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4. Compare the Harlem Renaissance with the Garvey movement as expressions of black culture in the 1920s.

movement had the larger mass following and why?



A. Many African Americans disillusioned following WWI
1. Jobs they had acquired during war evaporated in postwar recession
2. KKK was revived during war and unleashed new wave of terror against blacks
3. Mounting competition for jobs led to bloody race riots
B. In such difficulties, new Negro developed during 1920s
1. Pride leads to black nationalist ideas of Marcus Garvey and cultural stimulation by Harlem Renaissance
C. Thesis: The 1920s saw a flourishing growth in black culture and expression with the Harlem Renaissance
and the Garvey Movement. The Harlem Renaissance brought black culture into the canon of American
literature for the first time as African-American contributions were made to theatre, art, and music more
than ever before, while the Garvey movement encouraged blacks to unite economically and appealed for
rediscovery of African heritage. The Harlem Renaissance was not as widely influential as the Garvey
Movement because in the Harlem Renaissance, blacks had to depend on whites for money for publication
and distribution while the Garvey Movement focused on glorifying everything black in a white dominated
A. Included African-American contributions to theater, art, and music
1. Black productions on Broadway
2. White publishers courted black writers
B. Argument: Which sort of black experience should be represented?
1. White supporters: Wanted black writers to write about experiences unique to African heritage
2. Most writers (most notably Langston Hughes): Wanted black writers to focus on experiences as blacks
living in America during the 20th century (blacks did not have true knowledge of African heritage)
3. This argument/split would continue with Marcus Garvey
C. Young whites against the 1920s romanticized Harlem Renaissance as rebellion against American culture
D. How was the Harlem Renaissance an expression of black culture in the 1920s?
1. Brought black culture into canon of American literature for first time
2. Based on a rise in race consciousness among blacks
A. Marcus Garvey appealed to blacks who escaped the Souths racism only to find that racism in North as well
B. Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association
1. Encouraged blacks to unify economically
2. Created chain of UNIA grocery stores
3. 80,000 members
a. Attended rallies, parades, wore uniforms, waved flags
C. Glorified everything black in white dominated society
D. Back to Africa movement
1. Encouraged blacks to return to Africa to establish nation in continent
E. Popularity of Garveys movement created tension
1. Middle-class blacks, NAACP, and black churches progress towards ending racism was hindered
2. Gulf in Harlem existed between Southern blacks and Caribbean blacks
a. Garveys Jamaican heritage led to charges that UNIA was run by Caribbean immigrants



F. Failure of Garvey Movement

1. After 2 years of prison because of fraud, Garvey was released and deported to Jamaica
2. UNIA collapsed
G. How was the Garvey Movement an expression of black culture in the 1920s?
1. Appeals for rediscovery of African heritage
2. Urged blacks to be proud of themselves
A. Garvey Movement had greater following
B. Why?
1. Separate from whites (racial pride)
D. Harlem Renaissance associated with whites unlike Garvey Movement which glorified everything black
E. Harlem Renaissance was not widely influential to blacks because they depended on whites for money for
publication and distribution
F. Harlem Renaissance had themes not focused on African heritage
G. Hugely influential in black community as many come to the belief that black is beautiful
Talk about how Marcus Garvey and his movement was instrumental in the early civil rights movement