various names, supplier’s dispatch note, delivery note, consignment note or material’s transfer advice note etc. along with this there might be a packaging slip giving the list of packages showing in brief and the content is in each of them. c. The original delivery challan is retained by the store’s and one of the important factor to remember is that if the document is signed without any endorsement like damage or short able then it is deemed that goods have been properly delivered. d. The material is taken into stores after this preliminary checking then it is inspected and checked for quality and quantity. Remark Client classified the material and they give us brand name of cement. Client classified the material and they give us brand name of steel. Control Our QC Lab classified the standard of aggregate. Control Our QC Lab classified the standard of sand. We go with the No.1 brand Indian Oil

Page | 21

e. The receipts are entered in a good receipt register some times also called the goods inward register.

4.1.4 QUANTITY CHECKING The goods have been invariably to be physically counted or measured. A part from the quantity checking there are other types of measurement of items involving: a. Checking of weight by weighting scale. b. Checking of length with the help of scale or measurement tape. c. Checking of square area by measuring tape. d. Checking of volume with measuring tape and mathematical calculations. While receiving the materials the following steps are also help to avoid mistake, in recording, quantity and quality checking. These steps are: a. The storekeeper will supervise the unloading operations. b. If the material is found to be defective after unloading. It will be returned to the concerned driver. c. Measurement of truck /material will be taken in the presence of the driver. d. The driver will be informed of any comments to be written on the challan and his consent signature will be taken on both the copies. e. He should also prepare the gate pass in triplicate. f. The gate pass is the permission for the truck to leave the site premises. Note: 1- The watchman should sign and stamp the duplicate challan copy. He should also check the gate pass for the contents in the out going vehicle only then the vehicle is permitted to go out. Note: 2- In case of material is to be rejected the store keeper inform the project in charge about it. He turn will intimate the purchase department and a decision will be taken after the discussion.

Page | 22

4.1.5 METHOD OF TESTING MATERIALS Each and every received material is separately tested in our QC lab or out side the site in materials testing centers approved by our client DMRC. Some materials are tested at our QC lab but for some material are tested at out side of our site. Following materials are tested at following places; Table no. 4.1.5 SN 1. 2 3 4 5 Name of Materials Cement Steel Aggregate Sand Diesel & Lubricant Tested By Store Out Side Quality Lab Quality Lab Store Table No. 4.1.5 4.1.6 MATERIAL HANDLING AND PRECAUTION The storekeeper should take precaution while handling all materials general norms are as follows: a. The site engineer should be informed immediately about receipt of materials. b. The materials should be stocked near their consumption place. c. It should be stocked so that the materials received first are utilized first. d. All materials should be stocked in locked godown. In case of bulk materials like steel, sand and aggregate we use MS chain for steel safety. e. Fragile and expensive items should be utilized immediately. And unnecessary handling should be avoided. Base of Testing. Cement quality and checked by Batch No. We check the weight of the steel. Control QC lab checks the quality of the aggregate. Control QC lab checks the quality of the sand. Quality is checked with the help of Batch NO.

Page | 23

f. Up to date records of the stock must be maintained on the daily basis. A minimum level of stock should maintain for each item and stocked at convenient location. In case inter office correspondence IOC is received for the transfer of materials to other sites. It should be easily located. g. The storekeeper should also check the collection, accumulation of scrap materials periodically. It should be stocked properly. The project In Charge should inform the purchase department to arrange for the disposal of scrap. 4.1.6.1 EXAMPLES OF MAINTENANCE AND HANDLING OF SOME MATERIALS Cement: This is the one of the most important material in the construction industry and no one can construct any thing without this material. So this is very important for a store keeper to maintain the higher degree of maintenance so that wastage and theft become less. While handling this material as a store keeper we need to make a separate godown to store it. Because cement is finely ground, it easily absorbs water and also moisture from the air. Protect cement from getting damp – especially during the monsoons – by storing cement bags correctly. a. Ideally, store cement in a weatherproof warehouse. b. Stack bags close together, to reduce air circulation, about 30 cms away from the walls and, preferably, on wooden planks. c. Keep the stacked pile up to a maximum of 15 bags high and about 3 meters in width – alternately placing the bags lengthwise and crosswise, to safeguard against toppling. d. For extra safety during monsoon, or when the bags are to be stored for long periods, cover the pile with a polythene sheet. e. Due to pressure, cement – in the lower bags in the stacked pile – may tend to cake. When taken out to use, all you need to do is to roll these bags over. Also, when removing stored bags, remove them from two or three tiers, rather than all from one tier. This will prevent toppling. f. When removing bags for use, do it on a "first in, first out" system. This means stacking bags separately as they arrive, with date of arrival placards attached to each pile.
Page | 24

Bricks: we have to take following action while handling the bricks. a. While unloading the truck, bricks should not be thrown. b. Bricks should be stacked systematically for easy use and counting. c. Bricks should be unloaded on a fairly level of ground. d. The stocking place should be located so that debris/ scrap thrown from the building do not fall on bricks below.

Steel: While storing the steel a store keeper have to follow following points: a. Steel should be stored diameter wise in a steel yard and should be locked with M.S. Chain. b. Access to the steel yard with approach road for vehicles should be provided. c. To avoid rusting steel should not be placed directly at ground, cement blocks should be used as platform. d. Cut pieces of steel should be stored separately in the steel yard. e. Internal area of yard should be sufficiently compacted with a wide space for easy truck movement. f. On each stock of steel, cement & water wash should be done to avoid rusting and loss in strength. Sand, Metal, Dust & Grit: The following points must have to follow while storing all these materials: a. All these materials should be stacked separately. b. Dust and Grit should be unloaded near the block making machine. c. A base surface of slab flooring or 3” PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) laid in leveled surface should be prepared to unload all these materials with to avoid any possible direct contact of materials with the soil. d. Proper access road should be provided up to the stacking place.

