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SOLTEQ

EQUIPMENT FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION

EXPERIMENTAL MANUAL

FILM & DROPWISE


CONDENSATION
UNIT
MODEL: HE163

SOLUTION ENGINEERING SDN. BHD.

NO.3, JALAN TPK 2/4, TAMAN PERINDUSTRIAN KINRARA,


47100 PUCHONG, SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN, MALAYSIA.
TEL: 603-80758000 FAX: 603-80755784
E-MAIL: solution@solution.com.my
WEBSITE: www.solution.com.my
230-0210-HE

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

Table of Contents
Page
Table of Contents............................................................................................................................... i
List of Figures.iii

1.0

INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................1

2.0

GENERAL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................2


2.1 Unit Assembly2
2.2 Experimental Capabilities..2
2.3 Specifications3
2.4 Overall Dimensions4
2.5 General Requirements4

3.0

INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING ...........................................................................5

3.1 Temperature Sensors ....................................................................................................5


3.2 Heating Element.............................................................................................................5
3.3 Cooling Water Supply ....................................................................................................5
3.4 Cooling Water Drain.......................................................................................................5
3.5 Commissioning Procedures ...........................................................................................5

4.0

SUMMARY OF THEORY.....................................................................................................6

5.0

GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES .........................................................................11

6.0

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE .......................................................................................12

4.1 Mechanism of Condensation..........................................................................................6


4.2 Film-Condensation coefficient for vertical surfaces ........................................................7

5.1 Electrical Connection ..................................................................................................11


5.2 Temperature Selection ................................................................................................11
5.3 Heater Setting .............................................................................................................11
5.4 Cooling Water Control..................................................................................................11

6.1 General Start Up Procedures.......................................................................................12


6.2 General Shut Down Procedures...................................................................................12
6.3 Experiment 1: DEMONSTRATION OF FILMWISE & DROPWISE
CONDENSATIION ........................................................................................................13
6.4 Experiment 2: THE FILMWISE HEAT FLUX & SURACE HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION AT CONSTANT PRESSURE.................................14
6.5 Experiment 3: THE DROPWISE HEAT FLUX & SURACE HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION AT CONSTANT PRESSURE.................................15
6.6 Experiment 4: THE EFFECT OF AIR INSIDE CHAMBER ...........................................16

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

7.0

EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE ..........................................................................................17

8.0

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ..................................................................................................18

7.1 Heater ..........................................................................................................................17


7.2 Condenser ...................................................................................................................17

8.1 Warning........................................................................................................................18
8.2 Cautions.......................................................................................................................18

APPENDIX A Experimental Data Sheet


APPENDIX B Typical Experimental Result
APPENDIX C Sample Calculation
APPENDIX D Filmwise and Dropwise condensation

ii

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

List of Figures
Page
Figure 1

Unit Construction for Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit


(Model: HE 163)

Figure 2

Film condensation on a vertical plate: a) increase in film thickness with


Position, b) balance on element of condensate.

iii

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

1.0

INTRODUCTION
The use of steam both for power production to convey heat has a long history and its
use in these fields is likely to continue into the foreseeable future.
In all applications, the steam must be condensed as it transfers heat to a cooling
medium which could be cold water in a condenser of generating station, hot water in a
heating calorifier, sugar solution in a sugar refinery and etc. During condensation very
high heat fluxes are possible and provided that the heat can be quickly transferred
from the condensing surface into the cooling medium, the heat exchangers can be
compact and effective.
Steam may condense onto a surface in two distinct modes, known as the Filmwise and
the Dropwise condensation. For the same temperature difference between the steam
and the surface, dropwise condensation is several times more effective than filmwise,
and for this reason the former is desirable although in practical plants, it seldom occurs
for prolonged periods.
The SOLTEQ Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit (Model: HE163) is designed to help
student to understand several key aspects in condensation topic, in particular the
process of filmwise and dropwise condensation. It allows students to visualize both
phenomena and perform a few experiments to demonstrate both concepts.

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

2.0

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
2.1

Unit Assembly

1
2

5
6

7
8

9
4

10

Figure 1: Unit Construction for Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit (Model: HE 163)

1. Pressure Relief Valve

6. Separator

2. Indicators

7. Dropwise Condenser

3. Flowmeter

8. Filmwise Condenser

4. Discharge Valve

9. Coiled-Heater

5. Pressure Transmitter

10. Vacuum Ejector

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

2.2

Experiment Capabilities
x
x
x
x

2.3

Visual observation of filmwise and dropwise condensation, as well as


nucleate boiling.
Determination of heat flux and heat transfer coefficients in both filmwise
and dropwise condensation at different operating pressures.
Investigation on the relationship between saturation pressure and
temperature for water up to 100 C.
Study on the effect of air on heat transfer coefficient in the chamber.

