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Yol, l-Zllec.tgl2
Editor: Robert T. Bray, University of Missouri-Columbia
Jean Tyree Hamilton . . .

1972 Acknowledgments .,I

Henry -J7.Hamilton,President Introduction . ..2

The Home Pipemaking Industry . .) a

VICE-PRESIDENTS Home Industry Pipe Making Methods . .7

LeonardW. Blake Edward C. Matthews,Jr. The Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Company .8
Factory Machinery 11
J. AIIen Eichenberger Clem T. Kelly
Dr. H. Lee Hoover Leo J. Roedl Factory Firing and Glazing , . .12
Dr. Carl H. Chapman,Secretary David R. Evans,Treasurer Reed Stems .12
Pipes Made By The Factory .LZ
TRUSTEES FactoryPrice List of Pipesand Jobbers Discounts,As of t941, .13
H o r o l dW . M o h r m o n ,( C h o i r m o n ) Pamplin Area Pipe Forms .14
Leo O. Anderson Maynard A. Fisher Miss Marg ret.Lawlor Conclusions. . ,2I
RamseyBearden Michael R. Fisher I. H. Lehmer Bibliography . . )7

Dale Belshe Howell Geiger Dr. James L. Lowe THE UTLAUT SITE (235A1.62W):AN ONEOTA-HISTORIC MISSOURI
/ohn E. Berq' Henry H. Gerdes Frank Magre BURIAL SITE By PatriciaJ. O'Brien and Kevin Hart . .48
C. L. Blanton,Jr. J. N7. Gerhardt \Tinton O. Meyer Burial Descriptions .. . 48
FreddieBolJinger Harold Green SteveMiller Discussion. . . . 67
Fred Brandenburger T. M. Hamilton George \7. Nichois ReferencesCited .o)
Mrs. Mary B. Bruno Dr. E. B. Hanan Dr. Peter Nichols Appendix: SkeletalRemainsfrom the Utlaut Site by Kevin Hart and
C. \Tarren Cagle Ha:ly L. Harner CharlesV. Orr Ciark Larsen .o/
Miss Harryette Campbell Dr. M. M. Hart \f. L. Philyaw A REPORT OF SALVAGE INVESTIGATIONS AT ST. CHARLES,
R. I. Colborn Dr. \William Hayes Mrs. HowardPlatz MISSOURI By J M. Shippee . .15
J. L. Connelly O. Lee Herberger Art Province
Paul Corbin J. P. Herring Julian D. Pyatc
J. M. Crick Leo P. Hopper Nelson Reed
Mrs. W. L. Davidson James G. Houser Donovan Reynolds CLAY PIPES FROM PAMPLIN By
S7. B. Debo Dr. Shelby Hughes Ralph G. Roberts Henry \7. Hamilton and JeanTyree Hamilton
Jack Dennis EImo Ingenthron Paul V. Sellers
Richard V. Dolby Sam C. Irvine Dr. FrancisL. Srubbs Plate Page
TerranceDyche Sam G. Jones Johr W. Taylor 1 . T o o l s o f t h e H o m e P i p e m a k i n g l n d u s t r. .y. ......26
BenedictEllis James F. Keefe Floyd Vavak 2. Pamplin Pipe from the steamboatBertrand . . . . . . .27
Jim D. Feagins Thomas Keel, Jr. John C. Vinton 3. Stencilson the Box of Pamplin Pipes from rhe Bertrand . . . . .27
Dr. Raymond Felling David Kimbrough George Von Hoffman, Jr. 4. The Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Company,Inc. . . . .28
Forrest Femmer George \W. Kirk James
tValden ). Kiln of the Pamplin Smoking Pipe Company . . . . .29
ChadesR. Fiorita Claude Knoles 6. Pipe Molding Machine from Pampiin Factory . 30
P R E S E R V A T I OONF S I T E SC O M M T T T E E 7 . S a g g e rf sr o m t h e P a m p l i nF a c t o r y. . . .......3I
8. Advertising Brochure,Pampiin Pipe Company . . . 32
J. J. McKinny (Chairman) p . T h e " o r i g i n a l "P o w h a t a na n d o t h e rP a m p l i nP i p e F o r m s . . . . ......33
JosephB. Abell GenevieveHuss Allen B. Soper 1 0 . P r i c eL i s t o f P a m p l i nC o m p a n yP i p eF o r m s. . . . .......34
Dr. Hugh L. Cutler CharlesE. Martien Frank Stonner 11. "Tomahawk Pipe," 1941Brochure . . . . .3)
William R. Denslow Haysler A. Poague C. H. Turner 12. SalesTag {or "Original" Powhatan Pipe . .36
Robert L. Elgin Robert M. Seelen Art. L. \Talihausen,Jr.
Arthur L. Freeman,Jr. George U. Shelby,Jr. 111
13. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms " '37 bv Henry \7. Hamilton & Jean Tyree Hamilton
14. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms ?a
. . . J v

15. Pampiin Area Pipe Forms 3c) ACKNO WTEDG M ENTS

16. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms ...40
\We wish to expressappreciationto all of the following for their help and
77. Pamplin.AreaPipe Forms
18. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms assistancein the p..p.trtion of this rePort. The contributions of some are dis-
19. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms cussedin detail in *re text, but we afe grateful to each and every one'
20. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms Miss NTilsieThornton, Mrs. Bess Franklin Mattox, Stuart M. Farrarand
2L. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms Jack Price, Pamplin, Virginia.
22. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms Dr. Clyde G. O'Brien, M.D.; Calvin Robinson, retired editor; Ray Noble
23. Pamplin Area Pipe Forms and \{/illiam Sperry,Appomattox, Virginia'
Tables Mrs. Aldah B. Gordon, Clerk Circuit Court, Appomattox County, Appomat-
1. Sourcesof Pipesand Relative Numbers avaiiablefor Examination . . . . . . .14 tox, Virginia.
2. IdentificationsAppearing on Certain.Pamplin Pipes . . 1t
Vernon C. Womack, Clerk Circuit Court, Prince Edward County, Farmville,
BURIAL SITE By PatriciaI. O'Brien and Kevin Hart . . . . ... .48
Alford L. Rector, CharlesH. Meadows,and Mrs. CharlesS' Martin, Ap-
Figures Dom2rtox court House, National Historic Park, virginia.
1. Floodplainof the Missouri River with Locationsof Edward A. Chappell,virginia Historic Landmarkscommission, Richmond,
23sA4,23SAL62Wand Z35A162. Virginia.
2. Test Excavationsat the Utlaut Site
Edward F. Heite, formerly with Virginia Historic LandmarksCommission'
3. Burial t,23s[r62\f .
4. Artifacts from the [Jtlaut Site FrancisB. Fitzgerald,Suffolk, Virginia.
I. Burial 2, 2lSAr62W . David Dautenhahn,Marshall, Missouri
6. Pottery Vesselsfrom the Utlaut Site . . . . -Valker, \W. Griffin and Richard D. Faust,SoutheastArch-
7. Burial ).2JSAL62\7 . John W. John
8. Burial 4,2354I62W . aeologicalCenter, National Park Service,Macon, Georgia'
Historic Park, virginia.
9. Burial 6,235{r62w . J. Paul Hudson, JamestownNational
10. Pottery VesselsAssociatedwith BuriaI 6 . Rex L. -ilrilson, Acting Chief, Division of Archaeologvand AnthroPology,
11. Tibiae of Burial 1 . . . Nationai Park Service,\Tashington.
12. Skull Profilesof Burial 3 . . .
Tabks John C. Ewers,SmithsonianInstitution,
Park Service,\Tashington'
1. Post-CranialMeasurementsand Indices for SkeletalMaterial Jerome E. Petsche,National
from 23SAI62W ....73 CharlesPhillips, Williamstown, Massachusetts'
2. Cranial Measurementsand Indices,Burials, 2, 6 .
Miss Mary M. \ratts, Times-Dispatch,Richmond, virginia.
3. Comparisonof Male Staturefor Oneota Indians ..../4
A REPORT OF SALVAGE INVESTIGATIONS AT ST. CHARLES. Robert L. Saville, Jr., LawyersTitle InsuranceCorp., Richmond Virginia'
MISSOURI By J. M. Shippee . . ....75 Morton L. \Tallerstein and Ralph Dombrower, Richmond, Partnersin the
last factory operation.
Figures Page
Microfilm Department, virginia state Library, Richmond.
1. Pit A Pottery .,,71
2. Pits B and D Artifacts . .79 Miss Eleanor Thompson, Assistant Librarian, Missouri Valley College,
3. Pit D Pottery ...81
4. Pottery from Pit D and .. .82