Page | 25

Diesel: This is another material in this company which is used in huge quantity. All machines and vehicles are running through this material. Currently GIL is having two diesel pumps at Noida Sector- 94 and Sarita Vihar and every day they are purchasing 12,000 ltr of diesel. So handling diesel is very important work at this site because installing pump bound us with some Acts also. While handling diesel we have to follow following points. a. Diesel should be stored in a ground tank. b. Before unloading and after unloading we have to measure the tankar. c. While unloading the diesel from tankar to tank one earthing is used in tankar. d. Diesel should be stored in No Smoking Zone. e. No mobile phone is allowed while distributing the diesel.

4.1.8 INTER OFFICE CORRESPONDENCE The storekeeper should exercise caution while handling an IOC when the purchase department issues an IOC for collection of materials from the site. Jr. Engineer/ Supervisor from other site approach with the IOC to collect the materials. In this situation following precaution should be taken: a. All transfer of materials should be assigned Jr. Engineer/ supervisor. Labour should not be deputed for such transactions. b. Store keeper should check the quantities and specification of the materials to be issued. The person accepting the materials should also check all the details in the IOC. c. If the materials refereed to in the IOC is not available in stores the purchase department should be informed of the details of consumption of the materials and hence the non-availability of the same. d. After the transfer as per the IOC consumption entire of the material should entered immediately and the records should be up-dated by storekeeper.

Page | 26

4.1.9 ISSUE OF MATERIALS Store keeper should observe the following points while issuing the materials; a. Store should be issued only after receiving the material issue slip the respective site engineer for respective building. b. While issuing materials from store the material should be checked for any wastage/ damage. He/ she must follow the golden rule of first in first out. c. Any balance material should be collected from respective person, making the requisite entry after the day’s work. d. Materials should be exactly as per the mention on the issue slip. e. At the end of the day’s work all materials issued should be recorded on daily materials consumption chart. f. This chart should also indicate day to day balance stock of each consumed materials after deduction of the day’s consumption. g. This chart is submitted to Project Engineer by the store keeper for further reporting to Chief Engineer along with the daily progress report. 4.1.9.1 PROCESS OF ISSUE OF MATERIALS There is following steps which is used while issue a materials; a. The contractor or his/her representative or an employee of GIL will demand material required for the day’s work.
b. The engineer will fill the issue slips against the name of that individual i.e. an

employee of GIL or contractor or a representative of contractor. A specimen of issue slip is given in Appendix 2 c. The engineer should be authorized and he must be following the rules of writing issue slip. d. He /she must write the name of the material, required quantity, specification of material and the place where this material is going to use and after that his/her signature is mandatory. e. All materials should be issued strictly under the supervision of store keeper. f. The materials should be checked before issue. g. Materials which are received first, issue first. h. Quantity of material should be exact as shown in issue slip.
Page | 27

i. The contractor or his/her representative or an employee of GIL should sign the issue slip after receiving the materials. j. All issued materials should be recorded immediately on the consumable and nonconsumable registers. k. After the day’s work the balance materials, if any should be returned to the stores. l. The store keeper should visit the work place during working hours to see that there is wastage or not. m. Entry of any returned material should be recorded immediately in the respective registers and the concern person must be signed that register.

4.1.9.2 CONTROL POINT DURING ISSUE OF MATERIALS

The contractor should be carried out as per the instruction and planning of the site engineer. If it is observed that the contractor is not working as per the specification the issue of materials can be delayed or stopped. This decision should be taken in following situation; By engineersa. If the contractor does not clear the previous day’s work properly. b. If manpower for repair (if any) is not arranged on priority basis. c. If contractor divert his/ her worker for other work rather than specified. By store keepera. If contractor does not returned balance materials to the store. b. If contractor does not returned scraps or empty bags of cement or other materials. c. If he /she does not return shuttering materials to the store after the work complication. d. If he/she does not co-operate to sign the memo, notes against his /her name. 4.1.10 WHY STORE IS IMPORTANT Store is a department which is important because:
Page | 28

a. This is a department which provides raw materials to the engineer’s for making finish products. b. This is a place which keeps all materials safe and issues it as per the requirement of the engineer’s. c. This is a place from where company can increase its profit (by reducing wastage). d. This is a department which work in dark and give light to others (engineers). 4.2 COMMUNICATION THEORY The literature was reviewed to understand the consequences of good and inadequate internal communication. In order to create a communication package theories regarding communication strategy and planning was reviewed. 4.2.1 PURPOSE OF INTERNAL COMMUNICATION Internal communication represents a great deal of potential to organizations and can certainly stimulate operations as a whole, but when inadequate it leads to failure. Internal communication can be divided into formal and informal communication. The formal communication consists of goals, policies, guidelines, produced information for meetings and information material. It is highly dependent on the structure of an organization. The informal communication is more about discussions, spontaneous group meetings, stories and rumors or more concretely the interaction the co-workers create by themselves for different reasons along with the formal communication. (Larsson, 2001) 4.2.2 COMMUNICATION PLANNING Effective planning is a vital effort for every organization. The planning shall guide and support the realization of the previously set goals. Planning work can be divided into five different planning instruments.
a. Strategic planning: Refers to planning of the comprehensive communication

efforts on the basis of the company’s target and situation. Strategic planning should be integrated into the management work plan.
b. Planning of operations: Refers to coordination and planning of the work

regarding information of a certain period of time, for instance a fiscal year.
Page | 29

c. Project and Campaign planning: Refers to bigger and longer actions and often

contains several measures that will be joined into a tactical entirety.
d. Individual activity planning: Refers to individual activities which could be a part

of a campaign or something produced for a different cause. For instance printed material, a conference, a homepage on the internet and even long-term efforts. e. Operative planning: Refers to the planning of the implementation. The communication plan which is going to be produced in this report has the purpose of increasing the internal customers’ understanding of what and how store department does and is considered an individual activity. Therefore the individual activity planning level is going to be considered. According to Larsson (2001), the work process regarding the individual activity planning can be divided into ten process steps:
I.

