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Module 1

1. A primary function of the cell nucleus is: for cell division, control of genetic division,
replication and repair of DNA, and the transcription of the information stored in DNA.

2. The nuclear structure that contains most of the cellular DNA is called the: nucleolus.

3. RNA is used to direct: transcription and translation.

4. The chief function of ribosomes is to provide sites for: protein synthesis.

5. The process of nuclear division in cell reproduction is known as: mitosis.

6. Reproduction of the sperm and egg cells occurs through the process of: meosis.

7. The phase during the cell cycle in which RNA and protein synthesis occurs is called: G2, or Gap
Phase.

8. The phase during the cell cycle in which mitosis occurs is called: M Phase.

9. The phase during the cell cycle in which DNA synthesis occurs is called: S Phase.

10. At the end of telophase, which of the following events has occurred?

11. Cytokines are chemicals transmitted within and between cells to control and regulate cell: growth
and development.
Module 2

1. Which of the following activities is not a cellular function?

2. Give an example of cellular respiration? An example of cellular respiration would be the


electron transport chain, generation of ATP by the Citric Acid Cycle, or glycolysis and oxidation
and the process of digestion.

3. The main principle of the fluid mosaic model is that: integral proteins float in the fluid lipid
bilayer of the cell membrane. The protein molecules transport other molecules into and out of
the cell, catalyze membrane reactions, and receive messages for receptors for extracellular and
intracellular signals and to create structural linkage between the external and internal cellular
environments.

4. Which of the following structures is not formed from plasma membrane proteins?

5. The chief function of endoplasmic reticulum is to provide a site for: synthesis and transport of
protein and lipid components of most organelles.

6. Which form of molecular transport requires energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
The molecular transport system that requires energy in the form of ATP is active transport.

7. A cell can ingest bacteria or cellular debris through the process of: phagocytosis.

8. The four basic types of tissue include: Nerve, Epithelial, Connective, and Muscle tissue.

9. Which of the following characteristics is unique to epithelial tissues?

10. Adipose tissue serves as a storage site for: fat.

11. Bone is a type of: connective tissue.

12. Muscle is unique among the tissue types for which of the following reasons? Muscle tissue is
unique because it has contractile, excitable tissue that makes it capable of voluntary
movement.
Module 3

1. What is the largest fluid compartment in the body? The largest fluid component in the body is
the Intracellular Fluid compartment, which has 2/3 of the body’s water.

2. Osmosis describes the movement of: water across a semi permeable membrane from a
region of higher water concentration to tone of lower concentration.

3. Which of the following processes describes the mechanism underlying the sodium-potassium
pump?

4. Passive mediated transport (facilitated diffusion) depends on the presence of: carrier proteins
and channel proteins.

5. Active mediated transport is used to transport molecules: against or up the concentration


gradient, using ATP as a primary energy source.

6. Factors that determine osmotic pressure include: types and thicknesses of the plasma
membrane, the size of the molecules, the concentration of the molecules or the concentration
gradient, and the size of the molecules within the membranes.

7. Which electrolyte is found in the highest concentration in the intracellular fluid (ICF)? Potassium
is the electrolyte found in the highest concentration in the ICF.

8. Osmolarity measures: the number of milliosmoles per liter of solution, or the concentration
of molecules per volume of solution.

9. How are ions such as sodium and potassium transported in and out of the cell across the plasma
membrane? Sodium and potassium are transported in and out of the cell across the
plasma membrane by active transport.
10. When sodium channels in the plasma membrane of a neuron open, which processes is initiated?
The processes initiated by sodium channels opening in a plasma membrane are depolarization.

11. To generate an action potential, a nerve cell must reach: threshold potential.

12. If intercellular potassium is depleted, what state best describes the altered membrane
potential of the cell? This would be the absolute refractory period, when intercellular
potassium is depleted.

13. Plasma oncotic (colloid osmotic) pressure is maintained by the quantity of plasma: proteins.

Module 4

1. Which stimuli are considered to be potentially injurious to cells? The stimuli that potentially can
be dangerous to cells are chemical, hypoxic, free radical, intentional, unintentional,
immunologic, infection, inflammatory, genetic, and nutritional.

