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OC TOBER 13, 2014

CH A SI NG E BOL A
IN AMERICA

BY DAVID VON DREHL E

IN WEST AFRICA
BY ARY N BAK ER

time.com

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vol. 184, no. 14 | 2014

6 x Editors Desk
8 x Conversation

THE CULTURE

60 x Books

Derek Jeters last


game at Yankee
Stadium

Actor Alan
Cummings memoir
recounts his child
hood struggles with
an abusive father.
Plus: Octobers
cornucopia of
reading riches

14 x World

66 x Tuned In

Hong Kong seeks


democracy; how
Turkey could change
the ISIS ght

James Poniewozik
on the Internet
fueled, listicledriven
nostalgia boom

16 x Nation

68 x Reviews

The Pentagons air


war in Syria; Leon
Panetta on the White
House and Iraq

Richard Corliss on
the Sudan drama
The Good Lie; R&B
singer Tinashes debut
album, Aquarius

BRIEFING

11 x Verbatim
12 x LightBox

22 x Vitals

A photograph of Irans Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, hangs near the Grand
Mosala Mosque on a street in Tehran. Photograph by Kiana Hayeri for Time

70 x Pop Chart

Key data on PepsiCo


CEO Indra Nooyi
24 x Tech

Apps that train your


brain to learn
26 x Milestones

Chelsea Clinton gives


birth to a baby girl
COMMENTARY

30 x In the Arena

Joe Klein talks to


voters in Mississippi
32 x The Curious
Capitalist

Rana Foroohar on
what the New York
Fed tapes reveal

FEATURES

34 Ebola Hits Home


What happens now that the deadly virus
has been found in the U.S.
by David Von Drehle

A Viral Storm
The race to contain the rampant West
African Ebola outbreak by Aryn Baker
38

46 Unmovable Ayatullah
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei stands in
the way of progress in the U.S.s nuclear
talks with Iran by Michael Crowley

The High Road


Drivers on pot are dangerous and on
the rise, and police still lack the tools to
detect and prosecute them by Eliza Gray

Quick Talk with


singer Meghan
Trainor; Ai Weiwei
at Alcatraz; standup
sitcoms
72 x 10 Questions

Philosopher
Cornel West

Alan Cumming,
page 60

C U M M I N G : M I R E YA A C I E R T O G E T T Y I M A G E S

52

on the cover:
Photo-illustration by
Spencer Lowell for Time

TIME (ISSN 0040-781X) is published weekly, except for two issues combined for one week in January, May, July, August, September and December, by Time Inc. Principal Ofce: Time & Life Building, Rockefeller Center, New York, NY 10020-1393.
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uuuuuuu

time October 13, 2014

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Editors
Desk
A Risky Business

in her years as times bureau


chief in Afghanistan, Pakistan and
the Middle East, Aryn Baker, who
now covers Africa, has embedded
with U.S. soldiers and covered their
hazardous missionsbut even that
did not fully prepare her for the risks of reporting
from Liberia on the war against Ebola. News of the
rst conrmed case in the U.S. underscores what
her reporting shows: unless much more is done
much more quickly, the toll of the disease in West
Africa could grow exponentially, destabilizing
whole parts of the continent and,
in the most dire CDC projection,
striking as many as 1.4 million
people by January.
The challenge in covering this
story is physical, certainly, but it
is more than that. Putting on the
required protective gear is relatively easy: Tyvek bodysuit, hood,
goggles, face mask, rain boots
with booties over them, one pair
of gloves taped to her sleeves, then
another on top of them, so not an
inch of skin shows. It doesnt take
long for the whole contraption to
start fogging up with sweat, heat and humidity,
Aryn says, so its helpful to be taking video on
my iPadthat way I can review the footage later,
when Im not peering through a foggy mask.
The dangerous part is getting out of the suit,
making sure that the outside layers, which are
potentially contaminated, dont make contact
with the inside layers. This means being sprayed
down with a chlorine solution, leaning forward
to take off the goggles, making sure no sweat runs
down into her eyes. More chlorine, then a gradual
removal of layers, more spraying, until she bundles up all her protective gear and throws it in a
garbage bag to be incinerated. The process takes
about 10 minutes, but it feels like much longer because I am concentrating all the time on not making any mistakes, she says. When Im out with
the body-collecting team or the ambulance team, I
will do this ve or six times in a day.

Baker, left, uses her


iPad to capture video
of an interview with
health care workers at
a new, 120-bed Ebola
treatment center in
Monrovia, Liberia

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Please recycle
this magazine and
remove inserts or
samples before
recycling

time October 13, 2014

BENEDICTE KURZEN NOOR

Write to us

At night I sometimes wake up in a panic,


thinking about the time I touched my face with
my gloves by accident, or how I leaned against a
wall to steady the camera, she adds. She keeps a
thermometer by her bed, so she can check her temperature to make sure she is not running a fever.
It is strange to be in a place where you cant
touch anything: no shaking hands, no comforting
a woman whose mother has just died, no tap on the
back when she wants to get someones attention. I
never thought before how much touching is a part
of how we communicate, Aryn says. I saw a little
girl the same age as my daughter
fall down in the street the other
day, and it went against every
instinct I have as a mother not to
rush in and pick her up. One of the
nurses at the temporary orphanage
I visited told me that sometimes
she puts on a protective suit just
so she could hug a crying child in
need of comfort.
Aryn has become used to the
sight of death, even people left to
die in the streets because there is
no place for them to go. But every
day also brings examples of a deep
and abiding compassion and courage on the part
of caregivers: the Liberian nurse who spent three
times the recommended time in her moon suit so
she could meet each patients needs; the American
educator who has turned her school into a shortterm orphanage for children whose parents have
died of Ebola and whose relatives wont take them
in for fear they also carry the disease.
That, too, is a part of this story: when the worst
that nature throws at us uncovers the best that human nature affords.

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Conversation
A portrait by Awol Erizku
recalls Vermeers
17th century masterpiece
Girl With a Pearl Earring

What You Said About ...


Rana Foroohars
Oct. 6 cover prole of General
Motors CEO Mary Barra drew
praise, and coverage in outlets
from NBC to USA Today, for
its detail on Barras pragmatic
approach to the companys ignition troubles. Tim Sexton of
Peoria, Ariz., was one of many
who remained skeptical. Its good that Barra has
A NEW GM?

made it her goal to clean up her company, but


talk is cheap, he wrote. If she is really serious

Jeffrey Klugers
feature on the antivax movement irked Karen
Simon, an education advocate for children on the
autistic spectrum in Stratford, Conn., who called
the pieces tone dismissive. She wrote, Many of
the kids that are not vaccinated are the younger
siblings of kids diagnosed with autism, adding
that these parents are not arrogant or invincible,
as a subject in the piece suggested, but terried. But Eileen Haas-Linde of Cape Coral, Fla.,
whose adopted daughter has battled polio contracted in her native Kazakhstan, disagreed:
If anyone had to see what our daughter
PEOPLE WHO OPPOSE VACCINES

had to go through, they would never take


that chance [of not vaccinating] with their
children. Added Tom Simpson, a doctor

of pharmacy in Stockton, Calif.: Parents


who fail to vaccinate are endangering
all other children and there should be a
criminal penalty for doing so.

Time
series, Deborah Willis, chair of photography and imaging at NYUs Tisch
School of the Arts, explores the way
modern photographers such as Susan
kae Grant (whose work is shown
top right) and Ed Drew (bottom left)
use themes of memory and history.
See more at lightbox.time.com.
LIGHTBOX As part of a special

NOW ON TIME.COM

TIME-OUTS Many objected to a

Time.com op-ed by No-Drama Discipline authors


Daniel J. Siegel and Tina Payne Bryson, which
argued that parents should sit with their kids
for time-ins, since isolationpart of some
time-outscan be as harmful as physical abuse.
It is a disservice to the public to suggest that
families try an unproven approach when one
with decades of support is available, wrote the

Society for Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, a branch of the American Psychological Association, in a response letter.
8

Adama Delphine
Fawundus Brown
Eyes, Big Fro, inspired
by Toni Morrisons
The Bluest Eye

Who better to provide the blueprint for better emailing than Google
boss Eric Schmidt and fellow Google veteran Jonathan Rosenberg?
Here, a sampling of their nine rules at time.com/betteremail:

RESPOND QUICKLY
It sets up a positive
communications loop in
which you are more
likely to be included in
key discussions and
decisions.

HANDLE BY LIFO
(LAST IN, FIRST OUT)
Sometimes the older
stuff gets taken care of
by someone else.

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BE CRISP IN YOUR
DELIVERY
If describing a problem,
dene it clearly. Leave
out the stuff abundant
in most emailsthe
parts people can skip.

time October 13, 2014

S Y R I N G E : G E T T Y I M A G E S; L I G H T B O X , C L O C K W I S E F R O M T O P L E F T: A W O L E R I Z K U : C O U R T E S Y H A S T E D K R A E U T L E R ;
S U S A N K A E G R A N T: C O U R T E S Y T H E A R T I S T; A D A M A D E L P H I N E F A W U N D U : C O U R T E S Y T H E A R T I S T; E D D R E W : C O U R T E S Y R O B E R T K O C H G A L L E R Y, S A N F R A N C I S C O

she would identify the employees from top to bottom who knew of the problem with its ignition
system and have them charged with manslaughter. Still, on Time.com AlphaJuliette praised
Barras efforts to make GM more transparent and
accountable and urged support of the auto giant.
If we the customers dont trust the product they
are making then they wont sell any cars.

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Get iPhone 6
for $0 DOWN at AT&T.
GET UP TO A $300 CREDIT
WHEN TRADING IN YOUR CURRENT iPHONE*

iPhone 6 isnt just bigger its better in every way. Larger, yet thinner.
More powerful, yet power efcient. Its a new generation of iPhone.

*Reqs elig. trade-in, smartphone purch. & qual. svc.

OUR FASTEST WAY TO ORDER IS ATT.COM


Trade-in Offer: Ends 10/31/14. Select locations only. Reqs eligible trade-in & purchase of new smartphone on AT&T Next,SM 2-yr wireless agmt, or at regular price w/no annual contract & qual. svc. activation. Elig. Trade-in: Eligible iPhones in good & fully
functional condition. Elig. iPhones: iPhone 4, 4s, 5, 5c, and 5s. Upgrades: This is not an early upgrade program. Excludes AT&T NextSM upgrade program trade-ins. Trade-in: Delete all personal & sensitive info from device memory & SIM card. Promo
Credit: $300 credit for iPhone 5s & $200 credit for other elig. iPhones. Promotion Card: In AT&T-owned retail stores, you will receive credit instantly as a private label AT&T Promotion Card (Card) issued by MetaBank or CenterState Bank of Florida, N.A., via
license from Visa U.S.A. Inc. If purchase via att.com, must trade in via att.com w/emailed promo code received after device ships. Code expires not less than 30 days after receipt. Will receive credit on a Card ~3 weeks after receipt of elig. trade-in & confirmation
of condition. Card may only be used toward purchases of AT&T products & services in AT&T-owned retail stores, at att.com, or to pay wireless bill. Card is not redeemable for cash & may not be used for withdrawal at cash-dispensing locations. Expiration date,
printed on Card, will not be less than 90 days from receipt. Participating Dealers: Provide credit to use instantly or a dealer promo card. Dealer cards contain addl terms & conditions & may only be used at specified dealer. $0 down with AT&T NextSM: Reqs
eligible installment agmt. & qual. credit. Tax due at sale. Wireless service (voice & data) reqd & is addl. Limit four devices via AT&T NextSM or tablet installment agmt per acct. Device balance due if wireless svc. canceled. Select locations. Smartphones:
Purchase limit may apply. Gen. Wireless Svc. Terms: Subject to Wireless Customer Agmt or Applicable Business Agmt. Activ./upgrade fee & deposit may apply. Credit approval reqd. Coverage & svc. not avail. everywhere. Other restrs apply & may
result in svc. termination. Other Monthly Charges/Line: May include taxes & federal/state universal svc. charges. Reg. Cost Recovery Charge (up to $1.25), gross receipts surcharge. Admin. Fee & other govt assessments which are not govt reqd charges.
Pricing and terms subject to change. Visit a store for more info. Screen images simulated. 2014 AT&T Intellectual Property. All rights reserved. Apple, the Apple logo, and iPhone are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.

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3G to 4G.
Change for the better.
Switch and you could save with GEICO.

1-800-947-AUTO or call your local agent.

Some discounts, coverages, payment plans and features are not available in all states or all GEICO companies. GEICO is a registered service mark of Government Employees Insurance
Company, Washington, D.C. 20076; a Berkshire Hathaway Inc. subsidiary. GEICO Gecko 1999-2014. 2014 GEICO

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Briefing
Carl Icahn

51

The activist investor


succeeded in his
push to have eBay
spin off its PayPal
division

Number of turtles a Canadian


man was found smuggling across
the border into the U.S. They
were hidden between his legs
and strapped to his body
GOOD WEEK

N E TA N YA H U, G R O S S : R E U T E R S; I C A H N , K W E L I , H I L L : G E T T Y I M A G E S; G I N S B U R G , W Y L I E : A P ; I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y B R O W N B I R D D E S I G N F O R T I M E (2)

BAD WEEK

To say Iran
doesnt practice
terrorism is like
saying Derek Jeter
never played
shortstop for the
New York Yankees.
BENJAMIN NETANYAHU,

Israeli Prime Minister, addressing


the U.N. General Assembly

THE WEEK

EBOLA SPREAD
TO THE U.S.

They may take


for granted
the rights that
they have.
RUTH BADER GINSBURG,

Supreme Court Justice,


expressing concern about
modern-day feminists

Bill Gross
The legendary
bond trader was
forced out of the
investment rm
PIMCO

$160,000

Value of a diamond allegedly stolen by


a former UPS employee; he later traded
it for about $20 worth of marijuana

I wish to God you protected the White House


like you are protecting your reputation here today.
STEPHEN LYNCH, Democratic member of Congress, addressing then Secret Service Director Julie Pierson at a Sept. 30
hearing about the White House fence jumper who made it inside the Presidents home; Pierson resigned the following day

If Amazon is not
stopped, we are facing
the end of literary
culture in America.
ANDREW W YLIE, literary agent,
criticizing the retail giants tactics;
Amazon has recently discouraged
customers from buying books published
by Hachette amid a pricing dispute

time October 13, 2014

52%
Percentage
decline
in wildlife
populations
worldwide
from 1970
to 2010

She is not an
iPod nor is
she a trained
monkey.
TALIB KWELI, rapper, defending
Lauryn Hill from criticism of her
concerts for their delayed starts and
radical reinterpretations of her songs

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Sources: New Republic; New York Times; Cuepoint; AP; ABC; USA Today; CNN; WWF

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Brieng

LightBox
Batman
Derek Jeter celebrates after ending his
nal game at Yankee Stadium with a
crucial hit, clinching a win against the
Baltimore Orioles on Sept. 25. The
legendary shortstop retired three days
later, at the end of his 20th season.
Photograph by Julie JacobsonAP
FOR PICTURES OF THE WEEK,
GO TO lightbox.time.com

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Brieng

World

DATA
CLIMATE
FOOTPRINT
World Wildlife
Fund ranked
countries by
the amount
of natural
resources they
consume per
capita. Heres a
sampling from
the top 20,
going from most
use to least:

Kuwait

Hong Kong Seeks


Democracy in
Chinas Shadow
BY EMILY RAUHAL A/HONG KONG

They call it the Umbrella Revolution.


On the night of Sept. 28, riot police
red tear gas at pro-democracy demonstrators in Hong Kong. The mostly
student crowd was clad in little more
than T-shirts and shorts, protected by
dollar-store ponchos and swimming
goggles wrapped in cellophane. Footage from the scene showed people
using umbrellas as shields as they
inched through the smoke.
Outraged by the violence and frustrated by what they see as Beijings
creeping control of the semiautonomous territory, Hong Kongs citizens
ocked to join them. Tens of thousands now occupy the very heart of
the city, from the nancial district
on Hong Kong Island to key intersections across the storied harbor in
Kowloon. Participants are calling
for the resignation of the citys chief
14

Protesters carrying the umbrellas that


executive, Leung Chun-ying, and
have become a symbol of Hong Kongs
for full democracy. The demonstrapro-democracy demonstrations
tions follow the announcement by
Beijing in late August that when
Hong Kongs residents vote for a new nese Communist Party, which
leader in 2017, their choices will be
prizes stability above all else, is no
restricted to candidates vetted by the doubt weighing its options. If this
mainland government.
were mainland China, where the
Although by Oct. 1 there was still Internet is censored and the media
a heavy police presence, the protests tightly controlled, they could stop
had become remarkably peaceful,
news from spreading and purge
even polite. High school students did provocative images from the web.
homework on the pavement. BusiIndeed, as the demonstrations
ness owners donated food. Volungained strength, censors in China
teers helped ferry basic necessities
blocked Instagram and an ever
to the front. Do you need a mask?
growing list of terms like Hong
they asked. We have biscuits!
Kong police and umbrella.
But it wasnt clear how long the
But this is Hong Kong, which
peace would hold. In a city that each has remained a much more open
year marks the anniversary of the
place ever since it was handed over
1989 crackdown in Beijings Tianan- to China by its former colonial
men Square, people are all too aware masters in Britain in 1997. The
of the worst-case scenario: brutal
press remains relatively free, the
suppression by the Chinese governInternet uncensored. The citys
ment. Will Beijing send the army
camera-wielding crowds are docuto crush the rally, they wonder? Or
menting every move. They feel
might the government give way to
that this is their momentand
get people off the streets? The Chitheir story to tell.

