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Rings of fractions

Definition

Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring. A subset S R is called multiplicative system if S is a submonoid of the multiplicative monoid (R, ·).

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

1 / 23

Rings of fractions

Definition

Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring. A subset S R is called multiplicative system if S is a submonoid of the multiplicative monoid (R, ·).

Remark

In order that a subset S R represents a multiplicative system of the ring R it is necessary and sufficient that the following conditions hold:

1) 1 S 2) x · y S

, ()x, y S .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

1 / 23

Rings of fractions

Definition

Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring. A subset S R is called multiplicative system if S is a submonoid of the multiplicative monoid (R, ·).

Remark

In order that a subset S R represents a multiplicative system of the ring R it is necessary and sufficient that the following conditions hold:

1) 1 S 2) x · y S

, ()x, y S .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

1 / 23

Proposition

Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring and S R a multiplicative system. The relation defined on R × S by

(r 1 , s 1 ) (r 2 , s 2 ) ⇐⇒ ()s S : s(r 1 s 2 r 2 s 1 ) = 0

is an equivalence relation.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

2 / 23

Notation

r r We denote [(r , s )] ∼ =: and S −1 R :=
r
r
We denote [(r , s )] ∼ =:
and S −1 R := (R × S)/ ∼= { s |r ∈ R, s ∈ S}.
s
Remark
If 0 ∈ S, then S −1 R = { 0 }.
s

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

3 / 23

Notation

r r We denote [(r , s )] ∼ =: and S −1 R :=
r
r
We denote [(r , s )] ∼ =:
and S −1 R := (R × S)/ ∼= { s |r ∈ R, s ∈ S}.
s
Remark
If 0 ∈ S, then S −1 R = { 0 }.
s

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

3 / 23

Proposition The binary operations + : S −1 R × S −1 R −→ S
Proposition
The binary
operations + : S −1 R × S −1 R −→ S −1 R and
· : S −1 R × S −1 R −→ S −1 R, defined by
r 1
r 1 s 2 + r 2 s 1
r 1 · r 2
r 1 r 2
+ r 2
=
,
=
s 1
s 2
s 1 s 2
s 1
s 2
s 1 s 2
are correctly defined and endorse S −1 R with a unital ring structure, such
that S ⊆ U(S −1 R).

Definition

The ring (S 1 R, +, ·) constructed in the previous proposition is called the ring of fractions of the ring R with respect to the multiplicative system S.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

4 / 23

Proposition The binary operations + : S −1 R × S −1 R −→ S
Proposition
The binary
operations + : S −1 R × S −1 R −→ S −1 R and
· : S −1 R × S −1 R −→ S −1 R, defined by
r 1
= r 1 s 2 + r 2 s 1
r 1
= r 1 r 2
+ r 2
,
· r 2
s 1
s 2
s 1 s 2
s 1
s 2
s 1 s 2
are correctly defined and endorse S −1 R with a unital ring structure, such
that S ⊆ U(S −1 R).

Definition

The ring (S 1 R, +, ·) constructed in the previous proposition is called the ring of fractions of the ring R with respect to the multiplicative system S.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

4 / 23

Proposition If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), the function
Proposition
If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), the function
ϕ : R −→ S −1 R : r −→
1 r is a unital ring homomorphism. Also, if S
contains no zero divisors, then the homomorphism ϕ is injective.

Remark

If the ring (R, +, ·) is entire, and S = R \ {0}, the ring of fractions S 1 R is a field, called the field of fractions of the ring R.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

5 / 23

Proposition If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), the function
Proposition
If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), the function
ϕ : R −→ S −1 R : r −→
1 r is a unital ring homomorphism. Also, if S
contains no zero divisors, then the homomorphism ϕ is injective.

Remark

If the ring (R, +, ·) is entire, and S = R \ {0}, the ring of fractions S 1 R is a field, called the field of fractions of the ring R.

Example

The field Q of rational numbers is the field of fractions of the ring Z of the integers.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

5 / 23

Proposition If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), the function
Proposition
If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), the function
ϕ : R −→ S −1 R : r −→
1 r is a unital ring homomorphism. Also, if S
contains no zero divisors, then the homomorphism ϕ is injective.

Remark

If the ring (R, +, ·) is entire, and S = R \ {0}, the ring of fractions S 1 R is a field, called the field of fractions of the ring R.