Marshall, Missouri. grounds, or whether they were made at the homes and excavatedfrom the base-
Mrs. Dorothy Erdmann, Summit County Historical Society,Ai<ron, Ohio. ment of the old Thornton Store, which through the years had taken them in
trade for merchandise.
Floyd Painter, Editor, The Chesopiean,
Norfolk, Virginia.
In some casesamong the pipes examined there were not more than one, or
Ronald A. Thomas, StateArchaeologist, Dover, Delaware. a few, examples of a certain form. In other casesthere were hundreds. Among
Mrs. ElizabethSchiekand L. T. Alexander,ArchaeologicalSocietyof Dela- the examplesavailableto us there v/as generally little variation in size within
'ware,\Tilmington. the sameform. \7e have illustrated the largest and the smallest,since this also
gives an opportunity to note minor variations that may exist between different
R. H. Landon, Minnesota ArchaeologicaiSociety,Minneapolis.
molds for the same pipe form. However, a rathe,rwide variation in size was
Howard A. MacCord,sr., Archaeology Societyof virginia, Richmond, vir- presentin that shown as (Plate 13 A), the "Original" Powhatan,where a total
ginia. of tz gradations from largest to smallest were found.
Ronald R. Switzer,Bertrand ConservationLaboratory,DeSoto National The predominant color of the pipes is dark red. A lighter color is infre-
\Tildlife Refuge,Missouri Valley, Iowa. quently present,running from almost yellow, to salmon, to light brown. The
very dark, almost black coioration of some is said to come either from minerals
The photographyis by T. M. Hamilton, Miami, Missouri, exceprwhere
present in the soil of this area,to which the pipes presentedhere had been sub-
jected sincenearly all had been many yearsunderground, or from actual fire that
To the many others who have helped, we also wish to expressour thanks.
had fallen into the saggersof the Co_mpanykiln, or the iron pots in which the
pipes had been fired in the home industry.
INTRODUCTION During the last yearsof factory operation "some white clay from either
STest Virginia or Kentucky was shipped in by nlkoad". This resulted in pipes
This is presentedas an aid in the identification of claypipes from the gen-
of a lighter color, at times light grey to white. Apparentiy no pipes made from
eral arcaof Pamplin, Virginia, th^t might appear in archaeologicaland historic
this particuiar clay were seenby us, except possibly those iliustrated in Plate 23
sites.Interest in thesepipes has been stimulated by their being reported as found
in varioussitesin the westernUnited States.
The circumstancesunder which this information has been gathered and the
fact that it has been a number of years since clay pipes were made here, either as THE HO M E PI PEM AKI NG I NDUSTRY
a home industry or commercially by the Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufactur-
\7e11 establishedlocal tradition indicates that clzy pipemaking in the homes,
ing Company,leavemuch to be desired.On the other hand, in our work we
for home and neighborhooduse,startedalmost as soon as the first settlersreached
have inspecteda total of 4,451 Pamplin pipes; of this number 39%iwere from
the area,and after the suitability of the local clay was discovered.Initial county
the factory grounds, and 6rVo were from the Thornton Store site and represented
organizationin this part of Virginia was well underw^y by the I74O's.
the home industry, so we feel that the 39 forms presentedrepresentat least a
Bradshaw'sHistorTof PrinceEdward Country,Virginia, 19t5, p. t states,Batho
majority of the pipe forms made at Pamplin.
Austin road to beclearedfrom tlte Apporrattox Nuer near ColonelRichard Randolph's
This is not to say that a similar form could not have been made elsewhere;
however the style, the generally heavier and thicker characterof the piece, and quarter to Hill's Fork on Vaughan's Creekb7 a/l who ltaed near the route and were
not employed on otherroads.1742,
the finish, or lack of it, as well as the usual deep red color of the Virginia clay,
Vernon C. \ilZomack,Clerk of the Circuit Court, Prince Edward County, in
would seemto make thesepipes distinctive.
a personal letter states,"Since the south fork of Vaughan's Creek originates a
Under the conditions in which these pipes were rerrieved it is obvious that
the numbers of the different forms located give little indication of the relative short distancefrom where the pipe factory was later located in Pamplin, this
might be the starting point. John \food's map of Prince Edward County, dated
numbers of the different styles that were manufactured,the popularity of the
1820which shows that part that was later cut off to form Appomattox County,
various syles,or the relative time of their manufacture.
gives a detail nerwork of roads through Kelso's Old Store,which appearsto be
Nearly all of the pipes.examinedwere retrieved by excavation,by people
near the presentlocation of Pamplin."
who simply happenedto become interested; this is equally true whether the
There werestoresat Sandy Riuer, Vm, and SarnuelMatthew had a storeat
pipes had been made by the factory and excavatedout of fill on rhe old factory
Walker's Church,and l{elso'sO/d Storewas betweenl{/a/ker's Church and MercintAn's were badly in need of some means of making a living. The pipes they made
Shop(now Pamplin)." The statemenris footnotedJohn Vood map, 1820,(Brad- could be traded at severalgeneral stores,or sold for a few cents,and there was
shaw, 1955:3I9). no cost for materials.
Meninan's ShopPost }ff,ce, 94 milesfrom Nchrnond, 185 milesfrom Washington, One such establishmentat which the local women disposedof their pipes
(Martin, L835:269). wasJ. R. Franklin & Co., of Pamplin. Some of these pipes were recoveredwhen
Adaertisen'tentfor renewal of bidsfor rural rzute for post ffice in Merriman's the cargo of the sternwheeler, Bertrand, which sank in the Missouri River at
Shopin 1843-1848 (Bradshaw,I95t :3r5). Port La Force,Nebraska,April 1, 186), (Petsche,L970:I) was salvagedin 7968'
The area that was later to become Appomattox County had been, succes- 69. The official list of artifacts recoveredin the salvageoperation, supplied by
sively, included in the areasof several earlier and Iarger counties. Appomattox
Jerome E. Petsche,National Park Service,who was in chargeof that oPeration
County was formed in 1845.The railroad came through Merriman's Shop in shows:
I8t4, and was renamedPamplin. The Appomattox County Courthouseburned Pipes,Smoking;Seaeraltlpes and sizesrecoaered; briars and clay; onelot included
and the county recordswere destroyed by fire on February 2, 1892 (Communica- clay bowlsexclusiuely,otherscontainedstemsand bowls. Consignee:Viuian and Sirnp'
tion from Mrs. Aldah Gordon). son, Virginia City. Manufaaurer'r stenciling:'THE CELEBRATED VIRGINIA
Mrs. BessFranklin Mattox reported,"Nicholas Pamplin, a residentof Mer- P O\TH A TA N ( CLAY) , J. R. FRANKLI N & CO . , SO LE AG ENTS FO R
riman's Shop, was the only citizen who permitted the railroad to go through THE MANUFACTURERS, PAMPLIN DEPOT, APPOMATTOX COUNTY,
his land without chargeand so the village was renamedfor him" (Mattox, per- VA.' Field lot numbersMPC 104, MPC 3t8, FSC 171.
sonal communication).For a time it was known as Pamplin Depot, then Pam- The following description of_the pipe shipment on the Bertrand was Pro-
plin City, finally simply Pampiin. vided by Ronald R. Switzer, Drrector, Bertrand ConservationLaboratorl, Na-
The home manufactureof pipes has had a long history in this part of Vir- tional Park Service,Missouri Valley, Iowa.
grnia and can be consideredas well underway by the I74Os.It existed long be- "The pipes areof one type and design (Plate 2). Forty pipe bowls plus 136
fore the Company came to Pamplin and continued after the Company had ceased fragments. . . all but 1) are chipped or broken, condition otherwise good. Clay,
operations,or as long as there was an activedemandfor clay pipes. predominantly grayish-tan,mottled with brick red and brown. Pastesoft, fine,
The Home Industry finally came to a close in I9J3. "Mrs. Betty Price of and uniform,...exterior has soft sheen.Preservation:Brushedwith soft bristle
Appomattox County was the last to make pipes. I have a mold usedby her. She brush in running tap water to remove mud." (Switzer,personalcommunication).
made them from childhood and in her prime could make 40,000pipes per year, This pipe is similar to (Plate 19U); however,there are slight variationsdue
having been taught by her mother in 1866 when she was eight yearsold. Her to differencesin individual molds made for production of the samepipe form.
mother had made them a lifetime before her. In the last year of Mrs. Betty The two pipe forms (Plate 19 T & U), were the only exampleswe found
Price's life, 1953,she made 500 pipes at the age of 95. They were made from that carried the peculiar pinkish-gray t^n color, and they were found only among
clay from her own farm." (Personalletter from Dr. Clyde G. O'Brien of Appo- the pipes made by the Home Industry. They were probably made of clay from
mattox, and her son,Jack Price of Pamplin). the samesourceand by the sameindividual, sincehome pipemakersusually dug
A column by the ll{ews-Leader correspondentfrom Appomattox, April 30, their clay on their ov/n premises,and the condition of the pipes, after a century
(year unknown) said, Hollywood has reacheda// the way to Panplin to get Mrs. in mud and moisture,indicatesthat the work was done well.
Betty Price'spipa for useby the Indians in the mouie,"Northwest Mounted Police". The shipment was contained in a wooden box, which was approximateiy
CecilB, DeMille's researchman ferreted out the Powhatanpipe somemonthsbeforethe I5Vz inches long, 8Vz inches wide, and 8 inches tall (Plate 2). The stenciling
flm went into prodaction. Seaeraldozen uere ordered,Franh Llryd also boughtPipes on the box is faint, but legible.
to be usedin theproduction of "Howards of Virginia", "Lettering on the top of the box indicated the consigneebut is so faded
Practicallyspeaking,all of the pipes made at the homes were made by white that it was impossible to obtain a good photograph; however the stencil once
women, and from about the time of the first settlementof the territory, as the read,-8. A. L. Vivian & Simpson, Virginia City, M. T." (Plate 3) (Switzer,
specialsuitability of the local clay for that purpose was eady discovered. personalcommunication).
Miss \Tilsie Thornton of Pamplin said that this industry had become espe- " One end of t he box was let t er ed,No. L, 216, M . Size" ( Plat e 3) . The
cially important after the \Var Between the States,becausewith so many men meaning of this can only be conjectured,however it may have indicated ship-
having been killed and the area in such straitenedcircumstances,the women ment No. 1, to this consignee; containing 216 pipes; of Medium size.
The stencilsidentifying the consignor,J. R. Franklin & Co., appearedon
both sidesof the box and were identical (Plate 3). The same,excePtin abbrevi- Finally with time and disusethe old building came down and erosion,with
ated form, appeareddiagonally on one end of the box. perhaps some intentional filling of the area,took place. So the site of the old
The accountbook of the store at New Store, Virginia, about 23 miles north- general store, which in its heyday had meant so much to Pamplin and Appo-
east of Pamplin, which is in the collectionsat Appomattox Courthouse,records mattox County and its people in their daily living, becamesimply a y^cant area,.
that on Sept. I, 1866,I. H. Schenaultwas paid $s.OOfor 1,600PiP.s, and later, Some yearsago Miss Thornton had made a train trip and met an old colored
(apparentlythe sameday) was paid $8.71 for 2,77) pipes. The latter was evi- woman in a rest room to which they had both gone to smoke. (When we met
dently a partial and immediate "in t(ade" transaction. her, Miss Thornton chain-smokedat the age of sl). The colored woman had a
So in the Pamplin area in the 1860sgeneral storeswere taking clay pipes sack of tobaccoand pulled out a clzy pipe which Miss Thornton recognizedas
made in the home industry, allowing about Vz( eachin trade for commodities, of the kind that her father used to take in trade, so she askedthe woman if it
and at least in one instancewere shipping them west for use by the miners in was a good one.
the gold fields. The woman answered,"Law, yes, but I can't buy them any more!" so Miss
Mrs. Betty Price has said that the Powhatan "Original" (Plate 13 A) the Thornton told her that it was made long ago, in her home town, and that she
"Hamburg" (Plate L4 F) and the "Zuyee" or "Zoo" (Plate 19 T) were some of would try to get her some.
the first pipe forms made in the area.(News-Leader, April 30, year unknown). Her next problem was to find some pipes. After severaldays she thought of
Many of the clay pipes made at homes near Pamplin were traded for com- the pipes that she feit sure were covered with earth and still in the basementof
modities at the Thornton General Store in Pamplin, and this store was truly her father's old store, so she talked to her cousin and next door neighbor, Mrs.
"general", for it handled, in addition to groceries,everything from threshing u"'#::lli#iH,, "*r,
machinesand horsepowermills to siik thread. ,h.y dugat thesite.Mrs.Mattoxthink,,, around
Miss \Wilsie Thornton had a copy of her Father'sletterhead:the Ietter was L958,though possibly 2 yearsearlier. "Erosion through the yearshad covered
dated,J^n. 9, 1892.The letterheadreads,- the pipes and when we fi.rststarted to dig we found none, then there they were,
V/, D, THORI,{TON, DEALER, under the dirt. \7e found two or three sugar barrels fuli. Tar was on a few of
GeneralMerchandiseand Agricultural lntplements. the pipes, from road tar that was also storedin the basementand spilled". (This
Vholesak dealer in All Stylesof Clrl Pipesand Stems tar, in hard-driedrough spots, is present on some of the pipes we examined;
