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If lim a n = L, where L is any real number, the sequence converges, otherwise it diverges (goes to

n

either or -).

To find limits:

1) "Divide out", as in:

n

{an} =

1 2n

1

n

1

=

= lim

lim

n 1 2n

n 1/ n 2

2

converges

1

an = 1 +

n

1

lim 1 + = e

x

x

x

lim a n = e

n

xn

=0

n n!

a

Other handy limits: lim 1 + = ea

x

x

lim

converges

lim n n = 1

n

1

lim x sin = 1

x

x

x

{an} =

x

2x

2

= lim

= lim

lim x

= 0 converges

x

2

x

x 2 1

x (ln 2)2

x (ln 2) 2

2 1

n

4) Squeeze Theorem

if lim a n = L = lim b n and an cn bn then for all n > some integer N, lim c n = L

n

This says that if you can fit a sequence between two other convergent sequences that have the same

limit (or between a convergent sequence and a number), then the sequence in question will also have

the same limit, and thereby converge. It doesn't have to fit between the sequences right away (at n = 1),

as long as it's always squeezed after some n value.

sin n

, the value of the numerator is -1 sin n 1, so the sequence can be

Example: in the sequence

n2

1

sin n

1

written as between two sequences: 2

2

2

n

n

n

1

1

sin n

and 2 is zero, so the limit of

2

n

n

n2

is also zero and the sequence converges.

Remember, the limits of sums, differences, products and quotients of sequences are the same as the

sums, differences, products and quotients of individual limits, so some manipulation may be needed.

3n 2 1

3n

1

3n

1

lim n sin

n sin = lim

For example: lim

sin = lim

n

n 5n 1 n

n

n

5n 1

5n 1 n

3

3

= (1) =

5

5

If a sequence has an alternating sign in it, like (-1)n, then test the limit of the absolute value:

if lim a n = 0 then lim a n = 0

n

A sequence {an} is called bounded if it has both an upper bound that it cannot be greater than and a

lower bound that it cannot be less than. A sequence is monotonic if its terms are all nondecreasing

(increasing or equal) or all nonincreasing (decreasing or equal).

If {an} is bounded and monotonic, it converges.

[This is not a test for divergence! A sequence can be not bounded or not monotonic and still converge.]

Note: limits at infinity are also horizontal asymptotes of the graph f(n) = an, so sometimes you can

apply the asymptote rules to check your limits.

n =1

The partial sum of a series is found by adding a certain number of terms in the sequence.

If the sequence of partial sums {Sn} has a finite limit (convergent), then the series a n converges.

n =1

If the sequence of partial sums {Sn} diverges, then the series a n diverges.

n =1

Note: A sequence can converge ( lim a n = L) but its series may diverge!

n

A telescoping series is characterized by a sequence where many of the terms cancel each other,

leaving a finite number of terms that determines the sum.

A telescoping series converges if an approaches a finite limit.

In the series: (a1 a2) + (a2 a3) + (a3 a4) + .. (an an+1) all the terms cancel except for the first

one and the last one, and the nth partial sum Sn = a1 an+1.

If this series converges, the sum S = a1 - lim a n +1 .

n

n =1

1

=

n(n + 1)

n n + 1

n =1

1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1

= + + + ....

1 2 2 3 3 4

n n +1

1

1

.

1 n +1

lim

1

= 0, so this series converges (finite limit)

n(n + 1)

1

= 1 0 = 1.

n +1

Note: cancellation may not start right away, and not all of the terms toward the end may cancel - you

may have more than one term left over at the beginning or the end of the series. Write out the series

until you know the pattern.

ar

Geometric series

n =0

a

1 r

n =3

n =0

0

1

2

n

n

ar = ar - (ar + ar + ar )

repeating decimals:

diverges if | r | 1

8 1

8 /100

8

.080808 = 2 2 =

=

1 1/100 99

n = 0 10 10

if lim a n 0

n

an

then

n =1

diverges

Note: If lim a n = 0 , we know nothing! This is not a test for convergence of a series (except a

n

then

n=N

b

Remember, an improper integral converges if the limit exists for lim f (x) dx .

b

The infinite series does not necessarily converge to the limit of the integral.

Example:

n =2

n n 1

x x 1

dx = [ arc sec x ]2 =

=

2 3

6

both converge

N

9

Find the max error when 3 is estimated using the first seven terms.

