Mechanics of Unsaturated Soils for the Design of Foundation Structures

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Mechanics of Unsaturated Soils for the Design of Foundation Structures

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by a response surface method

N. Impollonia & G. Ricciardi

Dipartimento di Costruzioni e Tecnologie Avanzate, University of Messina, Italy

Keywords: Stochastic dynamics, uncertain structures, white noise excitation, response surface method

ABSTRACT: A method for the analysis of linear structural systems with uncertain parameters subjected to

stochastic excitation is presented. The excitation is modeled as a Gaussian white noise process and the stationary stochastic response is characterized in terms of its second order moments. The variability of the response due to the uncertainty in the dynamic properties of the structure is investigated. A novel response surface method is developed, expressing an accurate explicit relationship between the derived and basic random

variables. The method is based on the solution of complex eigenvalue problems, one for each basic random

variable, with few eigenvalues different from zero. A complete probabilistic characterization of the response

process can be made. The efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed procedure are evidenced by a numerical application.

1 INTRODUCTION

The inclusion of the parameter uncertainty in the

analysis of structures is essential for a more complete

understanding of the structural behavior. Such uncertainty can arise because of the numerous assumptions

made when modeling the geometry, material, properties, constitutive laws, and boundary conditions of the

structural members. Although many non-statistical

methods have been proposed to evaluate the response

of structures with uncertain parameters (or stochastic

structures) to deterministic excitation, the case of stochastic excitation has not been extensively investigated. An efficient method to evaluate the response of

stochastic structure to stochastic excitation is of particular interest as in this setting the statistical techniques based on Monte Carlo simulation are very

time consuming due to the large number of samples

needed to get satisfactory results.

The orthogonal polynomial expansion proposed

by Ghanem & Spanos (1991) has been successfully

extended to the case of stochastic excitation by Jensen & Iwan (1992). Such method produces accurate

solutions for a second order analysis although it may

become prohibitive for large systems. Furthermore,

the probability density function of uncertain parameters can not be arbitrarily chosen, as only for few of

them suitable polynomials have been presented.

solve the problem (Khuri & Cornell 1987). This is a

very general and conceptually simple technique,

broadly used in several scientific areas for a long

time. For our purpose a response surface is an explicit function approximating the implicit unknown

limit surface, i.e. the function expressing the dependence of a response quantity on the uncertain parameters.

The form of the response surface is usually arbitrarily chosen to be of polynomial type (linear or

quadratic) and its coefficients are obtained by fitting

the limit surface at a number of points, named sampling points, which constitute realizations of the uncertain structural parameters (Wong 1985, Bucher &

Bourgund 1990). Then, a deterministic analysis is

required for each sampling point, in order to get the

corresponding value of the limit surface.

The key step of the response surface method is

the choice of the response surface form. Nevertheless, no much attention has been devoted in the literature to this issue, as the use of linear or quadratic

(with or without cross terms) polynomials seems unquestionable. However, such choice may be inappropriate as the limit surface shape is usually far

away from a hyperplane or a quadratic surface,

which consequently furnish only a poor fit of the actual surface.

69

response surfaces have been already evidenced

(Nelder 1966, Guan & Melchers 2001). The main

trouble is the high sensitivity of response surface to

the sampling point positions so that, remarkably different approximations are created varying a little the

sampling points. Which is the correct choice of the

sampling points to obtain a better fit is still an open

question. Moreover, the use of low order polynomials as response surface is accompanied by some

other disadvantages and neither it is convenient

from a computational point of view. For example, in

some cases, the fitting with inverse polynomials has

been shown to involve no more labor than ordinary

polynomials and to be preferable for several reasons

(Nelder 1966).

A novel response surface technique was recently

presented for the static analysis of stochastic structures (Falsone & Impollonia 2002). The performance

function adopted is built up by a sum of ratio of

polynomials and turns out to be very effective to fit,

in the spirit of response surface methods, the implicit

response surface. Differently from the classical response surface method neither sampling points nor

deterministic analyses are needed. In fact, the coefficients of the response surface can be retrieved by

solving low dimension real eigenvalue problems.