Pre-study: Factors related to communication that need to be examined in a prestudy is; the relation between the different groups within an organization, the internal situation, experiences and analysis from similar activities. If the employees are positive and aware of the activity should also be considered in the pre-study.

II.

Goals: In order to implement a communication activity there must be an ambition to achieve something, a goal. Goals can often be formulated as wanted changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior.

III.
IV.

Planning: The purpose of planning is to lead and support the realization of the stated goals. The plan in this case is the individual activity plan. Target groups: The work of selecting target groups is divided into two steps where the first is to choose target groups and the second is to analyze the groups which are suitable to communicate with. When the target group is set it is important to categorize and analyze them. It is also common to try to calculate the size and the geographical location of the target group.

V.

Communication strategy: The communication strategy theory is described in section 4.2.3. Message: It is important to choose the right type of message which is expected to interest and lure the recipients. According to Palm Windahl (1989), one can divide the message into What-information Why- information and Howinformation. The What-information is the knowledge based information. With the
Page | 30

VI.

Why-information one arguments, it is the value related information. The Howinformation is the information related to action. Repetition and comprehensibility are also of importance.
VII.

Selection of communication channel: Regarding the choice of communication channel or channels there are many aspects to consider.

For instance, the character of the message, in what environment will the message be presented and what is the general attitude regarding the chosen communication channel or channels. The different kinds of communication channels are described in section 4.2.4. VIII & IX. Operative planning and implementation: The operative planning involves planning of the practical activities of the near future, for instance meetings and conferences. It also involves manufacturing of the material created regarding layout and distribution of the material. X. Evaluation: The main issue is to consider if the activity and material gave the intended effect. These were the process steps that helped to organize the form of the communication package. 4.2.3 COMMUNICATION STRATEGY If the goals show us where we want to be and what we want to achieve, the strategy points out the road, how to get there in the best way possible and how to avoid obstacles on the way. There are certain aspects of importance when making a communication strategy. One aspect is to investigate if a certain problem really can be solved by using communication, or if it in fact could be an organizational problem or a problem regarding distribution of responsibility. According to Erikson (2005) the following choices are of importance in order to have a clear communication strategy. Choosing a sender – a choice dependent on the message being sent. Selecting contents – regarding the situation, choose the most relevant messages. This is highly connected with the target groups. Communication channels – which single channel or combination of channels, will give the most successful result? Choosing target groups – who is relevant? Principally one can divide strategy into distribution strategy and supply strategy. Distribution strategy is when the organization spreads the information to its target groups
Page | 31

while supply strategy is basically when service and support is given to those groups that want information from the organization. 4.2.4 COMMUNICATION CHANNELS According to Smith (2005), the selection of media should not be of highest ranked priority when planning a strategy for internal communication. The main focus should be on what needs to be communicated. Keeping the messages as simple as possible and presented in language which the selected recipients is comfortable with. When choosing media one should consider if it is appropriate to the message, the timing, and also to the needs and preferences of the recipient. A good communication strategy recognizes both weaknesses and strengths of each medium. There are principally three different channels of communication: verbal channels, printed media channels and interactive/electronic channels and they all have their advantages and disadvantages. Verbal channels: Meetings and other forms of verbal contacts is the foundation for any development in a workplace. A verbal dialog has obvious advantages regarding the possibility to ask questions, get clarifications, present opinions and mutual exchange of thoughts. According to Smith, the most valued form of communication is face-to- face, one-to-one communication, which is highly dependent on mutual understanding especially regarding critical issues. This form is preferable when messages are relatively simple and it gives the recipient a chance to directly give feedback which is of importance regarding understanding and absorption. By not using face-to-face communication there is a risk that the recipients concerned find their own channels for plugging the gaps in their knowledge. Obviously there are occasions when face-to-face communication involves more than just one recipient. A group of recipients increases the need of more supporting material such as audio-visual tools and information packs. Different kinds of recipients require different kinds of material. Mass face-to-face meetings are preferable when delivering crucial messages, leading to the benefit that a large group gets the messages in the same way at the same time. The main disadvantage of face-to-face communication is that it is limited to small groups in order to be effective, with the exception of if it is a critical issue. Examples of verbal
Page | 32

channels are planned or informal meetings, conferences, educations and seminars. Printed media channels: The main advantage with printed media is the possibility to go back and read the content once again. By using graphics complex questions can easily be explained, and assuming that the content is correct the risk of misunderstanding is very small. The greatest disadvantage of printed media channels is the lack of dialog possibility. Printed media channels are therefore better suited when it comes to documenting and arranging facts. According to Smith many companies that once abandoned print in favor of e-mail and intranet have added it back. Publications do not only give time for reflection and feedback, they are also a good way of ensuring that important messages are elaborated. Printed matters can also serve as support for face-to- face activities and reach recipients that normally cannot be reached by face-to- face communication. Some examples of printed media channels are company publications, printed material, OH-material, notice board, protocols and reports. Interactive/electronic channels: The development in the past couple of years has lead to an explosive increase in the usage of intranet and e-mail. The electronic channels that enable a direct dialog are referred to as interactive channels. According to Smith one of the main advantages of for instance e-mail and intranet is that they are unsurpassed when it comes to speed. Information can be delivered immediately to a specific person or group. The disadvantages are that electronic channels sometimes demand a certain kind of equipment in order to work, for instance some co-workers might not always have access to a computer. A Computer is often not suitable when it comes to giving extensive information because it will probably lead to the co-workers printing it. It would be better to directly hand out a printed copy along with the electronic version of the material. Examples of interactive/electronic channels are phone and video conferences, e-mail, intranet, cd-rom, dvd, video, internal television, radio and telefax.