Example:

n =1 n

9

9

R7 3 dx R7 2 = .0918

x

2x 7

7

Example:

RN

n =1

dx .001

p-series:

n =1

n =1

1

np

1

2x 2

.001

1

to within 0.001?

n3

1

.001

2N 2

N 23

1

is called the harmonic series: 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/4 + .

n

(diverges)

For a series similar to the harmonic series, if the terms are larger than those in the harmonic series

(e.g., 1/(n 1)), expect it to diverge; if its terms are smaller (e.g., 1/(n ln n)), you cant tell try the

integral test.

Direct comparison test: compare a series to another series whose convergence/divergence is known

if b n converges then a n converges (bn is the comparison series)

for 0 < an bn

Example:

1

n 3 + 3n

0

looks like

1

n 3 + 3n

n3

n =1

1

n3

so,

n3

3n

3

looks like ,

n

2 1

2

n

Example:

n =1

1

n 3 + 3n

also converges.

n =0 2

3

3

0 n

2 1

2

so,

3n

also diverges.

n

n =0 2 1

For a given an > 0 use a bn > 0 with known convergence/divergence to compare it to.

a

If lim n = L, finite and positive, the series a n and b n either both converge or both diverge.

n

bn

To formulate the comparison series, ignore the coefficients and all but highest powers of n in the

numerator and denominator of the original series.

Examples

an

n =1

n =1

n =1

a

lim n

n b

n

1

3

bn

1

2

3n 4n + 5

n =1

1

3n 2

n =1

n 2 10

4n 5 + n 3

n =1

1

n2

1

n

1

3

1

n2

= 3

5

n =1 n

n

both converge

both diverge

1

4

both converge

an > 0

n =1

n =1

n

n +1

(1) a n or (1) a n

n

Approximating a sum

To approximate the sum of an alternating series, calculate the remainder after doing a partial sum:

| Rn | an+1.

For example, the remainder after summing the first 6 terms would be | R6 | a7

The total sum will be in the interval defined by:

Sn - | Rn | S Sn + | Rn |

To find how many terms are needed to approximate a sum to within a certain error:

if desired error < .0001 an+1 < .0001 find an+1 by trial and error

the number of terms of the series needed will be n (if the series starts with n = 1)

Example: Approximate

1

(1) n

with an error less than 0.001 using the series n

e

n = 0 2 n!

a4 = 0.0026

5 terms are needed to achieve the desired accuracy (note the series starts with n = 0):

4

1

(1) n

= 0.60677

= 0.60653

| R | = 0.00024

n

e

n = 0 2 n!

a n converges absolutely if |a n | converges. This theorem can be used to test not only alternating

series but also other series that involve sign changes that don't strictly alternate.

sin n

has positive and negative terms, but is not an alternating series

2

n =1 n

sin n

1

2

2

n

n

sin n

converges absolutely

2

n =1 n

(1) n +1

converges but

n

n =1

1

diverges, so

n =1 n

(1) n +1

is conditionally convergent

n

n =1

n

a n +1

<1

an

a n diverges if lim

n

a n +1

> 1 (or lim = )

an

inconclusive if lim = 1

The ratio test is especially good to use for series with exponents and/or factorials.

Example:

a

lim n +1

n a

n

Does

4n

converge or diverge?

n =1 n!

4n +1

n!

lim

n (n + 1)! 4 n

= lim

4

(n + 1)

Root Test:

a n converges absolutely if lim n | a n | < 1

= 0

converges

inconclusive if lim = 1

The root test also works well for series with nth powers.

Example:

n 2

Does n converge or diverge?

n =1 11

2

lim n | a n | = lim n

n

n

n

= lim

n

n

11

11

( n)

lim

n

11

1

11

converges

Strategies

1. nth term approach zero? If not, diverges.

2. Special type geometric, p-series, telescoping, alternating?

3. Apply Integral Test, Root Test, Ratio Test?

4. Compare the series to one of the special types?

f(x) = a n (x c)n

n =0

The domain of f(x) is all x for which the series converges (always includes c).

The domain can be either a point, an interval, or the entire real line.

(c c) n = a 0 .

n =0

Only one is true:

1) R = 0 if the series converges only at c.

2) The series converges absolutely for |x c| < R and diverges for |x c| > R.

R determines the interval of convergence around c: (c R, c + R).

3) R = if the series converges absolutely for all x.

