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REMOVAL OF MICROORGANISM

INTRODUCTION:

The complete removal of microorganisms in food material. Removal may be done


by different methods, such as,

• Filtration

• Centrifugation

• washing

• Trimming

Removal of Microorganism

Filtration Centrifugation washing Trimming

Sedimentation Clarification

Removal of Microorganisms

FILTRATION
 Filtration is the complete removal of organisms and it’s used to clear liquids. The

liquid is filtered through a sterilized “bacterioproof” filter made up of sintered


glass, diatomaceous earth, unglazed porcelain and membrane pads.

 The liquid is forced through by positive or negative pressure.

 This method has been used for fruit juices, beer, soft drinks, wine& water.

CENTRIFUGATION

 Microorganisms are removed through this method. Centrifugation are of two


types, such as,

a) Sedimentation

b) Clarification

 Sedimentation is used in the treatment of drinking water.

 Clarification is applied to milk, the main purpose is to take out other suspended
materials.

WASHING

 Washing is the removal of the soil microorganisms on the surface.

 Washing raw foods can be helpful in their preservation ie., washing cabbage heads

or cucumbers before their fermentation

TRIMMING:

 Large numbers of spoilage organisms are removed by this method.

 This method is helpful for food preservation & the manufacture of sauerkraut.
MAINTENANCE OF ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS

A preservation factor in sealed, packaged foods may be the anaerobic conditions


in the container. A complete fill, evacuation of the unfilled space, or replacement of the
air by carbon dioxide or by an inert gas such as nitrogen will bring about anaerobic
conditions. Spores of some of the aerobic spore formers are especially resistant to heat
and may survive in canned food but be unable to germinate or grow in the absence of
oxygen. Production of carbon dioxide during fermentation and accumulation at the
surface will serve to make conditions anaerobic there and prevent the growth of aerobes.

FERMENTATION

Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to


alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination
thereof, under anaerobic conditions. A more restricted definition of fermentation is the
chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol. The science of fermentation is known as
zymology.

Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desirable, and


the process is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider.
Fermentation is also employed in preservation techniques to create lactic acid in sour
foods such as sauerkraut, dry sausages, kimchi and yogurt, or vinegar (acetic acid) for use
in pickling foods.

Uses

The primary benefit of fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other


carbohydrates, e.g., converting juice into wine, grains into beer, carbohydrates into
carbon dioxide to leaven bread, and sugars in vegetables into preservative organic acids.

Food fermentation has been said to serve five main purposes: Enrichment of the diet
through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substrates

 Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic


acid and alkaline fermentations
 Biological enrichment of food substrates with protein, essential amino acids,
essential fatty acids, and vitamins
 Elimination of antinutrients
 A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements
PRESERVATION BY DRYING

INTRODUCTION :

 Drying is accomplished by the removal of water in food material.

 Dried foods are preserved because the available moisture level is low that
microorganisms cannot grow and enzyme activity is controlled.

 Drying as a means of preservation can be observed in cereal grains, legumes &


nuts which dry on the plants.

PRESERVATION BY DEHYDRATION:

 Dehydration is the process by which surplus water is to be removed without


decreasing the taste & nutritive value of foods.
 Dehydration is that bacteria are unable to survive in the absence of moisture.

 Moisture may be removed from foods by heating as in drying and drying reduces
the weight & bulk of food.

 There are many methods by which drying is accomplished such as, sun drying,
drum drying, vacuum drying & freeze drying, etc.,

METHODS OF DRYING:

• Solar drying

• Spray drying

• Freeze drying

• Foam-mat drying

• Drying by mechanical Driers (Drum drying)

• Drying by Osmosis

• Drying by Smoking

SOLAR OR SUN DRYING:

 Solar drying is limited to climates with a hot sun & a dry atmosphere.

 It is a slow process and vegetables like French beans, curd chill are preserved by
this method.

SPRAY DRYING:

 Many foods such as milk and egg are dried to a powder in spray driers.

 The liquid material is sprayed into a hot air stream for almost instant drying.
 The rapid dissolving in water of non-fat dry milk crystals us due to second drying

step that gives the particles a sponge like structure.

 Spray-dried ream-powder is used in the ice ream industry.

FREEZE DRYING:

 Removal of water from a product while it is frozen by sublimation is called freeze


drying.

 Fresh flavours and textures are better preserved by freeze- drying than by sun-
drying.

 This method is costly. Freeze dried fruits, coffee, meats, poultry have been
reported to have better texture tenderness.

FOAM MAT DRYING:

 Foam mat drying may be used with orange & tomato juice.

 In this process a small amount of edible foam stabilizer such as monoglycerides or

a modified soybeans protein with methyl cellulose is added to liquid & a stiff foam
is produced by whipping.

 The foam is spread in a thin layer & dried in a stream of hot air. The product

separates easily into small particles on cooling.

 During is done at low temperature in and ordinary forced air circulation drier.

 The optimum amount of the foaming agent to be used is 0.3 to 1.5%.

DRYING BY MECHANICAL DRIERS:

 Most methods of artificial drying involve the method of heated air with controlled
relative humidity over the food to be dried.
 The simplest drier is the evaporator or kiln, sometimes used in the form home,

where the natural draft from the rising of heated air brings about the drying of the
food.

 The optimal temperature for drying are between 52oC and 60oC ( 125o and 140oF).

 Low temperature for a longer time yield better quality & retention of vitamin
content.

 Liquid foods, such as milk, juices, & soups may be evaporated by the use of
comparatively low temperatures & in a vacuum pan, drum dried by passage over a
heated drum with or without vacuum.

DRYING BY OSMOSIS:

 In this case, the moisture is drawn out from all cell tissues. The water is then

bound with the solute, making it a unavailable to the microorganism.

 In osmotic dehydration of fruits, the method involved the partial dehydration of


fruits by osmosis in a concentrated sugar solution or syrup.

DRYING BY SMOKING:

 In Smoking drying is the main preservation factor, especially drying at the surface
of the food.

FACTORS IN THE CONTROL OF DRYING:

 The temperature employed which will very with the food & the method of drying.

 The relative humidity of the air, it usually is higher at the start of drying than later.

 The velocity of the air.

 The duration of drying.


PACKING:

 Immediately after the food is dried, it should be packed in insect proof & moisture

proof containers such as tin cans, plastic containers glass jars, or heavy cloth bags
coated with paraffin.

 Dried foods are sufficiently hygroscopic to absorb moisture from the air.

TREATMENTS OF FOODS BEFORE DRYING:

 Selection and sorting for size, maturity & soundness.

 Washing especially of fruits & vegetables.

 Peeling of fruits and vegetables by hand, machine lye bath or abrasion.

 Sub division into halves, slices, shreds or cubes.

 Alkali dipping which is used for fruits such a raisins, grapes & prunes & employs
hot 0.1 to 1.5% lye or radium carbonate.

 Blanching or scalding of vegetables and some a fruits like apricots & peaches.

 Sulfuring of light coloured fruits & of certain vegetables. Fruits are sulphured by

exposure to sulfur-dioxide gas produced by the burning of sulphur to a level of


1,000 to 3,000 ppm.

PROCEDURE AFTER DRYING

SWEATING:
 “Sweating” is storage, usually in bins or bodes, for equalization of moisture or
readdition of moisture to a desired level.

 It is used with some dried fruits and some hunts.

PACKING:

 Most food are packaged after drying for protection against moisture contamination
with microorganisms, & infestation with insects.

PASTEURIZATION:

 Pasteurization is limited for the most part to dried fruits & kills any pathogens that
may be present, as well as destroying spoilage organisms.