Specifications
2.3.1 Steam Chamber
x

Borosilicate Glass cylinder with flanged ends and covers


o Outer Diameter : 105 mm
o Height
: 400 mm
o Thickness
: 5 mm

2.3.2 Condensers
x

Two water-cooled condensers fabricated from copper and brass.


o Diameter
: 12.7 mm
o Length
: 120 mm
o Material
:
Gold plated (dropwise condenser)
Natural finish (filmwise condenser)

* Each condenser is fitted with 3 thermocouples to measure the mean


surface temperature and 2 temperature sensors to measure the inlet
and outlet water temperatures.

2.3.3 Heating Element


x

Coiled Heater with thermal protection


o Power : 3.0 kW
o Control : Triac control between 0.4 to 3.0 kW

2.3.4 Air Extraction System


x

Air cooler, separator, and water jet vacuum pump.

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

2.3.5 Instrumentations
x
x
x

Temperature sensors at all important points.


Pressure sensor to measure the chamber pressure.
Flowmeters to measure the water flow rate through the
condensers:
o Dropwise condenser
: 0.4 4.0 LPM
o Filmwise condenser
: 0.1 1.0 LPM

2.3.6 Safety Features


x
x

2.4

Pressure switch to turn off the heater when chamber pressure


exceeds 1.50 Abs Bar.
Pressure relief valve to discharge at 1.50 Abs Bar.

Overall Dimensions
Height : 800 mm
Width : 900 mm
Depth : 600 mm

2.5

General Requirements
Electrical
Water

: 230VAC/50Hz/25 Amp
: Continuous water supply (Min 10LPM @ 2-3 Bar)

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

3.0

INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING


Ensure that the main switch is switch off. Place the Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit
on a bench.

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

Temperature Sensors

Five temperature sensors are installed and each lead has a label. There are
also 6 thermocouple wires installed. Ensure that all thermocouples and the
lead are in good condition.

Cooling Water Supply

The Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit requires a source of clean and
constant temperature (cold) water with flow approximately 4 - 5 LPM at 2 to 3
bar supply. The Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit comes with water inlet
valves to control the water flow rates. Connect the water supply to the coldwater inlet.

Cooling Water Drain

The Film & Dropwise Condensation Unit comes with two drain tubes; one for
the condenser and one for the vacuum ejector. They should be secured
properly so that it will not fall out during the experiment.

Commissioning Procedures

Push the reset button of the Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) inside the
control panel after the main power supply is switched on. The ELCB should be
kicked off, indicating that the ELCB is functioning properly. If not, have a
trained wireman to inspect the trainer for any electrical leakage. The ELCB
should be tested at least once a month. Switch on the main switch and check
the indicators. They should display the measurements of all respective
instruments. Fill the boiler chamber with distilled water from the bottom valve
until the water level is sufficient to fully cover the heater element. Switch on the
heater and observe the boiling. Then, slowly open the cooling water of both
film and dropwise condensers. The flow indicators should display the
respective flow rates. Switch off the heater, the unit is ready for use.

Note: Never operate the heater whenever the water level falls below the
heater element as this will permanently damage the heater.

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

4.0

SUMMARY OF THEORY
4.1

Mechanism of Condensation
Condensation of a vapor to a liquid and vaporization of a liquid to a vapor both
involve a change of phase of a fluid with large heat-transfer coefficients.
Condensation occurs when a saturated vapor such as steam comes in contact
with a solid whose surface temperature is below the saturation temperature, to
form a liquid such as water.
Normally, when a vapor condenses on a surface such as a vertical or
horizontal tube or other surface, a film of condensate is formed on the surface
and flows over the surface by the action of gravity. It is this film of liquid
between the surface and the vapor that forms the main resistance to heattransfer. This is called filmwise condensation.
Another type of condensation, dropwise condensation, can occur, where small
drops are formed on the surface. These drops grow and coalesce, and the
liquid flows from the surface. During this condensation, large areas of tube are
devoid of any liquid and are exposed directly to the vapor. Very high rates of
heat-transfer occur on these bare areas. The average heat transfer coefficient
for dropwise condensation is five to 10 times larger than the filmwise
coefficients.
Dropwise condensation can be promoted by making the surface non-wetting
(via coating). However, dropwise condensation is difficult to maintain in
industrial applications due to oxidation, fouling and degradation of coating, and
eventually film condensation occurs. Therefore, condenser designs are often
based on the assumption of filmwise condensation.