Manufacturer's Agent for however it chips offreadily and leavesrhe pipe relativelyciean).
Aultman and Taylor Threshers,HorsePowerand Farm Engines, So the colored woman who couldn't find a Pamplin pipe to buy received
AIso BuckeyeReapers€t Mowers & Tbornmill Wagons. "either 15 or 16" and Miss Thornton receiveda letter of thanks from her from
"The pipes m ad e b y th e l o c a l w o me n ," Mi s s Thompson sai d, " w €re Atlanta.
traded to rhe Thornton Store for the necessitiesof life. The pipes were stored Miss Thornton still had approximately 1,410of the home manufactured
in the basementof the store and packedin barrels,in either pine needlesor saw- pipes for us to seewhen we visited her in July 1969,and Mrs. Mattox had a
dust, and shipped to the Baltimore BargarnHouse, or to other wholesalehouses. few.
From the wholesalehousesthey were shipped to the Cotton Statesand to the Dr. Clyde G. O'Brien of Appomattox has had a lifelong interestin the clay
\flest. Large orders were filled {or a tobacco factory in Pennsylvania,where they pipes of his zrea and in the history of their manufacture.He has a collection of
soid bags of tobaccowith the pipes." pipes as well as rwo pipe molds, and has given us much information.
Pamplin pipes have been reported from the sites of Fort Laramte, til7yom-
ing; Fort Sanders,Wyoming; Fort Stambaugh,\Tyoming; Fort Phil Kearny, H O M E I N D U S T R Y P I P EM A K I N G M E T H O D S
\Tyoming; Fort Union, New Mexico; Fort Sully, South Dakota; and Fort Davis, \We asked Dr. O'Brien for an account of the method of making pipes in
Texas ('Wilson, L97I).
the homes.The following is his contribution, in a letter dated March tr, L971,.
Miss Thornron's pa(ents were married in 1874,but the store was alreadyin
"I talked to Jack Price, age 86, he had worked in the plant for years.His
operation at that time. Her father continued operation until his death, Decem-
mother, Mrs. Betty Price, and grandmother made pipes at home in Pamplin.
ber 16, 1897;after that the store was run by her brother. A bank, the "Farmer's
"The clay was made up and pur into molds, when the pipe was removed
and Merchant'sNational Bank" was also operated in the store. In later yearsthe
from the mold the shaperwas used to smooth mold marks, if the pipe was to
building becamea drug store.
be identified with 'Original', 'Hayiti', or some other marking this was impressed
Company'srealizationof the availabiiity of the fine red clay from which the local
on the basewith a stamp at this time. The pipe was then sun-dried on a board
'set-up' the pipes women were producing pipes, a clay that could be used without even sifting.
in summer, or in the stove oven in winter. Then after they had
\fhen the Pamplin Factory was establishedis quite uncertain. Examination
were pur into an iron pot, the pots were put into an oven in the back yard and
of the microfilm of newspapersof the area that were availablefrom the Virginia
dry chestnut wood was placed around the pots and this was then set on fire.
State Libnry, beginning February 3, 1869 through December 2t, 1996,gave no
They did not have z thermometer so he did not know the temperature,but
clue to the date of the establishment of the Pamplin FactorI, rior did county
when the wood had burned completely the pipes were brought out to cool.
records,probably due ro the fire of tg9z.
"If a piece of wood fell into the burning pot and started to smoke it was
removed at once to keep from blackening or staining the pipes. Sometime imrnediately
prior to 1880 Villian Merrill of Akron, Ohio, undoubtedly
a ntemberof the pipe making family, establisheda pipe making factory at Pamplin,
"After the pipes cooled they were brought into the house and Mr. Price
(Omwake,1967:23). Our Pamplin informants were of the opinion that the Ak-
said that when the pipes were poured out of the pot in which they were baked,
to the floor, they would ring or chime when they hit against each other. ron plant was devoted to the manufacture of drain tile after the pipe machinery
"The pipes were then waxed with bee's wax and mutton tallow and then was moved to Pamplin.
polished with a woolen cloth, and the children helped." Bob Davis of Pamplin, born I87I, in an interview withJohn \7. \Talker in
In all of this, Bob Davis of Pamplin, age9r, in talking to John \7. \Talker in Septembe r I)62, said,"I was a kid when the factory came in". Timewise this
L962,had concurred.He said,"The pipes were molded, trimmed, put on a board would be in generalagreementwith Omwake's estimatefor the date of the es-
and dried in the sun,bakedin iron pots, waxed, and rubbed.The pipeswere made tabiishment of the factory at Pamplin.
all through the country, the local storesbought and shipped them, and the That Pamplin pipes were also 4vailable from Akron in 1893 is evidencedby
Factory would buy these 'country pipes'." Here was more direct evidencethat a letterheadof the Akron Smoking Pipe Comp^ny, datedJune 26, 1893,show-
the Factorl, ori occasionat least, bought and shipped pipes made by the Home ing examplesof two clay pipes similar to Plate 22 AF & AG, (Blair, 1965:36).
Industry (tValker, personalcommunication). A communication from the Summit County Historical Societyreporrs,"The
There were, however, two men who made pipes. Akron Smoking Pipe Co. is recorded as being in businessfrom 1891 to I89t,
Dr. O'Brien's father Thomas O'Brien, was born in I84). When he came and were manufacturersof stone, Powhatan CIay, and corn cob tobacco pipes.
back after the N(/ar,about L865,he made his own mold of white-oak with lead Daily c^pa.crty100,000pipes. General offices,Akron, Ohio. Factories,Pamplin
lining and made pipes for his own use. City, Virginia; Mogadore, Ohio."
According to Miss \Wilsie Thornton, a Mr. Rodgers was making molds and Statementsin company htenture are also confusing. In aleaflet which car-
pipes until about 79)B as a hobby. One of them was in the form of an Indian ries a testimonial for their pipes, dated April 28, r94I and price lists "effective
head (Plate 23 AL). The "peach seed" pipe (Plate 23 AM) is also thought to November 15,I94L", the statement is made,from carefu/searchof the records, tbis
be one of his manufacture. factory started moretltan 200 years dgl . . . the presentp/ant has beenin operationfor
44 years.Skilkd American labor is usedin a modern,day-lit plant with specialattren-
TH E P A M P T I N S M O KIN G P IPEA N D M AN U F A CTU R IN G C OMP A N Y tion to cleanliness,
sanitation,and ideal working conditions(Plate 8).
This would give a date for the "present plant" of t897, but it also suggests
In the middle 18)0's that part of Ohio that surroundsAkron was the pipe- that an earlierplant had been rebuilt or replaced.(An undatedand unidentified
making capital of the United States,with at least six clay products companies news clipping does state that at some time the pipe plant had burned). Com-
producing them (Blair, 7961:2630). The leading producer of clay smoking pipes pany literaturealso states,"Established1739" (Plate 8). This obviouslycannor
in the Akron vicinity was the E. H. Merrill Co., which had beenproducingpottery refer to the estabiishmentof the plant, nor even to the mother plant at Akron,
objectssinceits founding in 1831.ln 1843or 7844Calvin, brother of E. H. Merrill, sincepottery was first producedin Summit Counry, Ohio, in i828 (Blair, 1965:2).
invented a machine for making pipes which gready increasedthe output of the The Company may simply have been employing "poer's license" and appropri-
company and gave quite an advantageover its competitors (Blair, t965:3). ated a date which they felt representativeof the start of the Home Pipe Making
The Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Company, Inc., was estab- Industry in the Pamplin area.
lished by the Akron Smoking Pipe Company of Akron, Ohio, when they built The Tirnes-Virginianof Appomattox, date unknown, carried a news article,
the plant at Pamplin. Pamplin Clay PtpePlant oncetermedlargat in the World. The Farmuille Herald of
That the clay in Appomattox County was well suited to pipe manufacture March 29, r93t stated, , ..the output of the Clay PipeFactoryat Parnplinis 1,000,000
was well known. The establishmentof this plant was no doubt the result of the
a rnuntb, uhen it is running fult tirne. In the rlrter of businasa in Virginia, this fac- and earthenuare. . .", (Charter Book No. 1, Page 108, Appomattox County, Vir-
tory is mentionedas the largat claypipe factorT in the United States,and v far as is ginia). The corporation (Charter No. 3456t-16)was dissolvedby the StateCor-
known, in the world, poration Commission,at the request of the stockholders,on February21, I9)2.
At one point in the history of the plant, pipes were sold to England as well A personalcommunication,February23,7972, from Morton L. \Tallerstein
as some other countriesin Europe. who with Ralph L. Dombrower as corporate officers were the last active oper-
Also vague has been the terminal date of the Pamplin Company; it is vari- ators of the pipe factory,states,"Mr. Dombrower and myself, as sole stockhold-
ously given locally as L948to 1951. ers, started the operation in 1938 and baked the clay pipes up to the time of the
There is a contemporary news article on the fzuory published in the Rich- enactment of the Minimum -J7ageLaw by Congress.At that time it was appar-
mond Tima-Dispatch, Aprll 2I,7946. A History of Appomattox, Virginia, published ent that the part-time workers, largely farm girls and boys who worked in the
Ig48,states, The Akron Pipe Factory 0"fPamplin holds the title of manufacturing the afternoon, would ceaseto be employed becausethe pipes could not be marketed
f.nestclaysmokingpipain the world, knownas the'Powhatan'(Featherstone,t948.44). under the wages required to be paid.
In a personaiietter to the writers,John C. Ewers said,"During my field "However, Mrs. Betty Price and another wornan made rhe hand-madeclay
work on rhe Fort Peck Reservationin Montana, in 79)3,I first learnedof the pipes at their homes, which pipes Mr. Dombrower bought after 1938 and very
Pamplin clay pipes. One of my Indian informants told me about selling them cleverly boxed in antique fashion and sold them for some years.However, un-
when he was working at a uading post on the reservationduring the first decade fortunately the women who made these pipes died and they were no longer
of the presentcentury. . . made.
"Later I visited the trading post at Oswego on the Fort Peck Reservation. "The factory, itself, did not m4nufacturepipes beyond the period stated
There the proprietor showed me the illustrated price list of the Pamplin Smok- above.The property was sold in 1947 and the corporation was dissolvedin 1952."
ing Pipe and Manufacuring Company, Inc. He showed me the only type of pipe Apparently then, the Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Company
he still had in stock-the'Century of Progress',ChicagotyPe (Plate23 AJ).He ceasedali activity in l9JI, having been in existenceslightly more than 70 years.
said the manufacturerwrote him in 1951 that he planned to go back into the Some time after the closing, the main factory building was used ^s a g r^ge.
manufactureof the other styles,which the Assiniboinepreferred". In July of t969 this frame building, with the name "Pamplin Smoking Pipe and
The Tomahawk pipe was a good specialtyitem for sale at such events as Manufacturing Co., Inc., American Indian Clay Smoking Pipes".srill painted
fairs and expositions,and the Company's salesto the "Century of Progress"in above the entrance,stood unoccupied; the crumbling old smokestackand large
Chicagoin 1933must have been excellent,even though they had not sold all round kiln of brick constructionwere still there (Plates4 &5). Another build-
they had made in anticipationof that demand.The bowl, necessarily narrow and ing which had servedCompany purposeshad been destroyed.
s inc eit wasin th e b l a d e o f th e to ma h a w k , d i d not recommendi t to
el o n g a t ed
serioussmokers,nor to the Assiniboine. FACTORYMACHINERY
It would seemevident that these pipes were left over from the production The machineryto mold smoking pipes and bottles was invented by Caivin
of the Company tn L933,that their regular pipe models had by this time been Merrill of the E. H. Merrill Pottery, Summit Counry, Ohio, in 1843 (Blair,
sold out, and that the Company was aheadyin a state of quiescencein 19tI. 1965:3).
Dr. Clyde G. O'Brien of Appomattox statedthat the Companyceasedoper- The pipe machinewas simple: the individual metai molds in the foot pow-
ationsin 1951. ered mechanismcould be changed to vary the pipe form. The whole was con-
The Charter of the Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Company tained in a simple wooden bench (Plate 6). Miss \Wilsie Thornton felt that a
shows that it was incorporatedby the Commonwealth of Virginia on the 15th man working such a machine could produce thousandsof pipes per day. It is
day of August, 1929.The officersat that time were,J. V. Lewis, Pres.,Prospect, unknown how many such machines were used by the factorl, nor how many
Virginia;J. \7. Franklin,V.Pres.,Pamplin; L. N. Ligon, V.Pres.,Pamplin; T. R. people were employed since ideas of our informants varied; however, the best
Pugh, Secy-Treas., Pamplin. estimate seemsto be 8 to 10 machines,with employeesvarying from 70 to 40,
The purposesof the Company then were, among other things, to deal in depending upon the pressof work and the rush of orders ^t ^ny given time.
wood of all kinds, own timber lands, contract to do constructionwork, deal in Bob Davis of Pamplin, in the interview with John W. \Talker said, "Old
real estate., and to buy and sell all kinds of necessary material...and operateall the
man Taz Harvey made the Powhatan mold. He had a shop and made many
necersar)) equipmentand rnachineryfor the purpose of manufacturing claypipa, crocks, molds".