In the present paper a response surface method

based on rational polynomials is developed to get

the stationary response of stochastic structures under

white noise processes. For the present case, the eigen-problems to be solved, one for each basic random variable (i.e. each parameter assumed uncertain

with a given probabilistic description), are complex.

Moreover, the eigen-problems possess only few eigenvalues different from zero, so that a very simple

explicit relationship between the basic random variables and the response is derived, regardless of the

number of degree of freedoms. Such a relationship is

the exact one if a single uncertain parameter is present; it is very accurate if several uncertain parameters are present. In this case, however, in order to get

a better approximation, the inclusion of cross terms

is also considered.

The results are given in terms of the second order

statistical moments of the response, although higher

order moments can be straightforwardly derived.

In the applications, the results obtained by the

proposed method are compared with those deriving

from Monte Carlo simulations.

2 FORMULATION

Consider an n-DOF structural system whose dynamic properties are predicted by an analytic model

70

damping and stiffness (n n) matrices M , C and

K , respectively. Moreover, let us assume that the

structure is subjected to a stationary Gaussian white

noise excitation W (t ) with zero mean and intensity

q = 2S0, S0 being the constant power spectral density.

The motion differential equations of the system

can be written as follows

(t ) + Cu (t ) + Ku(t ) = pW (t )

Mu

(1)

where u(t ) , u (t ) and u

displacements, velocities and accelerations, respectively, and p is the influence forcing n-vector.

By using the 2n-dimensional vector state approach, Eq.(1) can be written in the following matrix

form:

(t ) + B Z(t ) = gW (t )

AZ

(2)

where

u(t )

Z(t ) =

,

u (t )

p

g=

0

(3)

and

C M

A=

,

M 0

K

B=

0

0

M

(4)

Z (t ) + D Z(t ) = vW (t )

(5)

where

D = A1 B

In

0

M1 K 0 0

= 1

= 1

,

1

1

1

M M CM 0 M M K M C

v = A1g

0

M1 p 0

= 1

= 1

1

1

M M CM 0 M p

(6)

being I n the identity matrix of order n .

If the physical properties of the system, such as

mass, damping and stiffness, are known deterministically, the response process is Gaussian and its

probabilistic characterization is known if the stationary second order moments are evaluated. The differential equations describing the time evolution of

these quantities can be written as follows (Falsone et

al. 1991)

2 (t ) + D2m 2 (t ) = v 2 q

m

(7)

the expected values of the stiffness and damping matrices, respectively, and the summations represent

their fluctuating components. It follows that

where

D2 = D I 2 n + I 2 n D

= ( A 1B) I 2 n + I 2 n ( A 1B)

(8)

v2 = v v

i =1

= ( A 1g ) ( A 1g ) = ( A 1 )[2] g[2]

B( ) = B

and the exponent in square brackets means kronecker power (Bellman 1974, Brewer 1978). In

Eq.(7), the 4n2-vector m 2 (t ) , given as

m 2 (t ) = m 2 [Z(t )] = E[ Z[2] (t )]

(9)

displacement and velocities of the nodal coordinates.

Note that all the cross moments appear twice in the

vector m 2 (t ) . Then a condensation can be employed

in order to reduce the size of the problem by clearing

away the repetitions. So operating the problem dimension reduces from 4n 2 to N (2n 2 n) .

The stationary response is solution of the following system of algebraic equations:

D2m 2 = v 2 q

(10)

stationary second order moments of the nodal coordinates requires the inversion of the matrix D2 .