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

4.2

Film-Condensation coefficients for vertical surfaces


Film-type condensation on a vertical wall or tube can be analyzed analytically
by assuming laminar flow of the condensate film down the wall. The film
thickness is zero at the top of the wall or tube and increases in thickness as it
flows downward because of condensation. Nusselt assumed that the heattransfer from the condensing vapor at T sat , through this liquid film, and to the
wall at T w was by conduction. Equating this heat-transfer by conduction to that
from condensation of the vapor, a final expression can be obtained for the
average heat-transfer coefficient over the whole surfaces.
In Figure 2 (a), vapor at T sat is condensing on a wall whose temperature is T w .
The condensate is flowing downward in laminar flow. Assuming unit thickness,
WKHPDVVRIWKHHOHPHQWZLWKOLTXLGGHQVLW\ l in Figure 2 (b) is -y) (dx  l .
The downward force on this element is the gravitational force minus the
buoyancy force, or -y)(dx)( l - ) gZKHUH is the density of the saturated
vapor. This force is balanced by the viscous-shear force at the plane y of l
(dv/dy) (dx1). Equating these forces;
dX
dx
dy

G  y dx U l  UX g

P l

(4.2-1)

Integrating and using the boundary condition that   at y = 0;

g U l  UX
PL

Gy  y / 2
2

(4.2-2)

Figure 2:

Film condensation on a vertical plate: a) increase in film thickness with position, b)


balance on element of condensate.

The mass flow rate of film condensate at any point x for unit depth is;

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

U lXdy

Ul

g U l  UX
Pl

Gy  y / 2 dy
2

(4.2-3)

Integrating;

U l g U l  UX G 3
3P l

(4.2-4)

At the wall, for area (dx1) m2, the rate of heat transfer is as follows if a linear
temperature distribution is assumed in the liquid between the wall and the
vapor;

qx

k l dx 1

dT
dy

k l dx

y 0

Tsat  Tw
G

(4.2-5)

In a dx distance, the rate of heat transfer is q x . Also, in this dx distance, the


increase in mass from condensation is dm. Using Eq. (4.2-4);

U l g U l  UX G 3

3P l

dm d

U l g U l  UX G 2dG
Pl

(4.2-6)

Making a heat balance for dx distance, the mass flow rate dm times the latent
heat h fg must equal the q x from Eq. (4.2-5):

hfg

U l g U l  UX G 2dG
Pl

k l dx

Tsat  Tw
G

(4.2-7)

Integrating, with G = 0 at s = 0 and G = G at x = x;

4 P l k l x Tsat  Tw

ghfg U l U l  UX

1/ 4

(4.2-8)

Using the local heat-transfer coefficient h x at x, a heat balance gives;

hx dx 1 Tsat  Tw k l dx 1

Tsat  Tw
G

(4.2-9)

This gives

hx

kl

(4.2-10)

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

Combining Eqs. (4.2-8) and (4.2-10);

hx

U l U l  UX ghfg k l 3

4 P l x Tsat  Tw

1/ 4

(4.8-17)

By integrating over the total length L, the average value of h is obtained as


follows;
1

4
hx
3

h dx
L x

U U  UX ghfg k l 3
0.943 l l

P l L Tsat  Tw

(4.2-11)

1/ 4

(4.2-12)

However, for laminar flow, experimental data are about 20% above Eq. (4.212). Hence, the final recommended expression for vertical surfaces in laminar
flow is shown as Eq. (4.2-13):

N Nu

U U  UX ghfg L3
hL

1.13 l l

P
kl
k
T
'
l
l

1/ 4

(4.2-13)

where U l is the density of liquid in kg/m3 and U X that of the vapor, g is 9.8066
m/s2, L is the vertical height of the surface or tube in m, P l is the viscosity of
liquid in Pas, k l is the liquid thermal conductivity in W/mK, 'T = T sat -T w in K,
and h fg is the latent heat of condensation in J/kg at T sat . All physical properties
of the liquid except h fg are evaluated at the film temperature T f = (T sat + T w )/2.
For long vertical surfaces the flow at the bottom can be turbulent. The
Reynolds number is defined as;

NRe
NRe

4m

4*

SDP l

Pl

4m

4*

WP l

Pl

(vertical tube, diameter D)

(4.2-14)

(vertical plate, width W)

(4.2-15)

where m is the total kg mass/s of condensate at tube or plate bottom and * =


m/SD or m/W. The N Re should be below 1800 for Eq. (4.2-13) to hold. The
reader should note that some references define N Re as */P. Then this N Re
should be below 450.
For turbulent flow for N Re !1800;

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)


1/ 3

N Nu

gU 2 L3
hL
0.4
0.0077 l 2 N Re
kl
Pl

(4.2-16)

Solution of this equation is by trial and error, since a value of N Re must first be
assumed in order to calculate h.

