Rings of fractions
Deﬁnition
Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring. A subset S ⊆ R is called multiplicative system if S is a submonoid of the multiplicative monoid (R, ·).
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
1 / 23
Rings of fractions
Deﬁnition
Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring. A subset S ⊆ R is called multiplicative system if S is a submonoid of the multiplicative monoid (R, ·).
Remark
In order that a subset S ⊆ R represents a multiplicative system of the ring R it is necessary and suﬃcient that the following conditions hold:
1) 1 ∈ S 2) x · y ∈ S
, (∀)x, y ∈ S .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
1 / 23
Rings of fractions
Deﬁnition
Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring. A subset S ⊆ R is called multiplicative system if S is a submonoid of the multiplicative monoid (R, ·).
Remark
In order that a subset S ⊆ R represents a multiplicative system of the ring R it is necessary and suﬃcient that the following conditions hold:
1) 1 ∈ S 2) x · y ∈ S
, (∀)x, y ∈ S .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
1 / 23
Proposition
Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring and S ⊆ R a multiplicative system. The relation ∼ deﬁned on R × S by
(r _{1} , s _{1} ) ∼ (r _{2} , s _{2} ) ⇐⇒ (∃)s ∈ S : s(r _{1} s _{2} − r _{2} s _{1} ) = 0
is an equivalence relation.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
2 / 23
Notation
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
3 / 23
Notation
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
3 / 23
Deﬁnition
The ring (S ^{−}^{1} R, +, ·) constructed in the previous proposition is called the ring of fractions of the ring R with respect to the multiplicative system S.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
4 / 23
Deﬁnition
The ring (S ^{−}^{1} R, +, ·) constructed in the previous proposition is called the ring of fractions of the ring R with respect to the multiplicative system S.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
4 / 23
Remark
If the ring (R, +, ·) is entire, and S = R \ {0}, the ring of fractions S ^{−}^{1} R is a ﬁeld, called the ﬁeld of fractions of the ring R.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
5 / 23
Remark
If the ring (R, +, ·) is entire, and S = R \ {0}, the ring of fractions S ^{−}^{1} R is a ﬁeld, called the ﬁeld of fractions of the ring R.
Example
The ﬁeld Q of rational numbers is the ﬁeld of fractions of the ring Z of the integers.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
5 / 23
Remark
If the ring (R, +, ·) is entire, and S = R \ {0}, the ring of fractions S ^{−}^{1} R is a ﬁeld, called the ﬁeld of fractions of the ring R.
Example
The ﬁeld Q of rational numbers is the ﬁeld of fractions of the ring Z of the integers.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
5 / 23
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
6 / 23
Formal power series. Polynomial rings
Deﬁnition
Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring, and R ^{N} the set of all
sequences with elements in R . We deﬁne on R ^{N} two binary operations
+ : R ^{N} × R ^{N} −→ R ^{N} and · : R ^{N} × R ^{N} −→ R ^{N} by
(a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} + (b _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} = (a _{n} + b _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} ,
(a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} · (b _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} = (
^{}
i, j ∈ N
i + j = n
a _{i} · b _{j} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
7 / 23
Formal power series. Polynomial rings
Deﬁnition
Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring, and R ^{N} the set of all
sequences with elements in R . We deﬁne on R ^{N} two binary operations
+ : R ^{N} × R ^{N} −→ R ^{N} and · : R ^{N} × R ^{N} −→ R ^{N} by
(a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} + (b _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} = (a _{n} + b _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} ,
(a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} · (b _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} = (
^{}
i, j ∈ N
i + j = n
a _{i} · b _{j} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
7 / 23
Proposition
With respect to the operations deﬁned above, (R ^{N} , +, ·) is a commutative unital ring. Also, the function
ϕ : R −→ R ^{N} : r −→
(r, 0, 0,
, 0,
)
is an injective homomorphism of unital rings.
Remark
), then (X ^{n} ) _{k} = δ _{n}_{k} =
1,
0,
n = k
n
= k
If X = (0, 1, 0, 0,
, 0,
^{.}
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
8 / 23
Proposition
With respect to the operations deﬁned above, (R ^{N} , +, ·) is a commutative unital ring. Also, the function
ϕ : R −→ R ^{N} : r −→
(r, 0, 0,
, 0,
)
is an injective homomorphism of unital rings.
Remark
), then (X ^{n} ) _{k} = δ _{n}_{k} =
1,
0,
n = k
n
= k
Also, if we identify the elements of the ring R with their images by the
injective homomorphism ϕ, for any (a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} ∈ R ^{N} we have
(a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} = a _{0} + a _{1} · X + a _{2} · X ^{2} + ··· + a _{n} · X ^{n} + ··· = ^{} a _{n} X ^{n} .
n∈N
If X = (0, 1, 0, 0,
, 0,
^{.}
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
8 / 23
Proposition
With respect to the operations deﬁned above, (R ^{N} , +, ·) is a commutative unital ring. Also, the function
ϕ : R −→ R ^{N} : r −→
(r, 0, 0,
, 0,
)
is an injective homomorphism of unital rings.