To find the radius of convergence, use the Ratio Test: lim

(3n)!(x 1) 2n

n!

n =0

1)

c=1

(n + 1)!

lim

n

(3n)!(x 1) 2n

n!

a n +1

<1

an

n

converges only at the center c = 1 R = 0

2)

(4x)

n =0

c = 0

(4x)n +1

lim

= 4|x|

n (4x) n

3)

(2x) n +1

(2x) n

(n + 1)!

2x

c = 0

lim

= lim

= 0<1

n

n!

(2x)

n +1

n =0

n!

converges for all x R =

Department of Mathematics, Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH

To find the exact interval of convergence, the endpoints need to be tested separately for convergence.

(x 2) n +1

n +1

n = 0 (n + 1) 3

c=2

(x 2) n + 2

(n + 2) 3n + 2

(x 2)(n + 1)

|x 2|

lim

= lim

=

< 1

n

+

1

n (x 2)

n

3(n + 2)

3

(n + 1)3n +1

converges if |x 2 | < 3

R = 3 and the series converges on at least the interval (-1, 5).

Test the original series for the endpoints x = - 1 and x = 5:

If x = 1, the series is

n =0

n +1

3n +1

=

n +1

n = 0 (n + 1)3

If x = 5, the series is

(3) n +1

(n + 1)3

(1)n +1

n =0 n + 1

n +1

n =0

If f(x) =

n =0

f '(x) =

na

same R

n =1

f (x)dx = C +

an

n =0

(x c)2

(x c)3

(x c)n +1

+ a2

= C + ao(x c) + a1

+ . same R

(n + 1)

2

3

Note: The power rules of derivation and integration apply only to the exponent on the (x c) term.

Any other "n's" in the original series are not affected they are part of an e.g., (-1)n.

Radii of convergence are the same. Intervals of convergence may differ because of endpoint behavior.

Geometric power series

A function can be represented by a geometric series if it has the form

The radius of convergence for a geometric series is: lim

a

a

, because

=

1 r

1 r

ar

n =0

r n +1

< 1 or | r | < 1.

rn

1

, a = 1, r = x, and the function can be represented by x n on its interval of

1 x

n =0

convergence, which would be the radius |x| < 1 around the center c = 0, or ( 1, 1).

In f(x) =

1

on the interval (1, 1).

1 x

1

:

1 x

1

1

P replace x with (x + 1) P

=

c = 1

1 (x + 1) + 1

2 (x + 1)

a

1

1/ 2

2) change to

:

=

a = and r = (x + 1)/2

1 r

2 (x + 1)

1 (x + 1) / 2

1

centered at 1 =

1 x

n =0

1 x +1

2 2

x +1

(|x c| < R)

<1 |x+1|<2

2

The interval of convergence is (-3, 1) and the graphs will match on that interval.

3

; find the geometric power series centered at -2

4x

n

3

3

3

1/ 2

1 x + 2

=

=

=

=

4x

4 (x + 2) + 2

6 (x + 2)

1 (x + 2) / 6

6

n =0 2

Example: f(x) =

converges when

x+2

<1

6

|x+2| < 6

Handy operations

1) If f(x) =

a n x n , then f(xN) =

n =0

x nN

n =0

This means you can build a series for x and then substitute xN for x in the series.

Department of Mathematics, Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH

2

centered at c = 0.

2 + x2

2

Find a series for

:

2+x

2

1

=

=

2+x

1 ( x / 2)

x2

(

1)

n =0

2

Substitute x for x:

x2

< 1

2

=

2

n =0

converges when

x

(1)

2

n =0

n =0

x2

< 1

2

n =0

2 or interval of convergence

a n x n and g(x) =

2) If f(x) =

(a

2, 2

bn ) x n

n =0

This is useful if you can split up a function into two functions, like using partial fractions.

2x

centered at c = 0.

x2 1

2x

1

1

+

=

2

x 1

x + 1 x 1

1

1

=

= ( x) n =

x +1

1 ( x)

n =0

1

1

=

= (1)x n

x 1

1 x

n =0

2x

=

x2 1

(1)

n =0

(1)

xn +

(1)x

n =0

xn

|x| < 1

n =0

|x| < 1

(1)

n =0

1 x n

Note: If you add two series with different intervals of convergence, the interval of convergence of the

sum will be the intersection of the separate intervals.