10

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

5.0

GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES


5.1

5.2
5.3

5.4

Temperature Reading

To read a particular temperature, use the temperature selector knob to select


the desired reading. The knob indicates temperature T1 to T4. T surf of filmwise
and T surf of dropwise are indicated by individual digital displays.

Cooling Water Flow Reading

To read a particular flow, use the flow selector knob to select the desired
reading (FT1 or FT2).

Heater Setting

To turn on the heater, turn the heater switch to ON position. The power
supply to the heater is controlled by turning the potentiometer clockwise to
increase the value or anticlockwise to reduce the value. Use both coarse and
fine regulators to obtain the desired heating power.

Cooling Water Control

The cooling water flowrate can be controlled by simply turning the valve
clockwise to reduce flow rate or turning the valve anti-clockwise to increase
flow rate.

11

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

6.0

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
6.1

General Start-up Procedures


1. Ensure that the main switch is in the off position.
2. Turn the power regulator knobs fully anti-clockwise to set the power to
minimum.
3. Check to ensure that valves V1 to V6 are closed.
4. Fill the chamber with distilled water until the water level stays between the
heater and baffle plates. Always make sure that the heater is fully
immersed in the water throughout the experiment. Water could be filled
into the chamber through the drain valve with the vent valve, V4 opened.
Then close the vent valve, V4.
5. Adjust the water flow rate to the condenser by controlling the control valve
according to the experimental procedure.
6. Turn on the main switch and the heater switch. Set the heater power by
rotating the power regulator clockwise to increase the heating power.
7. Observe the water temperature reading; it should increase when the water
starts to heat-up.
8. Heat up the water to boiling point until the pressure reaches 1.02 1.10
bar. Immediately open valve V1 and follow by valve V5 for 1 minute to
vacuum out the air inside the condenser. Then close both valves V1 and
V5.
9. Let the system to stabilize. Then take all relevant measurements for
experimental purposes. Make adjustment if required.

6.2

General Shut-down Procedures


1. Turn the voltage control knob to 0 Volt position by turning the knob fully
anti-clockwise. Keep the cooling water flowing for at least 5 minutes
through the condensers to cold them down.
2. Switch off the main switch and power supply. Then, unplug the power
supply cable.
3. Close the water supply and disconnect the cooling water connection tubes
if necessary. Otherwise, leave the connection tubes for next experiment.
4. Discharge the water inside the chamber using the discharge valve.

12

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

6.3

Experiment 1: DEMONSTRATION OF FILMWISE AND DROPWISE


CONDENSATION
Objective:

To demonstrate the filmwise and dropwise condensation

Procedures:

1. Follow the basic procedure as written in section 6.1. Make sure that the
equipment is connected to the service unit.

Assignment:

Describe the characteristics of filmwise and dropwise condensation and how it


may affect the efficiency of the condensers.

13

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

6.4

Experiment 2: THE FILMWISE HEAT FLUX AND SURFACE HEAT


TRANSFER COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION AT CONSTANT PRESSURE
Objective:

To determine the filmwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at
constant pressure

Procedures:

1. Circulate cooling water through the filmwise condenser starting with a


minimum value of 0.1 LPM.
2. Adjust the heater power to obtain the desired pressure at 1.01 bar.
3. When the condition is stabilized, record the steam (T sat ) & surface
temperature (T surf ), Tin (T1) & Tout (T2), and flowrate.

Assignment:

1. Plot Heat Flux vs. Temperature Difference (T sat - T surf ).


2. Plot a Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient vs. Temperature Difference (T sat T surf ).
Note: Power is calculated using the heat removed from the cooling water
).
(

14

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

6.5

Experiment 3: THE DROPWISE HEAT FLUX AND SURFACE HEAT


TRANSFER COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION AT CONSTANT PRESSURE
Objective:

To determine the dropwise heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at
constant pressure

Procedures:

1. Circulate cooling water through the dropwise condenser starting with a


minimum value of 0.4 LPM.
2. Adjust the heater power to obtain the desired pressure at 1.01 bar.
3. When the condition is stabilized, record the steam ((T sat ) & surface
temperature (T surf ), Tin (T3) & Tout (T4), and flowrate.