3

A( ) = A (0) + i A (i )

PARAMETER UNCERTAINTY

In agreement with realistic models, the mass parameter fluctuations are negligible, whereas stiffness

and damping parameters commonly suffer from significant uncertainty. Then, let us assume that the matrices K and C can be written in the following

form

K ( ) = K (0) + i K (i )

i =1

(12)

+ i B(i )

i =1

where

C(0) M

A (0) =

,

0

M

K (0)

0

B (0) =

,

0

C( i ) 0

A (i ) =

0 0

K (i ) 0

B(i ) =

0 0

(11)

C( ) = C(0) + i C(i )

i =1

matrices and = [1 2 R]T is the vector collecting the basic random variables. It is worth noting that Eq.(11) does not involve any approximation,

since, whatever the uncertain physical properties are,

the stochastic stiffness matrix can always be expressed as a linear function of appropriate random

variables i (eventually by applying a variable

transformation). The basic random variables represent the fluctuations of the random parameters with

(13)

form

R

D( ) = D(0) + i D( i )

(14)

i=1

where

I n

0

D(0) = 1 (0)

,

M 1C(0)

M K

0

0

D(i ) = 1 (i )

1 ( i )

M C

M K

(15)

The stationary second order moment of the nodal response is solution of the following system of algebraic equations

D2 ( )m 2 () = v 2 q

(16)

where

R

(i )

D2 ( ) = D(0)

2 + i D2

(17)

i=1

being

(0)

D(0)

I 2 n + I 2 n D(0)

2 =D

(0)

(18)

of the nodal response m 2 ( ) depends on the uncertain parameters, then it is a vector of random variables (derived random variables). Solving the system

governed by Eq.(16) from a stochastic point of view

means to find probabilistic information on the derived random variables m 2 ( ) , once that the probabilistic characteristics of the basic random variables

i are given. In the literature many approaches solving this problem in an approximate way have been

proposed. In the next section a novel approach will

be presented.

71

4 PROPOSED METHOD

Let us first consider the case in which only one design variable i is present. In order to operate with

symmetric matrices, by pre-multiplying Eq.(10) by

A[2] = A A and by taking into account Eq.(8), we

obtain

C2m 2 = g 2 q

(19)

where

C2 = A[2]D2 = A B + B A

g2 = g g

(20)

parameter i, the stochastic version of Eq.(19) is

C2 ( )m 2 () = g 2 q

(21)

response can be written as follows

(i )

m 2 ( ) = m (0)

2 + m 2 ( i )

(22)

where m (0)

is the vector of the stationary second or2

der moments of the nominal structure, solution of

the following matrix equation

(0)

C(0)

2 m2 = g2q

(23)

complex eigenvalues different from zero, with

p N , being N (2n 2 n) .

By imposing the following ortonormalization condition

(i )

(i )T C(0)

= Ip

2

(28)

listing the p eigenvectors \ (ji ) (with j = 1, 2, ! , p ),

we have

(i )T C(2i ) (i ) = /(i )

(29)

(i )

(i )

1

(i )

2

(i )

p

eigenvalues

( i ) (0)

m (0)

2 = < n2

and taking

in Eq.(26), by pre-multiplying by

into account of Eqs.(28) and (29), Eq.(26) becomes

(I p + i (i ) ) n (2i ) (i ) = i (i )n (0)

2

n (2i ) (i ) = (i ) (i )n (0)

2

(32)

( i )T (0)

( i )T

n (0)

C2 m (0)

g2q

2 =

2 =

(24)

obtain

C2 ( )m 2 ()

(i )

(0)

(i)

(C(0)

2 + i C 2 )[m 2 + m 2 ( i )] = g 2 q

(25)

Taking into account of Eq.(23), the following equation for the unknown vector m (2i ) (i ) is obtained:

(i )

(i )

(i )

(0)

(C(0)

2 + i C 2 ) m 2 ( i ) = i C 2 m 2

(26)

straightforward at a first glance, as the inverse of the

( i ) 1

parametric matrix (C(0)

is required. How2 + i C2 )

ever, a simple expression of the vector m (2i ) (i ) as a

function of the design parameter i can be obtained,

as shown in the next.