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Denmark

U.S.

13

Australia

20

Estonia
SOURCE: LIVING PL ANE T
R E P O R T 2 0 14

By Noah Rayman

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RUSSIA

We need
what the
Americans
will
probably
call a
reset.
SERGEI LAVROV,

Russias Foreign
Minister, on Russian
television, calling
for the mending of
ties with the U.S. amid
continued tensions
over the conict in
Ukraine. Using a term
coined by the Obama
Administration in
a 2009 attempt to
improve relations
with Moscow, he said
a reset 2.0 was in
order.

3 ESSENTIAL FACTS

Turkeys Fight Against ISIS

Trending In

Turkey looks poised to intervene in Syria against the Islamic State


of Iraq and Greater Syria, the militant group that has overrun parts
of Syria and neighboring Iraq. Turkeys parliament is expected to
authorize military action on Oct. 2, two weeks after ISIS released
49 Turkish hostages held captive for more than three months.

BORDER CONTROL

BUFFER ZONE

OPERATIONS BASE

Thousands of
Islamist ghters
are believed to
have traveled to
Syria via the Turkish border since
2011. In an effort
to stem the ow,
Turkey is boosting
security along its
frontier with the
conict-ridden
country and arresting suspected militants.

More than 160,000


mainly Kurdish
refugees ed to Turkey in September
as ISIS stepped up
its attacks on Kurdish settlements in
northern Syria.
Now Turkey is
considering a plan
to use its armed
forces to help create
a so-called safe zone
along the Syrian
side of the border.

Although part of
the NATO alliance,
Turkey has not
joined the U.S.-led
coalition against
ISIS. But the government has put
forward a proposal
that could open
the countrys bases
to foreign troops,
including U.S. and
regional ghter jets
striking ISIS forces
in Syria and Iraq.

POLITICS
Marina Silva, named
the Brazilian Socialist
Partys presidential
candidate after the
sudden death of
Eduardo Campos,
is expected to take
25% of the vote in
the Oct. 5 elections,
triggering a likely
runoff with the
incumbent, Dilma
Rousseff, on Oct. 26

NATIONALISM
Regional leaders
in Catalonia are
appealing a court
order suspending
a nonbinding
independence
referendum,
after the Spanish
government asked
a judge to forbid the
Nov. 9 vote

ROUNDUP

e Rise of Robotic Taste Testers

Oenophile
Earlier this year,
scientists in
Denmark created
a machine that
can measure the
dryness of a wine
using nanosensors
modeled on the
sensors in our
mouths

Health Coach
Japanese tech rm
NEC added a new
feature to its Papero
personal-robot
project in 2005 that
enabled the droid to
analyze the fat and
sugar content of
food using infrared
technology

$125K
ITALY

A new robot funded by the Thai government can judge the authenticity of any Thai dish,
say its creators. Here are more robots with an appetite:

Beer Snob
Last year, Spanish
scientists showed
off an electronic
tongue equipped
with sensors that
can distinguish
between different
varieties of beer
with up to 82%
accuracy

Coffee Control
In 2008,
researchers in
Switzerland unveiled
a machine that can
assess the avor
of espresso by
analyzing the fumes
given off when it is
heated up

What Italys
Parliament
can pay its
in-house
hairdressers,
down from
$172,000.
Lawmakers
agreed to
lower the cap
to cut costs

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EQUALITY
Icelands Foreign
Minister Gunnar
Sveinsson
announced a plan
to hold a men-only
womens-rights
conference in 2015
as part of a U.N.
effort to involve men
and boys in the push
for gender equality

H O N G K O N G : T O D D D A R L I N G P O L A R I S; L AV R O V, B U F F E R ZO N E , P O L I T I C S , N AT I O N A L I S M : A P ;
B O R D E R C O N T R O L , O P E R AT I O N S B A S E , I TA LY: G E T T Y I M A G E S

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Nation

DEATH FROM ABOVE A B-1 refuels on


Sept. 27 before attacking targets in Syria

The Rundown
Julia
Pierson resigned
as director of
the Secret Service on Oct. 1,
a day after a withering
congressional hearing into
a series of agency security
failures. The latest lapses
include Oscar Hernandezs
unimpeded Sept. 19 run into
the White House after
jumping the perimeter fence
and a Sept. 16 encounter
between an armed man with
three battery convictions and
President Obama in an
elevator in Atlanta.
POLITICS

Dangerous Distance e air war in Syria

may feel remote. Give it time


BY MARK THOMPSON

16

Kosovo dropped 28,000 bombs over 78 days,


cost an estimated $3 billion and killed nearly
500 civilians. Only after President Bill Clinton suggested that he was willing to deploy
ground troops did Operation Allied Force
change the reality on the ground.
In both of those wars, the U.S. had the
advantage of taking on organized militaries
commanded by heads of state, albeit dictatorial ones. Saddam Hussein and Slobodan Milosevic may have been strongmen, but they
were nonetheless responsible for far more
than battleelds and so were subject to pressures the zealots of ISIS are unlikely to feel.
The air war that most closely parallels
the one the U.S. is conducting against ISIS is
Operation Unied Protector, the NATO-led
seven-month effort over Libya in 2011. Begun
to protect Libyan rebels and civilians from
Muammar Gaddas army, the air strikes
played a critical role in Gaddas ouster and
eventual killing. For a time, that outcome
looked like a clean air-war victory.
But the resulting chaos has changed that
view. Thats why the Pentagon has made it
clear that its aerial campaign is open-ended
and that destroying the jihadists will probably require ground troops in the end. That
will give Americans time to get familiar
with this new Middle Eastern war. And for
the Pentagon to come up with a name for it.

WorldMags.net

HEALTH

96%

The proportion of deceased


NFL football players whose
brains showed signs of
degenerative disease related
to head injuries, according to
data collected at a brain bank
run by Boston University and
the Department of Veterans
Affairs. The condition can
cause dementia and other
cognitive problems.
A single
trafc camera at the foot of an
off-ramp in Brooklyn earned
New York City $77,550 in
nes from 1,551 tickets
issued on July 7, city records
show. Some motorists cried
foul over the sharp increase in
tickets, but ofcials say the
23 cameras already in place
citywide dramatically reduce
injuries and that they plan to
add more.
LAW ENFORCEMENT

time October 13, 2014

P L A N E : A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S; P I E R S O N : A P

every day for more than a week, u.s. and


allied warplanes have bombed targets inside
Syria. While the as-yet-unnamed operation
may seem a lot like war to those being pounded, it hardly feels that way to most Americans.
With no U.S. boots on the ground and no
reporters beaming back up-close scenes of the
action, Americans are witnessing the new war
from a distance. They see the ghting mostly
via footage from airborne targeting cameras edited by the Pentagon, or cell-phone and socialmedia posts from those on the ground, the
suspect provenance of which means they give
an unreliable picture of whats really going on.
But distant air wars have a way of coming home, in time. Thats because the biggest
drawback of any war fought solely from
above is a military one. Limiting the war to
air strikes cuts the risk to U.S. military personnel, but it also makes it harderperhaps
impossibleto achieve President Obamas
declared objective, the destruction of the
Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS)
and the al-Qaeda-linked Khorasan group.
Air campaigns have a mixed history. The
U.S. and its allies launched Operation Desert
Storm in 1991 with a 43-day aerial bombardment, but driving Iraq out of Kuwait
ultimately required the deployment of more
than 500,000 ground troops. The 1999 NATOled air campaign to get Serbian forces out of

Paper or
plastic? will soon be a
question of the past in
California, where Governor
Jerry Brown signed into law a
statewide ban on plastic bags
on Sept. 30. Large grocery
stores will have to stop
issuing the bags in 2015, and
smaller businesses like liquor
stores must comply by 2016.
ENVIRONMENT

WorldMags.net
Brieng

Panetta, 76, ran the CIA


and Pentagon and has
been White House chief of
staff and Budget Director

Ground Truth Leon Panetta

on how the White House


misplayed Iraqi troop talks

E R I N A . K I R K - C U O M O D E PA R T M E N T O F D E F E N S E

As U.S. forces return to Iraq to


counter the surging al-Qaeda
splinter group the Islamic State
of Iraq and Greater Syria, President Obamas former Secretary
of Defense and CIA chief recalls
the White House debates that
preceded Americas departure
from the country. His new book,
with Jim Newton, Worthy
Fights: A Memoir of Leadership in War and Peacefrom
which this article is adaptedis
being published on Oct. 7.
through the fall of 2011,
the main question facing the
American military in Iraq
was what our role would be
now that combat operations
were over. When President
Obama announced the end of
our combat mission in August
2010, he acknowledged that
we would maintain troops for
a while. Now that the deadline
was upon us, however, it was
clear to meand many
othersthat withdrawing all
our forces would endanger the
fragile stability then barely
holding Iraq together.
Privately, the various
leadership factions in Iraq all
conded that they wanted
some U.S. forces to remain as a
bulwark against sectarian violence. But none was willing
to take that position publicly,
and Prime Minister Nouri
al-Maliki concluded that any
Status of Forces Agreement,
which would give legal protection to those forces, would
have to be submitted to the
Iraqi parliament for approval.
That made reaching agreement very difcult given the
internal politics of Iraq, but
representatives of the Defense

and State departments, with


scrutiny from the White
House, tried to reach a deal.
We had leverage. We could,
for instance, have threatened
to withdraw reconstruction
aid to Iraq if al-Maliki would
not support some sort of
continued U.S. military presence. My fear, as I voiced to
the President and others, was
that if the country split apart
or slid back into the violence
that wed seen in the years
immediately following the
U.S. invasion, it could become
a new haven for terrorists to
plot attacks against the U.S.
Iraqs stability was not only in
Iraqs interest but also in ours.
I privately and publicly advocated for a residual force that
could provide training and
security for Iraqs military.
Under Secretary of Defense
Michle Flournoy did her best
to press that position, which
reected not just my views
but also those of the military

commanders in the region


and the Joint Chiefs. But the
Presidents team at the White
House pushed back, and the
differences occasionally became heated. Flournoy argued
our case, and those on our side
viewed the White House as so
eager to rid itself of Iraq that it
was willing to withdraw rather than lock in arrangements
that would preserve our inuence and interests.
We debated with al-Maliki
even as we debated among
ourselves, with time running
out. The clock wound down
in December, and Deputy Secretary of Defense Ash Carter
continued to argue our case,
extending the deadline for the
Iraqis to act, hoping that we

TO MY
FRUSTRATION,
THE WHITE HOUSE
COORDINATED
NEGOTIATIONS
BUT NEVER
REALLY
LED THEM

No exit Defense Secretary Panetta addresses troops at the end-of-

mission ceremony in Baghdad in December 2011

WorldMags.net

might pull out a last-minute


agreement and recognizing
that once our forces left, it
would be essentially impossible for them to turn around
and return. To my frustration,
the White House coordinated
the negotiations but never
really led them. Ofcials there
seemed content to endorse
an agreement if State and
Defense could reach one, but
without the Presidents active
advocacy, al-Maliki was allowed to slip away. The deal
never materialized. To this
day, I believe that a small U.S.
troop presence in Iraq could
have effectively advised the
Iraqi military on how to deal
with al-Qaedas resurgence
and the sectarian violence
that has engulfed the country.
Over the following 212
years, the situation in Iraq
slowly deteriorated. Al-Maliki
was responsible, as he exacerbated the deep sectarian
issues polarizing his country.
Meanwhile, with the conict
in Syria raging, an al-Qaeda
offshootISIS, or the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater
Syriagained strength. Using Syria as its base, it began
to move into Iraq in 2014,
grabbing power in towns and
villages across Iraqs north,
including Mosul and Tal Afar.
These were strategically important cities that U.S. forces
had fought and died to secure.
The news from Iraq bothered me to no end. In my
view, the ISIS offensive in
2014 greatly increases the
risk that Iraq will become
al-Qaedas next safe haven.
That is exactly what it had in
Afghanistan pre-9/11. After
all we have done to decimate
al-Qaedas senior leadership
and its core, those efforts will
be for naught if we allow it to
rebuild a base of operations in
the Middle East.
n
17

WorldMags.net
Brieng

Vitals

Indra Nooyi

e Big Soda
boss is pledging a
less sugary future
Joining Coca-Cola and Dr. Pepper Snapple
Group via the Clinton Global Initiative
(CGI), the PepsiCo CEO has promised to reduce by 20% the number of calories Americans consume in soft drinks by 2025despite
skepticism from Wall Street.
CLAIMS TO FAME Shes helped execute

a major overhaul of Pepsi by buying


Tropicana, merging with Quaker to get
Gatorade and putting PepsiCo on an
innovation diet. She has also championed
Pepsis Performance With Purpose
platform, which aims to make the
company more socially responsible.
CURRENT CHALLENGES

Soda sales in the U.S. have been slipping


for years, prompting investors like Nelson Peltz to call for splitting the company
in two: Pepsi, the beverage outt, and
Frito-Lay, the snack-food unit. Meanwhile, Wall Street whines about Nooyis
healthier product initiatives, since junk
food tends to be very protable.
BIGGEST CHAMPION

Former President Bill Clinton, whose CGI


has worked with the soda industry to
make lower-calorie drinks available for a
test group of U.S. middle and high schools.
BIGGEST CRITIC

Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition at


New York University, who has dismissed
Nooyis initiative as a PR ploy. If soda sellers really want to help Americans drink
fewer sugary products, she argues, they
should stop ghting soda-tax initiatives
in cities like San Francisco.
CAN SHE DO IT?

22

2006

Year Nooyi became


CEO of PepsiCo

Number of boards
Nooyi serves on

$14.3M
Nooyis 2013
compensation

WorldMags.net

The just-announced Pepsi True, sweetened


by a sugar and stevia combo, contains 60
calories in each 7.5-oz. can30% fewer
than regular Pepsiand will be available
by the 24-can case in mid-October. Critics
may nd True easier to swallow; will consumers? bill saporito
time October 13, 2014

P L AT O N T R U N K A R C H I V E

58

Nooyis age

VITAL STATS

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Tech
Brain Train

New apps make


learning a game
BY VICTOR LUCKERSON

its common these days to hear of


a new mobile game that racks up impressive downloads and sales almost
overnightand then disappears just
as fast. A growing raft of gamelike apps
hope to stay in your pocket for the long
term. How? By offering users the ability
to learn a new language, practice web
coding or improve their memory. As
smartphones become a constant part of

Connected Life

the human experience, more and more


people are wondering what their phones
have done for them lately. So-called
brain-training apps propose we spend
our downtime bulking up our minds.
Theres a long-term secular trend and
consumer interest in health, explains
Kunal Sarkar, the CEO of brain-training
company Lumosity. Taking care of your
mind is another part of that.
The difference from past generations
of educational softwarethink programs that teach typing or basic math
is that these apps feel like games, not
homework. More than 18 million people
have downloaded Lumosity, a puzzle
program created by neuroscientists in

collaboration with game designers, since


it launched last year. Duolingo, an app
that teaches foreign languages, grants
users experience points and badges as
they learn new grammar skills, much
as console titles like Call of Duty do. And
Codecademy teaches the basics of computer programming in short tutorials.
Brain apps are hardly a cure-all. Conversing with native speakers remains
the best way to learn a foreign language,
for example, and some experts question
Lumositys long-term mental benets. At
the very least, though, these apps work on
the same basic concept that teachers have
been trying to drill into our heads since
kindergarten: learning can be fun.

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IMPROVE MY
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BECOME A
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KNOW MORE
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24

Lumosity aims to
improve users thinking
abilities by using
simple games and
tests that adapt to
your cognitive level
to improve memory,
attention and decisionmaking speed. The
company says no two
users will have the
same experience.

Programming skills
are increasingly
important in the digital
age, and Codecademy
offers in-depth
lessons in HTML,
JavaScript and other
languages. Novices
can download the
Hour of Code app and
learn the basics of
programming syntax
on the go.

Each day the app


presents a different
classic painting from
storied artists such
as van Gogh and
Monet. Even if you
already know the work,
you may not know all
the fascinating
details the app serves
up on the backstory
of the art.

WorldMags.net

iOS, Android
on mobile

COST: Free

Never again get


embarrassed using the
wrong word at a dinner
party with this app.
It boasts more than
120,000 questions
that can help you
learn over 12,000
words. Users can even
battle their friends to
see whos the bigger
word geek.

The U.S. National


Archives manages
this educational app,
which serves up a
historical document
or photo each day
of the year. Past
docs have included
everything from a letter
by Woodrow Wilson
creating Mothers Day
to a photo of Gerald
Ford as a toddler.

time October 13, 2014

I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y T O D D D E T W I L E R F O R T I M E

This language-learning
app offers courses
in Spanish, French,
Italian, German and
Portuguese. And its
not all reading and
writingit uses the
phones microphone
to gauge users
pronunciation
skills as well.

$14 per month

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KNOW HOW MUCH


THEYRE CHARGED IN
CHECKING FEES.

OUR CUSTOMERS DO
BECAUSE ITS ZERO.
A bank that puts you rst. Hmmm. Thats different.
capitalone360.com

800-289-1992

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Offered by Capital One, N.A., Member FDIC. 2014 Capital One. Capital One is a federally registered service mark. All rights reserved.