Example

The field Q of rational numbers is the field of fractions of the ring Z of the integers.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

5 / 23

Proposition If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), and I
Proposition
If S is a multiplicative system of the ring (R, +, ·), and I R is an ideal of
R, then S −1 I := { x |x ∈ I, s ∈ S} S −1 R. Also, for any ideals I , J R
we have
s
−1
S
(I
+ J) = S
−1 I + S −1 J ,
S −1
(I
· J) = S −1 I · S −1 J ,
S −1
(I
∩ J) = S −1 I ∩ S −1 J .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

6 / 23

Formal power series. Polynomial rings

Definition

Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring, and R N the set of all

sequences with elements in R . We define on R N two binary operations

+ : R N × R N −→ R N and · : R N × R N −→ R N by

(a n ) nN + (b n ) nN = (a n + b n ) nN ,

(a n ) nN · (b n ) nN = (

i, j N

i + j = n

a i · b j ) nN .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

7 / 23

Formal power series. Polynomial rings

Definition

Let (R, +, ·) be a commutative unital ring, and R N the set of all

sequences with elements in R . We define on R N two binary operations

+ : R N × R N −→ R N and · : R N × R N −→ R N by

(a n ) nN + (b n ) nN = (a n + b n ) nN ,

(a n ) nN · (b n ) nN = (

i, j N

i + j = n

a i · b j ) nN .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

7 / 23

Proposition

With respect to the operations defined above, (R N , +, ·) is a commutative unital ring. Also, the function

ϕ : R −→ R N : r −→

(r, 0, 0,

, 0,

)

is an injective homomorphism of unital rings.

Remark

), then (X n ) k = δ nk =

1,

0,

n = k

n

= k

If X = (0, 1, 0, 0,

, 0,

.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

8 / 23

Proposition

With respect to the operations defined above, (R N , +, ·) is a commutative unital ring. Also, the function

ϕ : R −→ R N : r −→

(r, 0, 0,

, 0,

)

is an injective homomorphism of unital rings.

Remark

), then (X n ) k = δ nk =

1,

0,

n = k

n

= k

Also, if we identify the elements of the ring R with their images by the

injective homomorphism ϕ, for any (a n ) nN R N we have

(a n ) nN = a 0 + a 1 · X + a 2 · X 2 + ··· + a n · X n + ··· = a n X n .

nN

If X = (0, 1, 0, 0,

, 0,

.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

8 / 23

Proposition

With respect to the operations defined above, (R N , +, ·) is a commutative unital ring. Also, the function

ϕ : R −→ R N : r −→

(r, 0, 0,

, 0,

)

is an injective homomorphism of unital rings.

Remark

), then (X n ) k = δ nk =

1,

0,

n = k

n

= k

Also, if we identify the elements of the ring R with their images by the

injective homomorphism ϕ, for any (a n ) nN R N we have

(a n ) nN = a 0 + a 1 · X + a 2 · X 2 + ··· + a n · X n + ··· = a n X n .

nN

If X = (0, 1, 0, 0,

, 0,

.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

8 / 23

Remark

The ring (R N , +, ·) is called, due to the previous equality the ring of formal power series with coefficients in the ring R and is denoted R[[X ]].

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

9 / 23

Definition

The support of a formal power series f = nN a n X n is the set

supp(f ) := {n N| a n = 0} .

Proposition

If f , g R [[X ]], we have

supp(f + g ) supp(f ) supp(g ) , supp(f · g ) supp(f ) + supp(g ) .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

10 / 23

Definition

The support of a formal power series f = nN a n X n is the set

supp(f ) := {n N| a n = 0} .

Proposition

If f , g R [[X ]], we have

supp(f + g ) supp(f ) supp(g ) , supp(f · g ) supp(f ) + supp(g ) .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

10 / 23

Definition

Let f R[[X ]] be a formal power series with coefficients in the ring R. The height order the order of the formal power series f is then

h(f ) := inf (supp(f ))

Remark

If f = nN a n X n R[[X ]], then

h(f ) = min{n , N| a n = 0},

f

f

= 0 ,

= 0 .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

11 / 23

Definition

Let f R[[X ]] be a formal power series with coefficients in the ring R. The height order the order of the formal power series f is then

h(f ) := inf (supp(f ))

Remark

If f = nN a n X n R[[X ]], then

h(f ) = min{n , N| a n = 0},

f

f

= 0 ,

= 0 .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

11 / 23

Proposition

For any f , g R[[X ]] the following inequalities hold

h(f + g ) sup(h(f ), h(g )) ,

h(f · g ) h(f ) + h(g ) .

If also the ring R is entire, then the second inequality from above becomes an equality, and the ring R[[X ]] is also entire.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

12 / 23

Definition

A formal power series f R[[X ]] such that the set supp(f ) is finite is called polynomial with coefficients in the ring R .

Notation

R[X ] := {f R[[X ]]| |supp(f )| < ∞} .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

13 / 23

Definition

A formal power series f R[[X ]] such that the set supp(f ) is finite is called polynomial with coefficients in the ring R .

Notation

R[X ] := {f R[[X ]]| |supp(f )| < ∞} .

