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Chapter 4

Assembling the circuit Boards

Stage 1:
Assemble the white line sensor

Stage 2:
Assemble the main board

Stage 3:
Assemble the Linear infrared range finder

Stage 1:
White line sensor assembling

Important instructions:
First understand the circuit diagram. Read the instructions first.
If you don’t know the component then read the component data sheet first.
Trace the PCB first then place the components. Once the component is soldered it is very
difficult to remove it again.

Circuit diagram

Figure 4.1 Circuit diagram of the white line sensor

White line sensors works on 9V supply. LED (D12) is a high power ultra bright
Red LED. Its light intensity can be controlled by varying the variable resistor R38. A
330E resistor is inserted in series to protect the Red LED from current surge. This resistor
will maintain current in safer limit even if value of the potentiometer becomes zero.
For the white line sensing photo transistor KL3B from ST microelectronics is
used. Collector current is limited by a 47K ohm resistor R37. When photo transistor is
saturated because of reflected red light maximum collector current will be approx 190
micro ampere. To avoid effect of loading a unity gain operational amplifier is used as a
buffer. There are seven white line sensors on the PCB. This analog signal is then
connected through 16 pin FRC connector and FRC cable to the main board.

Figure 4.2 Front side and the back side of the white line sensor board

Figure 4.3 Pin polarity of the LED and Photo transistor

Figure 4.4 Resister colure code

Colure code for 330 ohm resister is Orange, Orange, Brown, and Gold
Colure code for 47 K ohm resistor is Yellow, Purple, Orange, and Gold

Figure 4.5 Variable resistor and 16 pin FRC connector

Figure 5.6 Correct component placements on the sensor side

Figure 5.7 Correct component placements on the connector side

PCB assembling steps:

1. Mount all the photo transistors on the board. Be careful about collector and
emitter placement.
2. Mount all the 4 pin LED on the PCB. Be careful about anode and cathode
3. Solder 330 ohms and 47 K ohms resistor on the sensor side.
4. Solder the 14 pin IC holder on the connector side. Notch of the IC holder must be
pointing towards left side as shown in fig 5.7
5. Solder the Blue colored variable resistor on the PCB
6. Mount the 16 pin FRC connector on the PCB
7. Mount IC LM324 in the IC holder. Make sure that notch on the IC matches with
the notch on the IC holder.

Mount all the components with correct polarity.

Solder all the components by the above sequence only. If you mount larger
component first then it will be difficult to mount the smaller components.
While soldering hold the component with your hand then touch the soldering
iron’s tip to the component and touch the solder wire on the tip. If you follow
this procedure then you will get the best finishing in the soldering.
Do not touch the soldering iron’s tip for more than 5 seconds to any of the

Fitting the White line sensor board on the robot

Figure 5.8 Nut and bolt fitting for mounting of the white line sensor board

1. CASE 2: Add five 3/16 size nuts (Marked by number 17 in fig. 3.4 and 3.5) on the
prefixed 5/32 1.25 inch bolts
2. CASE 1: Insert the 1.25 inch counter sink 6 number screw (Marked by number 18
in fig. 3.4 and 3.5) then add five 3/16 size nuts (Marked by number 17 in fig. 3.4
and 3.5)
Figure 5.9 White line board mounting

As shown in fig 5.9 fit the board using 0.5 inch 5/32 counter sink bolts (Marked by
number 17 in fig. 3.4 and 3.5) for the case 2. For the case 1 screw will directly fit in
the hole.

Do not apply high torque on the nuts. It can damage the white line sensor
Stage 2:
Assembling the main board

Step 1:

Figure 5.10 Top and bottom side of the main board

Fit 0.75 inch 5/32 counter sink bolts (Marked by number 15 in fig. 3.4 and 3.5) and fit
them with three 5/32 nuts (Marked by number 21 in fig. 3.4 and 3.5)

Fit the nuts at the bottom side. Do not apply excessive torque while tightening.
Step 2:
Connector placements

Figure 5.11 Connector placements at the back side of the main board
Step 3:
Power management section and the RS232 communication module

Figure 5.12 Power management section

CON2 is 10 pin FRC connector. It is used for the charging the onboard battery.
D27 is used for the reverse polarity protection. D26 is a red colored LED which indicates
charging of the battery. S2 is double pole double throw (DPDT) switch. In one setting it
provides supply to the robot. In other setting it allows battery to be charge. On and off
positions are shown in the Fig 5.14. This is done so that one can either switch on the
robot or charge it but user can not do both the things at the same time which can damage
robot or the battery or in worse case both. Battery is connected to the SL1 which is 10 pin
Relaymate connector. Four wires are connected for the redundancy. D29 is used to
restrict the flow of current from battery to the circuit only. Capacitor C4 is used like a
temporary battery which can act as secondary battery for few tens of milliseconds. This is
done to protect microcontroller and other circuit from surge current due to motors when
battery is almost discharged. IC 7805 (IC7) and IC 7809 (IC8) are 5 Volts and 9 Volts
voltage regulators respectively. 0.1 uF capacitors (C5 and C6) are connected between V
out and ground for improved ripple rejection. Both of the voltage regulators are
connected to the heat sink for dissipating the heat.

Figure 5.13 TTL to RS232 conversion

MAX232 (IC2) is used for converting TTL levels in to the RS232 level for the serial
communication with the PC. Capacitors C8 to C11 are used for the boosting the voltage
levels to the RS232 levels. For the RS232 communication a DB9 PCB mountable female
connector (X1) is used.