Arrow Rock, Missouri, where some of them appearedfor sale as an unusual
item. They obviously had been underground, for the bowls and baseswere still
The pipes were packed in round stoneware crocks or saggersmade from filled with earth containingnumerousrootlets growing through the pipe cavities.
fireclay, and the saggerswere stacked alternately around the kiln. The saggers It was learned that the pipes had been supplied by Francis B. Fitzgerald,
were some eight inches high and 16 to 18 inches in diameter (Plate 7). There Suffolk,Virginia; David I. Dautenhahn, Marshall, Missouri, put us in touch
was an opening in the top of the kiln through which, in giazing, salt was put with him. As a youngster, Fitzgenld had on various occasionsvisited his grand-
when the pipes were hot. They were fired some 24 or 48 hours (Miss Thornton's father's farm, which was near the Pamplin Factorl, and had played in the water
statement). of a littie creek on pipe plant property. In so doing, he discoveredthat there
Mrs. Maddox said:"As a child I used to go with a colored man who worked were numerous clay pipes in a bank which apparently had been placed in the
with us and also for the fectory, and watch him throw salt down a hole in the creek to form a dam. (The dam was probably for the purpose of retaining water
top of the kiln on the pipes to make a glaze." to mix with the clay). He had hundreds of these pipes. Practicallynone would
At a high temperaturethe salt vaporized and combined with the silica in seem to have been rejects-how or why they got into the dirt which was used
the body of the clay to form a glassy or 'silicate glaze'.The kiln was fired 32 to to make the fill is unknown. Through the years Fitzgerald had made a selection
36 hours before maximum temperaturewas reached;it was cooled the sameperi- of forms representativeof this group, all of which he made availableto us.
od to prevent crazing(minute cracking) of the glaze(Blair, L96;D). This de- Sincethat time an owner of the pipe plant property had securedmany pipes,
scription of glaztng refers to stoneware in the mid-nineteenth century potteries later acquiredby the Appomattox National Historic Park. They were made avail-
near Akron, Ohio. However since the Pamplin kiln was the samesort of "walk- able to us by Alford L. Rechtor, Superintendent.
in" kiln, the detail would fit, and it is substantiatedby Miss Thornton's srate- The Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission supplied photographs of
ment of firing time. some Pamplin pipes, as well as photographs of a pipe mold and pipe maker's
From the scarcityof glazedpipes among the many that we examined,we bench (Plate 6) and saggers(Plate 7). We were granted the use of theseby Ed-
concludethat the majority were finished without glazing. ward F. Heite and EdwardA. Chappeii of that instirution.
John \7. of the National Park Service, who had worked in the area
R E E DS T E M S and becomeinterestedin the pipes made there, provided us with a copy of his
The stemssold with the factory pipes were made from switch caneArundin- fieid notes and some examplesof pipes.
ara gigantea known locally as reed and once abundant in the Great l)ismal John C. Ewersof the SmithsonianInstitution had visited Pamplin. He gave
Swamp in southeasternVirginia (R. H. N7oodling to Chas. H. Meadows,May us much information and showed us severalpipe forms from the area that are
Ir,1969). (The stems used with the pipes made by the Home Industry usually in the collectionsof that institution.
came from the same source.) Rex L. tJ(/ilson,National Park Service,loaned us a copy of his manuscript,
The reedswere cut rn 12 foot lengths by men in boats, allowed to dry for "Clay Tobacco Pipes from Fort Lzramie, Wyoming and Related Sites", in which
six months, cut in lengths and reamed out. Some \ rere put in a machine and he identified some specimensas having come from Pamplin.
bent (Miss Thornton, Dr. OlBrien).
Cork plugs or washerswere used in the baseof the pipes to hold the stem FACTORY PRICEIIST OF PIPESAND JOBBERSDISCOUNTS,A5 OF T941.
in place.Some were stili in place in pipes we examined.A plug mill, a high The Company'sprice list of November I94I listed "The Powhatan Ma-
pressuremachine,extruded the cork plugs which were cut off by wire (Heite). chine Made", fitted with cork closuresand lO" reed stems,bowls trade-marked,
(Replacementreed stems for cLay,hickory, or corn cob pipes, retailed in the packed)0 to box, 2)S retailer.Price $6.00per box." (Plate 10).
grocery storesin Lexington, Missouri, for 100 per dozen about 1916). Five other models were listed, "5 in. reed stems,packed 100 to box, 1l(
retailer.Price $l.oo per box." Two models were listed similarly, but 104 retailers,
PIPESMADE BY THE FACTORY price $2.;o per box. Two other 100 retailerswere listed at $z.lO per box, and
A number of people and institutions with varying numbers of Pamplin Fac- one model at $z.g: per box but the suggestedretail price was still 10( each.
tory pipes in their possessionhave given us an opportunity to examine them. One model, their "Ole Virginny Hamburg", was offered in finest fire-clay,
The largest number of specimenswere in the hands of the following. hard-burned,white, simulatesmeerschaum,aiso in red. Similar to "Ole Virginny
Our attention was first called to these pipes in i968 at the Craft Club in Shaker".It was a 10Sretailer,$2.70 per box of too. (It is of interest that this