Let us consider the following eigenproblem relative to the ( N N ) symmetric matrices C(0)

and

2

C(2i ) :

(i)

C(2i ) ( i ) = ( i )C(0)

2

72

(27)

(31)

C2 ( ) = C

+ iC

(30a,b)

( i )T

where

(i )

2

(with

simpler form:

(0)

2

(ji )

(33)

and

(i ) (i ) = i (I p + i (i ) ) 1 (i )

(34)

given as

(ji ) (i ) =

i (ji )

1 + i (ji )

j = 1, 2,! , p

(35)

exact relationship between the vector m (2i ) (i ) and

the uncertain parameter i is determined as follows

m (2i ) (i ) = ( i ) ( i ) (i ) ( i )T g 2 q

(36)

a first approximation we assume that the cross effects of the uncertainties are negligible and the superposition principle is applied. Therefore the solution is the sum of the single contributions, that is

R

(i )

m 2 ( ) = m (0)

2 + m 2 ( i )

(37)

i=1

and the generic m (2i ) (i ) is given by Eq.(36). It is

obvious that Eq.(37) is an approximation if R 2 .

However, it is possible to find the expression of the

residue associated with the use of Eq.(37) by replacing this one and Eq.(17) into Eq.(16):

(0)

Residue ( D(0)

2 m 2 g 2q )

R

(i )

(i )

(i )

(0)

+ (D(0)

2 + i D 2 )m 2 ( i ) + i D 2 m 2 (38)

i =1

= i D(2i )m (2 j ) ( j )

i =1 j =1

i j

implies an acceptable error in the stochastic characterization of the structural response, even for high

uncertainty level in the parameters. Eq.(38) leads to

the consideration that it is possible to further improve the explicit response surface given by Eq.(37)

by adding to this expression proper crossing terms

so to read

R

(i )

m 2 ( ) = m (0)

2 + m 2 ( i )

i =1

(0) 1

2

(D ) i D(2i )m 2( j ) ( j )

(39)

i =1 j =1

i j

with respect to parameter fluctuations (assumed

smaller than one), namely

R

component of the vector collecting the moments of

s-th order of the response.

Alternatively, one can apply the Monte Carlo

simulation on Eq.(37) or Eq.(39) to get the statistical

moments and the probability density functions of the

second order moments of the response. Clearly such

a simulation is enormously more efficient than a

simulation applied directly to Eq.(16), being very

small the time required to get a response sample.

Note that Eq.(37) and Eq.(39) have been derived

without any assumptions on the probabilistic structure of the basic random variables.

5 APPLICATION

As an application of the proposed method, the characterization of the second order moment of the response of a shear-type frame structure under white

noise base excitation W (t ) is presented. In particular, a three-degree-of-freedom system ( n 3 ) with

uniform mass distribution along the height of the

structure is considered, with m j = m = 1 ( j = 1, 2,3 );

on the contrary, a nonuniform nominal stiffness distribution is assumed, as shown in fig. 1, with

k1(0) = 2k = 2 and k2(0) = k3(0) = k = 1 (see Fig.1). The

structure is assumed classically damped, with (0)

j

( j = 1, 2,3 ) equals to 5% of nominal critical damping in all the three modes. The intensity of the white

noise is q = 1 .

( j)

1

Residue = i k D(2k ) (D(0)

2 ) m 2 ( j )

(40)

i =1 j =1 k

i j

u3(t)

In the case of significant uncertainties, this correction procedure can be easily extended in order to reduce the residue and, then, to improve the response

surface approximation.