Figure 4.14 Components placements for the power management and

serial communication

1. It is very important that you mount the switch first. Do not push the leads of the
switch through PCB. Just keep the switch on the PCB and solder it.
2. Mount the 10 pin FRC connector and then voltage sensing resistors R58 and R59.
3. Mount smaller components first then go for larger components.
4. Watch out for the LED, diode and capacitor polarity and notch on the connector.
5. For the 9 volts regulator you have to use the white LED which has transparent
colored casing and yellowish white colure inside.
6. Mount the voltage regulator IC7805 and IC7809 on the heat sink first by the
screw fitted on the heat sink. Do not forget to mount the heat sink on the main
board by the screws.
7. Solder the voltage regulators only after the proper mounting.
8. Do not interchange the positions of the IC7805 and the IC7809
Motor controller placement

Figure 4.15 H Bridge driver for the motor control

The LMD18200 is a 3A H-Bridge designed for motion control applications. The

device is built using a multi-technology process which combines bipolar and CMOS
control circuitry with DMOS power devices on the same monolithic structure. It is ideal
for driving DC and stepper motors. The LMD18200 accommodates peak output currents
up to 6A.

Figure 4.16 Pin layout of the LMD18200 H bridge

C13 to C16 are the 0.01uF capacitors used for the bootstrap. Using these capacitors H
Bridge generates voltage higher than Vcc to drive its upper side MOSFETs. Output is
connected to the motors through 4 pin Relaymate connectors (CON2 and CON3). Pulse
width modulated signal is fed to the motor controllers from the output compare pins from
the microcontroller. Direction and brake inputs are given from the port B of the
microcontroller. LEDs D2 to D7 indicates direction, Brake and the PWM commands
from the microcontroller. LEDs D8 to D11 are in the form of the arrows which shows
motor direction. Resistors R14 and R15 are used for the current sensing.

Table 4.1 Logical truth table

4.17 Components placements for motor controller

Arrow indicator and its 330 Ohm resistor will be fitted in step 5.
Step 5:
Wireless infrared communication and jumper settings

Figure 4.18 Wireless infrared communication and jumper settings

CON1 is 10x2 female BERG stripe used as expansion slot for the wireless
communication. JP2 is the modified male BERG connector used for the communication
mode selection. IC TSOP1738 is used for the infrared communication. R^ and the C12 is
used for the noise decoupling. R% is the pull up resistor. Not gate IC3C is used to drive
the LED which blinks when valid infrared communication is established.

Pin 1, 2: Receive data (RXD)

Pin 3, 4: Transmit data (TXD)
Pin 5, 6: 5V
Pin 7, 8: Ground
Pin 9, 10: 9V
Pin 11 to 20: No connection

Figure 4.19 Expansion slot for the wireless communication

Pin 1, 2: Wireless infrared communication

Pin 3 to 8: No connection
Pin 9, 10: RS232 receive
Pin 11, 12: RS232 transmit

Figure 4.20 Jumper setting for the communication mode selection

Figure 4.21 Wireless infrared communication and jumper settings

Do not remove cap placed at the bottom of the IC TSOP1738. It is used to avoid
contact between the IC and the PCB tracks.
Mount IC holder, LED and the capacitor with correct polarity.
Step 6:
Microcontroller and some audio visual indicators

Figure 4.22 Microcontroller and some audio visual indicators

VCC, AVCC and AREF are connected to the 5V and GND and AGND are
grounded. Capacitors C1 and C2 are used with 4MHz crystal Q1 to generate clock for
the microcontroller. Resistor and the capacitor R4 and C3 forms the RC network for
providing power on reset. MISO, MOSI, SCK, negative RESET and ground pins are
also connected to the In System Programming (ISP) port. Analog data from linear
infrared range finder is given to the ADC0 to ADC3 of the microcontroller. Pins PB0
to PB3 of the microcontroller are connected to the Left and Right motor controllers.
LEDs D3 to D6 are used to indicate status of these pins. Pulse width modulated
signals for the left and the right motors are supplied from the OC1A and OC1B of the
microcontroller. LEDs D2 and D7 are used as visual indicator for the PWM signal
out. Self test switch is connected to the interrupt 0 of the microcontroller. Resistors
R58 and R59 forms the voltage divider network which is reduces the voltage level
below 5V. This level is sensed by the ADC6 of the microcontroller. Pin PB4 of the
microcontroller is used to drive the Buzzer.
Figure 4.23 Microcontroller and some audio visual indicators component

Mount the LEDs, transistor and the buzzer with the correct polarity
Mount the connector and IC holder with its notch facing left.
Do not forget to solder C1 and C2 which are inside of the IC holder.
SELF TEST switch has to be soldered like SMD component.
Solder the 330 ohm resistor for the arrow indicator from the step 5
Mount the arrow indicator on the top of it. (Call the TAs before mounting the
arrow indicator.

Figure 4.24 Fitting of the arrow indicator

Step 7:
White line sensor circuits

Figure 4.25 Signal conditioning circuit of the white line sensors

CON4 is 2*8 pin right angled mane BERG connector which is fitted at the bottom
side of the board. When there is no white line in front of the white line sensor it gives
approximately 7 volts. When sensors are exposed to the white line photo transistor goes
in to saturation and output drops to the approximately to the 0.27 volts. D13 to D19 are
3.3 volt Zener diodes these diodes are used to distinguish between presence and absence
of the white. R66 to R72 are the current limiting resistors which limits the base current to
the transistors T2 to T8. Resistors R2, R19, R21, R23, R25, R27, and R29 are the bias
stabilization resistors. R1, R3, R20, R22, R24, R26, R28 are the collector resistors.
Transistors T2 to T8 are used to convert analog voltage of white line sensors (0.22V to
7.8V) to the digital value of 0 to 5 volts. IC74245 (IC4) is used to drive bar graph LED
display. LEDs from the bar graph display glows if white line sensors find the white line.
Figure 4.26 White line signal conditioning and the expansion slot component

Mount the Zener diode correctly.