Page | 33

5

PRESENT SITUATIONS

The store department of Gammon India Ltd DMRC Project, Delhi is described in this chapter. The task of store department and internal customers are presented. The present situation was mapped with information gathered from the interviews with internal customers and store staffs and store in-charge of Kalkaji and Sarita Vihar. The purpose of describing the present situation was to get an understanding of what store does and who the internal customers of stores are.

Page | 34

5 PRESENT SITUATIONS The store department of Gammon India Ltd DMRC Project, Delhi is described in this chapter. The task of store department and internal customers are presented. The present situation was mapped with information gathered from the interviews with internal customers and store staffs and store in-charge of Kalkaji and Sarita Vihar. The purpose of describing the present situation was to get an understanding of what store does and who the internal customers of stores are. 5.1 STORE DEPARTMENT OF GIL DMRC PROJECT, DELHI The mission of Gammon India Ltd is; “To Develop, Build & Service Physical Infrastructure for better Living, Work Environment and Transportation.” Store does following functions; Shown in figure 5.1

Page | 35

5.1.2 CURRENT SITUATION Currently Gammon India Ltd is constructing DMRC project phase II. GIL is having three sub-stores and one main store. The three sub stores are located in Noida sector-94, Sarita Vihar and Kalkaji New Delhi. I have visited two sub-stores i.e. Sarita Vihar store and Kalkaji Store. Both places I have expanded my 30-30 days and I have seen the process of issuing the materials and how store people are maintaining their store’s accounts. 5.1.3 SARITA VIHAR This store is located in Sarita Vihar opposite DDA Market Sarita Vihar, New Delhi. This is a pre-casting yard and here we are constructing segments which are going to use to construct duct for Delhi Metro. Here we are issuing mostly consumable items which are directly going to use. From here we are also issuing materials to the metro stations which are going to construct. Mr. B.C. Sharma is store in-charge of this store, and he is maintaining a higher degree of discipline so that store must be run efficiently. Here we have also a diesel tank capacity of 20,000 liters and from here we are distributing diesel to Kalkaji store and Sarai Kale Khan Office. Approximately every day we are receiving 220-250 issue slips in which we are issuing more that 100 different kind of materials. Maintaining store ledger, DMR, Summery Statement, Diesel Statement and Diesel Abstract are another function for store people. 5.1.4 KALKAJI This store is made to supply materials to the Nehru Place area. Here Gammon is constructing seven stations and duct which is connecting these seven stations. Mr. Azad Khan is store –in-charge here and he is maintaining his responsibilities very carefully and performing his duty very politely. Here we are also working in 24*7 bases so that work of Metro will be finished at the given time. Here we are receiving approximately 220-250 issue slips in a day in which we are issuing more that 85-90 different kinds of materials. Maintaining store ledger, DMR,

Page | 36

Summery Statement, Diesel Statement and Diesel Abstract are another function for store people. 5.2 INTERNAL CUSTOMERS All people who are working in GIL and coming to us for issuing the materials are our internal customers. Basically all engineers and contractor of GIL are the internal customers. Following is the category of GIL’s internal customers; 5.2.1 CIVIL ENGINEERS All civil engineers are our big customers at least 40 % of the materials are issued to the civil works. Basically all civil materials are issued through the contractors. We issued these materials against the name of respective contractor (here we call them PRW). 5.2.3 MECHANICAL ENGINEERS Mechanical engineers are the second big customers of stores. And we issue them all kind of the spare parts, hand tools, diesel, lubricants and other materials. The materials are issued against of name of respective vehicle driver or respective machine operator. 5.2.4 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS Electrical engineers are people who are maintaining the in-house supply of electricity and other component. And we issue them all kind of electrical materials. 5.2.5 SAFETY ENGINEERS Safety engineers are again our internal customers and we issue them all kind of the safety materials. Actually we are not issuing materials to the individual engineer but we are issuing materials against the PRW’s who are working for Gammon India Ltd as a sub-contactor or petty contractors.
Page | 37

6

EMPERICAL DATA

The empirical data collected from the 100 issue slips which are collected from the store. 6.1 presents all collected issue slips descriptions. 6.2 present problems of stores.

Page | 38

6 EMPIRICAL DATA The empirical data collected from the 100 issue slips which are collected from the store. 6.1 presents all collected issue slips descriptions. 6.2 present problems of stores. 6.1 THE ISSUE SLIPS During my report study I have collected 100 issue slips and more that 2000 issue slips I have analyzed in which I tried to include all type of issue slips. Actually GIL is having two types of issue slips one is white and one is pink. Both type of issue slips are used for different kind of purpose. White issue slips are normal issue slips and this is used normally for issuing any material. Pink issue slips are known as recovery issue slips which are used if we are going to recover amount of issued materials from the contractor or petty contractor. 6.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF ISSUE SLIPS Following are the description of issue slips which is used in this project report; a. All issue slips are collected from Kalkaji Store, New Delhi. b. All HSD i.e. diesel, Steel i.e. TMT Bars, Sand and aggregate issue slips are excluded. c. Issue slips are selected randomly. d. All issue slips are issued as on 26-06-09. e. All the analysis is based upon my personal knowledge and discussion with experienced people of GIL. f. All issue slips are analyzed as per the GIL column number. Table 6.1 Details of all 100 Issue Slips
SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 Issue Slip date 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 No of Materials 3 3 3 4 2 1 Issue Slip No
3851 3852 3853 3854 3855 3856

Whether issue slip are as per the column no or Not Yes/No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Page | 39

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 4 3 7 1 1 2 2 4 1 6 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 9 3 1 3 1 1