L2 L3
pip., listed elsewherein this same price list, but as "Ole Virginny Shakerof 17 N. Factory 1 22 AH. Factory 1
Virginia red clay, a heavier stone pipe", was priced as a 150 retailer and $e.oo 17 0. Factory 1 22 AI. Factory 2
per box). (Plate 10). 17 P. Both Many 23 AJ. Factory 1
18 Q. Both Many 23 AK. Factory 1
Jobbers discountswere offered."10 to 20 boxes, 2O%,a;ndgoing upby 5/o 18R. Home 10 23 AL. Surface 1
stagesto "101 to 500 boxes,35% discount"."NTe make many other stylesof
18 S. Both Many 23 AM. Home 2
Indian Clay and StonePipes,. . .we can make any style of pipe that can be made 19 T. Home L4
of cIay.Our own designersand artists afe at your sefvice" (Plate 11).
In the last yearsof Factory operation their salescarried an identification tag,
"This Is An 'Original' Powhatan Pipe", and it was being made by the last two TABLE NO. 2
women of the Pamplin areawho were still making pipes at their homes (Plate
L2). Identifications Appearing On Certain Pamplin pipes.

Plate: Source of Pipe. Designation. Lettering.
The pipes are illustrated natural size.The largest and the smallestpipe of
each form avilIablreto us aie shown. In many instancesthis differencein size 13 A. Both Original Impressed
is not greal; however, it does illustrate that minor variations often existed in 13 B. Home Original Impressed
I7 M. -
Both Original or Impressed
different molds for the same pipe form. The diameters for the stem openings
have not been included since they have proved useful only in considerationof 18 a. Both Hayiti Impressed
the eariier integrai-stemclays,and not for considerationof the "short-base"pipes 18 R. Home Genuine Impressed
of the type and time included in this report (\7ilson, L97L:2). 19 V. I'actory 11n Raised
20 z. Factory Catlins Raised
20 AA. Factory 103 Raised
2I AC. Home Original impressed
21 AD. F actory Powhatan Impressed
Sourcesof Pipes, and Relative Numbers Available for Bxamination.

Total number of pipes inspected - 41457, Plate 13 l, Slightly Acute Angle. Made both in the factory and in the home.
Many examples.All are a deep, dark, glossy red, except 9 pipes which were a
light brown. Plain round bowl, octagonalbase.It was made in at least 12 slight-
Plate. Source. Number Plate. Source Number of ly varying sizes,there being that many vaiations between the large and the
Examples. Examples.
small pipe iliustrated.This was the Pamplin Company's "Original" Powhatan,
13 A.
and it was no doubt one of the Company'sleadersin producrion and sales.The
Both Many L9 U Home 2
13 B. Home 2 19 V. Factory 1 word "ORIGINAL" is impressedin the right side of eachbase,with the excep-
13 C. Home 11 19 W. Surface 1 tion of one single pipe, and the lettering appearsin at least three different sizes,
1 " 4D . Home 4 20 X. Factory 1 there being no correlation between the letter size and pipe size.This is a sturdily
14 E. Home Many 20 Y. Both 2 made pipe.
14 F. Both Many 20 Z. Factory 4 The ComPany emphasizedin its publicity that the Indians had originally
15 c. Factory Many 20 AA- Factory 4 demonstratedto the early settlers the method of making the Powhatan and so
15 H. Home 3 21 AB. Factory 1 had enabled them to make this exact form, thereby inferring that this model
15 I, Factory Many 2L AC. Home 1
16 J.
should have been of particular interest and worth. No doubt at some time and
Factory Many 2l AD. Factory I
r.6K. Both Many 21 AE. Factory 1 place in our history a happening of this nature may have occurred. However,
16 L. Factory Many 22 AF. Factory 2 the Powhatan is a usuai form which has been found in aboriginal sites,with
17 M. Both 37 22 AG, Factory t- some modifications and of varying materials,over a wide area.

Many of these pipes appeared,both from the factory site and among those tion is separatedfrom the diagonal line basedecoration by a rounded band. Dou-
made by local women and retrieved from the basementof the Thornton General ble band at both top of bowl and end of base,the outside band broad and flat,
Store. Mrs. Betty Price said that this form was a standardproduct of the local the inside band narrow and rounded. The right and left halves of the pipe are
Home Industry pipe makers before the factory ever came to Pamplin and one of divided from each other, front and back, by a broad smooth ridge covering the
the earliestmade in the area.All of the pipes availableto us carried the designa- mold mark. Only slight variations in size.
tion "Ori ginal" excePtone. Plate 15 G, Right Angle. Factory. Many exampies. Dull red. Diagonal line
The making of clay pipes was an old and well establishedbusinesszt Pam- decorationon bowl runs at right angles ro that on base.Double band at top of
plin; whether the impressingof the word ORIGINAL on the baseof this pipe bowl and stem end of base,outside band flat, inside band narrower and rounded.
was an innovation of the Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Companf , The right and left halves of the pipe are divided from each other, front and
or whether this had been long done by the Home Industry is unknown. back, by a broad smooth ridge which covers the mold mark. Two slightly differ-
Plate 13 B. Slightly Acute Angle. Home. 2 examples.Dark red. Piain round ent sizes.
bowl, octagonalbase.Quite similar to "A" except both bowl and baseare short- Plate 15 H. Acute Angle. Home. 3 examples. Dull, dark red. Spiral decora-
er, and diameter of bowl proportionally larger. "ORIGINAL" is impressedon tion on bowl, plain hexagonalbase.Double band ar top of bowl, upper flat,
right side of base.A very sturdy PiPe. lower rounded. Large rounded band at end of base.
Plate t3 C, Slightly Acute Angle. Home. 11 examples.Glossy dark red. Plate 15 /, Right Angle. Factory. Many examples.Dull, dark red; a few arc
Round bowl, octagonalbase.Upper part of bowi plain, lower front portion dec- light brown. The Company cailed this model their "Ole Virginny Shaker".
orated with a seriesof raised dots. The dotted area is divided into two triangles, Grooves of decorationrun vertically on bowl and curve toward the bottom to
as well as separatedfrom the undecoratedxea by raisedand rounded bands.The stoP at a rounded band, then continue horizontally to srem end of base.Double
mold marks in the undecoratedareahave been almost entirely smoothed. It band at toP of bowl, upper flat, lower rounded. Double band at stem end of
would seemthat all pipes of this form came from the samemold, in contrastto base,inside band rounded;the outside band may be either rounded or flat; rf flat,
the fact that at leasrmost other Pamplin pipe forms seem to have come from a the end of baseis noticeablyswelled.Five slightly varying sizes.
number of different molds. Plate 16J, Sharply acute Angle. Factory. Many examples. Dark red. Broad
((C" grooves of decorationrun from top of bowl and curve toward bottom ro con-
The two pipe forms and "B" are quite similar, excePtthat "C" has
decorationas well as a slightiy longer base,and is not marked "Original" Both tinue to stem end of base,or curve back around bowl. Double band at top of
are sturdily built, with thicker than averagebowl walls, and both were retrieved bowl, uPPerflat, lower rounded. Prominent rounded sweli at stem end of base.
from the Thornton Store site; no exampleswere found at the factory site. They At least 4 different sizes.
are probably the product of the same individual woman working at her home. Plate 16K. Acute Angle. Both. Many examples. Dull red to dark brown.
'J" in form and decoration
Plate 14 D, Slightly Acute Angie. Home. 4 examples.This is a black PiPe. Quite similar to excepr that lines of decorationare
The deep,solid color was probably intentionally achievedby allowing Portions mofe nafrow and the bowl does not set at such an acure angle to base.Only
of the burning wood of the kiin to fall into the iron kettles which were used slight variationsin size.
as saggersfor the firing of pipes in the Home Industry. The bowl and baseare Plate 16 L' Obtuse Angle. Factory.Many examples.Dark red to brown.
round, with diagonalcross-hatched decorationon bowl, separatedfrom the same Round undecoratedbowl and round tapering base.These pipes are somewhat
decorationon remainderof base by a narrow rounded band. Flat band at both similar to eady stemmedclay imports except that the baseis cut off rather shon,
top of bowl and end of base.The right and left haivesof the pipe are separated to form a flat vertical face,instead of terminating in a stem which was an integral
from each other, front and back, by a broad smooth ridge covering the mold part of the bowl and base.The opening in the end of the baseis quite small and
mark. does not have the usuai taper. A11of the pipes of this form are nearly identical
Plan 14 E. Slighdy Acute Angle. Home. Many examples.Bright red. Bowl in size.
and basedecorationsimilar to "D", but this form is somewhat smaller than Plate 17 lvI. Acute Angie. Both Home and Factory products,3T examples.
"D". Double band at both top of bowl and end of base,the outsideband broad Bright, light red. Plain round bowl, hexagonalbaseexpanding to a b,'tt-shaped
and flat. the inside band narrow and rounded. Only slight variations in size. swell at stem end of base.The flat bottom extendsaround and under the bowl.
Plate 14 F. Right Angle. Both. Many examples.Dull red. The Company "ORIGINAL" is impressedin the right side of base of some examplesand
called this their "Akron Hamburg". The diagonally cross-hatched bowl decora- "FLORENCE" in orhers,while some have no wording. The factory examples
that we saw were marked either "ORIGINAL" or "FLORENCE",.as were some