2. Which statement about the extent of cellular injury is true?

3. What terms describes cellular death caused by severe cell swelling and the breakdown of
organelles? This would describe necrosis.

4. A direct result of anaerobic metabolism during hypoxic cell injury is: loss of ATP, which leads to
sodium pump failure, then water enters the cell, causing swelling, which causes the ribosomes
to separate from the endoplasmic reticulum, causing protein to not synthesize, then it swells,
degrades the organelles and membranes, then ruptures.

5. Failure of the sodium/potassium pump during cellular injury results in cellular: accumulation of
sodium and calcium, and diffusion of potassium out of the cell.

6. Free radicals are unstable molecules that cause cellular injury through the process of: lipid
peroxidation, attacking critical proteins that affect ion pumps and transport mechanisms,
fragmenting DNA, causing decreased protein synthesis and damaging mitochondria, releasing
calcium into the cytosol.
7. During cellular swelling, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum leads to: decreased protein
synthesis.

8. What are the primary factors contributing to oncosis in hypoxic injury? The primary
factors contributing to oncosis are; a lack of ATP causes sodium pump failure, then water
enters the cell, causing swelling, which causes the ribosomes to separate from the
endoplasmic reticulum, causing protein to not synthesize, then it swells, degrades the
organelles and membranes, calcium accumulates and activates enzymes, and then the
membrane ruptures.

9. Chronic infection of the cervix by the human papillomavirus results in cervical: dysplasia

10. Infectious injury is caused by: invading and destroying cells, producing toxins, and
producing damaging hypersensitivity reactions.

11. Inflammatory and immunologic injuries are caused by: the cellular components of
phagocytosis and inflammation, histamine, antibodies, lymphokines, proteases and especially
complement damage cell membranes during immunologic injury.

12. Cellular accumulations in normal and injured cells are also known as: infiltrations.

13. Metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system often result in the accumulation of:
carbohydrates and lipids.

14. The process of programmed cellular self-destruction is called: apoptosis.

15. Caseous necrosis occurs under what conditions? It occurs when a person has Tuberculosis,
caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Module 6

1. Which cells produce antibodies during an immune reaction? Plasma cells produce antibodies.

2. When mast cells degranulate, they release: histamine and chemotactic factors.

3. Which of the following is not a function of antibodies?


4. In addition to antibodies, what molecules act as opsonins? Complement proteins also act as
opsonins.

5. The predominant antibody of a typical primary immune response is: IgM.

6. If a person is exposed to antigen X and is later exposed to antigen Y, what immune responses to
antigen Y will occur? The response would be a secondary immune response.

7. A differential rise in which white blood cells is typically seen with viral infections? Lymphocytes
are the WBC that rise with a viral infection.

8. What is the function of the Fc portion of the antibody? The Fc portion of an antibody acts as a
connection to the antigen.

9. CD4 receptors that bind to the surface of macrophages are found on: Helper T cells.

10. What methods do cytotoxic T (Tc) cells use to destroy infected cells? Cytotoxic T cells destroy
infected cells by producing toxins and stimulating apoptosis.

11. Which of the following cells are phagocytes?

12. A differential rise in which white blood cells is typically seen with acute bacterial infections?
Neutrophils are the WBC seen in bacterial infections.

13. The process of covering bacteria with antibodies to promote phagocytosis of the microorganism is
called: opsonisation.

14. The precursor cell to the macrophage is the: monocytes.

15. After degranulation, the mast cells release prostaglandins and leukotrienes that perform which of
the functions? They act as inflammatory mediators.

16. What immune response is directly responsible for activating inflammation? The innate immune
system activates inflammation.
17. What inflammatory chemical is capable of activating all three plasma protein systems? The
chemical that can activate all three immune systems is Hageman Factor XII.

18. What is the function of H1 receptors for histamine on white blood cells? Hi receptors on WBC
promote inflammation.