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Brieng

Milestones

SET

DIED

A new record for


fastest marathon,
by Kenyan runner
Dennis Kimetto,
30, in Berlin. He
completed the race in
2 hr. 2 min. 57 sec.

Jim Tracant

Former
Congressman
By Bob Ney

RESIGNED

U.S. Attorney General


Eric Holder, after
serving almost six
years. If the process
of conrming a
successor lasts
through December,
he will be the third
longest
serving
Attorney
General.
TOPPLED

By Ukrainian
protesters in the
eastern city of
Kharkiv, a longstanding statue of
Soviet icon Vladimir
Lenin. They sawed
through one of its
legs before pulling
the gure down with
cables.
DIED

Hillary holds her new granddaughter as Bill looks on


BORN

First grandchild of Bill and Hillary Clinton


The grandparents look cute: loving, smiling, doting. The grandchild
lookswell, its hard to see her face, but newborn babies are always cute.
Its a typical hospital scene, with a typical hospital chair and one of those
red-white-and-blue-striped blankets every hospital uses. But it probably
goes without saying that when Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky entered the
world on Sept. 26, she did not join a typical family.
The grandfather reaching for the infant used to be the leader of the free
world. The grandmother cradling her was a First Lady, then a U.S. Senator,
then Secretary of State; she might be the next leader of the free world herself. For so long weve watched this family live through indelity and impeachment, victory and defeat. We know them, or we think we do.
But Charlotte is a blank slate, a miracle like the more than 10,000 other
American miracles born that day, though probably the only one whose
grandparents have a Secret Service detail. The world begins anew with
all of them, and maybe some of them will help repair it. So yes, we know
that Charlotte is the capital of a swing state, and no, we have no clue what
Charlotte means for 2016. Who cares? Babies are cute. And grandparents
with Secret Service details get to enjoy them too. michael grunwald
26

ANNOUNCED

By eBay, that it will


spin off PayPal,
12 years after
acquiring it. The
payment service will
become a publicly
traded company
sometime in 2015.

Ney is a former Republican


Congressman from Ohio

MARRIED

Actor George
Clooney, 53,
to lawyer Amal
Alamuddin, 36,
in Venice. The
30-minute ceremony,
with about 100
guests, took place
in the historic hotel
Aman Canal Grande
Venice.

WorldMags.net

time October 13, 2014

C L I N T O N : J O N D AV I D S O N O F F I C E O F P R E S I D E N T B I L L C L I N T O N/A P ; T R A F I C A N T, H O L D E R : G E T T Y I M A G E S

Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky

Gaby Aghion, 93,


who founded the
fashion line Chlo
in 1952 as a more
casual breath of
fresh air in the readyto-wear market of the
time. Karl Lagerfeld
and Stella McCartney
were among her
notable designers.

I shared part of an Ohio county


with Jim Tracant when we
were both in Congress. The
night that Jim, who died
Sept. 27 at 73, was called to
the House oor for his expulsion
vote, I sat next to him as he
underwent one of the most
painful processes anyone in
politics can. He was expelled
after a bribery conviction and
later served time in prison.
But I knew the Jim Tracant
who stood up for farmers
as their property was being
foreclosed, for steelworkers
trying to save their jobs from
imported steel and for the
average John Six-Pack trying
to make a living. When one
of my constituents who was
a Tracant fan went to his
ofce, Jim smiled, put him in a
headlock and said, Welcome,
glad to see you. People loved
his entertaining one-minute
oor speeches.
Some remember Jim for how
his career ended, but those of
us who knew him remember his
passion, humor, wit and concern
for the average person. Many in
his district fondly recalled the
good things he did as he left the
House for the last time with his
famous closing line: Beam me
up, Mr. Speaker.

!
W
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COMMENTARY / IN THE ARENA

The Delta Blues Two town

meetings, two very dierent


kinds of despair
politics in mississippi is still passionate, as you might expect. And it
is still tragic, which shouldnt be a
surprise, either. The passion seems to
be running with right-wing Tea Party
sorts, who are in full rebellion against the statewide
Republican Party. The tragedy is in the black community, which is permeated by a deep sense of failure; the most basic political facts of lifelike the
value of integrationare being questioned. During
the last week of September, I attended symmetrical town meetings in Mississippi: of former Senate
challenger Chris McDaniels extreme conservatives near Jackson and of black elected ofcials and
educators from the counties surrounding the Delta
town of Greenville.

Saying grace

Congregants of
the New Hope
First Baptist
Church in
Greenville, Miss.,
attend a town
hall on Sept. 29

en dont follow titles, said republican McDaniel. They follow courage. He


was quoting from the movie Braveheart, he
said, citing William Wallacean ancestor of the
largely Scots-Irish crowd of 50 or soas played in
blueface by Mel Gibson. Wallace was McDaniels
model. He fought against the English elites, just as
McDaniel was ghting against the old, pork-loving
Bourbon Republican establishment, people like
former governor Haley Barbour and Senator Thad
Cochran, who would compromise their principles
in order to get public-works projects for the state.
They had stolen the primary election from him.
They had allowed an alleged 40,000 Democrats (a
synonym in Mississippi for African Americans) to
vote in what was supposed to be a Republican primary. Cochran had won. McDaniel was challenging
the result. A lawyer explained the relevant codicils
to the group before McDaniel got up to speak. It was
reminiscentto me, at leastof the civil rights attorneys 50 years ago, who educated Southern blacks
about their rights under the law. There was a righteous We shall overcome attitude in the room.
The effort is probably quixotic. Most people in
the room believed that the Bourbons controlled
the legal system. In fact, many people in the room
seemed to believe they were beset by conspiracies at
the federal level as well. Their solution was a strict,
if slightly muddy, libertarianismMcDaniel describes himself as libertarianon all but social
issues. Laura Van Olderschelde, the president of
the Mississippi Tea Party, said she didnt feel safe to
talk about my Christian faith away from MissisPhotograph by Daymon Gardner for TIME

sippi. Thats how this country was founded, and I


cannot subscribe to people who want to deny that.
This unleashed a torrent of commentary from the
audience. A woman named Tricia McNulty linked
liberals to Lucifer, who has wanted the fall of man.
A reghter named Andy Devine said that liberals
were in the midst of a long-term plot to take over the
schools and impose socialism. They were sneaking
this through because the media diverted the public
with the rutting habits of the Kardashian sisters.
There wasnt any debate about any of this; there
was absolute conviction. The positions were stated
in matter-of-fact fashion, but there was a media-wise
quality to it as well. There was no mention of African
Americans. The McDaniel supporters had been accused of racism and wanted to leave no trace of that.
An accountant named Vince Thornton did mention
that so many people were getting something for
free, but that was about as far as it went. We are not
going away, said Robert Kenney, who quoted Dietrich Bonhoeffer about silence being a political decision. We ght this, he added, meaning the struggle
against the state Republicans, until we win.

M
TO RE AD JOES
BLOG POSTS, GO TO
time.com/swampland

y first day on the job, a white plantation owner killed his wife, said Andrew
Thompson Jr., the rst black sheriff of Coahoma County. I waited until 7 p.m. to arrest him
because I wanted him to spend at least one night
in jail. But at 10 p.m., theythe local white business communityopened the bank so he could
post bail. That was the way it was now: no more

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Joe Klein

I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y A L E X E B E N M E Y E R

ON THE ROAD
WITH JOE

lynching, no more violence. The white folks had


gotten clever. Its been a roller coaster, Sheriff
Thompson continued. We made some progress in
the 70s and 80s, a lot of folks got elected, but weve
lost ground the last 15 or so years, and especially
since the Tea Party came along.
The mood in the basement of New Hope First
Baptist Church in Greenville was a roller coaster
too. It started with anger and slowly lapsed toward
despair. There was none of the lockstep certainty of
McDaniels supporters. Something had gone very
wrong in the Mississippi Delta black community,
and there were an array of different explanations
for it. Racism was one: Why were the white folks
making all the money from the development of
the 80%-black blues town of Clarksdale? Even the
local Delta Blues festivalsaid to be the oldest in
the countrywas being supplanted by a white-led
effort, the Mighty Mississippi Music festival, that
was being supported by the business community.
If the whites arent running it, they dont want to
be part of it, said Errick Simmons, a Greenville city
councilman, who pointed out that the local casinos,
which didnt help out with the Delta festival, had
contributed to the Mighty Mississippi, whichby
the wayalso featured country music.
The stories of subtle, and not so subtle, racism
were compelling but insufcient. There was a piece
missing, and these thoughtful people were growing uncomfortable with the increasingly obvious
vacuum. The discussion really began to get lively
when the Rev. Torey Bell, who said that the system
time October 13, 2014

9/30
New Orleans
10/1
New Orleans
10/2
Haughton, La.
10/3
Louisiana
10/410/5
Arkansas
10/610/7
Kentucky

was set up to keep blacks dependent, went a bit too


far. Even the federal money that had come to upgrade
the schools was a trick. Theyre putting in laptops
and computers for our kids, he said, and they got
none of that at home. They cant comprehend that environment. Its near impossible for them to succeed.
This was disputed by most of the older people in the
room. Theyd been working to secure that funding
for decades. At a certain point, said Timaka James
Jones, a clerk at the local court, weve got to take
some responsibility in our community too.
I asked what had happened to the community,
so famously strong during the civil rights movement. There was reluctance to answer, at rst. But
then it came in a rush: the rug had been pulled out
from under them. They had rushed into integration
and left some of their most cherished institutions
in the dust. We used to have black banks, insurance companies, bakeries, newspapers, said Willie
Bailey, a lawyer and state legislator for District 49.
Now, Nelson Streetwhere most local black businesses were housedwas mostly deserted, except
for churches, drug dealers and the famed restaurant
Does Eat Place. The black church was the last institution standing, and then the [George W.] Bush
Administration came along with that faith-based
stuff, offering money to the churches for social programs, but they couldnt talk politics anymore. (I
dont know about that: more than a few black, urban
pastors took the money and kept their megaphones.)
The segregated schools had been better, said
Jessie Williams, who said she was the rst black
teacher in the newly integrated schools in the 1960s.
The whites left and went to private academies,
and the integrated public schools became sad allblack husks. The thing was, integration had enabled
a lot of the best kidsthose who would have been
teachers and business ownersto go north. There
was some resentment that they had never looked
back. Integration has been a problem, Williams
concluded, setting off a buzz in the room. Its the
worst thing that ever happened to us, muttered
Sheriff Thompson. But he didnt really mean that.
Id like to thank Congressman Bennie Thompson for putting together the extraordinary group
at New Hope First Baptist Church. The contrast
between their candor and self-doubt and Chris
McDaniels bold, bluefaced conservatives could not
have been more striking, or more depressing. It is
the difference between simplicity and complexity.
The Tea Party folks believe that all they have to do
is win their revolution and everything will be better. The blacks won their revolution, and lost their
focus, and inherited a chimera of equality. Now
theyve got to do the hardest thing: regroup, develop
new strategies and come on strong again.
n

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31

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COMMENTARY / THE CURIOUS CAPITALIST

Rana Foroohar

Mad as Hell, All Over Again

Tapes of what really happens between bankers


and regulators show how far we have to go
in some ways, the most shocking
thing about the 46 hours of secret
audiotapes made by former Federal
Reserve bank examiner Carmen
Segarra in 2012 is that they are no
shock at all. Did anyone ever doubt that the New
York Fed was in hock to Wall Street? Or that Fed
bank examinersthe regulators tasked with monitoring the risks banks takemight fear alienating
the powerful nanciers on whom they depend for
information or future jobs?
Its one thing to know and another to hear in
painful, crackling detail how the Feds nancial
cops slip on their velvet gloves to deal with Goldman
Sachs. Or how Segarra, one of a group of examiners
brought in after the nancial crisis to keep a closer
watch on the till, was red, perhaps for doing her job
a little too well. One can only hope that this latest
example of regulatory capture by Wall Street will focus minds on the fact that six years on from the crisis, we still have a dysfunctional nancial system.

32

CARMEN
SEGARRA
The veteran bankcompliance lawyer
began taping
meetings after
hearing disturbing
statements from
regulators regarding
a questionable
Goldman Sachs
deal. Among those
statements was one
from a colleague of
Segarras, who told
examiners to go easy
when questioning
Goldman, suggesting
they say to the bank,
Dont mistake our
inquisitiveness
and our desire
to understand
more about the
marketplace in
general as a criticism
of you as a rm
necessarily.

ne thing weve learned since the crisis


is that bailing out Wall Street didnt help
Main Street. Credit to individuals and many
businesses plummeted during and after the bailouts and remains below precrisis levels today. Numerous experts believe that the size of the nancial
sector is slowing growth in the real economy by
sucking the monetary oxygen out of the room.
Banks dont want to lend; they want to trade, often
via esoteric deals that do almost nothing for anyone
outside Wall Street.
This disconnect between the real economy and nance is now being closely studied by policymakers
and academics. Adair Turner, a former British banking regulator, thinks that only about 15% of U.K.
nancial ows go to the real economy; the rest stay
within the nancial system, propping up existing
corporate assets, supporting trading and enabling
$40 million briefcase-watching fees. If the New York
Fed really wants to redeem itself, it might consider commissioning a similar study to look at Wall
Streets contribution to the U.S. economy. After all,
if nance cant justify itself by showing its actually
doing what it was set up to dotake in deposits and
lend them back to all of uswhat can justify it? n

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time October 13, 2014

E A R L W I L S O N T H E N E W YO R K T I M E S/ R E D U X

onsider one of the shady deals high


lighted on the secret tapes of New York Fed
meetings, which Segarra made with a spy recorder before she was let go and which were made
public on Sept. 26 in a joint report by ProPublica and
This American Life. The 2012 transaction with Banco
Santander, initiated in the midst of the European
debt crisis, ensured that the Spanish bank would
look better on paper than it really was at the time.
Santander paid Goldman a $40 million fee to hold
shares in a Brazilian subsidiary so that it could meet
European Banking Authority rules. The Fed employees, who work inside the banks they examine
(yes, its literally an inside job), knew the deal was
dodgy. One even compared it to Goldmans getting
paid to watch a briefcase. But it was technically
legal, and nobody wanted to make a fuss, so the
transaction went through.
Its hard to know where to begin with whats
problematic here. Ill focus on the least sexy but
perhaps most important point: existing capital
requirementsthe cash that banks are obligated
to hold to offset riskare pathetic. Despite all the
postcrisis backslapping in Washington about how
banks have become safer, our system as a whole
has not. No too-big-to-fail institution currently is
required to keep more than 3% of its holdings in
cash (a gure that will rise to 5% and 6% in 2018),

WATCHING
THE
WATCHERS

which means banks can fund 97% of their own


investments with debt. No company outside the
nancial sector would dream of conducting daily
business with that much risk. As Stanford professor
Anat Admati, whose book The Bankers New Clothes
makes a powerful case for reining in such leverage
levels, told me, Weve got to get rid of this idea that
banking is special and that it should be treated differently than every other industry.
Of course, if you start telling nanciers they
should use more than a few percentage points of
their own money when they gamble, theyll throw a
t. They will tell you that would make it impossible
for them to lend to real businesses. They will also
uncork lots of complex nancial termsTier 1 capital, liquidity ratios, risk-weighted off-balancesheet exposuresthat tend to suffocate useful
(a.k.a. comprehensible) debate. Financiers use insider jargon to intimidate and obfuscate. This is something we need to ght. In banking, as in so many
things, complexity is the enemy. The right questions
are the simplest ones: Are nancial institutions doing things that provide a clear, measurable benet
to the real economy? Sadly, the answer is often no.

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Photo-illustration by Ben Wiseman for TIME

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GLOBAL HEALTH

NOW
ARRIVING
THE DEADLY EBOLA VIRUS
LANDS IN AMERICA
BY DAVID VON DREHLE

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GLOBAL HEALTH | U.S.