1 /

of those of home manufacture;however, 16 pipes of home manufacturehad no Plate 20 X. Slighdy Acute Angle. Factory. One example. Salmon pink color.
wording. At least three sizesare represented. Ten-sided bowl and base.A rounded band of beading is near the top of bowl,
Plate 17 N, Acure Angle. Factory.One Exampie. Dull, dark red. Similar to the baseend is simply cut off flat.
"M" except heavy rounded band of beading around near toP of bowl, no word- Plate20 Y. Acute Angle. Both Home and Factory.Two examples.The bowl is
ing. Hexagonal baseexpandsto a bell-shapedswell at stem end. Mold marks decoratedby narrow upright grooves and ridges which extend from the baseup to
^r. -or. distinct. and lightly acrossa rounded band which encirclesthe bowl near its top. The
Plate 17 O, Acute Angle. Factory.One example. Dull, dark red. Plain octa- hexagonal baseflares somewhat toward the stem end. This the Company called
gonal bowi, with planescontinuing along base to large rounded swell at stem "\figwam Shaker".
end. From deep in the dam at factory site. Plate 20 Z, Acute Angle. Factory. Four examples.Color ranges from pale
Plate 17 P, Obtuse Angle. Both Home and Factory.Many examples.Duil, red to light orange, though rwo ^re yery dark, probably from having iain long in
dark red or brown. Octagonal bowl and base. No decoration. Baseexpands the stream bed. The round bowl is encircied by a band of rounded beading near
slightly towards stem end. Relatively small piPe, three slightly varying sizes. the top. Below this, on each side of the bowl, appears"CATLINS". The base
Plate18 Q.Obruse Angle. Both Home and Factory.Many examples.Glossy, is hexagonal and its planes merge into the lower portions of the round bowl.
light red to deep red. Plain round bowl and base:the baseterminatesin rounded The top plane of the baseseemsto be divided into two narrower planeswhich
and swelled end. "Hayiti" impressedon right side of base.At least three sizes give the base a seven-side d appearance;this howeve; is probably due to lack of
of lettering. A few of these pipes are right angled. A similar PiPe,excePt that it trimming of the mold mark. The baseterminatesin a Largerounded stem end.
had one small rounded band of beading nea,rthe top of bowl, the Company This was probably a specialtypipe, and apparently all the pipes of this form had
called their "Powow Smooth Shaker". these characteristics.
Plate18 R, Very Acute Angle. Home. 10 examples.Dark, glossy red. "Gen- Plate20 AA, Acute Angle. Factory.Four examples.Color rangesfrom pale
uine" is impressedon the right side of base,excePtone examplewhich had no red to light orange to medium red. The 14 upright panels which constitute
lettering. Piain round bowl and base,tetminating in rounded and swelled base the bowl, with its two encircling rounded bands near the top, give the effect of
end. Atl apparentlyfrom samemold except one which was not marked "Genuine", a wooden bucket whose stavesare held by hoops. The raisednumber "103" ap-'
Ptate-Is.!. Acute Angle. Both Home and Factory.Many examples.Glossy, pearson the flat bottom. In one example a metal ferrule, apparentlyof brass,is
dark red. Plain hexagonalbowl which expandstowards the bottom. Plain, slim still in placearound the stem end of base.Other examplesof this pipe no long-
round basetapering towards stem end. These pipes usually c^rry a high glossy er retain the ferrule; however, the discoloredpattern of the ferrule was present
finish. Two slightly different sizes. to show that each had originally had one in place.All pipes of this form seem
Plate 19 7. Slightly Acute Angle. Home. Fourteen examPles.Uniform iight identical and evidently came from the same mold.
tan color. Undecoratedround bowl and base.Bowl taPersuniformly from top to Plate21 AB. F.ight Angle. Factory. One example. Dark Red. Round undec-
bottom and baseexpandsuniformly to stem end. Two slightly varying sizes.No orated bowl and base.Stem end of basehas an inside taper to hold a small reed
mold marks,but some evidenceof smoothing' stem.
Platet9 U, Right Angle. Home. Two examples.Uniform, light pinkish tan Plate21 AC, Slight Obtuse Angle. Home. One example.Glossy, dark red.
color. Quite similar to "T" except bowl diameter is slightly larger and does not Similar to "AB" except the angle of bowl and "ORIGINAL" is impressedon
have the exffeme taper,but rounds towards the base.Two slightly varying sizes. the right side of the longer base.
Probably madeof the sameclay by the sameperson who made "T". No evidence Plate 21 AD, Obtuse Angle. Factory. One example. The plain bowl and
of mold marks,but someevidenceof smoothing' base have a uniform high glossy red finish. "PO\trHATAN" is impressedon
Plate19V, Acute Angle. Factory.One example.Dull red. Round bowl and the right side of base.The stem end of basehas been broken off, and it is pos-
base.Two bandsof rounded beading encirclemid-portion of bowl, baseexpands sible that this baseterminated in a clay stem which was an integral part of the
towards stem end. "117" in raised figures appearson the left side of the base pipe. In that event it would have followed the pattern of some of the old white
near stem end. clay imports. There are no spurs or projections of any nature at the bottom of
Plate t9 IZ. Right Angle (A Surfacefind). One example. Dull red. Except the bowl.
for its angle, this pipe is quite similar to "V" with its two bands of rounded Plate21 AE. Probably Obtuse Angle. Factory.One example.Glossy medi-
beadingencirclingthe bowl. um red. This is a form similar to some early white ciay imports. \While the only

l8 T9
example available to us was badly broken, it seemsto have its own integral clay occasions.The pipe illustrated was made specificallyfor sale at the Chicago
stem, and it definitely has one spur below the bowl. NTorld's Fair and has "Century of Progress,Chicago" in raised letters on the left
Roll of Fired Clay, A porion of a roll of fired clay was found in the fill on side. "1833-(likeness of an Indian)-7933" is on the right side of bowl.
the Factory site, It evidently had been prepared for molding, and some clay had Plate23 r4K. Right Angle. Factory. One example. Color light tan. This was
been broken from each end. It could have been a test firing of the clay, or the the Company's standardnovelty pipe, recommendedfor all occasions,and it was
piecemay haveunintentionallygotten into the kiln. shapedlike a tomahawk. A likeness of \Tashington appearson the right side of
Plate 22 AF, Right Angle. Factory. Two examples. Colors are light orange the bowl, with the name "\Tashington" in raised letters above. On the left side
and red. A flat band encirclesthe top of the bowl, and below this is a more nar- is the likenessof an Indian wearing a Plains headdress,and above it in raised
row rounded band, whose lower edge is here and there lightly cut in line with letters is the narne "Powhatan". A wide flat band encirclesthe stem end of base.
the groovesbelow. The vertical grooves of decorationon the bowl continue, or The Pamplin Company's literature stated, Tontahawk Pipe-I'{ouelty, molded
merge with a lessernumber of horizontal grooves and ridges which run to the hand engraaed brassdie, of clay, hard-burned and glazed, An atnactiae
front. f,nut
stem end of the base.These grooves, in part at least, extend over the large iternfor carniua/s,conaentions,fairs, etc.Packed200 to a box with 5" reedstems.Price
rounded swell at stem end of base.These two pipes illustrate the minor differ- #ll.SOper box,This pipe was a regular salesitem for festiveoccasions(Platerr).
encesthat mty exist in different molds usedin making the samebasicpipe form. Plate23 AL, Right Angle. (A surfacefind). One example.Deep red. Most
and the following three pipe forms seem to representa transition from Pamplin pipes of home manufacture were made by women; however, Miss rVil-
the earlier,rather heavy,sturdy and relatively thick side-walledclay pipes, to a sie Thornton and Dr. C. G. O'Brien said that a Mr. Rodgers,abour 1938,made
pipe lighter in weight, which is more representativeof the form in use by what pipe molds and pipes of unusual .form as a hobby. Miss Thornton mentioned
might be consideredthe last generarion of regular clay pipe smokers. two forms that he made-an Indian Head, and a \7oman's Leg, the calf being
Plate22 AG. AcuteAngle. Factory.One example.Color is gray. This piecewas the bowl and the foot being the base,with the toes at the stem end of base.
among the eight pipe sherds,still sufficiently intact to give an indication of the This pipe is creditedlocally as being of his manufacture.
original pipe form from which they had come, that were picked up by us on the Plate23 AIvL Right Angle. Home. Two examples.Deep glossy red. The
driveway of the Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Company in July decorationon the lower portion of the round and expanding bowi reminds one
1969.Some were heavrly glazedand of a different characterfrom the pipes dealt somewhat of a peach seed;this decoration is separatedfrom rhe upper part of
with up to this point, and seem to have come from pipes resulting from the the plain upper bowl by a rounded band. The baseis undecorated,and termin-
changein style mentionedunder "AF". ates in a smooth enlargedstem end. The secondpipe of this form was a surface
This pipe fragmenthas some characteristics similar to "AF". The bowl dec- find.
otation towardsthe top is unknown, but vertical lines of decorationoccupy the If the Factory had Nos. 703 and 117 how mzny more numbers may rhey
bowl, and only those on the front of the bowl continue along the base;those have had?
on the sidesterminateupon joining the front lines. The stem end of the base Impressedidentifications,usually put on the baseof the pipe with a stamp
is also somewhatdifferent,being decoratedby a rounded and finaliy a flat band. after the pipe came from the mold, appearon pipes from both the Homes and
This sherd carriesa moderatelyheavy glue and it is the first pipe form pre- from the Factory.It is of interest that apparentlyidentificationsin raisedletter-
sentedwhich actuallyshows evidenceof a salt gIaze. ing came only from the Factory.
Plate 22 AH. Right Angle. Factory. One example. Color pale yellow to
light brown. Round bowl and base,double rounded band of beading around top coNctusloNs
of bowl and stem end of base.Bowl decoratedwith raiseddots in cross-hatched
In the beginning of this effort we had assumedthat the pipes made by the
Pattern.Spiral decorationon base.Prominent mold marks, thin sidewalls.Heav-
iIy glazed. Factory would be quite different, in both form and decoration, from those made
Plate22 AL Right Angle. Factory. Two examples. Color rangesfrom deep in the homes.S7e have found that this assumprionis not valid.
red through light orange to yellow. This lighter pipe with thin sidewalls has There is a great deal of ovedapping, probably due to the Factory,after its
two narrow rounded bands encircling the top of bowl, which is otherwise plain. arrlaI in Pamplin, taking over and producing a number of the shapesand de-
A large rounded band is at stem end of base.These pipes are well glazed. signs that had iong been in use in the Home Industry. It is also possible that
Plate 23 AJ, Right Angle. Factory. One example. Dark Red. This is a ver- the Home Industry appropriatedsome of the Factory pipe forms.
sion of the Company'snovelty "Tomahawk Pipe", decoratedto order for special In addition, all local evidenceagreesthat the Thornton Store did not pur-