3857 3858 3859 3860 3861 3862 3863 3864 3865 3866 3867 3868 3869 3870 3871 3872 3873 3874 3875 3876 3877 3878 3879 3880 3881 3882 3883 3884 3885 3886 3887 3888 3889 3890 3891 3892 3893 3894 3895 3896 3897 3898 3899 3900 3901 3902 3903 3904 3905 3906 3907

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes NO Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Page | 40

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009 26-06-2009

1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 7 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 9 2 1 4 1 1 2 4 1 1 2

3908 3909 3910 3911 3912 3913 3914 3915 3916 3917 3918 3919 3920 3921 3922 3923 3924 3925 3926 3927 3928 3929 3930 3931 3932 3933 3934 3935 3936 3937 3938 3939 3940 3941 3942 3943 3944 3945 3946 3947 3948 3949 3950

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NO Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Page | 41

7

ANALYSES

The empirical data which was presented in the previous chapter is analyzed in this chapter. The analysis is divided in to three different sections. How much average materials are issued in one issue slip is presented in first section? Upper and lower limit of issue of materials in one issue slip is presented in section second. And third section presents that how much internal customers are deviation to write issue slips as per column wise instruction.

Page | 42

7 ANALYSES The empirical data which was presented in the previous chapter is analyzed in this chapter. The analysis is divided in to three different sections. How much average materials are issued in one issue slip is presented in first section? Upper and lower limit of issue of materials in one issue slip is presented in section second. And third section presents that how much internal customers are deviation to write issue slips as per column wise instruction. 7.1 AVERAGE ISSUE OF MATERIALS IN ONE ISSUE SLIP. The purpose of analyzing this section is to know how much materials are going to issue in a single issue slips. To finding the average materials in single issue slip I added all materials issue in 100 issue slips and after adding them I divide the sum total with 100. The number of materials in each issue slip is shown in following graph; Figure 7.1 (Data for this graph is taken from Table 6.1)

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

M A T E R I A L Q U A N T I T Y

Is u s N - - s e lip o - - >

1 to 100

Page | 43

This result is shown with the help of following table; No of Materials in One Issue Slip 1 2 3 4 6 7 9 Total No of Issue Slips 60 20 10 5 1 2 2 100 Table 7.1 Total Materials 60 40 30 20 6 14 18 188

7.1.1 DESCRIPTION Table 7.1 shows all data related to collected from 100 issue slips. First column of table 7.1 shows the number of materials in a single issue slip. Second column shows the number of issue slips which have respective no of materials and last column shows the total no of materials issued in respective issue slips. For calculating average number of materials issued in one issue slip. We simply use following formula; Average materials = total materials issued / total issue slips. Average materials = 188/ 100 = 1.88 issued in one issue slip 7.2 UPPER AND LOWER LIMIT OF ISSUING MATERIALS IN ONE SLIP The purpose of analyzing this section is to know that how much deviation the internal customer follows while issuing the materials. In this section we see the upper limit and lower limit of issuing the materials in one issue slip. i.e. means minimum materials issued in one slip and maximum materials issued in one issue slip. Following diagram shows the limit of materials in one slip.

Page | 44

1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

D v t ninQ a t yo M t r lsa p rIs u S e ia io u n it f a e ia s e s e lip
9 7 6 4 3 2 N of Ma ria o te ls

A Is u S s ll s e lip

-------- >

Above diagram shows the limit of materials. The data for this diagram is collected from table 7.1 column no.1 7.3 INTERNAL CUSTOMER DEVIATION FROM COLUMN WISE

Page | 45

The analysis of this section tells us that how much our internal customers are deviating in writing issue slip. This section also tell us that how much our internal customers are following our column wise system which is adopted by GIL to improve the store accounting and simplicity of store accounting. Figure 7.3 shows a pictorial figure of this analysis and data for this analysis is collected from table 6.1 (from previous chapter -6). The figure shows that 13% of issue slips are not going to write in right manner. i.e. our internal customers are not following the column wise system properly which is a big cause of mistake in store accounting as well as delay in store accounting. Figure 7.3.

Issue Slips are as per the Colum wise or not? n Yes / N0

1% 3

Ys e N o

8% 7

Figure 7.3

Page | 46

8
this Ltd.

FINDINGS

This chapter describes the finding of report which I got after analyzing whole situation of stores and issue slips of Gammon India

Page | 47

8 FINDINGS This chapter describes the finding of this report which I got after analyzing whole situation of stores and issue slips of Gammon India Ltd. 8.1 FINDINGS OF THIS REPORT a. It is found those internal customers are not aware of right way of writing issue slip. b. Internal customers are not aware of column wise system which is used by GIL. c. It is found that there are 13% mistakes in issue slip out of 100 issue slips writing. d. It is found that there are 2% issue slips out of 100 in which 9 materials are issued. e. It is found that there are 60% issue slips out of 100 in which 1 material is issued. f. It is found that there are average 1.88 materials are going to be issued in one slip. g. It is found that due to these mistakes in issue slip work load of a store accountant has been increased up to 50%.
Page | 48

9
This created

RESULTS

&

SUGGESTION chapter describe the communication package which is created to fill the gap after the Analysis and Findings i.e. chapter 7 & 8. This communication package is because all internal customers can remind the column wise system and follow the system.
Page | 49

9 RESULTS & SUGGESTION This chapter describe the communication package which is created to fill the gap after the Analysis and Findings i.e. chapter 7 & 8. This communication package is created because all internal customers can remind the column wise system and follow the system. 9.1 COMMUNICATION CHART To fill the gap of information regarding the column wise system which has adopted by Gammon India Ltd.? I created a table of materials which describe that which material related to which column. This is created because the internal customer can read this and make issue slips as per this system so that store people maintain their accounts in easy way. Summery of communication chart is given below in Table-8.1 and detailed communication package is given at the last of this report in Appendix-3 SN 1 Material Category Cement (Purchase) Unit MT Column No 4-0
Page | 50