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ITS A SMALL WORLD,


AFTER ALL, ONE IN
WHICH A MAN BOARDS
AN AIRPLANE IN
WEST AFRICA AND
HOPSCOTCHES HIS WAY
ACROSS EUROPE
and North America to land in Dallas the
next day. One would never guess by looking at him, but microscopic strands of a virus travel with him, stowaways inside the
mans body. Four days later, he is burning
with fever. Next come the vomiting and
diarrhea, and like that, Ebola is in America.
The man, identified by his sister as
Thomas Eric Duncan of Liberia, spent
the last hours of September and the early
hours of October battling for his life in an
isolation unit at Texas Health Presbyterian
Hospital in Dallas. Meanwhile, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta fanned
out in Dallas in search of close family and
associates who had come into contact with
the patient since his arrival in the U.S. on
Sept. 20.
Within a day of the diagnosis, as many
as 18 contacts were being monitored for
symptoms, including some schoolchildren
who live at the modest two-story townhouse complex where he was staying, according to Texas Governor Rick Perry.
And though the patient was placed in
isolation on Sunday, limiting the scope
of actual contagion, the fear of contagion
had already spread. Outside the apartment
complex, one woman drove by and asked
where she could get an Ebola test for her
son who goes to school down the road. A
boy slouched in the backseat had a T-shirt
over his mouth.
With more than 3,300 people dead in
the growing West African epidemic, the
arrival of Ebola in the U.S. is indeed un36

nerving news. But it came as no surprise


to the disease detectives at the CDC. In recent months, their Ebola command center
has elded at least 90 phone calls from hospitals around the country who suspected
they might have the U.S.s rst Ebola patient. A few health care workers who became sick overseas were evacuated to the
U.S. in special jets designed to contain
the virus, but here we are talking about
a symptomatic patient in need of a diagnosis. In a dozen of those cases, the CDC
recommended a blood test. All came back
negative. Duncan was the 13th to be tested.
But far from being alarming, the volume of calls is a reason to feel hopeful.
It shows that many of Americas health
care workers are on high alertprecisely,
infectious-disease experts agree, as they
should be in the face of a virus like Ebola. The virus can be snuffed out quickly
in North America, said CDC director
Dr. Tom Frieden, who vowed to stop it in
its tracks. He added, There is no doubt
in my mind that we will stop it here. The
prospects are good that Frieden is right.
Unlike in Liberia, Sierra Leone and
Guinea, where Ebola could cause political upheaval and economic collapse, the
U.S. has all the tools to ght Ebola that
impoverished nations lack: a surfeit of
trained doctors and nurses, systems for a
coordinated and quick national response
and sufcient hospital beds and isolation
units. Dallas has plenty of ambulances
and EMTs, lots of clean water and sanitizing soap. In short, the elements of pub-

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lic health are everywhere in American


lives and are almost completely taken for
granteduntil they are suddenly front
and center, as a threat from over there
rears up over here.
CONTAINING THE CASE
this particul ar str ain of ebol a is
fatal in about half of all known cases, yet
it is not quite as fearsome as some other
strains. The good newsgood being a
relative termis that if you know what to
look for, you can see it coming. Patients are
contagious only when they are suffering
symptoms: fever, muscle aches, vomiting
and so on. Whats more, the virus cannot
be transmitted through the air. Direct contact with infected bodily uids like blood,
urine, saliva and feces is how the virus
hops from one person to the next.
This makes ghting Ebola a straightforward proposition in the resource-rich U.S.
Step one is to isolate the symptomatic patient and conrm a diagnosis. Step two is
called contact tracinga hurried canvass
to identify and locate people who have been
close to the patient. And step three is to
keep tabs on those contacts for symptoms.
If they go 21 days without getting sick
Ebolas incubation period is three weeks,
maxtheyre most likely in the clear.
The isolate, canvass and observe
protocol has been a successful strategy in
Nigeria and Senegal, where outbreaks of
Ebola were extinguished this year. It can
be tedious work, though, and it is only as
good as the front-line caregivers who are
the point of the spear. And in Dallas, the
spear should have been a bit sharper.
The patient rst visited the emergency
room at Texas Health Presbyterian on
Thursday, Sept. 25. He complained of fever and abdominal paincommon complaints during u season and generally not
much to worry about. But in taking his history, a nurse learned that he had recently arrived from Liberia, information that should
have set off alarm bells. Regretfully, that
information was not fully communicated
throughout the full team, hospital executive vice president Dr. Mark Lester later explained. The patient was sent home.
Two days later, an ambulance was

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called to the Ivy Apartments near North


Dallas, in a neighborhood so rich in recent arrivals to the U.S. that it has been
called the Ellis Island of Dallas. By now
the patient was in much worse condition,
and the emergency crew returned him to
Texas Health Presbyterian.
This time, the Liberia connection rang
loud and clear. Doctors promptly admitted
the patient to an isolated room, contacted
the Texas health department and dialed
the CDC hotline. One of the experts on
call at the Emergency Operations Center
in Atlanta then led the patient through a
series of triage questions. Two days later,
the CDC and the Texas health department
received blood samples from the patient,
and by that afternoon, both agencies had
conrmed he had Ebola.
The CDC dispatched a 10-person team to
Dallas on Tuesday, Sept. 30. Their job: nd
anyone and everyone the patient might
have exposed to the virus. The patients
fellow passengers on the trip from Liberia,
for example, are believed to be in little or
no danger because of how the disease is
transmitted; close family and friends, on
the other hand, as well as hospital personnel, would need to be monitored.
Epidemiologists tackle the disease by
building rings around the virus, starting with the circle of people in direct
contact with the patient. Those people
are asked about their own circles of close
contacts. With close observation and clear
educationdont travel, avoid crowded
public spaces, monitor your symptoms
and so onthese rings are typically sufcient to stop the spread of Ebola.
Of course, all this depends on honest
and accurate information from the patient
and his contacts, and enough doctors with
beds to deal with infected people in his
circle. All these have been in short supply
in West Africa, where the stigma of Ebola
has led patients to ee or mislead volunteer contact tracers. Quack cures, rumors
and conspiracy theories have also run
rampant in the crowded cities of Liberia,
Sierra Leone and Guinea. And frankly, the
U.S. and other Western governments have
been too slow to respond to the epidemic.
Only now are the rst of 3,000 U.S. troops
time October 13, 2014

promised to the Ebola ght on the scene


and building hospital tents.
When President Obama announced
in mid-September that he was sending
troops, he spoke of Ebola as a national security threat with potential to destabilize
a volatile part of the world. If we dont
make that effort now and this spreads not
just through Africa but other parts of the
world, theres the prospect then that the
virus mutates, Obama told NBCs Chuck
Todd on Meet the Press. It becomes more
easily transmittable. And then it could be
a serious danger to the United States.
THE TIPPING POINT
the heightened sense of urgency is
on display at the CDCs Emergency Operations Center, a hive of glowing computer
screens and real-time maps documenting
the spread of the Ebola virus. One entire
wall of the sprawling bullpen displays
clusters of cases of the disease across West
Africa, built from data continually refreshed by health workers in the eld. In
an adjoining room, phones ring with calls
from hospitals around the country seeking
advice on potential cases in their emergency rooms. Through careful questioning,
the CDC ofcers who answer the phones
guide the callers toward a good diagnosis,
now and then advising that a patient be

90
NUMBER OF

CALLS TO THE
CDC ABOUT
SUSPECTED
EBOLA CASES
IN THE U.S.
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isolated long enough for a denitive blood


test to settle the question. Each morning at
10 a.m. in the conference room that serves
as mission control, CDC leaders meet with
representatives of the State Department
and USAID to size up progressor lack
thereofand plot their next moves.
Its comforting to Americans (one
would hope, anyway), but to the people
of Liberia, all this work is not enough.
Government officials in the capital of
Monrovia grumbled about the fact that
Americans were refusing to name the
Dallas patient, making it impossible for
them to investigate his Liberian contacts.
Meanwhile, ordinary citizens vented on
radio talk shows about the slow response
to their epidemic. Now people in America know Ebola is real, said one caller.
Maybe now they will send more personnel and doctors.
Is there a silver bullet in sight? Scientists employed by universities and pharmaceutical companies in the U.S., U.K.
and Canada are working frantically on
promising treatments for Ebola and a
potential vaccine that could be given to
the infected and the uninfected alike. But
even if their breakthroughs are rushed
into widespread use by the end of the year,
they are unlikely to reach West Africa in
time to stem the outbreak. A harrowing
forecast by the CDC predicted that cases in
Sierra Leone and Liberia, the two hardesthit countries, could reach 1.4 million by
early next year if the world fails to ramp up
existing efforts to ght the disease.
There is a tipping point in all epidemics, when the number of infected patients
becomes so large that no army of health
care workers is big enough to draw protective rings around every cluster of patients,
friends and family.
If the tipping point is reached, this
virus will be everyones problem. Thats
why, in the hospital tents of West Africa
and in the brown brick buildings of Texas
Health Presbyterian, the urgent business
is the same. Ebola is burning, and it must
be snuffed out. with reporting by
alex andr a sifferlin/atl anta, alex
altman/dallas, aryn baker/monrovia
and alice park/new york city
n
37

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GLOBAL HEALTH

RACING
EBOLA
WHAT THE WORLD NEEDS TO DO
TO STOP THE DEADLY VIRUS
BY ARYN BAKER/MONROVIA

RISK REDUCTION A Liberian Red Cross worker

is disinfected with chlorine after removing


the body of a suspected Ebola victim from
the dead mans home in Monrovia
Photographs by Daniel Berehulak

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GLOBAL HEALTH | WEST AFRICA

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THE CROWD
WAS WAITING.
AND ANGRY.
As the Liberian Red Cross convoy pulled
into a tin-roof shantytown at the base
of Monrovias St. Paul Bridge, residents
crowded the lead vehicle. The Red Cross
workers were there to pick up the body of
a man with symptoms of Ebola who had
died the night before. Where were you
two weeks ago when we called when he
had a fever? demanded one resident. Ive
been calling every day for an ambulance,
said another, brandishing the call log on
his cell phone for proof. He turned to face
the crowd: No one comes when we are
sick, only when we are dead.
The Red Cross supervisor, Friday
Kiyee, sighed as he launched into an explanation polished by constant repetition.
We are the Red Cross body-management
team. Our job is to pick up dead bodies.
Were not responsible for picking up patients and taking them to the hospital.
He clapped his hands, a signal for the men
on his team to suit up in their protective
gear and pick up the body.
The work of the dead-body-management
team of the Liberian Red Cross is hard
enough; unprotected contact with the
corpses of people infected with Ebola is
dangerous and can easily result in infection. And the anger and frustration the
workers face make their jobs all the more
challenging. But theres another factor
that makes the work particularly draining: successfully containing the spread of
Ebola is no epidemiological or biological
mystery. During earlier Ebola outbreaks
in remote, low-population areas, limiting
infection was, in theory at least, relatively
straightforward. Keep infected patients
isolated during care, track down and
40

monitor the people theyve been in contact with, and ensure that the living keep
clear of the dead. But in an uncontrolled
outbreak in densely populated urban areas, the virus can burn like re through
dry tinder, and the sheer number of the
sick makes those simple precautions all
but impossible.
In Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone
the three countries most affected by the
current outbreak, which is the worst since
the virus was discovered in 1976slowing
the spread of Ebola has so far proved impossible for aid organizations, regional
governments and the international community. We know how to stop Ebola,
says Kiyee. But we need help.
That help hasnt come fast enough. The
scale of this outbreak is due in part to the
fact that the virus hit cities for the rst
time, but its also because of a painfully
slow response from regional ofcials and
from abroad, with the diseases spread outpacing aid. Far from bringing Ebola under
control, were falling further and further
behind, with the number of cases still increasing week by week. We are not even
at the point where this is at its worst, says
Amanda McClelland, who is coordinating
the emergency response to Ebola for the
International Red Cross.
The outbreak can seem a distant problem for many in the West, but on Sept. 30,
American health ofcials announced that
a man who had recently traveled from Liberia to Dallas had that day been diagnosed
with Ebola. The case was the rst diagnosis
of the disease outside Africa, and while U.S.
ofcials said they are condent they will
be able to contain the spread of the virus in

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Texas, the announcement was a reminder


of how easily Ebola can travel from the
countries where it is raging.
By the end of March, when the outbreak
in West Africa was just beginning, the
death toll was 82. Now about 50 people die
each day. More than 7,157 people have been
reported as infected with Ebola, and 3,330
have died, according to gures released on
Oct. 1 by the World Health Organization
(WHO). Many experts believe the actual
number of infections to be much larger,
simply because theres not enough personnel on the ground to keep track ofand
care forthose who might be sick.
Compared with the hundreds of thousands of people who die from HIV/AIDS
or tuberculosis in the developing world
each year, Ebolas toll so far is small. But its
what could happen next that has public-

P R E V I O U S PA G E S : R E P O R TA G E B Y G E T T Y I M A G E S

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health advocates and government ofcials


around the world so scared.
On Sept. 26, the U.S. Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) reported
that if the current level of care were to
stay the same, cases of Ebola in Liberia and
Sierra Leone could double every 20 days,
potentially reaching 1.4 million by midJanuary. That projection is a worst-case
scenario, but even if more aid arrives and
the disease spreads at a slower rate, the
swelling number of infections could exact
a serious cost on the region that goes far
beyond public health.
On Sept. 25, President Barack Obama
told the U.N. General Assembly that the
Ebola outbreak is more than a health
crisis. This is a growing threat to regional
and global security. In Liberia, in Guinea,
in Sierra Leone, public-health systems
time October 13, 2014

BEYOND HOPE Aid workers spray chlorine

solution at a blood sample taken from Hawa


Konneh, 9, who died on Sept. 4soon after this
photo was takenwhile lying on the ground
in front of the MSF Ebola Treatment Center in
Monrovia as her mother watched over her

have collapsed. Economic growth is slowing dramatically. If this epidemic is not


stopped, this disease could cause a humanitarian catastrophe across the region. And
in an era where regional crises can quickly
become global threats, stopping Ebola is in
the interest of all of us.
Recent pledges of manpower and money from the U.S. government, the U.N. and
others will help, but some experts on the
groundlike the Red Cross and Mdecins
Sans Frontires (MSF), medical NGOs that

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have been at the forefront of the Ebola


ght in West Africaare wondering why
its taken so long.
In the last few weeks, its denitely
felt that we are gaining momentum, says
McClelland. But we are going into our seventh month. And we were trying to wave
the ag that this was a potential major
threat, and we got no engagement. That
failure in Ebolas early days and months,
when the epidemic was still small enough
to contain, has major consequences that
are still being reckoned.
And the long-term impact could be devastating. The World Bank estimates that
in its worst-case scenario, Liberias annual
rate of economic growth could fall from
6.8% to negative 4.9%. There are other signs
of social strain in the three countries hit
by Ebola. Schools are closed in all three
41

GLOBAL HEALTH | WEST AFRICA

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FIGHTING EBOLA

NUMBER OF
U.S. TROOPS
BEING SENT
TO REGION

3,000

*Their mission will include


building 17 treatment centers

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THE OUTLOOK
1,400,000

INACTION (WORST CASE)


Range of Ebola cases in
Sierra Leone and Liberia, as
estimated by the CDC, if efforts
to contain the virus remain
unchanged from August
SUCCESSFUL
CONTAINMENT
(BEST CASE)
Estimated range of Ebola
cases in Liberia only (CDC
modeling does not include
Sierra Leone), assuming
that most patients are
treated in isolated settings
by the end of the year

1,200,000

1,000,000

800,000

600,000
E

THE COST OF A LATE RESPONSE


it was april 2014 when the inter
national community missed a key opportunity to contain the spread of the virus.
An outbreak of Ebola was identied in a remote Guinean village in March, but since
the virus often strikes in isolated rural
areas, resulting in a are-up that is usually
contained within a few weeks, few paid
attention. By the end of April, the spread
seemed limited, and health authorities in
the region breathed a sigh of relief.
But the lull was illusory. In fact, cases
were going unreported, allowing the disease to spread from Guinea and Liberia to
Sierra Leone. By mid-June, Ebola was back
with a vengeance, hitching a ride with
travelers out of rural areas to regional
capitals like Monrovia, which has a population of about 1 million. There it had all
the material needed for a viral inferno, including crowded conditions and a highly
mobile population.

Even then, though, the international


reaction was muted. After all, Ebola isnt
nearly as contagious as SARS, the airborne
respiratory disease whose 2003 spread
sparked a global panic and killed 774. Ebola could be controlled, the thinking went.
The thinking was wrong.
Not everyone was convinced that the
virus would zzle out as usual. MSF had
mounted a response as soon as the rst cases were identied in March. By April, says
Dr. Joanne Liu, MSFs international president, the group was taking its concerns to
WHO and the U.N. We were saying, Its a
huge epidemic, and I remember very well
that WHO was saying it was under control.
Meanwhile, Robert Garry, a Tulane
University virologist who had been doing research on Ebola cases at a hospital in
Sierra Leone, returned to the U.S. in May
to report that the number of infections
had been grievously underreported, with
many infected people not going to the
hospitalor dying before they could go.
Garry says he raised his concerns with
the U.S. State Department and the Department of Health and Human Services.
The response was cordial, but nothing
happened, he says. I was trying to show
that we were at a tipping point and that
this had the potential to spiral out of control. By the time research on the virus
by Garry and his team was published in
the journal Science in August, ve of the
studys 58 co-authors had been infected
with Ebola and died.
Local governments werent responding
fast enough either. A commonly expressed
sentiment in Monrovia: The leadership
didnt respond to what should have been
a national emergency until it threatened
the capital. As long as it was far away in
the rural areas, no one paid any attention.
But when it came to Monrovia, all of a sudden the ministers realized that they could
catch it, says Emmett Wilson, program
manager for FACE Africa, a local development NGO. Assistant Health Minister Tolbert Nyenswah agrees that the national
health system wasnt prepared but argues
that the government was doing the best it
could under the circumstances.
On Aug. 12, the government announced

RANG

countries. So theres 7 million children


without education, and theres a huge
number of people without access to normal
health care, says McClelland. And the
market prices are going up 15% to 20%. Its
really the humanitarian crisis that the fear
and scale of the Ebola outbreak is creating.

400,000

200,000

0
Sept.
2014

Oct.

Nov.