20 2I
chasepipes from the Factor/i they were getting pienty themselves,taken in trade In our work we have handled literally hundreds of the pipes, Plate A,
for their merchandise,and which they would have to disposeof on the whole- called "Powhatan Original" in the Company's literature and advertising.These
sale market in competition with the Factory. had been excavatedboth from the factory grounds and from the basementof the
There is locai evidencethat the Factory did, at times, buy locally made pipes oid Thornton Store, and we found nothing about these two iots of pipes that
in order to fill large orders, as well as when their machinery was not in opera- would seem to distinguish the two manufacturing sources.Of the total, only
tion. It is quite unlikely however, after buying and paying for them, that these one single pipe failed to czrry the word "Original" impressedin the base.
pipes wouid be found in the landfili on the Factory grounds, the fill from which This "Ori ginaI" was an early Home Industry form, and there is strong evi-
the "factory" pipes consideredin this study came. dence that when the Company came to Pamplin they adopted this form, and
Of the totai of 39 pipe forms located by us, 10 were from Home Industry, added "Powhatan" in their advertising,just as they must have adopted some
i9 from the Factory, (eight appearedin both), and two were either surfacefinds other locai pipe forms. "Original" was also impressed,but probably at a still
or rhe knowledge of their exact place of manufacturelost, as they had long later date, on the baseof three other pipe forms; they were formS "8", "M",
been in the hands of their local Pamplin area owners. and "AC".
The Akron Company had made pipes before they establishedthe pipe piant \7e also believe that the Company made the best estimate as to the starting
at Pamplin, and the names of some of their pipes in the Pamplin literature date of the home pipemaking industry, (they would have had about a hundred
would infer that at least one form, the "Akron Hamburg", had been carried year tdvantage in arriving at such a date, as compared to the problem under
from Akon to Pamplin, which then is describedas "from Virginia clzy, attrac- present circumstances),and applied that date to Pamplin Smoking Pipe and
tive red color". ManufacturingCompanyas having,been"established\739". In other words, they
On the other hand, Mrs. Betty Price has been quoted as saying that the pictured themselvesas being a continuation of the industry that was aheady
pipe form known as "Hamburg" was one of the first made by the women of the there.
area. If the date of 1878,or one near that time, for the establishmentof the Pam-
For a time in later years,at least by 194r, the Pamplin Factorymade a pipe plin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Co. is correct,then this is later than the
similar in form and decorationto their "Akron Hamburg", but of fire clay, and terminal date of som€ of the western forts and trading posts at which Pamplin'
called it "Akron Shaker". pipes have been reported.It would thereforeseem evident thac the Pamplin
Sincethere is so much overlapping of form and decorationbetween the pipes found in some westernlocations were the result of Home Industry, made
pipes made in the homes and those made by the Company, one wonders if there before the pipe plant ever got to Pamplin. This is authenticatedby the fact that
might not have been even more overlapping had the sample availableto us at they were being carriedby the Bertrand.
this late date been greaterthan the 4,4tL pipes examined. It would seemdesirable,instead of considering these pipes as Pamplin Com-
It is our conclusionthat when the Akron Company came to Pamplin they pany products,to simply think of them as Pamplin Area Pipes.
startedto producepipes of a number of forms that had long been made by the
Home Industry of the Pamplin area.They m^y also have brought one or more BIBLIOGRAPHY
Akron pipe forms and decorationswith them, to be manufacturedat Pamplin.
In turn the Pamplin Home Industry possiblyadopted some forms now being
1965 ThePotters and Potteriesof SurnmitCountL,1828-1915 The Srrmmit
producedby the Company. (Some of these forms may also have been in pro-
CountyHistoricalSociety,Akron, Ohio
duction in other ^re^s,but probably of different clay).
The foremosrfactor distinguishing Pamplin ar€a pipes, from either manu-
1955 HistorVof PrinceEdwardCounty,Virginia Dietz Press,Inc. Richmond.
facturing source,was the "Virginia clay,of attractivered color".
So far as we have been able to determine,no particular friction ever devel-
I9t8 ArchaeologicalExcaaations Virginia ArchaeologicalRe-
at Jamestoutn,
oped berweenthe Factoryand the industry being carriedon at the homes; each
searchSeriesNo. 4, National ParkService,\Tashington.
had its own wholesaleoutlets.
To the best of our knowledge, the Home Industry startedabout 1740a.nd
1957 I'JeuDiscoueries
at JarnestownNational Park Service-\Tashington.
definitelyclosedin l%3.
The Pamplin Smoking Pipe and Manufacturing Company was established
1969 "stylesof DetachableStemPipes"MarylandArchaeology Y:2.
about 1878,and it definitely closedin 1951.

JOHN \r.
L969 PersonalCommunication January27, Ig69 1962 Field Notes, on pamplin pipes, while engagedin Archaeological Re-
lglz PersonalCommunication January 19, 1972 searchAppomattox Courthouse.
1948 The History 0f Apponattox County, Virginia. Appomattox American 196r "clay Pipes from Fort Laramie" Annals of wryorning33:2, L2o-L34
Legion Post 104,Appomattox Cheyenne.
FONTANA, BERNARD L., AND J. CAMERON GREENLEAF 1966 "Tobacco Pipesfrom Fort union, New Mexico" El palacio,T3: r.32-
1962 Johnny l{/ard's RanchThe Kiva,28:l-2, Tucson 40. SantaFe.
HEITE, ED\TARD F. L971 Clay TobaccoPtpesfrom Fort Laramie, National Historic Site and Related
1969' "Pipe Industry History Reflected in Tools" Quarterly Bulletin, Arch- Locations.Division of Archaeology and Anthropology, National park
aeologicalSocietyof Virginia 24:2,118-119. Service,\Washington.
19lt "Pipes from the Pamplin Factory in Appomattox County Virginia" \TOODLING, R. H.
Quarnrly Bulletin, Archaeological Society of Virginia 25:3, I9)-t96. 1'969 Communication to Chades H. Meadows, Appomattox Nationai His-
MARTIN, JOSEPH toric Park, May Ij, 1969
L835 Gazetteer of Virginia published by Joseph Martin, Charlottesville. STOOL\TORTH, ALLAN R. AND \7. RAYMOND \TOOD
MILLER, CARL F. r9(m "Archaeology at Kipp's Post" Riaer Basin SurueyspapersI,{0, 20,
1960 "ExcavationAnd Investigations of Fort Lookout Trading Post II in Bureauof American Ethnology, Bulletrn 176: 239-32I.STashington.
the Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota" Naer Basin SurueysPapers
I,{0,17, Bureauof American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 176,Nos. I:-20 Newspopers
PP49'sz' I93t FarrnailleHerald,Farmville, Ya. Mar. 29, t935.,pamplin pipe Factory',
OM\rAKE, H. GEIGER 1946 Tima-Dispatch,Richmond, Va. April 2r, 1946,,Indian pipes are Still
1967 "supplemental Report on Additional \fhite Clay Pipe Evidence Re-
Producedfrom Clay Found in Virginia,'.
coveredfrom the Buck Site Near Chestertown, Maryland" Bulletin
7965 Tima-Dispatch,F.ichmond, va. March 3r, r96J *pamplin pipes in
ArcbaeologicalSocietyof DelawareNos. 5 and 6, New Series,FalI t96l:
23- 30.
? Times-Dispatch,Richmond, va. March 30 ? "Historic pipes Shipped
PRUCI-IA, FRANCIS PAUL \ \7est From Virginia".
I9(A Guide to tbe MilitarT Postsof tbe U.S, State Historical Socie'tyof \7is-
7962 Times-virginian,Appomattox, va. "Ramblings About clay pipes,,
Ocl 18.'62
L943 "Historical Clay Pipes of the Minnesota Arez". Minnaota Archaeolo-
gist 9: 3,69-82.Minneapolis.
I9(fla. "Fort Pierre II, an Historic Trading Post in the Oahe Dam Area,
South Dakota". Riaer Basin SuraeysPapersNa, l8 Bureau American
Ethnology,Bulletin 176,Nos. 15-20:83-1t8.
r960b. "Investigations at Fort Stevenson'2Riaer Basin SuraqsPapersNo. 19,
Bureauof Ametican Ethnoiogy, Bulletin 176, Nos. 15-20:ti9-238.
1965 Communication to John \7. \Valker, Jan.8, 1965
7969 "Pamplin Pipes" The Chesopiean 7:I.

24 )5

Ploie 2. PomplinPipe,from the Bertrond,sunk in the MissouriRiver,

April |, | 865. Photos,RonoldR. switzer, BerrrondConservo
tion lqborolory, Nqtionql pqrk Service.

2 ri0L0 cLosEo 1 lsLD oPEX m Slfr wonKttlcs



By DR.c.G.
Plqte 3. Stencils on Box of Pomplin Pipes retrieved from the Bertrond.
OFFICE The box lop corried the nqme qnd qddress of the consign-
ee. One end evidently identified the shipment. The Consignor
wos identified on one end qnd on both sides of ihe box. cop-
Plote I. Tools of rhe Home pipemoking Industry. Drowing,
Edword ies, Ronold R. Switzer, Bertrqnd Conservqtion [oborolory,
F . Heit e, v ir gi n i c H i s to ri c l q n d m q rk s c o mmi ssi on.
N q t ionql Pqr k Ser vice.