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Cement (Client) Tor. Steel (Purchase) Tor. Steel (Client) Structural Steel (Purchase) Structural Steel (Client) Binding Wire Sand Boulder Boulder for crushing Aggregate Gravel Direct Materials Consumable Materials Electricals Water Connection Shuttering Materials with scaffolding Materials Centering Materials Tyre Heavy Tools Hand Tools Office Equipment/ Furniture Plant Spare Wire Rope HSD Diesel Petrol Oil & Lubricant Hutting & Shading Transportation

MT MT MT MT MT Kg M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Lot Ltr Ltr Lot Lot Lot

4-0 5-0 5-0 5-1 5-1 5-0 6-0 6-0 6-0 6-0 6-0 8-0 9-0 9-0 9-0 9-2 9-1 10-1 10-4 10-5 10-4 10-6 10-6 16-0 16-0 16-1 18-0 10-3

Figure 8.1
9.2 SUGGESTIONS 9.2.1 SELECTING COMMUNICATION CHANNELS According to chapter 5, face-to-face is the most valued form of communication between co-workers. Not only does it enable direct feedback but it also increases the probability that the sender and the receiver are connecting appropriately. Theories also show that choosing only one channel is very risky and the aim should be to at least combine two or more channels. The channels chosen were face-to-face presentations in smaller groups and a presentation stored on the intranet. Due to the fact that the communication package should work as presentation material as well as
Page | 51

something for the internal customers to review by themselves on their computers, two of the channels mentioned in chapter 5 are taken into consideration. The most suiting sender of the presentation should preferably be someone with a managerial position within the store department. The reason is because the sender should have a broad understanding and knowledge about the store organization as a whole. The presentation should be stored online on the store department’s homepage on the intranet in order to make it accessible to the internal customers. 9.2.2 PRESENTATION MATERIAL The presentation material was created in Microsoft Excel because MS-Excel is a recognized application at Gammon India Ltd. By using MS-Excel the presentation can be used in two different ways: a. As support when someone from Gammon India Ltd wants to give a presentation to internal customers. b. Reviewed by the internal customers on Gammon’s intranet. c. GIL can make a PPT presentation on the basis of this communication chart to show it new employee.

Page | 52

10
Limitation

Conclusion

&

This chapter includes the conclusion part of this report and the limitation which are faced by me during the making this report.

Page | 53

10 CONCLUSIONS & LIMITATION This chapter describes the conclusion of this report along with all limitations which I faced while making this report. Suggestions of future research are also presented in this chapter. 10.1 CONCLUSIONS & LIMITATION Many problems and thoughts have arisen during this study and the most important ones will be explained here. The selection of internal customers in the survey was a problem. Because no available information covering the whole population of internal customers was available, and the time frame did not allow me to investigate the matter more, a representative selection of the whole population of internal customers was not possible to make. Considering the question about what store department does, I have to ask myself if the same result would appear if the selection of respondents would have been chosen differently. The method of selecting issue slips was kept mind when analyzing the empirical data. The amount of respondents mentioning a certain statement was not the most important fact, instead all statements considered together. I believe that all statements considered together would have been mostly the same but the amount of respondents mentioning each statement would probably be a little different. Regarding the analysis of empirical data I had to create my own analysis model with the help of internet and my friends who are already working with Gammon India Ltd. The analysis could probably have been done in several different ways. I also tried other methods of conducting the analysis but the one presented in this report was the preferred one and provided the clearest result.

Page | 54

The creation of content in the communication package was also a problem. The work of the store was not mapped in a scientific way. Information available and information gathered from interviews with employees at the store department was used to get an understanding of the activities which store performs. The target group of the communication package is the internal customers. Another target group which was not considered when producing the presentation but which the presentation could be applied on are new employees at Gammon. The presentation would provide a new employee with general information about Gammon. The tool provided in this thesis for increasing the use of services and contracts which the purchasing department provides is communication. Communication is probably not the whole solution to the problem and other measures are most likely needed. Regarding future research it would be interesting to study where the potential improvements from better communication are the greatest and also where the potential benefits are the greatest. Research regarding why the internal customers do not use the Gammon’s actual system would also be interesting in order to get a better understanding of which measurements that are needed.

Page | 55

Bibliography

 Books
 C.S Rayudu, Communication, Himalaya Publishing House, 1st edition, 2007  Pal Rajendra & Korlanalli, Sultan Chand & Sons, 10th edition, 2007  Chhabra T.N. , Business Communication concepts & skills, Sun India

Publication, 3rd edition, 2006-07
 Donald Waters, Inventory Control & Management, Wiley Publications, 2nd

edition.
 Chary S.N. , Production & Operation Management, Tata Mcgraw Hill, 3rd edition,

2006
 Kothari C.R. , Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, New age

International Publisher, 2nd edition, 2008

 Magazines/ Newspapers
 The Economics Times  The Times of India  Gammon’s internal circular store book.