11.10 Taylor polynomial functions (Pn(x)) approximate other elementary functions (f(x)) around

a central value c. In other words, the polynomial will produce a similar graph to the function

graph over a limited range around c. f(x) must have n derivatives at c.

f " (c)

f n (c)

(x c)2 +

(x c) n

for Pn expanded around a value c: Pn(x) = f(c) + f '(c)(x c) +

2!

n!

f(c) = P0

if c = 0 Maclaurin polynomial

10

Example:

f(x) = cos x

f '(x) = -sin x

f ''(x) = -cos x

f (6)(x) = -cos x

f '''(x) = sin x

f (4)(x) = cos x

f (5)(x) = -sin x

c = 0

cos(0)

sin(0)

(x 0)2 +

(x 0)3

2!

3!

cos(0)

sin(0)

cos(0)

+

(x 0)4 +

(x 0)5 +

(x 0)6

4!

5!

6!

2

4

6

x

x

x

P6(x) = 1

+

2!

4!

6!

P6

cos (0.1):

expand cos(x) around c = 0

P6(x) = 1 x2/2! + x4/4! x6/6!

x = 0.1

x = 1.1

ln(1.1): expand ln(1 + x) around c = 0 P4(x) = x x 2/2 + x 3/3 x 4/4

x = 0.1

same answer

Taylors Theorem estimating the remainder

Error (remainder) = | Rn(x) | = | f(x) Pn(x) |

If f is differentiable through n + 1 in interval I containing c, for each x there is a z between x and c

such that

Rn(x) =

f (n +1) (z)

| x c |n +1

(x c) n +1 and | Rn(x) |

max | f (n +1) (z) | .

(n + 1)!

(n + 1)!

To find the max | f (n +1) (z) | , you can often use the endpoints of the interval between x and c.

Example:

sin x (with c = 0)

P3(0.1) = 0.09983333

(.1) 4

max sin z

R3(x)

4!

R3 .00000042

P3(x) = x x3/3!

c=0

x = 0.1

f (4)(x) = sin x

(actual R = 0.09983342 0.09983333 = 0.00000009)

Determine the degree of the Maclaurin polynomial Pn to use to approximate e0.75 with an error < 0.001.

f(x) = ex

f(n+1)(x) = ex

x = 0.75

c = 0

11

| x c |n +1

e0.75 (0.75)(n +1)

(n +1)

max | f

(z) | =

< 0.001

(n + 1)!

(n + 1)!

If a power series converges to f(x), then it must be a Taylor or Maclaurin series:

Taylor

f n (c)

f(x) =

(x c) n

n!

n =0

Maclaurin c = 0

f n (0) n

or f(x) =

x

n!

n =0

f n +1 (z)

Remainder Rn(x) =

(x c) n +1

(n + 1)!

If lim R n = 0 for all x in interval I, then the Taylor series for f converges and equals f(x).

x

Binomial series

k(k 1)...(k n + 1)x n

+

+ ...

The series for f(x) = (1 + x) is 1 + kx +

2!

3!

n!

R = 1 the series converges on (-1, 1)

k

f(x) =

1 + x = (1 + x)

1+

x

x2

1 3 x 3 1 3 5 x 4

2

+ 3

4

+ ......

2 2 2! 2 3!

2 4!

R=1

Basic power series can be adapted to functions by:

substitution can be done in the basic series.

Find the power series for e-2x.

xn

x 2 x3

ex =

= 1 + x + + + ....

2! 3!

n = 0 n!

-2x

n =0

( 2x )

n!

n =0

( 1)

2n x n

4x 2 8x 3

= 1 2x +

+ ....

n!

2!

3!

addition and subtraction can be done either with the basic series or with series in expanded form.

Find the series for eix + e-ix.

eix =

(ix) n

(ix) 2 (ix)3 (ix) 4 (ix)5 (ix)6

= 1 + ix +

+

+

+

+

+ ....

2!

3!

4!

5!

6!

n = 0 n!

e-ix =

(ix) n

(ix) 2 (ix)3 (ix) 4 (ix)5 (ix)6

=

1

ix

+

+

+

+

+

+ ....

n!

2!

3!

4!

5!

6!

n =0

12

2x 4 2x 6

(1) n x n

+ ... = 2

= 2cos x

4!