Remark
), then (X ^{n} ) _{k} = δ _{n}_{k} =
1,
0,
n = k
n
= k
Also, if we identify the elements of the ring R with their images by the
injective homomorphism ϕ, for any (a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} ∈ R ^{N} we have
(a _{n} ) _{n}_{∈}_{N} = a _{0} + a _{1} · X + a _{2} · X ^{2} + ··· + a _{n} · X ^{n} + ··· = ^{} a _{n} X ^{n} .
n∈N
If X = (0, 1, 0, 0,
, 0,
^{.}
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
8 / 23
Remark
The ring (R ^{N} , +, ·) is called, due to the previous equality the ring of formal power series with coeﬃcients in the ring R and is denoted R[[X ]].
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
9 / 23
Deﬁnition
The support of a formal power series f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N} a _{n} X ^{n} is the set
supp(f ) := {n ∈ N a _{n} = 0} .
Proposition
If f , g ∈ R [[X ]], we have
supp(f + g ) ⊆ supp(f ) ∪ supp(g ) , supp(f · g ) ⊆ supp(f ) + supp(g ) .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
10 / 23
Deﬁnition
The support of a formal power series f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N} a _{n} X ^{n} is the set
supp(f ) := {n ∈ N a _{n} = 0} .
Proposition
If f , g ∈ R [[X ]], we have
supp(f + g ) ⊆ supp(f ) ∪ supp(g ) , supp(f · g ) ⊆ supp(f ) + supp(g ) .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
10 / 23
Deﬁnition
Let f ∈ R[[X ]] be a formal power series with coeﬃcients in the ring R. The height order the order of the formal power series f is then
h(f ) := inf (supp(f ))
Remark
If f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N} a _{n} X ^{n} ∈ R[[X ]], then
_{h}_{(}_{f} _{)} _{=} ^{} min{n ∞, ∈ N a _{n} = 0},
f
f
= 0 ,
= 0 .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
11 / 23
Deﬁnition
Let f ∈ R[[X ]] be a formal power series with coeﬃcients in the ring R. The height order the order of the formal power series f is then
h(f ) := inf (supp(f ))
Remark
If f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N} a _{n} X ^{n} ∈ R[[X ]], then
_{h}_{(}_{f} _{)} _{=} ^{} min{n ∞, ∈ N a _{n} = 0},
f
f
= 0 ,
= 0 .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
11 / 23
Proposition
For any f , g ∈ R[[X ]] the following inequalities hold
h(f + g ) ≥ sup(h(f ), h(g )) ,
h(f · g ) ≥ h(f ) + h(g ) .
If also the ring R is entire, then the second inequality from above becomes an equality, and the ring R[[X ]] is also entire.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
12 / 23
Deﬁnition
A formal power series f ∈ R[[X ]] such that the set supp(f ) is ﬁnite is called polynomial with coeﬃcients in the ring R .
Notation
R[X ] := {f ∈ R[[X ]] supp(f ) < ∞} .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
13 / 23
Deﬁnition
A formal power series f ∈ R[[X ]] such that the set supp(f ) is ﬁnite is called polynomial with coeﬃcients in the ring R .
Notation
R[X ] := {f ∈ R[[X ]] supp(f ) < ∞} .
Proposition
R[X ] ≤ R[[X ]] .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
13 / 23
Deﬁnition
A formal power series f ∈ R[[X ]] such that the set supp(f ) is ﬁnite is called polynomial with coeﬃcients in the ring R .
Notation
R[X ] := {f ∈ R[[X ]] supp(f ) < ∞} .
Proposition
R[X ] ≤ R[[X ]] .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
13 / 23
Deﬁnition
^{}
The degree of a polynomial f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N}
a _{n} X ^{n} ∈ R[X ] is
∂(f ) := sup(supp(f )) .
Remark
^{}
If f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N}
a _{n} X ^{n} ∈ R[X ], then
∂(f ) =
−∞, max{n ∈ N a _{n} = 0},
f
f
= 0 ,
= 0 .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
14 / 23
Deﬁnition
^{}
The degree of a polynomial f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N}
a _{n} X ^{n} ∈ R[X ] is
∂(f ) := sup(supp(f )) .
Remark
^{}
If f = ^{} _{n}_{∈}_{N}
a _{n} X ^{n} ∈ R[X ], then
∂(f ) =
−∞, max{n ∈ N a _{n} = 0},
f
f
= 0 ,
= 0 .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
14 / 23
Proposition
For any f , g ∈ R[X ] the following inequalities hold
∂(f + g ) ≤ sup(∂(f ), ∂(g )) ,
∂(f · g ) ≤ ∂(f ) + ∂(g ) .