Proposition

R[X ] R[[X ]] .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

13 / 23

Definition

A formal power series f R[[X ]] such that the set supp(f ) is finite is called polynomial with coefficients in the ring R .

Notation

R[X ] := {f R[[X ]]| |supp(f )| < ∞} .

Proposition

R[X ] R[[X ]] .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

13 / 23

Definition

The degree of a polynomial f = nN

a n X n R[X ] is

(f ) := sup(supp(f )) .

Remark

If f = nN

a n X n R[X ], then

(f ) =

−∞, max{n N| a n = 0},

f

f

= 0 ,

= 0 .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

14 / 23

Definition

The degree of a polynomial f = nN

a n X n R[X ] is

(f ) := sup(supp(f )) .

Remark

If f = nN

a n X n R[X ], then

(f ) =

−∞, max{n N| a n = 0},

f

f

= 0 ,

= 0 .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

14 / 23

Proposition

For any f , g R[X ] the following inequalities hold

(f + g ) sup((f ), ∂(g )) ,

(f · g ) (f ) + (g ) .

If also the ring R is entire, then the second inequality from above becomes an equality, and the ring R[X ] is also entire.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

15 / 23

Proposition If ξ : R −→ S is a unital ring homomorphism, the function ξ
Proposition
If ξ : R −→ S is a unital ring homomorphism, the function
ξ : R [X ] −→ S [X ] defined by
(
a n X n ) ξ =
a ξ
n X n
n∈N
n∈N
is a unital ring homomorphism, called the reduction homomorphism
associated to the homomorphism ξ.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

16 / 23

Proposition

Let R and S be two commutative unital rings, such that R S and s S. The function ev s : R [X ] −→ S defined by


(

nN

a n X n ) ev s =

nN

a n s n

is a unital ring homomorphism, called the evaluation homomorphism at the point s of the polynomials with coefficients in R. Also, ev s is the unique ring homomorphism ψ : R[X ] −→ S such that r ψ = r, ()r R and X ψ = s.

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Lecture 7

2009

17 / 23

Definition

Let f R[X ] be a polynomial and s S an element of an extension of the unital ring R(i.e., a ring S, such that R S.) The element s is called a root of the polynomial f if

f (s) = 0 ,

where f (s) := ev s (f ) is the value of the polynomial f at the point s.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

18 / 23

Polynomials in several variables

Definition

If (R, +, ·) is a commutative unital ring, and n N is a nonnegative integer with n 2, the ring of polynomials in n variables, denoted

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ], is defined recursively by:

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ] := R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n1 ][X n ] .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

19 / 23

Polynomials in several variables

Definition

If (R, +, ·) is a commutative unital ring, and n N is a nonnegative integer with n 2, the ring of polynomials in n variables, denoted

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ], is defined recursively by:

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ] := R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n1 ][X n ] .

Remark

If f

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ], then f

=

ν 1 2 ,

n N a ν 1 2 , ,ν

n X

ν

1

1

ν

X

2

2

X

ν

n

n

.

 

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

19 / 23

Polynomials in several variables

Definition

If (R, +, ·) is a commutative unital ring, and n N is a nonnegative integer with n 2, the ring of polynomials in n variables, denoted

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ], is defined recursively by:

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ] := R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n1 ][X n ] .

Remark

If f

R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ], then f

=

ν 1 2 ,

n N a ν 1 2 ,

n X

ν

1

1

ν

X

2

2

X

ν

n

n

.

 

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

19 / 23

Definition

ν 1 ν 2 A product X X X ν n is called monomial of
ν 1
ν 2
A product X
X
X
ν n
is called monomial of the polynomial f , of
1
2
n
multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ) and total degree |ν| = ν 1 + ν 2 + ··· + ν n .
The element a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈ R is called the coefficient of the monomial of
ν 1
ν 2
multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ), and a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
X
X
ν n
is called
n X
1
2
n
the term of multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ).

Definition

Let m ∈ N be a nonnegative integer. A polynomial ν 1 ν 2 f
Let m ∈ N be a nonnegative integer. A polynomial
ν 1
ν 2
f =
X
X
ν n
such that the total degrees of
n X
ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈N a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
1
2
n
all its terms are equal to m, is called homogeneous polynomial of degree
m.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

20 / 23

Definition

ν 1 ν 2 A product X X X ν n is called monomial of
ν 1
ν 2
A product X
X
X
ν n
is called monomial of the polynomial f , of
1
2
n
multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ) and total degree |ν| = ν 1 + ν 2 + ··· + ν n .
The element a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈ R is called the coefficient of the monomial of
ν 1
ν 2
multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ), and a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
X
X
ν n
is called
n X
1
2
n
the term of multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ).