Dec. Jan.
2015

Range of best-case-scenario estimates,


from 11,000 to 27,000

THE THREAT
Fatality rates of
major infectious
diseases
Sources: CDC; WHO;
UNOCHA; Red Cross; FTS;
World Food Programme

<<< MORE DEADLY

WEST AFRICAN
EBOLA

47%

52.9% in Liberia
as of Sept. 29

a national ambulance hotline that Liberians could call to request safe transfer of
patients suspected of having Ebola to designated treatment centers. But the hotline
was quickly overwhelmed with calls
some 2,000 a day, says Nyenswah. There
were only six government ambulances to
answer those calls. Many who called had
to wait several days for helpwhich is several more days that someone infected with
the virus could pass it on to caregivers.
It wasnt until August, after one American aid worker and an American doctor
working in Liberia had contracted the
virus, that the CDC sent its rst surge
of epidemic specialists to the region and
WHO declared Ebola a global public-health

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THE SHORTFALL

Whats thereand whats needed


PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT

BEDS FOR CURRENT


PATIENTS

2,122
NEEDED

1,576 IN
PLACE

WHO FOREIGN HEALTH


EXPERTS
200 IN
PLACE

NO
SHORTAGE
500600
NEEDED

RED CROSS DEAD-BODYMANAGEMENT TEAMS

FUNDS REQUESTED
BY THE U.N.

Specialists with experience


dealing with Ebola outbreaks
and hemorrhagic fevers, and
setting up treatment centers

50
NEEDED

HEALTH
CARE
WORKERS
HAVE
DEVELOPED
EBOLA

211

$254
MILLION
FUNDED

50 IN
PLACE

375

HAVE DIED

$734 MILLION
NEEDED

As of Sept. 23

Includes treating the infected,


preserving stability and preventing
outbreaks in unaffected countries

LESS DEADLY >>>

TUBERCULOSIS

15%

POLIO

10%

emergency. It took 1,000 deaths and ve


months before this was declared a publichealth emergency, says Peter Piot, director
of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and a member of the team of
researchers who discovered Ebola in 1976.
It is always better to overreact than underreact in epidemics. Because of this delayed
response, its much harder now.
By the time the U.N. formed an emergency task force and made an appeal on
Sept. 16 for nearly $1 billion to combat
the disease, Ebola had infected at least
4,985 people, possibly far more. That same
day, Obama committed 3,000 troops and
$500 million to support the effort. The
U.N.s coordinator for Ebola, David Nabartime October 13, 2014

SARS

9.6%

Nov. 2002July 2003

WHOOPING
COUGH

1%

for unvaccinated
children under 6

ro, said many countries have responded


with generosity. But right now the disease
is spreading faster than aid is arriving.
THE WAY OUT
the same cdc modeling tool that predicted a doomsday situation of 1.4 million
infections by January also revealed that the
epidemic could be slowed and eventually
stopped if 70% of people infected with Ebola
were placed in settings where transmission
could be contained. Thats enough to break
the outbreak, says Dr. Stephen Monroe,
deputy director of CDCs National Center for
Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases.
To accomplish that, WHO estimates
that 1,990 beds will be necessary for Li-

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MEASLES

0.2%

SWINE
FLU

0.02%

berias current caseload, more than three


times the current capacity. That shortfall
should narrow with the arrival of the
3,000 U.S. troops, who are slowly being deployed and are tasked with building more
treatment centersbut who wont be permitted to interact with sick people.
Those boots on the ground will address
only part of the problem: Ebola treatment
centers require on average four highly
trained staff members per patientfrom
a constantly rotating roster of doctors and
nurses to disinfectant teams and janitors
responsible for disposing of contagious
materials. The disease has taken the lives
of 92 local health care workers and has
caused others to abandon their posts out of
43

GLOBAL HEALTH | WEST AFRICA


FOR MORE PHOTOGR APHS
BY DANIEL BEREHUL AK,
GO TO time.com/lightbox

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fear, so many of those doctors and nurses


will have to be recruited from abroad. Instead of 3,000 troops, it would be better
to send 300 doctors, says Daylue Goah, a
communications specialist at JFK General
Hospital, Liberias only hospital still open
for non-Ebola-related issues.
So far, that kind of commitment has
not been made. Some 130 nations have
pledged support for the U.N.s Ebola effort,
but only $346 million has actually been donated or legally committed and only a few
countries, including the U.K., China and
Cuba, have sent doctors to the region. Its
not enough to write a check, says MSFs
Liu. The reality is we need people in the
eld. We cant just have more isolation
centers with no one to run them.
But for all the mistakes made in the
early days of the Ebola outbreak, international and local efforts seem to be nally
picking up speed. In Liberia a widespread
education effort is starting to bear fruit.
For the first time, in the week ending
Sept. 28, the number of new reported
cases per week declined slightly, though
the CDC cautions that the dip could be a
result of slow testing capabilities.
But the capacity to treat those who get
infected is not keeping up. An exponentially growing curve of cases demands an
exponentially growing response, says Yaneer Bar-Yam, a physicist at the New England Complex Systems Institute who has
studied how infectious diseases spread. If
you dont get on top of this in a short time,
all bets are off.

44

THE CRISIS TO COME


health care workers in ebola treatment centers labor under extreme duress,
sweltering under layers of protective
plastic to take care of patients who have a
high chance of dying even with treatment.
When even janitors must wear the cumbersome biohazard suits to do their work,
getting a new treatment centers team up
to speed on the rigorous safety requirements can take several weeks.
The U.S. promised on Sept. 16 to train
up to 500 health care workers a week for
the Liberian effort, but ofcials have since
backtracked on that pledge, acknowledging that it takes several weeks to safely prepare staffers for such a harrowing mission.
We dont want to compromise quality,
says Dr. Frank Mahoney, co-leader of the
CDCs Liberia Field Team.
Meanwhile, Ebolas toll in Liberia is
compounded by a second, less obvious
crisisthe utter collapse of a national

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health care system that is eroding what


little success the international response
has achieved in combatting Ebola.
Already weakened by a brutal civil war
that cost over 150,000 lives before ending
in 2003, Liberias health sector had only
just started to recover when Ebola hit. Before the crisis, Liberia had less than one
doctor per 100,000 residents, compared
with 77 in South Africa and 245 in the
U.S.; but with Ebolas outsize toll on health
workers, that population has plummeted.
Health clinics and hospitals across the
country have closed for fear of infection, and
as a result, once manageable illnessessuch
as diarrhea, hypertension and diabetes
have become death sentences. Ebola has
sucked the air out of health care, says Eric
Talbert, executive director of Emergency
USA, a San Franciscobased aid agency

D A N I E L B E R E H U L A K R E P O R TA G E B Y G E T T Y I M A G E S

THE LAND OF NO HANDSHAKES


on the surface, monrovia looks like
any other bustling African capital. Streets
are snarled with trafc, restaurants are
crowded, and sidewalk sports bars are
packed with patrons cheering for their
favorite soccer teams. But a closer look reveals a population living in fear.
Ebola is spread through contact with
infected bodily uids, and in a society habituated to close physical proximity, no
one shakes hands anymore. On Sundays,
churchgoers dont sit so tightly together
on the pews. Sports are discouraged. The
citys air is heavy with the antiseptic stench

of chlorine disinfectant wafting from the


hand-washing stations found at every
street corner and place of business. Security guards posted at the entrance of ofce
blocks and grocery stores wield infrared
thermometers instead of guns and check the
temperature of all who would entera high
fever is one of the rst symptoms of Ebola.
And at a popular dance club, the house DJ
warns patrons, No too much rubbing, no
too much hugging, no too much sweating ...
Dont share drinks, and dont have sex with
someone you dont know well.
In a city stalked by death, there are no
funerals. Proper disposal of Ebolas victims
is one of the most essential factors in stopping the spread, and with every corpse a
potential viral bomb, nobody wants to take
any chances. We have to assume every
dead body is a possible Ebola case, says Assistant Health Minister Nyenswah, who is
in charge of the Ebola response. That means
that every corpse is bundled into a body bag,
hauled onto the back of a Red Cross pickup
and transported, sirens screaming, to a crematorium far outside town. There the dead,
unmarked and unmourned, are burned in
huge funeral pyres each night, the smoke
going unseen into the dark.

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EBOLA
INCUBATION
PERIOD

21
DAYS

TAKEN Marvin Gweah, 28, grieves

as Liberian Red Cross workers


carry away the body of his father,
a suspected Ebola victim
time Month 00, 2014

that partners with local governments to


set up hospitals in countries coming out of
conict. People with other communicable
diseases are going untreated as Ebola rages.
That will have long-term consequences
if, as Piot of the London School of Hygiene
and Tropical Medicine argued in a recent
paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Ebola is in the region to
stay. In that case, the Ebola response will
have to move from a short-term intensive
effort to stop transmission to an equally
intensive long-term campaign to clean
up in its wake. A vaccine made by the U.S.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) and
GlaxoSmithKline is currently undergoing
human safety trials at the University of Oxford and the NIHs campus in Bethesda, Md.
But an effective rollout would still require a
functioning and robust health care system.

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Not only does such a health care system not


currently exist, but whats there now is being eaten away by Ebola.
Even if the numbers of infections and
deaths start to fall, there can be no sighs of
relief this time around. Ebola will continue
to smolder in the places where it cant be
tracked, ready to burst into ame the next
time conditions are right. The key now is
to look to the future, says Piot. We have to
make sure promises are implemented to a
scale that makes a difference, and we need
to test vaccines and treatments as soon as
possible. We need to start thinking about
how we will never let this happen again.
Arriving too late was a bad mistake. Leaving too early, before those systems are
rmly in place, would be harder to forgive. with reporting by alexandra
sifferlin/new york city
n
45

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WORLD

Hes the most


powerful person in
Iranand Ayatullah
Ali Khamenei
isnt interested in
diplomacy

The Deal Breaker


By Michael Crowley

Ultimate authority Khamenei, in Tehran,

remains staunchly anti-American

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WORLD | IRAN

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he isl amic republic


of Iran put its best face
forward at the annual
gathering of the U.N.
General Assembly in
New York City last
month. In a room where
Irans last President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, reliably delivered anti-American
tirades, his successor, Hassan Rouhani,
spoke in friendlier tones. The smoothtalking Rouhani called the 9/11 attacks
a criminal act and condemned extremism. He also called for further dialogue
with the U.S. over Irans nuclear program.
The next day, Irans Western-educated
Foreign Minister, Mohammad Javad Zarif,
visited U.S. Secretary of State John Kerrys
suite at the nearby Waldorf-Astoria hotel,
where the men, joined by the E.U.s top diplomat, spoke for three hours about how to
resolve the long-running nuclear standoff.
But the man who calls the shots remained at home. Whatever the diplomats
in Western suits were saying in Manhattan, a powerful cleric in dark robes
and a black turbana man who never
leaves Iran and rarely speaks to Western
officialswas railing against the U.S.
back in Tehran. The day after Rouhani
spoke of dialogue, the official Twitter
account of Irans Supreme Leader, Ali
Khamenei, posted an infographic titled
The Result of Negotiations With U.S.
The text declared the nuclear talks both
useless and harmful. A cartoon image
featured Kerry in suit and tie, pounding a
negotiating table with his st hard enough
to knock over a water glass as he threatened Iran with military action.
Other recent tweets from Khameneis
account, @khamenei_ir, have called the
U.S. a bully, a threat to peace and a supporter of terrorism. In a recent interview
on Iranian television, the Supreme Leader,
who wields ultimate power in Iran, called

Kerry a liar and said the U.S. coalition


against the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS)a force that Iran opposes
as wellis a mere excuse to dominate the
Middle East.
Ten months into the slow-moving talks
over Irans nuclear ambitions, it is clear
that Khamenei is Americas real problem.
Rouhani and Zarif may genuinely want
a nuclear deal in which they would trade
limits on Irans capacity to build a bomb
for an end to economic sanctions. But they
report to the Supreme Leader, who has
the nal say. And Khamenei loathes and
distrusts the U.S. The Supreme Leader is
not prepared to accept our demands, says
Gary Samore, a key Iran nuclear-policy
adviser in the Obama White House until
last fall. If Rouhani could actually make
decisions, I think we could get a deal.
But hes not the decisionmakerthe Supreme Leader is.
And unlike Rouhani, the Supreme
Leader looks backward, not forward. Iranian reformers want to embrace modernity and the outside world, but Khamenei
sees himself as the guardian of an Islamic
revolution that rejects the influence of
both. Khamenei is a spiritual man, a lover
of hiking, poetry and the writing of Victor
Hugo and John Steinbeck. But he despises
America, which in his view has long subjugated a nation heir to the great Persian
empire and which seeks to topple his government. For Khamenei, it may simply not
be possible to do a deal with the devil.
Death to America
a few months after he took office in
2009, President Obama sent a secret message to Khamenei. It had been more than
ve years since the previous direct contact
between America and Iran, and Obama
wanted to restart a dialogue. The new
President could only guess at whether
it would work; U.S. intelligence on the

Supreme Leader has never been very


strong. Its really hard to know what hes
thinking, says Kenneth Pollack, a former
CIA analyst and author of two books about
Iran. Theres this real black hole around
him. The U.S. has tried to compensate for
that, with limited results, with a National
Security Agency surveillance program
dedicated to Khamenei, called Operation
Dreadnought.
Khamenei surprised some Obama
advisers by responding to the Presidents
letter. But he did so in a very ranty written message, lled with grievances about
Americas treatment of Iran, says Samore.
Obama followed up with a second letter
but received no reply.
Four years passed with no further
communication, until Rouhanis June
2013 election. By then Irans economy was
groaning under the weight of international sanctionsGDP shrank by 5.8%, and
ination soared to almost 45%and Rouhani signaled that Tehran was prepared to
discuss a nuclear deal. He appointed Zarif,
who counts many American journalists
and politicians as personal friends, as
his top envoy.
Despite the overtures, skeptics warned
Obama not to trust either Rouhani or Zarif.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who says an Iranian bomb would
threaten his countrys existence, insisted
that Rouhani was a wolf in sheeps clothing, noting that Khamenei is the real
power in Iran, the dictator known as the
Supreme Leader. There were concerns in
Washington as well, including on the part
of then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton,
who writes in her recent memoir, Hard
Choices, that she watched Rouhanis outreach with a healthy dose of skepticism.
The Supreme Leader, as she puts it, still
held all the real power.
And then there was history: several
American Presidents have been burned

Tweets From the Supreme Leader. Khamenei on message


Sept. 28 How can US claim to be the leader in #WarOnTerror while it has got its hands dirty with
protected for next generations. Those who destroy the nature are treasonous to humanity. 6/29/01
& not allow warmongering by US, UK, etc. #PeaceDay Sept. 21 US govt. always claims to supp
#PeaceDay To liberate a nation, you dont drop bombs on them. 11/4/2003 Sept. 20 The claim to
#Palestinians is only a deceit. Aug. 25 You who claim the #leadership of the world, can you cl
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48

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P R E V I O U S PA G E S : AY- C O L L E C T I O N/ S I PA ; T H E S E PA G E S : S U P R E M E L E A D E R AYAT U L L A H A L I K H A M E N E I O F F I C E /C O R B I S

Revolutionary guard Khamenei with soldiers during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s

by trusting Iranian moderates. Ronald


Reagan wound up with the Iran-contra
scandal. George H.W. Bush once spent
half an hour on the phone with a man he
believed to be Irans Presidentonly to
discover afterward that hed been duped,
likely by a hard-liner trying to subvert the
moderate Iranian leader. In the late 1990s
Bill Clinton exchanged overtures with the
moderate President Mohammed Khatami,
only to see the Supreme Leader abruptly
halt the process and rebuke Khatami.
The doubters also worried that Iran
was mainly waging a public relations
effort to reverse the malevolent image
fostered by the acidic Ahmadinejad. Perhaps by showing a friendlier face to the
world, Iran could get the sanctions lifted
without making major concessions on its
nuclear program. Whatever the motive,
the new look worked, up to a point. Last
fall, Rouhani and Obama had the first
phone conversation between the Presidents of Iran and the U.S. since the 1979
revolution. That November, Kerry and
Zarif, along with diplomats from ve other major powers, struck a temporary deal
that froze the progress of Irans nuclear
program in exchange for eased sanctions.

