0 Up votes0 Down votes

52 views6 pagesJan 03, 2010

Power (Physics)

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

52 views

Power (Physics)

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself (with bonus article "How Will You Measure Your Life?" by Clayton M. Christensen)
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America
- Vermilion Drift: A Novel
- King, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscovering the Archetypes of the Mature Masculine
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Free to Focus: A Total Productivity System to Achieve More by Doing Less
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- Lost in the Solar System
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy
- The Subtle Body: An Encyclopedia of Your Energetic Anatomy
- University Physics

You are on page 1of 6

is an energy per unit of time. As a rate of change of work done or the energy of a

subsystem, power is

The average power (often simply called "power" when the context makes it

clear) is the average amount of work done or energy converted per unit time. The

instantaneous power is then the limiting value of the average power as the time interval

Δt approaches zero.

where W and E are, respectively, the work done or energy converted in time t.

Units

The dimension of power is energy divided by time. The SI unit of power is the watt (W),

which is equal to one joule per second. Non-SI units of power include ergs per second

(erg/s), horsepower (hp), metric horsepower (Pferdestärke (PS) or cheval vapeur, CV),

and foot-pounds per minute. One horsepower is equivalent to 33,000 foot-pounds per

minute, or the power required to lift 550 pounds by one foot in one second, and is

equivalent to about 746 watts. Other units include dBm, a relative logarithmic measure

with 1 milliwatt as reference; (food) calories per hour (often referred to as kilocalories

per hour); Btu per hour (Btu/h); and tons of refrigeration (12,000 Btu/h).

Mechanical power

In mechanics, the work done on an object is related to the forces acting on it by

where

F is force

Δd is the displacement of the object.

This is often summarized by saying that work is equal to the force acting on an

object times its displacement (how far the object moves while the force acts on it). Note

that only motion that is along the same axis as the force "counts", however; motion in the

same direction as force gives positive work, and motion in the opposite direction gives

negative work, while motion perpendicular to the force yields zero work.

Differentiating by time gives that the instantaneous power is equal to the force times the

object's velocity v(t):

equal to the force it exerts multiplied by its velocity.

In rotational systems, power is related to the torque (τ) and angular velocity (ω):

Or

In systems with fluid flow, power is related to pressure, p and volumetric flow rate, Q:

where

Q is volumetric flow rate (in m3/s in SI units)

Electrical power

Main article: Electric power

where

V(t) is the potential difference (or voltage drop) across the component, measured

in volts

I(t) is the current through it, measured in amperes

where

power is negative when the component is giving stored energy back to its environment,

i.e., when the current and voltage are of opposite signs.

device is a function of the root mean square (rms) values of the voltage across the

terminals and the current through the device, and of the phase angle between the voltage

and current sinusoids. That is,

where

I is the root mean square value of the sinusoidal alternating current (AC),

measured in amperes

V is the root mean square value of the sinusoidal alternating voltage, measured in

volts

is the phase angle between the voltage and the current sine functions.

The amplitudes of sinusoidal voltages and currents, such as those used almost universally

in mains electrical supplies, are normally specified in terms of root mean square values.

This makes the above calculation a simple matter of multiplying the two stated numbers

together.

This figure can also be called the effective power, as compared to the larger apparent

power which is expressed in volt-amperes (VA) and does not include the cos φ term due

to the current and voltage being out of phase. For simple domestic appliances or a purely

resistive network, the cos φ term (called the power factor) can often be assumed to be

unity, and can therefore be omitted from the equation. In this case, the effective and

apparent power are assumed to be equal.

Where v(t) and i(t) are, respectively, the instantaneous voltage and current as functions of

time.

For purely resistive devices, the average power is equal to the product of the rms voltage

and rms current, even if the waveforms are not sinusoidal. The formula works for any

waveform, periodic or otherwise, that has a mean square; that is why the rms formulation

is so useful.

For devices more complex than a resistor, the average effective power can still be

expressed in general as a power factor times the product of rms voltage and rms current,

but the power factor is no longer as simple as the cosine of a phase angle if the drive is

non-sinusoidal or the device is not linear.

In a train of identical pulses, the instantaneous power is a periodic function of

time. The ratio of the pulse duration to the period is equal to the ratio of the average

power to the peak power. It is also called the duty cycle (see text for definitions).

In the case of a periodic signal s(t) of period T, like a train of identical pulses, the

instantaneous power p(t) = | s(t) | 2 is also a periodic function of period T. The peak

power is simply defined by:

P0 = max(p(t)).