Assignment:

1. Plot Heat Flux vs. Temperature Difference (T sat - T surf ).


2. Plot Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient vs. Temperature Difference (T sat T surf ).
3. Plot Heat Flux vs. Temperature Difference (T sat - T surf ) for filmwise and
dropwise condensation in a single graph. Plot also Surface Heat Transfer
Coefficient vs. Temperature Difference (T sat -T surf ) for filmwise and
dropwise condensation in a single graph. Compare and discuss the heat
transfer coefficients between filmwise and dropwise condensation.

15

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

6.6

Experiment 4: THE EFFECT OF AIR INSIDE CHAMBER


Objective:

To demonstrate the effect of air on heat transfer coefficient of condensation.

Procedures:

1. Circulate cooling water through the filmwise condenser at the highest


flowrate until the pressure is reduced to below 1 bar.
2. Open the discharge valve and let an amount of air to enter the chamber.
Note: Increase of 0.01 bar indicates 1% of air is injected.
4. Regulate the water flow rate to the condenser starting with a minimum
value of 0.4 LPM.
5. Adjust the heater power to obtain the desired pressure at 1.01 bar.
6. When the condition is stabilized, record the steam (T sat ) & surface
temperature (T surf ), Tin (T3) & Tout (T4), and flowrate.
7. Repeat step 1-6 for dropwise condensation.

Assignment:

1. Plot Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient vs. Temperature Difference (T sat T surf ) with the presence of air, for filmwise and dropwise condensation
respectively.
2. Plot Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient vs. Temperature Difference (T sat T surf ) with the presence of air and without presence of air in a single graph,
for filmwise and dropwise condensation respectively. Compare and
discuss the effect of air on heat transfer coefficients.
3. Describe the phenomena theoretically.

16

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

7.0

EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
7.1
7.2

Heater

Cool down the equipment before draining the water inside the glass vessel so
that the heater will not be overheated when there is no water inside the vessel.

Condenser

Make sure tap water used is free from any contamination to prevent blockage
inside the condenser.

17

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

8.0

SAFETY PRECAUTION
8.1

Warning
High voltages exist and are accessible in the control panel. Return the unit to
your supplier for any servicing.

8.2

Cautions
1. Never splash water to the control panel. This will cause body injury and
damage to the equipment.
2. Never use your bare hand to test the AC Power Supply. It may cause
hazardous injury.

18

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

APPENDIX A
EXPERIMENTAL DATA SHEET

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

EXPERIMENT 2: THE FILMWISE HEAT FLUX AND SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER


COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION AT CONSTANT PRESSURE

Flow rate
(LPM)

qx
T sat
T surf

=
=
=
=
=

Power
(W)

Tin
(degC)

Tout
(degC)

Tsat
(degC)

Tsurf
(degC)

Heater Power (W)


Saturation Temperature (K)
Surface Temperature (K)
Heat Flux (W/m2)
Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m2.K)

Tsat - Tsurf
(degC)

7P

(degC)

(W/m2)

U
(W/m2.K)

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

EXPERIMENT 3: THE DROPWISE HEAT FLUX AND SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER


COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION AT CONSTANT PRESSURE

Flow rate
(LPM)

qx
T sat
T surf

=
=
=
=
=

Power
(W)

Tin
(degC)

Tout
(degC)

Tsat
(degC)

Tsurf
(degC)

Heater Power (W)


Saturation Temperature (K)
Surface Temperature (K)
Heat Flux (W/m2)
Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m2.K)

Tsat - Tsurf
(degC)

7P

(degC)

(W/m2)

U
(W/m2.K)

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

EXPERIMENT 4: THE EFFECT OF AIR INSIDE CHAMBER


FOR FILMWISE CONDENSER:

Flow rate
(LPM)

qx
T sat
T surf

=
=
=
=
=

Power
(W)

Tin
(degC)

Tout
(degC)

Tsat
(degC)

Tsurf
(degC)

Heater Power (W)


Saturation Temperature (K)
Surface Temperature (K)
Heat Flux (W/m2)
Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m2.K)

Tsat - Tsurf
(degC)

7P

(degC)

(W/m2)

U
(W/m2.K)

SOLTEQ FILM & DROPWISE CONDENSATION UNIT (Model: HE 163)

EXPERIMENT 4: THE EFFECT OF AIR INSIDE CHAMBER


FOR DROPWISE CONDENSER:

Flow rate
(LPM)

qx
T sat
T surf

=
=
=
=
=

Power
(W)

Tin
(degC)

Tout
(degC)

Tsat
(degC)

Tsurf
(degC)

Heater Power (W)


Saturation Temperature (K)
Surface Temperature (K)
Heat Flux (W/m2)
Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m2.K)

Tsat - Tsurf
(degC)

7P

(degC)

(W/m2)

U
(W/m2.K)