Expectations soared as some foreign policy


experts imagined a new U.S.-Iranian partnership in the Middle East. Obama spoke
of giving Iran a dignied path to forge a
new beginning with the wider world.
In the Shahs Dungeon
notably, however, the supreme leader never spoke in such cheerful terms.
Khamenei was born in 1939 in the northeastern Iranian shrine city of Mashhad.
The second of eight children, he followed
in the footsteps of his father, a religious
scholar, and studied in the holy Shiite
city of Qum. (The Persians converted to
Shiism 500 years ago, and Iran is home to
the worlds largest Shiite populationa
fact that has put it at odds with the Sunni
Arab world.) It was there that he met his
predecessor and mentor, Ayatullah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of Irans Islamic
revolution and the rst man to hold the
title of Supreme Leader.
It was Khomeini who branded America
the Great Satan and instilled a hatred for
the West among his followers. Khamenei
didnt need persuading. By the time of the
revolution, he had already been jailed six
times by Irans pro-American monarch,

Shah Reza Pahlavi. While the Shah had


a glamorous image in the West, he was a
thug at home, reinstalled in a 1953 CIAled coup and protected by a U.S.-trained
secret police with a record of brutal
torturetorture that Khamenei experienced rsthand. Visitors to a former interrogation center at a prison where he was
held in solitary confinementnow an
anti-Shah museumcan see a portrait
of a young Khamenei with a black beard,
shortly cropped hair and thick glasses, and
a video in which he describes how an interrogator for the secret police, known as
SAVAK, once poured alcohol on his beard
and set it are.
A plaque indicating Khameneis old
cell now bears a telling quote from him:
Unless you are faced with such brutal and
vicious circumstances, you will not have
any true and deep understanding of those
hardships and difficulties. Khamenei
likely holds the U.S. at least partly responsible for this misery, says the IranianAmerican journalist Hooman Majd. He
saw the U.S. support someone he considered a vicious dictator in whose jails he
spent time.
Almost every speech Khamenei delivers is shot through with that animosity.
His rhetoric suggests a man who doubts
that the U.S. could ever strike a deal in
good faith. America, he said in a 2009 address, appears with a deceitful smile but
has a dagger behind its back ... That is its
true nature. Even ostensible allies cannot
trust Washington, he warned an audience
recently. When America has the opportunity, he said, it will stab them in the back
and tear their hearts open.
The Uncertain Ayatullah
khameneis acolytes speak of him like
a deity. Understanding the complete character of the Senior Leader is a hard thing,
says Hossein Shariatmadari, editor of the

the blood of humans? #Ferguson #Syria #Iraq 12/31/90 Sept. 25 In #Islam, nature should be
#Climate2014 Sept. 21 World of #Islam should consider its interests, put the differences aside
ort #peace but practically drag the world into a #war; prot of weapon companies requires this.
support #CivilRights coming from devils who support & admire #Israel crimes against oppressed
aim that African-Americans have the same rights as the whites? #Ferguson
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49

WORLD | IRAN

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government-owned newspaper Kayhan


and a frequent visitor with Khamenei. He
has a very high and enhanced heavenly
characteristic.
He lives very simply, says Kazem Jalali, a member of Irans parliament. He lives
more simply than the new Pope. Thats
hard to say. No public photos seem to exist
of his home or even his wife. But Khamenei is typically seen working in his modest
Tehran ofces or delivering speeches in
traditional clerical robes, his black turban
signifying direct descent from the Prophet
Muhammad.
After the Shah ed Iran, Khomeini assumed power and oversaw a new Islamic
constitution which named him Supreme
Leader, a position charged with ensuring
that Irans parliamentary government
complied with Islamic law. The startling
overthrow of an oil-rich Middle Eastern
ally, the hostage crisis and chants of
Death to America! in Tehran quickly
made Khomeini a household name in the
U.S. Khamenei took a barely visible backseat role as Irans President, serving from
1981 to 1989. He spent much of that time
managing Irans ghastly eight-year war
with Iraqin which, in another wellremembered grievance, Iraq received
U.S. backing even after Saddam Hussein
employed chemical weapons against Iranian troops.
Before his death in 1989, Khomeini
gave his blessing for Khamenei to be his
successor. But it was not a simple choice.
One problem was that Khamenei lacked
his predecessors religious credentials.
Because he was not a marja, or grand
ayatullah, as Irans new Islamic constitution required, the document had to be
amended before Khamenei could become
Supreme Leader. Had the revolution never happened, Khamenei would have likely
been a modest clergyman today, not one
of the most powerful men in the Middle
East, says Karim Sadjadpour of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Beyond religious credentials, Khamenei
also lacked the raw charisma of his mentor.
Even when his speeches are harshand
they usually arehis delivery is dull. His
face is blander than that of the scowling,
wild-eyed Khomeini. He is a weak man in
a very powerful job, says Pollack.
As a result, Khamenei consolidated his
power by forming a close alliance with
50

Irans hard-line Revolutionary Guard.


Because Khamenei lacked Khomeinis
religious credentials, he sought legitimacy
in the barracks rather than the seminary,
Sadjadpour says. Whereas Khomeini was
a clerical dictator, Khamenei is more of a
military dictator.
He did have the Iranian equivalent
of street cred, thanks to his time in the
Shahs prisons. Khamenei also narrowly
survived a 1981 assassination attempt in
which a Marxist opposition group planted a bomb in a tape recorder at a press conference. The explosion crippled his right
arm. As a result, says one person who
recently met with Khamenei in Tehran,
he has developed a peculiar handshake:
He lifts both of his hands and almost
picks up yours in the wedge between
them, says this person, who describes
the 75-year-old as alert and otherwise in
good health. (Khamenei was recently hospitalized for what is thought to have been
prostate surgery.)
Khamenei may lack his predecessors
magnetism, but he does seem to be more
open-minded. He is devoted to poetry and
literature, including the works of Western authors. According to a recent Foreign
Affairs article by the Iranian journalist
Akbar Ganji, Khamenei extols Tolstoy,
Balzac and Steinbecks Grapes of Wrath
if only for its bleak portrait of capitalism.
Hugos Les Misrables is the best novel
that has been written in history, he once
said, a miracle in the world of novel
writing. And when it comes to Western
musicwhich Khomeini despisedhe
has drawn a distinction between decadent music for dancing and debauchery
and music that a wise transcendental
person can enjoy.
Unmovable
despite his taste in french romantics,
Khamenei upholds a strict Islamic law. In
May, six young Iranians posted a YouTube
video of themselves dancing around Tehran to Pharrells hit song Happy. For the
crimes of women without headscarves
dancing with men, they were arrested and
sentenced to 91 lashes and six to 12 months
in prison. (A court later suspended the
sentences.) Khamenei likely did not order
the arrests, but he does see cultural liberalization as a dire threat to Irans Islamic
purityand therefore to his own power.

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In a 2005 speech on state television, he


said Irans enemies want to arouse sexual
desires and spread unrestrained mixing
of men and women in Iran. If they did,
he concluded, there will no longer be any
need for artillery and guns to overthrow
his government.
He also oversees a regime of censorship
and repression that sties open debate.
Most Iranians are unable to access Twitter, which is ironic, given how frequently
Khamenei himself tweets. In late September, 11 Iranians were arrested for the crime
of sharing jokes about the late Khomeini.
But Khameneis battle against modernity may be a losing one. Many Iranians,
especially young urban ones, dont share
his stern morality. Iranian women increasingly stretch or ignore the Islamic
dress codes that require modesty.
Private parties in Tehran can be just as
festive as those in Brooklyn. Millions
of Iranians own smartphones, listen to
Western music, watch American movies
and are well informed about the outside
world. Most Iranians have no rsthand
recollection of the [1979] revolution, says
one Obama Administration ofcial, who
notes that almost two-thirds of Iranians
were born after the Shahs fall. Theyre

WorldMags.net

Omnipresent Hagiographic images of

K I A N A H AY E R I F O R T I M E

Khamenei can be found everywhere in the


Iranian capital of Tehran

probably the most pro-American people in the region, after Israel. American visitors to Tehran are typically
welcomed warmly.
That tension helped to produce an
unprecedented challenge to Khameneis
power. In June 2009, a wave of street
demonstrations in cities like Tehran and
Isfahan erupted after Ahmadinejad won
re-election in a seemingly rigged vote. In
what became known as the Green movement, thousands of protesters denounced
the Supreme Leader with chants of Death
to the dictator.
Khamenei declared the protests the
work of espionage machines working for
Zionists and the Americans. Nonsense,
perhaps, but revealing of his mind-set. For
years American politicians and pundits
have talked about overthrowing Irans
Islamic government, either by force or
by supporting democratic reform. He is
convinced that the U.S. raises concerns
over the nuclear program as a g leaf for
the hidden goal of regime change, says a
time October 13, 2014

former Obama Administration ofcial.


The demonstrations were soon brutally suppressed by Irans hard-line security
services. Khameneis son and close adviser
Mojtaba reportedly helped oversee a violent crackdown by paramilitary forces. In
Washington, Obama ofcials concluded
that Khamenei felt he could give no
ground. He has this view that any hint
of weakness is the beginning of the end,
says the Administration ofcial.
The Nuclear Clock
khamenei may have drawn mixed lessons from the Green movement, however.
His tolerance for a reformer like Rouhani
likely reects anxiety that the sanctions
could produce more social unrest. By the
time of Rouhanis 2013 election, sanctions
expanded by the West into Irans oil and
banking sectors had badly stunted the
countrys economy, and Iranians were eager for relief.
At the same time, a nuclear deal that
lifts the sanctions could trigger investment, growth and accompanying cultural
ferment that Khamenei may not welcome.
The world will flood into Iran when
sanctions are lifted, the top State Department Iran negotiator, Wendy Sherman,

WorldMags.net

recently told Voice of America. Thats


meant to be a promise, but to Khameneis
ears, it could sound like a threat.
To succeed, Rouhani and Zarif must
persuade Khamenei that his real worry,
in a region where economic stagnation
has recently fueled revolution, should be
about sanctions and isolation. The Supreme Leader has to become convinced
that not to do a deal is the greater threat,
says Dennis Ross, a former top Middle East
policy adviser in the Obama White House.
So far, he doesnt seem convinced.
Khamenei seems to believe that the
benets of a military nuclear capability
outweigh the risks. Like North Koreas
Kim Jong Un, he may believe a nuke is
the only thing that can protect him from
a hostile U.S.
In July, Khamenei delivered a speech
calling for an industrial-scale uraniumenrichment program well beyond proposed Western limits. Many analysts
saw it as a death knell. The notion of
getting a good agreement is over, in my
view, says the Council on Foreign Relations Ray Takeyh.
Last month, Secretary of State Kerry
suggested another path for cooperation, saying that Iran could join the international coalition against ISIS. But
Khamenei has dismissed Americas ISIS
campaign as a new excuse for domination
of the Middle East. He may also fear that
the ultimate goal is to topple Irans longtime ally Syrian dictator Bashar Assad.
Khamenei clearly has no interest in being Americas partner anyway. But U.S. ofcials warn against assuming that means
he wont strike a deal of convenience.
Its also possible that if no agreement is
reached in November, the talks will be
extended. The Supreme Leader plays a
long game, says a senior Administration
ofcial. A lot of Iran watchers believe hell
always whack the Great Satan, even if he
knows he needs to do a deal. Well see. The
important lesson about the Middle East is
to watch what they do, not what they say.
But what hes saying doesnt give
much reason for hope. Instead of a new
partnership with Iran, the U.S. could be
headed for a new conict, one that the Supreme Leader may always have thought
was inevitable. with reporting by
aryn baker and kay serjoie/tehran n
51

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NATION

Driving
While High
Deadly crashes
involving pot
are on the rise.
But stopping
stoned drivers
wont be easy
BY ELIZA GRAY

heres a dispatch from the hazy frontier of law enforcement: On an afternoon


in June, Joe Golec, a 32-year-old cop from
Northampton, Mass., was making a mock
DUI evaluation in a sunny classroom at
Salem State University with a group of
other cops from around New England.
Dressed in khakis and a T-shirt, he introduced himself to Kristina, a 39-year-old
waitress dressed in jeans and a white top,
one of several volunteers who had spent
the afternoon drinking so that Golec
and the other cops could practice their
sobriety-test skills.
Golecs rst task was to take Kristinas
vital signs. He asked her how much she
had slept the night before, what she had
eaten that day and how much shed had
to drinktwo beers, she told him, about
two hours before. Wearing surgical gloves,
he took her pulse and measured her blood
pressure, then repeated his observations
out loud. He asked her to walk a straight
line and balance with one foot raised in
the air. He told her to close her eyes, tilt her
head back and tell him when 30 seconds
had passed.
What made Golecs job harder? He
wasnt only trying to gure out if Kristina
was drunk. He was looking to see if she
was stoned.

WorldMags.net Photograph by Grant Cornett for TIME

NATION | POT

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How Dope Affects Driving


TIME talked to Dr. Marilyn Huestis, a lead marijuana
researcher at the National Institute on Drug Abuse,
to assess key side effects of driving while high.

Reduced awareness
Brain imaging shows that its
harder for people who are high to
focus on several things at once,
such as a changing stoplight, an
approaching bicycle and a car
signaling a turn.

Hallucinations
Research is sparse, but
Huestis says pot-related
cases can happen and
are an underappreciated
threat on the road.

Limited vision
Its harder to see events
in your periphery, says
Huestis, referring to the
tunnel-vision effect of pot,
which impairs drivers ability
to recognize obstacles to
their far left and right.

Slower decisions
Being high can impair users
executive function and
problem-solving ability. That
makes it harder for drivers
to make a smart choicedo
I swerve or slam on the
brakes?on the y.

Sluggish reexes
Pot can negatively affect
the parts of the brain
that coordinate and
initiate movement, which
makes it tougher to
physically control a car.

By Sam Frizell

54

scientic research on exactly how pot impairs driving and precisely how risky it is.
But it is no surprise that solving the
problem is a priority for public ofcials,
since there is evidence to suggest that driving high is a real danger. From 1999 to 2010,
during a period of widespread decriminalization, the rate of drivers who died in
crashes with marijuana in their system tripled, from 4% to 12%, according to a review
of some 23,591 driver deaths in six states.
The data does not show whether marijuana
caused those crashes, but it does tell us that
the number of drivers on the road with pot
in their system has been rising fast and at
the very least correlates with mortality. It
seems, at least for people at the wheel, there
may be such a thing as being too mellow.
Dening a Legal Limit
the problem of impaired driving goes
all the way back to the repeal of Prohibition in 1933. Americans saw a spike in
automobile accidents due to drunken
driving, prompting intoxication research
that established 0.15% as the acceptable
limit for alcohol in the blood while driving. Drunk-driving laws proved hard to
enforce at rst, with cops forced to rely

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on subjective signs like alcohol on the


breath or a ushed face, but that changed
in 1954 with the invention of the Breathalyzer, a handheld machine that could calculate alcohol in the blood by measuring
vapors in the breath. Thanks to activism
from groups like Mothers Against Drunk
Driving, it is now illegal in all 50 states to
drive with a blood-alcohol level of 0.08% or
above. Police ofcers commonly use breath
tests on the roadside, and today toxicological results have mostly taken the place of
subjective police testimony in court.
The bodys relationship with alcohol
is straightforward: as your blood-alcohol
content rises, you get drunker, and as it declines, you sober up. While tolerance can
alter the effectsat a 0.08% blood-alcohol
level, someone who rarely drinks is likely
to seem drunker than a booze houndthe
science says that at 0.08%, all people are
impaired to some degree in the skills they
need for safe driving.
With marijuana, it is not so simple.
When you smoke pot, the psychoactive
ingredient, THC, spreads throughout your
body but leaves your blood quickly as it is
absorbed by your fatty tissues and brain,
so that the amount of THC in the blood
time October 13, 2014

I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y B R O W N B I R D D E S I G N F O R T I M E

Police and public-safety experts in the


U.S. have spent decades getting drunk
drivers off the roads. They have made
vast progress: based on random stops, the
number of drivers with some alcohol in
their system was 35.9% in 1973. By 2007,
the gure had fallen to 12.4%, according
to the Department of Transportation. But
spotting drivers who are high presents a
more complex challenge for cops charged
with keeping the roads safe. And it has
become harder now that roughly a third
of all Americans are living in states that
have decriminalized marijuana. It is a job
to which few if any of the old rules apply.
To put it simply: proving that someone
is driving stoned is a thornier problem than
determining that a driver has had too much
to drink. The body metabolizes pot in a way
that makes it nearly impossible for scientists to agree on an appropriate legal limit
for motor-vehicle operation, let alone come
up with a toxicological testlike a simple
breath-alcohol testto measure how much
a driver has inhaled. While it would seem
obvious that driving while stoned is a bad
idea, there isnt enough evidence to prove it.
Partly because of the roadblocks that years
of illegality have posed, there is a dearth of

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NATION | POT

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is not a good indicator of impairment. It


is even possible to have less THC in your
blood when the effects of pot are at their
peak, usually about 10 to 30 minutes after
your last puff. A recent study of 1,046 drivers in New Zealand who were killed in car
accidents showed that, counterintuitively,
drivers with lower levels of THC in their
system were actually more likely to be responsible for a crash.
The way the body breaks down pot
means that scientists have not been able
to agree on a level of THC that causes impairment. In the 1980s, when the National
Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) held a
summit to do just that, the task proved too
daunting. We had a room of toxicologists
and nobody could come up with a number,
recalls J. Michael Walsh, a substance-abuse
consultant and former NIDA researcher.
Thirty years later, little has changed, leaving cops, prosecutors and users looking
for measuring sticks. Our society wants a
black-and-white solution: This is a number.
If you are over it, you are impaired. Its a
little clearer with alcohol. With marijuana, its less clear, complains Mason Tvert, a
spokesman at the Marijuana Policy Project
in D.C. People are trying to t marijuana
into an alcohol box, and it doesnt t.
The bodys metabolism of marijuana also makes it harder to equip lawenforcement ofcers with a toxicological
test that can give an accurate measure of
impairment when the driver was on the
road. As anyone who has smoked pot and
taken a drug test for work knows, urine
tests can detect marijuana for dayseven
weeksafter the last puff, especially if
you are a frequent smoker. Fat stores THC,
and as it trickles out of those tissues over
the following days, it is converted into a
metabolite that is detectable in urine.
That makes urine tests a less than ideal
measure of someones intoxication level
when they were driving. THC disappears
from blood quickly as it is absorbed in the
brain, making blood tests a more reliable
measure of recent use but not a great correlate of impairment. Blood tests are also
invasive and logistically challenging
they can require a trip to the hospital or
a telephonic search warrant from a judge,
creating a lag between the time the driver
was on the road and the blood test, leading
cops to underestimate the amount of THC
in the blood when the person was driving.
56

These challenges have made it hard for


state legislators to write laws that are fair
or effective. It is illegal to drive under the
inuence of marijuana in every state. The
question is: How do you prove the driver
was under the inuence? A handful of
statesPennsylvania, Montana, Washington, Nevada, Ohio and Coloradohave
set a numeric limit for THC in the blood,
ranging from 1 nanogram (a billionth of
a gram) of THC per milliliter of blood to
5 nanograms. States are in a quandary: set
the limit too high, like the 5-nanogram
limit in Washington, and Dr. Robert DuPont, president of the Institute for Behavior and Health, will tell you its a license
to drive stoned. Set it too lowlike the
zero-tolerance policy for THC adopted in
Wisconsin and 10 other statesand marijuana lobbyists will accuse you of convicting someone who might have last smoked
a month ago. Nevada and Ohio have split
the difference with a lower limit for THC
found in blood and a higher one for metabolites found in urine, but such distinctions
just underscore the confusion.
Adding to the screening controversy is
a more basic debate. Scientists dont even
agree on the level of risk that marijuana
poses to drivers who are high. Marijuana
reduces motor coordination, slows reaction time and impairs decisionmaking,
according to NIDA. Studies have also suggested that marijuana may impair peripheral vision and the ability to concentrate,
two vital skills at the wheel. And yet the
body of scientic work on marijuanas effect on motor-vehicle operation is small,
and even then the results are all over the
map. Some studies show that marijuana
brings no extra risk of crash, while others
show that it doubles the risk. Alcohol, by
contrast, increases by 13 times the risk of
being killed for drivers ages 21 to 34.