If also the ring R is entire, then the second inequality from above becomes an equality, and the ring R[X ] is also entire.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
15 / 23
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
16 / 23
Proposition
Let R and S be two commutative unital rings, such that R ≤ S and s ∈ S. The function ev _{s} : R [X ] −→ S deﬁned by
(
n∈N
a _{n} X ^{n} ) ^{e}^{v} ^{s} =
n∈N
a _{n} s ^{n}
is a unital ring homomorphism, called the evaluation homomorphism at the point s of the polynomials with coeﬃcients in R. Also, ev _{s} is the unique ring homomorphism ψ : R[X ] −→ S such that r ^{ψ} = r, (∀)r ∈ R and X ^{ψ} = s.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
17 / 23
Deﬁnition
Let f ∈ R[X ] be a polynomial and s ∈ S an element of an extension of the unital ring R(i.e., a ring S, such that R ≤ S.) The element s is called a root of the polynomial f if
f (s) = 0 ,
where f (s) := ev _{s} (f ) is the value of the polynomial f at the point s.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
18 / 23
Polynomials in several variables
Deﬁnition
If (R, +, ·) is a commutative unital ring, and n ∈ N ^{∗} is a nonnegative integer with n ≥ 2, the ring of polynomials in n variables, denoted
R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ], is deﬁned recursively by:
R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] := R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n}_{−}_{1} ][X _{n} ] .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
19 / 23
Polynomials in several variables
Deﬁnition
If (R, +, ·) is a commutative unital ring, and n ∈ N ^{∗} is a nonnegative integer with n ≥ 2, the ring of polynomials in n variables, denoted
R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ], is deﬁned recursively by:
R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] := R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n}_{−}_{1} ][X _{n} ] .
Remark
If f 
∈ R[X _{1} , X _{2} , 
, X _{n} ], then f 
= ^{} ^{} ν _{1} ,ν _{2} , 
,ν 
_{n} _{∈}_{N} a ν _{1} ,ν _{2} , ,ν 
n X 
ν 1 
1 
ν X 2 
2 
X 
ν n 
n 
. 

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s () 
Lecture 7 
2009 
19 / 23 
Polynomials in several variables
Deﬁnition
If (R, +, ·) is a commutative unital ring, and n ∈ N ^{∗} is a nonnegative integer with n ≥ 2, the ring of polynomials in n variables, denoted
R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ], is deﬁned recursively by:
R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] := R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n}_{−}_{1} ][X _{n} ] .
Remark
If f 
∈ R[X _{1} , X _{2} , 
, X _{n} ], then f 
= ^{} ^{} ν _{1} ,ν _{2} , 
,ν 
_{n} _{∈}_{N} a ν _{1} ,ν _{2} , 
,ν 
n X 
ν 1 
1 
ν X 2 
2 
X 
ν n 
n 
. 

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s () 
Lecture 7 
2009 
19 / 23 
Deﬁnition
Deﬁnition
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
20 / 23
Deﬁnition
Deﬁnition
Remark
Any polynomial in n variables can be decomposed into a sum of homogeneous polynomials.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
20 / 23
Deﬁnition
Deﬁnition
Remark
Any polynomial in n variables can be decomposed into a sum of homogeneous polynomials.
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
20 / 23
Deﬁnition
Deﬁnition
A polynomial f ∈ R[X _{1} , X _{2} , called symmetric polynomial.
, X _{n} ] such that f = f σ, (∀)σ ∈ S _{n} is
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
21 / 23
Deﬁnition
Deﬁnition
A polynomial f ∈ R[X _{1} , X _{2} , called symmetric polynomial.
, X _{n} ] such that f = f σ, (∀)σ ∈ S _{n} is
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
21 / 23
Example
Proposition
The set R _{s} [X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] of all symmetric polynomials in the variables
X _{1} , X _{2} ,
polynomials in n variables.
, X _{n} forms a subring of the ring R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] of all
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
22 / 23
Example
Proposition
The set R _{s} [X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] of all symmetric polynomials in the variables
X _{1} , X _{2} ,
polynomials in n variables.
, X _{n} forms a subring of the ring R[X _{1} , X _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] of all
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
22 / 23
Proposition
the fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials
For any symmetric polynomial f ∈ R _{s} [X _{1} , X _{2} ,
g ∈ R[Y _{1} , Y _{2} ,
, X _{n} ] there is a polynomial
, Y _{n} ], such that
f = g(s _{1} , s _{2} ,
, s _{n} ) .
Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()
Lecture 7
2009
23 / 23
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