Plote5. Kiln of the Pomplin Smoking Pipe qnd Monufqcluring Com-

pq ny, I nc. , M or ch I 965. The kiln hqd q copocit y of 2O O 'O O 0
Pl o te 4 . T he P om plin S m o k i n g Pi p e q n d Mq n u focturi ng C ompony, Inc.,
pi pes ot o single bur ning. Phoio, Richm ond Tim es- Dispot ch.
M qr c h t 965 . P h o fo , R i c h m o n d T i m e s -D i spotch.

28 29
Plqte 7. Soggers Used by the Pomplin Foclory. Dimensions of the
lorger sqgger,-overqll heighr 6", overell width, l0y4 Io lOVz",
w q ll t hickness 7h lo 1". Dqr k Br own gloze, m ot t led. Phot os
Plole 6. P i p e M o l d i n g M q c h i n e f r o m t h e P o m p l i n F o c t o r y .T h e m o - ond descr iplion, Edwqr d A Choppell, Vir giniq Hist or ic Lqnd-
chine ond detqil of mold. photos, Virginio HistoricLondmorks mqr ks Com m ission.
Com m is s io n .

30 31
Iirorn corcful scarch of thc rrcords, this factor.r.
\tJr(.c(l ntore thun 200 agr). 1'he present planr
has bven in operation for 4* ,years. Shilh:d Arneiical
Hand-Made "Powhatan" ---.
o - lI

,Jliiiir u
labor is ustd irr a modern, da,r.-lit plant with .special

a t t e r r r i o n t r > c l c a r r l i n e s s ,r a n i r r t i o n a n r l i d e a l w o r k i n g
ctrr)ditions. I

-l'he >t

buying trend is torvard Indian cla), axd stonr

lripcs. and visitors to your locality are buying
thcru as gifts, souvenirs and far pertonal usr, Every
true .\rnerican \vants il genuinc ln<tian pipe*and *rl o
i ) u . \ ' 1 , n ( ,f o r l i t t l e r n o r c t h a r r t h e c o i t o f I c a n -.c I E

of smok_
irtg trrlr;rcco. ml t
*l o

€iz,iirtl'Ei F}it
( J r t l c r - y o u r a l i s o r t ! ! ) e D tt o d a ] . . t!
I)isnlay thcm well
rn<[ they will sell quickly. I,anrplin Indian pipes givr cl o
,' u lol l
you 0 prolit unheard of in the tobacco
trade, o.

'' tl


o - lI
i IEf
'g r6'gi ri?;i
E!tabllrhcd t?S EI 'o-
ol All StylcroI - ur l l
Slonernd PowhatanCloy Pipesand Reed Stemr cl ; oA
PAMPL|N,vtRctNlA, u.5. A. --c I tr: i: cL
cl A. ao
|ol 7v
Printed irr t'. .\. A. -1' l =
* ls l 79
&:,,;, o.u
lol ul *-
cl *"
4 a:
ufl ,fr,)r: o{
r-l rl"1
ol g)-
\T q3

t, I ,F4
_.c I
trJ %9 'ae
{ "3{ x,2
{') *,: o:


<l : od

3 F; g
o o.
^ l

{t: i

I t-* .
srl a:
Plqte 8. Brochure, Pomplin smoking pipe ond Mqnufqcturing *-c I
co., Inc., l*l
1941. Copy, Morton L. Wqllerstein.

32 33

.i P R I C EL I S T
,F:F|:FCTI\'€ i iBFFEC'rIIE NOYET{BER 15, 19.11) {EFFECTI\'g NO\"E.\IBER 15. I9{Ii
iio\'ElttsliR 15,
lSee PaEe 6 !or Jobbtr's Dfsraurrsl [See Pa3c 6 lxr Jobbar's Disrorrrsl
[.!r'e Fa,gc6 lor Jobbrr's Di$o(nrs]

Akron H.rburg
lSiailar /o .{lroa f,ir*rr)
POWHATANHAND.MADEPIPTS llachine-rlade fronl lirginia Qla,r, hard-lurnrd.
attractive red color. Also madc in rrhirr. Prclrd lu{r
lnrlilidualll' pir(*aged irr attrartive rustic fan- to hcr with 5" rccd $flDr. ltk Retailer. Pricc, $J.!rr
per lrux.
r;rint,r, l{isr.,ric:rl BooLltt, instrufiion tag, aitd tno
1{}" rr:sd itemi-$r1( ctrn'ed. r.,nr str;right. readt, Akron Shaker Powow Harnburg
l\Iachine rrnulded from 6re clav. hard-burncd and lSinilar ta loaac' $&alar)
icl mailing. glazed; r srone pipe fired wirh 5" reed slcn). Pacted
trlachine-made lrnm $irginia Ciay, h.rrd-hurnrd,
1(ri to bor \rith stetns. I 5c Rctailer. Prite, $3.00 per bor. atr alrra(tii'e small borvl, ?acled to{l to brx with 5'
Gross $48.00 red strrns. t{lc Retailer. Pricc, $2.50 prf Ito.*.
llinimum order I j Grus. Powow Shalar
Stone pipe, srnoclh finish, glazed, fitted with 5" reed Ole Virginny Flamburg
Retoil.s tar lrow S$f to $1.{N sten. Packed l0D lo bax n'ith ttems. l5c Retaile:. (Srmiiar ta Otc I'irgiray Sha*cr)
lrice. $l.tti} per hrx.
l\frc}rine-madc {rorn finest fire-clay, hard-1'urncd,
rvhite, :imulates meerschaum, onc of, thc mo\t popul!r
Olc Virginny Shaker shapes- ,Alio made in rrd. Pactcd lo0 to box rrirh I*
Buy PipesMade in Amcrica Hcrvier stonr pipe, aftractirr firirh, firted rsitb 5"
rced rtctrr. Paclied I CtOto bor wit h stems. I 5c Retailer.
reed rrIDr:. trlc Rcrailer. Price, $2.70 pcr lrer.

-For American Smokerr! I r i c ( , $ 3 . 0 t 1p e r h o r .

Wigwcm Hamburg
\figwam ShaLet r.lirai/nr tt lf igNan 8*aIcr\
Rral charocter di:tinsrisher this attractive stlnc l\lachinc-nrarlr irlrn f irgiria CIay, hlrd-burucd.
pipc, .fitted rtith j" rred strm. lrrclitd 1{X} to bos rvith Choiee r,f recl ,rr thitt. -\hape lppcal: to young and
POWHATAN COUNTERDISPLAY :lrtns. 15t Rrt:iler. I'ri*, $1.ii0 per lrrrt, uJr{. J'rrlrcl Ii)r! rJ:} hrtx rridr 5" rced uems, Ilk Bt.
rrilr r. I'ri,r. !l.itr lrcr lr,x.
lfrr-rJur l)onhiitart Pipes. ra,:h s-ith I{istoli*al
Iltx,hitt. irrrtrrrr:titn tag, ;rrrl trtra ltl" strxight Hamburg Assortment
,'\Ii r:'i,r lrirnt n{ f,5 crch of thc four abovc druril'rd
strtn irlclu(lcd. elrl ii1,r.s. lr\r i)iirer. firtrd *ith 5" teed strms. Fact*d
I { r r t 1 }i r ) \ w i r h . r t r r r r , l l . i c R e t a i l r r . P r i c t , $ l - $ S l t r b c r .
DOZTVI'() I)iSPl..rt\" C:lRl)
Stcmr l:n be furni:hcd \tIri*ht {)r hrll. ::ri,,- r::r) 1,. {uiilIl.rraighr or l,cnr-
.{dditionai Sremr and Srems Ertrr Lcngth .r,drJirl,nrl Stenr::nd Sitrfi{ Ertra LenEth
Gross $-18.00 Ccn iJr Supplicd at Slight Extra Cost. Crn B" Su;rplitrJ:t Slighr fra.t C(r*t.
\{inirnum rrder Ij Grurr. ,lr'n./ jlfori'.1 Or,Jrr or Cirrl .n'it/r OrJrr !o .lrri.r finr, -trrr./ .lf ra''r Or,ltr o {)/,crl qit/r A*jtr tp Sat'* Iin.:,

{Oiij\fd.l. liarJ illnstratrJ o, Id,yr i nj tbis Crrtal+g.) ilrrms: J'. (lorh l{ith Ordcr, Net 3S Dr1r.
l-r(;r: I 0 Itdcs 1*

Pl q te 1 0 . Pri c e l i s l o f Po mp l in C ompony Pipe Forms. Brochure, Novem-

ber I 5, 1941. Copy, Morlon L. W ol l erstei n.

o The TomahawkPipe---A Real Novelty

'l rl

o 1t

9 zo
!-< =-,/

tii;iqa*iii Eo^,_:
-> dt




' j a . ;
*lit ti=ar f ls i :
:::: gig } '
I|Erlii€l; ::: rxeil
4 : '


i;:EzlniF; usus"*3 r

q ; 4

o r - I

o ;

;:;t;]?ix*:ii:.';:; a ,
- it ==i!.eY7'lr= E'
? F ; r " f? i l 7 7 v ' z

&hx 9e
i) '

P l q t e 1 2 . S qles T og, c q rri e d b y th e " O ri g i n o l ' n pow hql qn pi pe, 1 9 4 1 .

Copy, Morion L. Wqllerstein. P l qte 13. P o m plin Ar eq Pipe For m s.

36 37
Pl o te 1 4 . P om plin A r e q P i p e F o rm s . Plote | 5. PomplinAreq Pipe Forms.

38 39
Pl q te 1 6 . P om plin A r eq Pi p e F o rm s . Plqte | 7. Pomplin Areq Pipe Forms.

40 47
P l q te 1 8 . P om plin A r e q P i p e F o rms . P l qte 19. P omp lin Ar eq Pipe For m s.

W ffi
[3 AC

Plqte20. PomplinAreq Pipe Forms. Plote21. PomplinAreq Pipe Forms.

44 +>
Plste 22. PomplinAreq Pipe Forms. P l qte 23. P ompl i n Ar eq pipe For m s.