It is illegal to drive
under the inuence
of marijuana in every
state. The question
is: How do you prove
the driver was under
the inuence?

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Primitive Tells
other nations are groping for legal
and medical standards too. New Zealand
uses a system that combines subjective
signs of impairment with a zero-tolerance
policy. Ifand only ifa Kiwi driver fails
the eld sobriety test, any amount of the
drug in his blood is illegal. Its an interesting idea that might help address cases in
which a driver has used marijuana and alcohol in small amounts that would have
little impact on their own but can be deeply intoxicating when combined.
Educating the public about the dangers of driving while high will help. Many
Americans dont know that smoking pot
can impair their driving or that it is illegal to drive while high. According to the
police, in late August, Pittsburgh Steelers
running back LeVeon Bell told the cop
who pulled him over in Pennsylvania, I
didnt know you could get a DUI for being
high. (Bell learned fast. He is now facing a DUI charge and a possible two-game
suspension.) Colorado has started a TV
advertising campaign to deter the practice. In one ad, a long-haired man slowly
presses a button on his backyard gas grill
over and over, looking deeply confused
about why it wont start. Grilling high is
now legal, the tagline reads. Driving to
get the propane you forgot isnt.
Until those campaigns start working, cops like Golec will have to rely on
what may seem like primitive tells. Golec
knows a stoned driver tracking a pencil
across her face would struggle to keep an
eye from wandering. Poor judges of time,
most pot-impaired drivers would overestimate the passage of 30 seconds. The sobriety test is far from perfect, but for now,
said an instructor in Golecs course, this
is the only game in town.
Technology may come to the rescue.
A retired Canadian police ofcer and a
physician have teamed up to create a new
Breathalyzer that will detect marijuana
use in the past two hours, a decent measure of impairment since pots effects are
usually felt for about two to three hours
after use. Co-developer Dr. Raj Attariwala
says the technology will get more precise
as legalization spurs research. In the
1970s, we didnt know a lot about alcohol
either, so thats basically where we are,
he says. We are on the cusp. Weve got a
lot to learn.
n
time October 13, 2014

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NATURE
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WANT TO FEEL OLD? PAGE 66

THE WEEK
THE WALKING DEAD
GETS REANIMATED

The Culture
TELEVISION

Bringing It Home

SPORTS

After a rocky last season,


Claire Danes (below) returns
as the brilliant but emotionally
unstable CIA agent Carrie
Mathison in the twohour
premiere of Homeland
(Oct. 5), joined by House of
Cards Corey Stoll as her new
CIA station chief.

LeBron came home to Cleveland. But during the o-season, plenty of


other key players swapped jerseys too. As NBA training camps open, fans
are giddy with hope: fresh faces mean fresh possibilities. Here, a
look at how the hottest new transplants could fare.

NBA Guys on the Go

PR
E
TE VIOU
AM S

LEBRON JAMES

LANCE STEPHENSON

PAU GASOL

LUOL DENG

KEVIN LOVE

Miami Heat

Indiana
Pacers

Los Angeles
Lakers

Cleveland
Cavaliers

Minnesota
Timberwolves

Cleveland
Cavaliers

Charlotte
Hornets

Chicago Bulls

Miami Heat

Cleveland
Cavaliers

Like, every
thing. In the
conversation
with Michael
Jordan as the
NBAs alltime
best.

Superstar
potential, and
blowing in
LeBrons ear
during the
2014 playoffs.

Skills at cen
ter. The 7ft.
(213 cm) big
man from
Spain is an
especially
deft passer.

A wingspan
that makes
him hard to
get around on
offense, and
to stop on
defense.

Loves funda
mental play
and knack
for scoring
make him an
elite player.

The worlds
best player
relaunches
his quest to
bring a tough
luck city a
crown.

If Stephenson
matures, look
out. Can he
live up to a
$27 million
freeagent
deal?

In the
watered
down Eastern
Conference,
Gasol could
be Chicagos
missing piece.

Hell essen
tially replace
LeBron in the
Heat starting
lineup, an
impossible
task.

Hoop dorks
cant wait to
see LeBron
and Love, a
seless pair,
make basket
ball magic.

PHOTOGRAPHY

MOVIES

Drumroll, Please
Miles Teller (below) drums up
more than he can handle in
Whiplash (out Oct. 10), a
buzzy new lm about a talent
ed jazz musician at a cutthroat
music academy and the ruth
less instructor (J.K. Simmons)
who pushes his young charge
to the brink of insanity.

KN
FO OWN
R
WH
WA AT T
TC O
H

D A N E S : S H O W T I M E ; D R U M M E R : S O N Y; J A M E S , S T E P H E N S O N : A P ; D E N G , G A S O L , L O V E : G E T T Y I M A G E S

Embracing the Oxford Dictio


naries word of the year for
2013, Fleetwood Mac star
Stevie Nicks will premiere 24
Karat Gold (opens Oct. 10),
an exhibition of her Polaroid
selfportraits, at New York
Citys Morrison Hotel Gallery.

PL NOW
AY
ING

Stevies Seles
FOUR-TIME
MVP

J AME S

STEPHENSON

G A SOL

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7-FT.
WINGSPAN

DE NG

LOVE

By Laura Stampler and Sean Gregory

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The Culture

Life Was No Cabaret


In his new memoir,
Alan Cumming recalls
a harsh boyhood
By Susanna Schrobsdorff

Photograph by Peter Hapak

knows me one way, now theyll know me in a


different way, and Im glad, because its all a
part of me.
Its hard to fathom how the terrorized little
boy grew up to be the slender, joyful man who
cant stop cackling as he shows off photos of the
pink neon sign reading club cumming that he
had made for his dressing room at Cabaret.
Reading the book, you understand how he got
so enmeshed in the Scottish campaign. Self
determination and liberationof himself and
othersfrom old conventions, gender restric
tions or just boredom have been Cummings
quest since he left home at 17 to study at the
Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama.
He began writing his memoir after his fa
thers death in 2010 while working his day job
as the Emmynominated costar of CBSs The
Good Wife, now in its sixth season. On that
show, Cumming plays Eli Gold, the tightly
wound, manipulative political adviser to Chris
Noths Governor Peter Florrick and his wife,
played by Julianna Margulies. His book takes
us from his primary school in the Scottish
Highlands to London, where he played Hamlet
in a cast that included his then wife Hilary
Lyon as Ophelia in 1993. His father came back
into his life a few years later when a British tab
loid wrongly reported that Cumming had been
sexually abused in childhood. (Harking back to
his fathers beatings, Cumming had told anoth
er publication that he had been abused, a
quote the tabloid misinterpreted.) Cumming
weaves into this story his 2010 turn on the Brit
ish version of the TV show Who Do You Think
You Are? which researches the family histories
of celebrities. The programs producers focused
on Cummings maternal grandfather Thomas

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A wild ride from the


Scottish Highlands
to Broadway:
Cummings new
book hits shelves
Oct. 7

TRUNK ARCHIVE

when alan cumming arrives for brunch


at a caf not far from his apartment in Man
hattans East Village, hes wearing a blue base
ball cap with a big white yes on the front. Its
been almost two weeks since Scotland voted
no to separating from the United Kingdom,
but Cumming, a Scot who campaigned heavily
for the yes side from New York, hasnt quite
gotten over the loss. He heard the results in his
dressing room after a performance of Cabaret,
a revival of the 1966 musical that brought him
a Tony for his electrifying performance as the
androgynous Emcee when it returned to Broad
way in 1998. I just cried, he says. I felt like it
was the difference between choosing imagina
tion and hope and positivity or being cowed
and dofng your cap and letting the Establish
ment tell you what to do.
Scotland still denes the effervescent
49yearold Cumming in a way that nothing
else does. He grew up there on a vast estate
called Panmure where his father was the head
forester. The men who worked the 21 sq. mi.
(54 sq km) of woodland addressed the authori
tarian elder Cumming as the maister. Alan
and his brother Tom might as well have called
him that too. Doing grueling chores under his
unforgiving eye, they were always fearful of
paternal rages that often ended with a beating.
Cumming once wound up with a vicious hair
cut administered with sheep shears that left
the 12yearold bleeding and half bald.
How Cumming nally freed himself from
the grip of that painful past is the subject of his
new memoir, Not My Fathers Son. I wrote the
book partly to say that this kind of abuse is not
normal, he explains. Abusers make you feel
like its acceptable. And for the world who

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The Culture

Books

Cumming, as the
ever sly Eli Gold, with
Julianna Margulies in
The Good Wife

Harvest Boon
A month of reaping
great reads
October offers something
for everyone: a smattering of big-name bios and
memoirs, pop science to rock
your world and a new novel
from a beloved best seller

Darling, a much decorated World War II


vet who died mysteriously in Malaysia.
The effort to unearth the truth about his
death sparks a crazy journey that sends
Cumming around the world, from the
former battleelds of France to a grave
yard in Asia. It turns out that his grand
father died in a fatal game of Russian
roulette. To complicate things, Cum
mings father hears of the family research
and announces that Alan is not his son
but the product of an extramarital affair
of Alans mothers. DNA tests eventually
prove the fathers claim is false, but the
episode leads Alan and his brother to con
front their dad about his lifetime of cruel
ties toward themafter which, they
never see him again.
Cumming leaves off a few years after
his 2007 marriage to Grant Shaffer, an il
lustrator. (His rst marriage ended in the
mid1990s, and soon after, he declared
himself bisexual.) Now happy, settled
and extraordinarily busy, Cumming sus
pects that not really getting to be a
child when he was young might be
what keeps him so preternaturally
youthful now. (Hold
ing his own in a
Willkommen
Cabaret kick line of
back:
22yearolds is no easy Cumming
trick.) A friend, Brit
reprised his
ish theater director
star turn in
Cabaret this
John Tiffany, jokes
year
that there must be a
Dorian Graystyle
portrait of Cumming in an attic
somewhere. He just doesnt age.
J.M. Barrie could have written
him, says Tiffany. Alans got an
62

incredibly impish, Peter Pan sense of hu


mor. In fact, hes a gorgeous combination
of Peter Pan, Captain Hook and Mrs. Dar
ling. (Let it be noted that Cummings
mothers name is Mary Darling.)
The ongoing tension in his nature be
tween dark and light, so evident in the
book, is part of what gives Cummings
work such breadth. It allowed Tiffany to
cast him at various times as both Mac
beth and Dionysus, the god of wine and
ecstasy. Cumming can slip from playing
a movie Smurf to the bersexual host of
Cabarets Kit Kat Club and then host
Masterpiece Mystery on PBS without drop
ping a sequin. He combines a Calvinist
work ethic with an eternal partyboy
vibe. And the party is almost always on.
Not only do legions of friends show up
nightly at Club Cumming after the
show, but he even has a kind of Camp
Cumminga second home in upstate
New York where the landscape reminds
him of Scotland. He often invites the en
tire cast of whatever show hes in for
weekends of singing and bonres.
Cummings brother also thinks that
in his offstage and offscreen life, his
famous sibling may be recreating a
childhood he didnt have. As evi
dence, you could point to the big
trampoline he installed at the house.
When guests ask about it, hell insist
they try it. Its really great, I tell
them. They say, No, no, thats not for
me. People are so afraid of being judged.
But as the weekend goes on, you look,
and there they are, bouncing
away. I love seeing that. It
makes my heart swell.

WorldMags.net

FRAGRANT: THE
SECRET LIFE OF SCENT
by Mandy Aftel
A perfumer by profession, Aftel
offers a combination historyslash-recipe book-slashmeditation in Fragrant. Instructions
for homemade Coca-Cola and
ower-infused chocolate, among
other aromatic concoctions, are
woven through scent-based
sections: Cinnamon, Mint, Frankincense, Ambergris and Jasmine.

time October 13, 2014

WorldMags.net
The Culture

NEIL PATRICK HARRIS: CHOOSE


YOUR OWN AUTOBIOGRAPHY
by Neil Patrick Harris

Life is anything but linear in Harris


whimsical take on the celebrity
memoir. Written in the second person, the book uses a hopscotching
format that invites the reader to
jump around the text (To kill someone, turn to page 165). You are
Harris, careering through a highlight reel of your past, from childhood to Doogie Howser to the arrival
of your own kids via surrogate, with
contributions from celebrity pals.

Books

THE SONIC BOOM: HOW SOUND


TRANSFORMS THE WAY WE
THINK, FEEL, AND BUY
by Joel Beckerman with Tyler Gray

Beckerman, a composer who


specializes in sonic branding (he
created AT&Ts four-note tune),
combines experience and science
to explain how we process
sound. Using familiar examples
from the sizzle of a Chilis fajita to
Apples soothing boot-up tone, The
Sonic Boom will alter how you hear
the world.

BREAKING IN: THE RISE OF


SONIA SOTOMAYOR AND THE
POLITICS OF JUSTICE
by Joan Biskupic

A veteran Supreme Court reporter


charts Sotomayors evolution from
a poor Puerto Rican girl living in the
Bronx to the rst Latina Justice
on the Supreme Court. Sotomayors sense of ethnic identity,
Biskupic argues, may be as important a legacy as the Justices legal
contributions.

LILA: A NOVEL

DE NIRO: A LIFE

GLASS JAW: A MANIFESTO


FOR DEFENDING FRAGILE
REPUTATIONS IN AN AGE OF
INSTANT SCANDAL

Robinson completes a trilogy of


Midwestern novels that began with
Gilead, which won the Pulitzer Prize
in 2005, and which she followed with
Home in 2008. Where Gilead told the
story of John Ames, an Iowa
preacherand Home concurrently
recounted that of his best friendLila
brings us the tale of Ames much
younger wife, who struggles from a
hardscrabble youth to a quiet
Christian life and eventual hard-won
contentment with Ames.

Levy, the biographer of his share


of Hollywood heavyweights (Rat
Pack Condential; Paul Newman:
A Life), takes on the iconic but
deeply private actor in nearly
600 pages. Levy paints a
detailed portrait of De Niros
career and life, from his early
days working with Martin
Scorsese to the serious family
matter, a sons bipolar disorder,
that drew him to his role in Silver
Linings Playbook.