The peak power is not always readily measurable, however, and the measurement

of the average power Pavg is more commonly performed by an instrument. If one defines

the energy per pulse as:

One may define the pulse length τ such that P0τ = εpulse so that the ratios

are equal. These ratios are called the duty cycle of the pulse train.

Power in optics

Main article: Optical power

In optics, or radiometry, the term power sometimes refers to radiant flux, the average rate

of energy transport by electromagnetic radiation, measured in watts. The term "power" is

also, however, used to express the ability of a lens or other optical device to focus light. It

is measured in dioptres (inverse metres), and equals the inverse of the focal length of the

optical device.

- MainUploaded byMidhun Varghese
- Industrial Training AzamUploaded byhaiqal ghani
- CJCEDraftUploaded byAbdullah Magdi Mabrouk
- Western Power Distribution-South West EnglandUploaded byGenability
- Crackiitjee.in.Phy.ch16Uploaded bySuresh mohta
- Ultra Mega Power Project in IndiaUploaded bysushil.vgi
- 25.pdfUploaded byMannu Lal
- 493-036Uploaded byKoti Subba Nara Arjun
- LV Fuse Technical DetailsUploaded byMohan K
- Steam TablesUploaded byM Hamza Nadeem
- AC Circuits Module 1Uploaded byYo
- 25Amp triacUploaded byLuciano Suarez
- Data SheetUploaded byAllen Joseph
- proS_230401Uploaded byibs434
- Book1(2)Uploaded byAshiq Nafas
- zeroGUploaded byMehdiHamidiRad
- Regen ProbeinformationUploaded byrwong1231
- Taylor.jgr2001Uploaded byCameron Gould
- UK-Power-Networks-UK-Power-Networks---LondonUploaded byGenability
- trio-27Uploaded byCristi Grosu
- 7Uploaded byapi-438331165
- Design Solar SystemUploaded byjames ram
- Sine Wave NotesUploaded byAnwer Al Somaily
- LA-GTPUploaded byAnil Marturi
- hv05-12Uploaded bypablito103391
- Distortion and Power Factor of Nonlinear LoadsUploaded byNahivy Mandujano
- Arc Machine DLUploaded byKudremukh
- CEA Report Apr 19_exe_summary-03.pdfUploaded byAkash Jana
- Selection of DG for LiftUploaded byAshish M
- MGR-MPRT-P1Uploaded bysamkarmakar2002

- d 4640 – 86 r96 _rdq2ndatodzsotyUploaded byalienz1988new
- The Art of CreativityUploaded byThokalay
- Plasma Module Users GuideUploaded bysalehgazy
- Design a PLLUploaded byModyKing99
- 1132 E EST 6 Project Work Conveyor Belt ControlUploaded bySai Rayapati
- Network Analysis - ECE - 3rd Sem - VTU - Unit 2 - Network Topology - ramisuniverse,ramisuniverseUploaded byramisuniverse
- The Pros Cons of Genetic EngineeringUploaded byAlpin Novianus
- The Elder Scrolls -Arena Player's GuideUploaded byJosepablo Gomez
- mercedes-benzUploaded byRoland Joldis
- Technische Specificatie Windturbine Vestas v 112-3.0 MW 5060 HzUploaded byBogdan Chelaru
- Math and the Language of NatureUploaded byFlor Constanza
- Me CurriculumUploaded byzakibrant23
- Sociocraci 3.0 - Governance by Equals - Intro to SociocracyUploaded byClaudio Lente
- Cecille(Jan-jun 2016)Ipcr (1)Uploaded byneoweirdo
- Cs Sdk GuideUploaded byDimitri Lycan
- Final (1)SDfSDfDSfSDfUploaded bySimon Li
- Technology Development, Design and Safety Features of PHWR and Their Operating PerformanceUploaded byLuptonga
- Note on the comparison of experimental and simulated gamma energy spectra for NaI with 137Cs, 60Co, and 241AmUploaded bytheAce89
- 1. Jascon 55 SpecificationUploaded byIng Raymundo Alarcon
- Capítulo 16.pdfUploaded byRomina
- LSCUploaded bybrokencyder
- Indonesian Curriculum HistoryUploaded byNirmala Gitawati
- Binary 03fUploaded byAnonymous 7qqXzdtLI
- tdt1 task 2 paperUploaded byapi-487667414
- INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT REPORT.docxUploaded byanon_357212553
- Numark tt500Uploaded byrinsed
- HFCF New DraftUploaded bypatitay036817
- Python 27Uploaded byvaka82
- Project List_updated PLUploaded bySshifalii Oberoii
- Consumer Mains WiringUploaded byMsKaroly

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.