 Websites

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication (web)

 http://www.gammonindia.com/about.html (web)  http://performance-appraisals.org/Bacalsappraisalarticles/articles/comstrat.htm

(web)

Page | 56

Appendix: 1 Questionnaire sent to the Store Department and Internal Customers of GIL.
Hello As a part of my Master’s degree project report I am going to examine how internal customers and store people are deviating on different-2 parameters. Below is questionnaire which I would like you to complete. The questionnaire consists of 08 questions which take about 5 minute to answer. I would appreciate if you send your answer the 10th of July the latest. Instructions To answer the questionnaire mark Yes/ No. according to the example below. Example How to answer a question Are you a Gammon Employee? Yes

No

1. Which department do you work at Gammon India Ltd? Answer…………………………………………………………………. 2. What is your working title? Answer: …………………………………………………………………. 3. How long have you been on your current position? Answer……………………………………………………………………. 4. Describe what you consider that the task of the store department is (open answer) Answer: ……………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………...
Page | 57

5. Do you know how store people classified materials? Answer: By Category By Material Code Classification is not required By Column

6. What is column? Answer:…………………………………………………………………… 7. Which material does not belong to similar column? Answer: Transmission Oil Thinner Battery Water Coolant

8. Can you write down the column numbers of following materials? Answer: a. Oxygen Cylinder b. LPG Regulator c. Cutting wheel 180mm d. Cement Grade 43 e. White cement f. Survey nails 3” g. Mono block 1 HP h. H.S.D. oil i. Binding wire j. Ply 10mm

Thank you for your participation!
Page | 58

Regards Ashwani Kumar

Appendix- 2 Format Issue Slip

Page | 59

Appendix- 3 Detailed Communication Package
SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Materials Name 53 Grade Cement 43 Grade Cement HSD Oil Starter Field Coil CC 148F U Clamp 12 mm U Clamp 10vmm U Clamp 16 mm Hole Punch Mono Block 1 HP Table Chair Chain Pully Block 2 ton Tiffin Box Wire Rope 24mm Petrol Vibrator Water Pump 5HP Oxygen Regulator LPG Regulator Cutting Torch Oxygen Key Fire Cylinder Safety Torch Garden Net Safety Net 3/8 Safety Belt Road Barrier W200 H50 Fire Bucket Combination Pillar Ceiling Fan 48" Wall Fan Armature C.C. 148F Line Tester Column No 4--0 4--0 16--0 ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ 10--4 10--4 10--4 10--4 10--4 10--4 10--4 10--4 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 SN 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 Materials Name "D" shackle 02 ton "D" shackle 03 ton "D" shackle 05 ton "D" shackle 10 ton "D" shackle 20 ton Measuring tape 03 mtr Measuring tape 05 mtr Measuring Tape 15 mtr Measuring tape 30 mtr L N Key set Hammer 01 kg Hammer 02 kg Hammer 03 kg Hammer 05 kg Chisel Spade Pickaxe Iron Pan Belcha Ceiling 16mm * 6 mtr Ceiling 16mm * 3 mtr Ceiling 12mm * 3 mtr Ceiling 20 mm * 3 mtr Ceiling 25mm * 1.5 mtr Aluminum Fanty Ceiling 20mm * 1mtr Ceiling 16mm * 2 mtr Ceiling mtr Ceiling mtr Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling 16mm * 1.5 32mm * 4.5 20mm 20mm 25mm 25mm * * * * 6 4 7 2 mtr mtr mtr mtr Column No 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5

Page | 60

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 SN 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10

Screw Driver 905 Combination Pillar 3" Rotary Switch 415V68Amp Cooler 18" Drill Bit 20mm Drill Bit 12mm "D" shackle 01 ton Materials Name Ring Spanner 21/23 Ring Spanner 24/26 Drill Bit 16 mm Pipe Rinch "D" Spanner 10/11 Ring Spanner 10/11 Hacksaw G I Bucket Goti Socket 36mm Goti Socket 41mm Spade with handle Thermometer Water Tank 500 ltr Volt Meter 0.500 Amp Meter 0.30 Wire rope 10mm Wire rope 12mm Break Oil Coolant Bearing Grease T. Q. Oil Transmission Grease Wheel Bearing M.P. Grease Mobil Oil 15W40 Mobil Oil 20W40 Hydraulic Oil 46 Hydraulic Oil 68 Gear Oil 90

10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 Column No 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--6 10--6 10--6 10--6 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 SN 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148

Drill Bit 22mm Drill Bit 26mm Drill Bit 18mm Drill Bit 25 mm Screw Driver 905 "D" Spanner 21/23 "D" Spanner 24/26 Materials Name Yellow Paint Ply 3mm Ply 10mm Binding Wire Hacksaw Blade Steel 8mm Steel 10mm Steel 12mm Steel 16mm Steel 20mm Steel 24mm Steel 32mm Steel 36mm Admixture SP-430 Rendroc Plug 5 kg Sika grout GP2 Steel Putty Drainage Pipe 200mm Drainage Tea 200mm Drainage Sport Tea MS pipe 800 Bearing 530 * 530 96 Bearing 460 * 460 96 Bearing 620 * 620 96 Bearing 560 * 560 96 Bearing 620 * 620 106 PVC Pipe 110mm PVC Pipe 90mm
Page | 61

10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 10--5 Column No 16--1 18--0 18--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 5--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 * * * * * 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0 8--0

8 10 9 11 0 11 1 11 2 11 3 11 4 11 5 11 6 11 7 11 8 11 9 12 0 SN 16 1 16 2 16 3 16 4 16 5 16 6 16 7 16 8 16 9 17 0 17

Transmission Oil Kobelco Curing Compound Yellow Paint 100 Ml Red Paint 100 ml Florcent Paint Red Florcent Paint White Thinner Blue Paint Deep Orange Paint White Paint Red Paint Red ox side Materials Name Hose Pipe Red & Blue Aluminum Lugs Welding lead Earthing Lead Welding Helmet Nozzle 1/16 Nozzle 3/64 Hose Clamp Hose Joint Nipple Grinding Wheel 180mm Cutting Wheel 180mm

16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 16--1 Column No 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 SN 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211

PVC Pipe 70mm LPG 19 Kg Cylinder Welding Rod 3.15*350 6013 Welding Rod 4.00*350 6013 Steel cutting wheel 14" Leather Hand gloves Black Glass White Glass Black Goggle White Goggle Welding Holder Earthing Holder Materials Name 1/2" * 3" Bolt 1/2 * 4" Bolt 1/2" Washer 1/2" Nut 5/8" * 1 1/2" Bolt 5/8" * 2" Bolt 5/8" * 3" Bolt 5/8" * 4" Bolt 5/8" Nut 5/8" Washer 20 mm Washer
Page | 62