The stochastic characterization of the response

can be made evaluating its statistical moments, easily available starting from Eqs. (36) and (37). For

example, for the first and second order moment of

the r-th component of the second order vector moment of the response we can write:

k3

u2(t)

m

k2

u1(t)

m

k1

i =1

22,r = E[(m2,r ( )) 2 ]

R

W(t)

(41)

i =1

i =1 j =1

(i )

2, r

73

parameters, in conjunction with that inherent to the

applied dynamic load on the response variability, is

investigated. In particular, the nodal displacements

u j (t ) and velocities u j (t ) (for j = 1, 2,3 ) are considered as response quantities and the second order

moment of the nodal response of the type

E[u rj (t ) uks (t )] (with j , k = 1, 2, 3 and r + s = 2 ) are

investigated. Two types of structural uncertainties

are considered: uncertain structural stiffness and uncertain modal damping ratios. The uncertain parameters are modeled as random variables in terms of

their mean value and deviatoric components in the

following form

k j = k (0)

j (1 + j )

(a)

j = 1, 2,3

(42)

j = (1 + j +3 )

(0)

j

random variables.

For the present case, the vector m 2 (D ) , has

4n 2 36 components before the condensation and

(4n 2 n) / 2 21 after the condensation. All the vectors and matrix are condensed so to reduce the dimension of the problem to 21. The eigen-problems

in Eq.(27) have just 5 eigenvalues different from

zero for i 1, 2! , 6 , so that just 5 eigenvelues and

eigenvectors are needed to obtain each of the vectors

m (2i ) (i ) . It turns that for all the six cases 4 eigenvalues are complex and one is real. For example the

component of m (2i ) (i ) relative to the second order

moment of the top displacement as a function of the

uncertain parameter 3 reads

E[u32 D ] = 36.273 +

5.684

1 + D

0.05925 0.02094D

0.8325 0.6153D + D

14.444 + 13.801D

1.0386 + 1.9116D + D

(43)

derived and a basic random variable, which is independent from the probabilistic information on the

random variable 3 .

The accuracy of the proposed method in the case

more the one basic variable are present can be assessed from Figure 2.

74

(b)

Figure 2. Percentage error (exact approx ) / exact 100 of

the approximate relationship between the second order moment

of the top floor displacement and the basic variable 2 (a) and

3 (b) for given values of the basic variable 1 .

terms by using Eq.(37) the error is very small despite of large fluctuations of the basic random variables. Furthermore, the inclusion of cross terms by

Eq.(39) produces a better approximation with negligible errors.

Once the probabilistic structure of the basic random variables is assigned, its counterpart for the derived random variables can be easily obtained.

Figures 3 and 4 portray, respectively, the mean

value and the mean square value of the conditional

second order moment of top floor displacement. In

the figures some of or all the variables

1 , 2 ,! , 6 are simultaneously considered zero

mean independent random variables, uniformly distributed in the intervals ( a, a ) .

the top floor displacement. Dotted line: 1 , 2 , 3 are uncertain

and 4 = 5 = 6 = 0 . Dashed line: 1 = 2 = 3 = 0 and

4 , 5 , 6 are uncertain. Solid line: 1 , 2 ,! , 6 are uncertain.

Symbols: Monte Carlo simulation.

of top floor displacement is reported in Figures 5-7.

Figure 5 refers to the case of uncertain stiffness

(the basic random variables 1 , 2 , 3 are independent and uniformly distributed in the

range ( 0.4, 0.4) ) and deterministic critical damping

ratios ( 4 = 5 = 6 = 0 ).

Figure 6 refers to the case of uncertain critical

damping ratios ( 4 , 5 , 6 are independent and uniformly distributed in the range ( 0.4, 0.4) ) and deterministic stiffness ( 1 = 2 = 3 =0).

Figure 7 refers to the case of uncertain stiffness

and critical damping ratios ( 1 , 2 ,! , 6 are independent and uniformly distributed in the

range ( 0.4, 0.4) ).

The probability density function is obtained by statistically combining the samples given by Eq.(37)

(which does not include cross terms) or by Eq.(39)

(which includes cross terms). Such a simulation is

enormously more efficient than a simulation applied

directly to Eq.(21), whose results are reported by

symbols. In fact, the time required to get a response

sample by Eq.(37) or Eq.(39) is much smaller than

that required by Eq.(21).