Definition

Let m ∈ N be a nonnegative integer. A polynomial ν 1 ν 2 f
Let m ∈ N be a nonnegative integer. A polynomial
ν 1
ν 2
f =
X
X
ν n
such that the total degrees of
n X
ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈N a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
1
2
n
all its terms are equal to m, is called homogeneous polynomial of degree
m.

Remark

Any polynomial in n variables can be decomposed into a sum of homogeneous polynomials.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

20 / 23

Definition

ν 1 ν 2 A product X X X ν n is called monomial of
ν 1
ν 2
A product X
X
X
ν n
is called monomial of the polynomial f , of
1
2
n
multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ) and total degree |ν| = ν 1 + ν 2 + ··· + ν n .
The element a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈ R is called the coefficient of the monomial of
ν 1
ν 2
multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ), and a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
X
X
ν n
is called
n X
1
2
n
the term of multidegree ν = (ν 1 , ν 2 ,
, ν n ).

Definition

Let m ∈ N be a nonnegative integer. A polynomial ν 1 ν 2 f
Let m ∈ N be a nonnegative integer. A polynomial
ν 1
ν 2
f =
X
X
ν n
such that the total degrees of
n X
ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈N a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
1
2
n
all its terms are equal to m, is called homogeneous polynomial of degree
m.

Remark

Any polynomial in n variables can be decomposed into a sum of homogeneous polynomials.

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

20 / 23

Definition

ν 1 ν 2 Let f = X X ν n be a polynomial in
ν 1
ν 2
Let f =
X
X
ν n
be a polynomial in n
ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈N a ν 1 ,ν 2 , ,ν
n X
1
2
n
variables, and σ ∈ S n a permutation of degree n. The permuted of the
polynomial f by the permutation σ is then the polynomial
ν 1
ν 2
ν n
f σ :=
X
X
, obtained from f by
n X
σ
ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈N a ν 1 ,ν 2 , ,ν
1
σ
2
σ
n
permutation of the variables X 1 , X 2 ,
, X n according to the
permutation σ.

Definition

A polynomial f R[X 1 , X 2 , called symmetric polynomial.

, X n ] such that f = f σ, ()σ S n is

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

21 / 23

Definition

ν 1 ν 2 Let f = X X ν n be a polynomial in
ν 1
ν 2
Let f =
X
X
ν n
be a polynomial in n
n X
ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈N a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
1
2
n
variables, and σ ∈ S n a permutation of degree n. The permuted of the
polynomial f by the permutation σ is then the polynomial
ν 1
ν 2
ν n
f σ :=
X
X
, obtained from f by
n X
ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
n ∈N a ν 1 ,ν 2 ,
σ
1
σ
2
σ
n
permutation of the variables X 1 , X 2 ,
, X n according to the
permutation σ.

Definition

A polynomial f R[X 1 , X 2 , called symmetric polynomial.

, X n ] such that f = f σ, ()σ S n is

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

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Example

The polynomials s 1 , s 2 , , s n ∈ R[X 1 ,
The polynomials s 1 , s 2 ,
, s n ∈ R[X 1 , X 2 ,
, X n ] defined by
s 1 = X 1 + X 2 + ··· + X n
s 2 = X 1 X 2 + X 1 X 3 + ··· + X n−1 X n
.
.
.
s k = 1≤i 1 <i 2 <···<i k ≤n X i 1 X i 2
X i k
.
.
.
s n = X 1 X 2
X n
are symmetric and are called fundamental symmetric polynomials in the
variables X 1 , X 2 ,
, X n .

Proposition

The set R s [X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ] of all symmetric polynomials in the variables

X 1 , X 2 ,

polynomials in n variables.

, X n forms a subring of the ring R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ] of all

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

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Example

The polynomials s 1 , s 2 , , s n ∈ R[X 1 ,
The polynomials s 1 , s 2 ,
, s n ∈ R[X 1 , X 2 ,
, X n ] defined by
s 1 = X 1 + X 2 + ··· + X n
s 2 = X 1 X 2 + X 1 X 3 + ··· + X n−1 X n
.
.
.
s k = 1≤i 1 <i 2 <···<i k ≤n X i 1 X i 2
X i k
.
.
.
s n = X 1 X 2
X n
are symmetric and are called fundamental symmetric polynomials in the
variables X 1 , X 2 ,
, X n .

Proposition

The set R s [X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ] of all symmetric polynomials in the variables

X 1 , X 2 ,

polynomials in n variables.

, X n forms a subring of the ring R[X 1 , X 2 ,

, X n ] of all

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

22 / 23

Proposition

the fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials

For any symmetric polynomial f R s [X 1 , X 2 ,

g R[Y 1 , Y 2 ,

, X n ] there is a polynomial

, Y n ], such that

f = g(s 1 , s 2 ,

, s n ) .

Lect.dr. M.Chi¸s ()

Lecture 7

2009

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