8--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 Column No 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

1 17 2 17 3 17 4 17 5 17 6 17 7 17 8 17 9 18 0 18 1 18 2 18 3 18 4 18 5 18 6 18 7 18 8 18 9 19 0 19 1 19 2 19 3 19 4 19

Grinding Wheel 100mm Cutting Wheel 100mm Multi Core Cable 19 Core Welding Rod 2.5mm Well Barrow Safety Helmet B type Safety Shoes A Type Safety Shoes B Type Gum Boot Reflective Jacket Caution Tape N.R.V. Flash Back Arrestor Battery Cell Safety Cone Safety Helmet A type Spring Post Road Divider Road Breaker 500*450 Nose Mask Radium Tape " Battery Water Shuttering Oil Acid

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235

20 mm Nut 20mm * 150mm Bolt 16mm * 150mm Bolt 10mm * 3" Bolt 10 mm Nut 10mm Washer 6mm * 32mm Bolt Anchor Bolt 24*1350 Unbreko Bolt 20mm*100mm Unbreko Bolt 24*50mm Unbreko Bolt 16*100mm 3/8 * 3 MS Bolt 3/8 Nut 25mm Bolt 1 * 4" MS Nut 1" MS Bolt 1" * 6" Quarter Pin MS Hex Bolt 3/4 * 12 3/8 Washer 25 mm Washer 26mm Nut macallow Bar 32mm Nut 1 1/4 Washer Nut 36mm
Page | 63

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

5 19 6 19 7 19 8 19 9 20 0 SN 24 1 24 2 24 3 24 4 24 5 24 6 24 7 24 8 24 9 25 0 25 1 25 2 25 3 25 4 25 5 25 6 25 7 25

Painting Brush 2" 3" 4" Writing Brush 1/2" * 1 1/2" Bolt 1/2" * 2 1/2 " Bolt 1/2" * 2" Bolt Materials Name Bolt 24 * 150 H8Ag 3/4 Nut Bolt 7/8 * 3" 7/8 Nut 7/8 Washer 3/4 Washer HT Bolt 20 * 125 HT Bolt 24 * 110 HT Bolt 24 * 90 HT Nut 24 PVC Tape Hallogen Tube 1000 W Hallogen Tube 500 W Hallogen Set 500 W Hallogen Set 1000 W Hallogen Holder 500 W Hallogen Holder 1000 W 10mm * 4 Core Cable

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 Column No 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

236 237 238 239 240 SN 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298

Nut 32 mm 20mm * 75mm Bolt Survey Nails 3" 3/4" * 14 MS Hex Bolt 32mm * 600, 500mm Materials Name Sheet with wooden Box Cable Tie 100mm Cable Tie 200mm Tube Light 40 W Fan Regulator Rope Light 3/20 PVC Wire * 4 core Carbon Brush 35mm Single core wire 2.589mm * 4 core Cable RCCB 100 Amp 4 Pole MCB 32 Amp single pole 4.89mm * 4core Alu Cable 2.589mm * 2core Cable 16 Amp Switch 16 Amp Socket CFL 15 W Bulb RCCB 80 Amp 4pole
Page | 64

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 Column No 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

8 25 9 26 0 26 1 26 2 26 3 26 4 26 5 26 6 26 7 26 8 26 9 27 0 27 1 27 2 27 3 27 4 27 5 27 6 27 7 27 8 27 9 28 0 SN 321

6mm * 4core Cable 2.5mm * 3core Cable 1.5mm * 3core Cable 1.5mm * 2core Cable 1.5mm * 4core Cable Condenser 32 Amp Top 5 Pin 32 Amp Female 16 Amp Top 3 pin 16 Amp Female 32 Amp Socket 16 Amp MCB 40 Amp MCB Sodium Tube 400 W Combined Switch 16 Amp 15 W Bulb Sodium Fitting PT Holder 100 W Bulb 6 Amp Switch 6 Amp Switch Socket Tube Light Set 40 W Materials Name Thermocol 25mm

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 Column No 9--0

299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 SN

Relay 2.5 MCB 20 Amp 1 Pole MCB 10 Amp 1 Pole MCB 63 Amp 3 pole Capacitor 2.5 7/20 PVC copper wire 6 Amp 3 pin Plug Top 100 Amp Distribution Panel Limit Switch P-67 Cotton Waste Cotton Hand Gloves Earthing Plate Hassion Cloth Wire Brush Brown Tape Foam Tape Glass Putty Chalk Foam 6 mm Line Dori White Cement M-Seal Materials Name

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 Column No 9--0

361 U type Hook Bolt

Page | 65

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360

Adhesive 16 mm Nylon rope 05 mm Nylon rope 08 mm Nylon rope 25 mm Nylon rope 20 mm Nylon rope 12 mm Nylon rope Marble Powder Lime Powder Emery Paper Carbondan Stone Rubber Hand Gloves PVC Hand Gloves Broom with handle Buffing Wheel Teflon tape Curing Pipe Shuttering Oil G I tea G I Union Reducer G I pipe 1" G I pipe 20mm Water level Pipe L Bend G I Pipe 12mm PVC Pipe 25mm Plug 1/2" G I Bend 2" * 13" G I Bend 3" * 21" MS Bend 4" * 12" G I Union 3" Gate Valve Nipple 3" Reducer 3" Socket 3" Tea 3" G I pipe J Bolt

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

362 Hook washer Aluminum Hook 363 Washer 364 Hook Nut 365 Black Sheet 366 Cover Block 367 G I Elbow 368 Tank Nipple 369 Ball Valve 1" 370 C P long body 371 Oxygen Cylinder

9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0 9--0

Page | 66

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.