In this primer on modern scandal,


Dezenhall, a crisis PR manager,
explores reputational disaster in
the social-media age. The author
uses his expertise to examine
high-prole ascoes (Paula Deen,
Tiger Woods, the Susan G. Komen
FoundationPlanned Parenthood
ght) and how they might have been
avoided. There is, he posits, such a
thing as bad publicity.

by Marilynne Robinson

by Shawn Levy

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by Eric Dezenhall

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y J O E L K I M M E L F O R T I M E ; T H E G O O D W I F E , C A B A R E T: G E T T Y I M A G E S

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READING IS THE JOURNEY
OF THOSE WHO CANNOT
TAKE THE TRAIN.
F. CROISSET

INTRODUCING

BRILLIANTLY CRISP DISPL AY REMARKABLY THIN DESIGN


EFFORTLESS PAGE TURNING LIGHT THAT ADJUSTS WITH YOU

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The Culture

Tuned In

Remembrance of Everything Past. Why


the Internet has gone nostalgia-crazy
By James Poniewozik

66

This year weve marked the 30th anniversary of The Cosby Show; the 25th of
Seinfeld, Do the Right Thing and Saved by
the Bell; the 20th of My So-Called Life, Pulp
Fiction and D2: The Mighty Ducks; the 15th
of The Matrix and The West Wing; the 10th
of Mean Girls and Gmail. (Disclosure: Ive
written several such pieces myself.)
Thats on top of a growing, weirdly
popular phenomenon of viral memento
mori journalism. Want to feel old? your
inbox asks, linking to a Buzzfeed listicle.
The baby from the cover of the Nevermind
album is a grown man! The Yo quiero
Taco Bell Chihuahua has been dead for
ve years! And so shall we all be someday!
Whos responsible for this? You are.
I am. At least in the sense that, like so
many other news trends, this one is driven by social media. The stark truth about
modern journalism is how much of it is
about chasing trafc from shares, likes

Even the young hang


out like codgers
on a virtual porch,
chuckling about
how time ies
WorldMags.net

time October 13, 2014

I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y O L I V E R M U N D AY F O R T I M E ; G E T T Y I M A G E S (3)

so no one told you life was gonna be


this way. Last spring, your browser
and Facebook News Feed lled up with
remembrances of Friends after 10 years.
Lists! Video! Quotes! Quizzes! Those haircuts! Those catchphrases! Ah, good times.
Then summer passed. September
came. And your browser and Facebook
News Feed lled up with remembrances
of Friends after 20 years. Those haircuts,
thosewait. Didnt Friends just have a
10th anniversary? Did a decade pass so
quickly without your noticing it? Had
you experienced head trauma?
No, the anniversary in May was of
Friends last episode, in 2004; the anniversary in September was of its rst episode,
in 1994. Its legacy had not changed in four
months; no one had uncovered shocking
new evidence as to whether Ross and
Rachel were, in fact, on a break. But we
once again needed to share the 20 Greatest
Friends Celebrity Cameos and 27 Friends
Couples, Ranked.
Welcome to the age of perpetual nostalgia. Newspapers and TV have always
loved anniversary stories: wars, assassinations, pretty much anything that
happened in the 1960s. But now memory
has been weaponized, with no cultural
landmark too disposable to enshrine.

and links. The mightiest click generator


is Facebook (10 years young this year!),
the platform that got your grandma onto
the World Wide Web (just turned 25!).
Facebook, like social media generally,
loves to rememberThrowback Thursday prom pictures, galleries of baby photos of children who just turned 18. And
Remember that time when? is a great
equalizer; whether youre paying a mortgage at age 30 or living in your old bedroom, you can relate to 25 Things That
90s Kids Are Still Trying to Figure Out.
Gen X-ers, my people, didnt invent premature nostalgia, but we were steeped in
it, with airbrushed 50s memories on the
70s sitcom Happy Days, which became
Weezers Buddy Holly video in the 90s.
(Want to feel old? It just turned 20!) Millennials can now totemize their own childhoods with more-powerful viral tools. If
digital life encourages eternal youth, it
also prompts instant fogeyization, as you
watch your high school classmates begin
to wrinkle and sag in pictures. And the
past is more accessible than ever, in GIFs
and Netix reruns. So even the young
hang out like codgers on a virtual porch,
chuckling about how time ies.
If nostalgia mania has become a media
crutch, at least it counteracts the medias
obsession with the next thing. Consider
how much time the press spent freaking out over the iPhone 6, a rectangular
smartphone that radically updates your
previous rectangular smartphone by being slightly bigger. We do a lot of racing
ahead, not so much following up. Any
excuse to take time and reect is a refreshing change. As Mad Mens Don Draper
said, newness creates an itch, but nostalgia is strongera twinge in your heart,
far more powerful than memory alone.
But it has limits. Ask Marcelnot the
Friends monkey but Proust, who wrote
the book (actually, seven of them) on nostalgia, Remembrance of Things Past. He had
his madeleine; we have newly revived
Surge soda. But theyre both just standins for what you can never retrieve. The
memory of a particular image, Proust
wrote, is but regret for a particular moment; and houses, roads, avenues are as
fugitive, alas, as the years.
Whoa, bummer. Hey, who wants to
look at this gallery of Rachels haircuts? n

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The Culture

Reviews

Witherspoon with Duany,


who plays a Sudanese
refugee in Kansas City

MUSIC

Star Signs
After spending her
teen years in a girl
group called the
Stunners, singersongwriter Tinashe
earned a cult following
on the basis of three
acclaimed mixtapes,
which swapped the
commercial pop of
her origins for moody,
experimental R&B.
Her rst hit single,
this years 2 On,
landed somewhere in
between. A hazy club
track with a clattering
beat, it ripples with
sinister energy.
Tinashe is often
compared to the
late singer Aaliyah,
who worked from
a similar binary:
commercial star and
sonic innovator. (A
striking mononym
doesnt hurt, either.)
On Tinashes debut
album, Aquarius, out
Oct. 7, the hype is
well earned. With help
from the cool kids
of rap (Schoolboy Q,
Future, A$AP Rocky,
DJ Mustard), she pairs
airy, drifting alternaR&B with crisp hooks
that evoke 90s radio,
as on the yearning
single Pretend and
the tense All Hands
on Deck.
Its a condent
debut, and well timed.
As mainstream R&B
has been nudged
into increasingly dark
and inventive territory (see Beyonc),
Tinashe doesnt even
sound left of center
just right on trend.
SAM LANSKY

The Lost Boys Come to America


Horror and heart in The Good Lie
By Richard Corliss
the recipe for a film with award ambitions is
as simple as boiling an egg. Choose a fact-based story
depicting Justice rst outraged, and then triumphant, and add an Oscar winner for pedigreed spice.
Those ingredients, appearing in so many late-year
movies, can stoke a viewers distrust at the manipulation of nobler sentiments. So moviegoers are forgiven for bringing an educated cynicism to The Good
Lie, a story of some of the Lost Boys of Sudan, who in
the 1990s walked a thousand miles to escape abduction and death at the hands of the Sudan Peoples
Liberation Army (SPLA) and in 2001 arrived at the
alien refuge of Kansas City, Mo., for a new life.
Reese Witherspoon, an Academy Award winner
for Walk the Line, is a supporting player as job counselor Carrie in this ctionalized story of the genocidal ordeal depicted in the 2006 documentary God
Grew Tired of Us. Three boys and a girl, Christians
eeing the Muslim SPLA, must teach themselves to
become predators, feasting on an antelope killed by
leopards, and to cross a river clogged with corpses.
Only their mantra I want to live, I do not want to
die sustains them until they reach Kenyas Kakuma
refugee camp.
Years later, as young adults, Mamere (Arnold
Oceng), his sister Abital (Kuoth Wiel) and their coescapees Jeremiah (Ger Duany) and Paul (Emmanuel

SUDAN TODAY
After a 22-year
civil war, South
Sudan broke
away from the
North in 2011
with an SPLA
leader, Salva
Kiir Mayardit,
as President.
Despite talk of
reconciliation,
the region is still
torn by tribal
inghting and
accusations of
human-rights
abuses.

WorldMags.net

time October 13, 2014

THE GOOD LIE: WARNER BROS.

68

MOVIES

Jal) nd homes in the U.S.,


the men in Kansas City
and Abital in Boston. Suddenly the lm, written by
Margaret Nagle (Boardwalk
Empire) and directed by
Philippe Falardeau (of the
Oscar-nominated Quebec
drama Monsieur Lazhar),
boomerangs into a Coming
to America culture-clash
fable. How do we use a
telephone? Why does the
market that hired us throw
out good food when people
are hungry? Whats this
funny cigarette my slacker
co-workers gave me? Will
I ever be reunited with my
beloved sister Abital?
Carrie, a blowsy type
with the requisite big
heart, handles the red tape,
shouting, Who do I have
to screw around here to
see a goddamn immigration supervisor? Meanwhile, the four African
actorsall are refugees or
children of refugees, and
two were forced to serve
in the SPLAexcel at the
emotional heavy lifting.
Their harrowing biographies lend heft to a story
drenched in heartbreak.
The lumpiness of The
Good Lies progression
from infancy to adulthood,
and from the horrors of war
to gentle social comedy and
back againproclaims a
respect for facts and truths
that cant be molded into a
smooth narrative. Besides,
if the saga of Lost Boys
(and girls) kidnapped to
become soldiers (or child
prostitutes) is not a tale of
good confronting and outrunning evil, what is? And
if a moviegoer cannot cry
for their great tragedy and
be touched by their small
victories, who on earth deserves our tears and cheers?

HOWWorldMags.net
CAN A
12-MONTH-OLD KEEP
YOU UP AT NIGHT
WITHOUT EVER
MAKING A SOUND?
No babbling is one early sign of autism.
Learn the others today at autismspeaks.org/signs.
Early diagnosis can make a lifetime of difference.

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The Culture

Pop Chart
E
LOV
IT

Popples,

the colorful
teddy-bear-like
toys that were
popular in
the 80s, are
getting their
own animated
show next year
on Netix.

VERBATIM

I was really hoping I


would be able to ...
crush their dreams
of immortality.
JOHN GREEN, responding to a question about the school district

in Riverside, Calif., that banned The Fault in Our Stars


Greens book about kids with terminal cancerbecause it
makes students address the possibility of death

QUICK TALK

Meghan Trainor
The 20-year-old singer-songwriter
recently released her debut EP,
Title, featuring her smash-hit ode
to plus-size gures, All About That
Bass. nolan feeney
It seems as if All About That
Bass is playing everywhere now.
Are you sick of hearing it yet? Oh,

for sure. My mom just said, Wow,


thats pretty annoying now. But
she still loves it. Songs about loving your size are having a moment
right nowNicki Minajs Anaconda, Colbie Caillats Try and
more. Why do you think that is? I

have no idea. Im just glad mines


one of them. Theres a line referencing skinny bitches, though,
which some people have taken as
a dis to thin people. The label did

Ello, a new

say, You might get some backlash


for this line, but I guess thats what
made the song really popular
people kept talking about it. Do you
think the criticism is valid? I think
[those critics] stopped listening
after they heard skinny bitches
and didnt hear the next line about
Nah, Im just kidding, I know even
you guys think youre fat, and Im
here to say youre perfect. I didnt
get a record deal to write a song to
bash skinny people. I was just trying to say everyone is beautiful in
their own way. A couple of songs

ad-free social
network that
promises not to
collect personal
data (for now, at
least), already
has hundreds of
thousands of
users.

Inspired in

part by Harry
Potter, scientists
at the University
of Rochester
have created
an early version
of a real-life
invisibility
cloak.

Actor and

director Alex
Winter conrmed plans for
a second sequel
to Bill & Teds
Excellent
Adventure, two
decades after
the last installment. It will be
really f-cking
funny, he said.

ROBOT BOY A pioneer in the eld of video art, Korean-

American artist Nam June Paik spent his life exploring


the relationship between technology and the human
body through works like Transistor Television (2005,
above), now on display in a retrospective at the Asia
Society in New York City through Jan. 4.
DIGITS

1.86 miles
Length (3 km) of a recently approved pipeline in
Brugge, Belgium, designed to funnel beer between
a prominent brewery and its nearby bottling plant
taking approximately 500 delivery trucks off the road

on your EP, like Dear Future


Husband and Title, seem to
be rallying against hookup
culture, which is rare in pop
music. What inspired you?

Growing up with social


media, its all, Did he
like my picture? Did he
text me back? He must
hate me! I didnt like
myself as much as I
should have, and I
hope people hear my
songs and know Im
a badass girl and I
deserve a good guy
to take me out on
a date.

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POPPLES: NETFLIX; WITH WIND, 2014: AI WEIWEI, FOR-SITE FOUNDATION; PRATT: NBC; COMEDIANS: GETTY IMAGES (5); TRAINOR: LARRY MARANOGETTY IMAGES;
TRANSISTOR TELEVISION, 2005: NAM JUNE PAIK, NAM JUNE PAIK ESTATE; BILL AND TED: EVERETT COLLECTION

ON MY
RADAR
Modern

Family

Ive seen
every episode.
Veep

My mom
started and got
me watching.
Its great.
Soca music

Its really
catchy, and
everythings
upbeat and
all about
partying and
loving life.

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The Culture

LE A
V
IT E

Two San

Francisco
based artists
have developed
a hamster
wheel standing desk.

Saturday

Night Lives
Chris Pratt
hosted season
premiere was
met with mixed
reviews.

BEHIND BARS San Franciscos Alcatraz Island has been a military base, a federal prison and a site of Native American

activism. Now Chinese artist-activist Ai Weiwei has turned it into a gallery: @Large, running until April 26, features
installations that comment on human rights and freedom. All works were designed remotely, however. The 57-year-old hasnt
been allowed to leave China since he was detained for alleged tax evasion in 2011 (following his criticism of the government).
ROUNDUP

Cults of Personality
In May, Foxs then broadcasting chief Kevin Reilly heralded the networks new comedy Mulaney (premiering
Oct. 5) as Seinfeld for the new generation. The similarities are apparent: a stand-up comedian (John
Mulaney) playing a ctionalized version of himself in an eponymous multicamera sitcom. But as past efforts
show, replicating that formulain full or in partdoesnt always guarantee success.
THE PAUL
REISER SHOW

THE BERNIE
MAC SHOW

The late comedians popular


sitcomloosely
based on his life
doing stand-up
comedyhad a
successful run on
Fox from 2001 to
2006, paving the
way for a slew of
high-prole movie
roles.

Audiences and
critics might have
loved him on Mad
About You, but
Reiser couldnt
lure either to his
2011 sitcom,
which didnt last
even a full season
on NBC.

WHITNEY

LOUIE

Since its 2010


premiere, Louis
C.K.s dramedy has
become a bona
de hit: it regularly
averages over half
a million viewers on
FXimpressive by
cable standards
and its creator and
star has earned
three consecutive
Emmys for comedy
writing.

Like Mulaney, Whitney Cummings was


relatively unknown
outside the standup world when she
landed a sitcom
in 2011. But NBC
canceled it after
two seasons amid
poor ratings and
mixed reviews.

A woman is

suing Disney for


$250 million,
claiming that
Frozen was
stolen from her
memoirs (which
do not contain
any talking
snowmen).

A Brooklyn

THE SARAH
SILVERMAN
PROGRAM

Silvermans popular Comedy Central sketch show


lasted three seasons, earning its
creator and star
an Emmy nomination in 2009 and
kick-starting her
burgeoning acting
career.

mailman
reportedly
hoarded more
than 40,000
personal letters
instead of
delivering them.

FOR TIMES COMPLETE


TV, FILM AND MUSIC
COVERAGE, VISIT
time.com/
entertainment

WorldMags.netBy Eric Dodds, Nolan Feeney, Samantha Grossman and Laura Stampler

WorldMags.net
10 Questions
In 2003, West
was in the second
and third Matrix
movies

Philosopher and agitator Cornel West


talks about prophets, Presidents and
breaking the law for John Coltrane
Your new book Black Prophetic
Fire has quite a title. Why that
name?

I think that we need more re


in our world: people on re
for justice, on re for freedom.
The most fundamental question in the book is how to be
men and women of integrity
and honesty in a time of such
vast mendacity and criminality. And when you look at
W.E.B. DuBois and Frederick
Douglass, Martin Luther King,
Malcolm X, Ida B. Wells and
Ella Baker, these are people of
integrity and decency.
So a prophet is not the same
as a leader?

Usually not. A prophet is a


lover, not a leader. A lot of
people say, Youre a leader of
black people. No, no, no. Im
not a leader of black people.
Im a lover of black people. Im
a lover of poor people.
Youre critical of President
Obama in the book and publicly. What are his chief failings?

72

I want justice. The policeman


needs to be arrested. They
need to have a fair trial. But its

just to be true to the black


prophetic tradition. I think he
lacks backbone.
Did you vote for Obama in 12?

I didnt vote for anybody. I


couldnt vote for a war criminal. Hes tied to war crimes and
drones dropping bombs on innocent people. But no way Id
vote for Romney.
Why do you write
that many black
leaders are for
sale?

In the history of black


people, those
who could
be prophetic
have either
been killed
or bought
off and coopted. And
we live now
in an age of the
sellout, no matter
what color. I argue
in the book that we
have witnessed the
re-niggerization of
the black professional
class; theyve got power, assets and prosperity, but theyre still
intimidated. Theyre
concerned with their
careers rather than
their callings. Malcolm X specialized
in de-niggerizing
black people. Folk
willing to ght, tell
the truth, die. Thats
what we need today.

WorldMags.net

not just Ferguson. Thats the


peak of an iceberg. We need
more targeting of our poor
young people, make them center stage in our public policy.
Why are you opposed to the
idea of the self-made man?

Its a lie. Everybodys dependent on somebody. Nobody


gave birth to themselves.
Everybody gets a language
from somewhere else. And so
the notion of self-made men,
from Henry Clay and Abraham Lincolneven Frederick Douglass went around
the country giving lectures
on being self-made. Its an
American lie that anybodys self-made.
Is a prophet always
marginalized?

Yes, absolutely.
Have you been
marginalized?

Ive been very


blessed. But you
know, you got
character assassination. You got different lies told on
you. Thats a kind
of marginalization.
How did you celebrate John
Coltranes birthday?

We started off class at Union


Theological Seminary with
After the Rain and then
ended up in the cemetery.
We jumped the fence [at
Coltranes grave] and tried
to make it on in. Coltrane
had what this book is also
abouta militant tenderness
and a subversive sweetness.
belinda luscombe
FOR VIDEO OF THIS INTERVIEW,
GO TO time.com/cornelwest

time October 13, 2014

W E S T: E R I K TA N N E R F O R T I M E ; T H E M AT R I X : W A R N E R B R O S .

Its not so much a personal


attack. Its a critique of his
priorities. We ended up with
a Wall Street presidency, a
drone presidency, a nationalsurveillance presidency.
When youre speaking to
black young boys in a very
paternalistic way but on Wall
Street you speak in a very
subservient way, or you say
your major program for black
young boys is going to be one
of charity and philanthropy
but no public policy, then
criticism must be put forward

What would you like to see


happen in Ferguson, Mo.?