Imperial China II

PRS101 Rhodalyn C. Wani

Song Dynasty, AD 960-1279

Figure 1. Northern Song Dynasty, 960-1127

Figure 2. Southern Song Dynasty, 1127-1279

•Emperor Taizu reunified China in AD 960, established capital at the northern city of Bianjing. •By 1127, the Song lost control of Northern China to the Jin Dynasty and moved their capital southwards in Lin’an. • Cities no longer administrative; centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce. • Song Dynasty ended with Mongol invasion in 1279.

Song Dynasty, AD 960-1279
• Imperial Examinations • paper (1st - 2nd c. AD) •books, printing • Yin privelege • Neo-Confucianism • Fan Zhong-yan (called for reforms in the education system) • Wang Anshi (attacked basis of local family wealth; curb corruption in government) • Zhu Xi (emphasis on the duality of li and qi; education • Scholar-gentry class

Figure 3. Song Imperial Examination

Song Dynasty, AD 960-1279
•Contributions: • Highly centralized bureaucracy • Printing and education spread leading to a rise in wealthy commoners • Bolstered naval strength as well as maritime trade • Revolutionized technology in using gunpowder • Rise of Neo-Confucianism and other refinements of previous philosophies

Figure 4. Song Dynasty Junk.

Figure 5. Trebuchet catapult used in launching explosives.

Yuan Dynasty, AD 1279-1368

Figure 6. Yuan Dynasty

•Founded by Kublai Khan under his grandfather’s name. • Fair amount of cultural exchange; but discriminations between groups continued to exist. • Rivalry amongst heirs, natural disasters, and peasant uprisings led to its collapse in 1368.

Yuan Dynasty, AD 1279-1368
• Contributions: • increased use of the written vernacular: rise of drama and novel • Western influences in music and performing arts • Tolerance for different religions: Islam, Roman Catholicism • Advances in travel literature Figure 8. Yuan (Marco Polo), cartography, dynasty armor geography, scientific education used during Mongol • Beijing became the terminus of invasions. the Grand Canal – completely renovated • improved maritime commerce and first contact with Europeans
Figure 7. Kublai Khan

Ming Dynasty, AD 1368-1644

Figure 9. Ming Dynasty

•Established by Zhu Yuanzhan (Hongwu – “vast military”, a peasant and Buddhist monk – capital: Nanjing (“S. capital”) and Beijing (“N. capital”) • Last native imperial dynasty in Chinese history • First quarter of the 15th century: peak; 1600s: decline

Ming Dynasty, AD 1368-1644
•Contributions: • introduced terrace farming •construction of a vast navy – contributing during times of war and trade • construction projects: Grand Canal, Great Wall, and the establishment of the Forbidden City • attempt to restore classical Chinese works in literature • heightened maritime trade with the Europeans: Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch at the port of Guangzhou (Canton)

Figure 10. The Forbidden City. Figure 11. Ming Dynasty painting of the Forbidden City.

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