The solution given by the proposed formulation is

practically exact in the case only the damping is uncertain (Fig.6), even if the cross terms are neglected.

If uncertain stiffness is present (Figs.5 and 7), then,

the solution is still very accurate especially if the

cross terms are taken into account.

moment of the top floor displacement. Dotted line: 1 , 2 , 3

are uncertain and 4 = 5 = 6 = 0 . Dashed line: 1 = 2 = 3 = 0

and 4 , 5 , 6 are uncertain. Solid line: 1 , 2 ,! , 6 are

uncertain. Symbols: Monte Carlo simulation.

neglecting the cross terms, by integrating Eq.(37)

and its square times the joint probability density

function. The accuracy is evidenced by comparison

with the results pertaining to Monte Carlo simulations. Obviously, such performance is preserved

with any other probability density function of the

basic random variables.

CONCLUSIONS

with uncertain parameters excited by white noise

processes has been introduced. It can be considered

as a particular response surface method which produces an explicit relationship between the derived

and the basic random variables by solving complex

eigen-problems.

The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides very accurate estimates of

both the statistical moments and probability density

function of the system response, even when high

levels of uncertainty are present. The response considered in the paper is the conditional second order

statistical moments, although also higher order statistics can be derived.

The inclusion of cross terms in the response surface is formulated so to reduce the error of the approximate explicit relationship.

75

floor displacement for independent 1 , 2 , 3 uniformly distrib-

floor displacement for independent 4 , 5 , 6 uniformly distrib-

proposed method without crossing terms. Solid line: proposed

method with crossing terms. Symbols: Monte Carlo simulation.

proposed method without crossing terms. Solid line: proposed

method with crossing terms. Symbols: Monte Carlo simulation.

REFERENCES

Bellman, R., 1974. Introduction to Matrix Analysis. New York:

McGraw-Hill.

Brewer, J.W., 1978. Kronecker Products and Matrix Calculus

in System Theory. Transactions on Circuits and Systems

(IEEE) Vol. cas-25(9): 772-781.

Bucher, C.G. & Bourgund, U. 1990. A Fast and Efficient Response Surface Approach for Structural Reliability Problems. Structural Safety Vol. 7: 57-66. Falsone, G., Muscolino, G. & Ricciardi, G. 1991. Combined Dynamic Response

of Primary and Multiply Connected Cascated Secondary

Subsystems. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Synamics Vol. 20: 749-767.

Falsone, G. & Impollonia, N. 2002. A New Approach for the

Stochastic Analysis of Finite Element Modelled Structures

with Uncertain Parameters. Computer Methods in Applied

Mechanics and Engineering Vol. 191(44): 5067-5085.

Ghanem, R. G. & Spanos, P. D., 1991. Stochastic Finite Elements: A Spectral Approach, Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Guan, X.L. & Melchers, R.E. 2001. Effect of Response Surface

Parameter Variation on Structural Reliability Estimates.

Structural Safety Vol.23: 429-444.

Jensen, H. & Iwan, W. D. 1992. Response of Systems with

Uncertain Parameters to Stochastic Excitation, Journal of

Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), Vol. 118(5), 1012-1025.

Khuri, A. & Cornell, J.A. 1987. Response Surface: Designs

and Analyses. New York: Dekker.

Nelder, J.A. 1966. Inverse Polynomials, a Useful Group of

Multifactor Response Function. Biometrics Vol.22: 128141.

Wong, F.S. 1985. Slope Reliability and Response Surface

Method. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering ASCE

Vol.111(1): 32-53.

76

floor displacement for independent 1 , 2 ,! , 6 uniformly distributed in the range ( 0.4, 0.4) . Dashed line: proposed method

without crossing terms. Solid line: proposed method with crossing terms. Symbols: Monte Carlo simulation.

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