6!

n = 0 (2n)!

n

n

( ix ) + ( ix ) = 2 (1)n x n

n!

n = 0 n!

n = 0 (2n)!

eix + e-ix = 2 x 2 +

or

Multiplying or dividing series must be done using the expanded forms, by long multiplication or

division.

1/ 2

ln(x + 1)

using a power series

x

approximate

(1) n 1 (x 1) n

ln x =

n

n =1

ln(x + 1)

=

x

=

xn

n =1

1/ 2

0

ln(x + 1)

=

x

1/ 2

0

(1)n 1 x n 1

dx =

n

n =1

(1) n 1 x n

n2

n =1

1/ 2

for an approximation with an error < .0001, | an+1 | must be < .0001

(1/ 2 )

n +1

(n + 1)

n +1

(1) n 1 x n 1

n

n =1

1

< .0001 n + 1 = 8 P we need seven terms for the approximation

(n + 1) 2

1/ 2

x 2 x3 x 4 x5 x6 x 7

+

+

x

= .448458

4

9 16 25 36 49 0

13

Test

Condition(s)

of Convergence

Series

Condition(s)

of Divergence

Comment

lim 0

to show convergence.

nth-Term

Geometric Series

| | < 1

Telescoping Series

lim =

p-Series

Alternating Series

Integral

(f is continuous,

positive, and

decreasing)

1

0 <

and lim = 0

1$

= * 0

Root

Ratio

Direct Comparison

(an, bn > 0)

Limit Comparison

(an, bn > 0)

!>1

Remainder:

|() | )

+ *, -, diverges

Test is inconclusive if

7>1

Test is inconclusive if

lim 7

7=1

lim 7

7<1

lim 7

0 <

0 <

and converges

and diverges

=>0

=>0

and converges

and diverges

Remainder:

+ *,-, converges

1

!1

Sum: =

Sum: =

| | 1

lim

lim

th

(recreated from page 644 in Calculus 8 edition by Larson, Hostetler, Edwards)

)

lim 5| | = 1

Interval of

Convergence

Function

1

= 1 1 + 1 1 + 1

+ 1 1 +

0<<2

1

= 1 + +

+ + 1 +

1+

ln = 1

= 1 + +

1 < < 1

1 1 1

1 1

+

+ +

+

2

3

4

0<2

+ + + + +

+

2! 3! 4! 5!

!

< <

sin =

1 $

"

+ + +

+

2 + 1!

3! 5! 7! 9!

< <

cos = 1

1

' )

+ + +

+

2!

2! 4! 6! 8!

< <

arctan =

1 $

"

+ + +

+

3

5

7

9

2 + 1

1 1

arcsin = +

2! $

1 3 1 3 5

+

+

+ +

+

2 ! 2 + 1

23 245 2467

1 1

1 + / = 1 + 0 +

00 1

00 10 2

00 10 20 3

+

+

+

2!

3!

4!

1 < < 1

Convergence at x = 1

depends on the value

of k.

NOTE: The binomial series is valid for noninteger values of k. Moreover, if k happens to be a positive integer, the

binomial series reduces to a simple binomial expansion.

Powers and multiples of x can be directly substituted for x in the series. Series can be added, subtracted, and directly

multiplied or divided by powers and multiples of x. All of this can be performed on the nth term of the series. However,

two different series must be multiplied or divided together like polynomials; the nth term cannot be used. A few of these

concepts are demonstrated on the back.

Department of Mathematics, Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH

th

(recreated/modified from page 682 in Calculus 8 edition by Larson, Hostetler, Edwards)

Using the power series for cos , you can replace by to obtain the series

'

23

23

23

cos = 1

+

+=1 + +

2!

4!

6!

2! 4! 6!

Using the Maclaurin series for and arctan in the table, you have

arctan = 51 + + + + + 6 5 + 6

1! 2! 3! 4!

3

5

Multiply these expressions and collect like terms as you would for multiplying polynomials. So,

arctan = + + ' +

Example 3: Find the first three nonzero terms for tan .

Using the Maclaurin series for sin and cos in the table, you have

sin 3! + 5!

tan =

=

cos

1 2! + 4!

Example 4: Find the power series for + .

Since we are adding two series, we can add the nth terms together.

+

9:

9:

9:

9:

+ 2

2

2

2

=7

+7

=7

= +0+

+0+

+= 7

2!

!

!

!

0!

2!

4!

th

(modified from pages 683-684 in Calculus 8 edition by Larson, Hostetler, Edwards)

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