You are on page 1of 232

LTE Fundamentals

<

LTE Fundamentals
Course documentation
December 2010

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

LTE Fundamentals

COURSE CONTENTS
LTE FUNDAMENTALS ...................................................................................................................................... 3
1

EVOLUTION AND TRENDS OF MOBILE TELEPHONY ....................................................................................... 7


1.1
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 8
1.2
Importance of mobility in telecommunications .................................................................................... 9
1.3
Increased demand for mobile data services ........................................................................................ 9
1.3.1
1.3.2

1.4

Evolution of mobile terminals to the increased demand for data .................................................................... 10


The phenomenon of Smartphone .................................................................................................................... 11

Evolution of communications to mobile broadband .......................................................................... 12

1.4.1

1.5
1.6

NGN as a principle to evolve towards broadband........................................................................................... 13

Evolution generation mobile networks .............................................................................................. 15


Towards the Fourth Generation (4G)................................................................................................ 16

1.6.1

Fourth Generation Technologies..................................................................................................................... 18

1.7
Global demand for mobile access...................................................................................................... 19
2 COMPARISON BETWEEN WIMAX AND LTE ............................................................................................... 23
2.1
WiMAX Technology Overview ........................................................................................................... 24
2.2
LTE Overview .................................................................................................................................... 24
2.3
LTE-Advanced for IMT-Advanced ..................................................................................................... 25
2.4
Technical comparison between LTE and Mobile WiMAX ................................................................. 28
2.5
Interoperability between the two technologies .................................................................................. 29
2.6
Tendency for operators to implement LTE ........................................................................................ 30
3 THIRD-GENERATION NETWORKS AS THE BASIS FOR THE EVOLUTION TO LTE ............................................. 31
3.1
Evolution of a UMTS network to LTE ............................................................................................... 32
3.2
UMTS Network Structure .................................................................................................................. 34
3.2.1
3.2.2

UTRAN .......................................................................................................................................................... 34
Core network .................................................................................................................................................. 38

STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO 3GPP LTE...................................... 43


4.1
Reason for the evolution of the system architecture .......................................................................... 44
4.2
Working groups and the definition of technical specifications for LTE ............................................ 44
4.3
3GPP requirements for LTE .............................................................................................................. 46
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4

2010 PontoTech

Requirements related to the ability ................................................................................................................. 46


Requirements related to performance ............................................................................................................. 47
Requirements related to network deployment................................................................................................. 48
Requirements for E-UTRAN architecture ...................................................................................................... 49

LTE Fundamentals

4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8

4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

Requirements for radio resource management ............................................................................................... 49


Requirements related to the complexity of the systems.................................................................................. 49
Protocols and services requirements .............................................................................................................. 50
Specifications for interoperability with legacy networks ............................................................................... 50

Standardization beyond Release 8 ..................................................................................................... 52


Architecture Overview of LTE / SAE ................................................................................................. 52
General elements of architecture ....................................................................................................... 54
Particular elements of the architecture ............................................................................................. 56

4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7

4.8

The eNodeB ................................................................................................................................................... 56


Entity Mobility Management (MME, Mobile Management Entity) ............................................................... 58
SAE GW ........................................................................................................................................................ 60
Gateway service (S-GW, Serving Gateway) .................................................................................................. 60
Gateway Packet Data Network (P-GW, Packet Data Network Gateway) ...................................................... 62
Feature Collection Policy and Resources (PCRF, Policies and Charging Resource Function) ...................... 64
Local subscriber server (HSS, Home Subscriber Server) ............................................................................... 65

Interfaces and protocols in the setting of the basic system architecture............................................ 66

4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
4.8.5
4.8.6
4.8.7
4.8.8
4.8.9
4.8.10

4.9

System Architecture and E-UTRAN access networks legacy ............................................................. 82

4.9.1
4.9.2

4.10

Interconnection infrastructure architecture Bequeathed LTE 3GPP ............................................................... 82


Interfacing with legacy infrastructure 3GPP CS ............................................................................................ 85

Interconnection Architecture LTE infrastructure Bequeathed No - 3GPP ........................................ 86

4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3
4.10.4
4.10.5
4.10.6

Interface LTE-Uu ........................................................................................................................................... 67


S1-MME interface .......................................................................................................................................... 69
S11 interface .................................................................................................................................................. 70
S5/S8 Interface ............................................................................................................................................... 72
GTP S5/S8 Interface ...................................................................................................................................... 72
PMIP S5/S8 Interface ..................................................................................................................................... 74
Interface X2.................................................................................................................................................... 75
SGI interface .................................................................................................................................................. 76
S6a/S6d Interface ........................................................................................................................................... 78
Rx Interface ............................................................................................................................................... 80

User Equipment ......................................................................................................................................... 87


Evolved Packet Core (EPC) ....................................................................................................................... 88
Non-3GPP access network reliable ............................................................................................................ 89
Access networks unreliable non-3GPP ...................................................................................................... 89
Main elements of the Interconnection System ........................................................................................... 90
Interfaces and protocols for the interconnection of the 3GPP networks .................................................... 90

ASPECTS OF LTE RADIO ............................................................................................................................. 93


5.1
Definition of the radio interface ........................................................................................................ 94
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3

5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4

Access Technologies ...................................................................................................................................... 94


MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) ..................................................................................................... 100
Element and resource block ......................................................................................................................... 102
Downlink transmission ................................................................................................................................. 102
LTE OFDM cyclic prefix, CP ...................................................................................................................... 104
Uplink transmission technique ..................................................................................................................... 105

Access modes and frequency bands LTE. ........................................................................................ 106


Access Modes .............................................................................................................................................. 106
Supported frequency bands. ......................................................................................................................... 108
Bandwidth of transmission ........................................................................................................................... 108

Radio layers and protocols used in LTE .......................................................................................... 110


Radio Link Control (RLC) ........................................................................................................................... 112
Media Access Control (MAC) ..................................................................................................................... 113
Logical channels and transport channels. ..................................................................................................... 114
Physical Layer .............................................................................................................................................. 116

5.4
Frame structure ............................................................................................................................... 121
5.5
Modulation....................................................................................................................................... 123
5.6
Data Flow ........................................................................................................................................ 124
5.7
EU states and zone concepts ............................................................................................................ 125
5.8
Rates of end user data, EU capabilities ........................................................................................... 126
6 CONSIDERATIONS FOR LTE RADIO SPECTRUM......................................................................................... 129
6.1
Overview of Radio Spectrum ........................................................................................................... 130
6.2
Actors involved in spectrum management ....................................................................................... 131
6.3
LTE spectral efficiency .................................................................................................................... 132

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

6.4

Spectrum bands allocated for LTE .................................................................................................. 133

6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3

Frequency bands currently used for LTE ...................................................................................................... 133


Aspects to consider when choosing the frequency of implementation ......................................................... 134
The choice of refarming as an alternative implementation ........................................................................... 137

6.5
Amount of spectrum required for LTE deployment.......................................................................... 138
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ON A MIGRATION TO LTE ................................................................................. 139
7.1
Special considerations must take into account an operator ............................................................ 142
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.1.5
7.1.6
7.1.7
7.1.8

7.2

Considerations for network planning ............................................................................................................ 142


Initiation stage .............................................................................................................................................. 143
Stage details .................................................................................................................................................. 143
Optimization stage ........................................................................................................................................ 143
Deploying services over LTE ....................................................................................................................... 144
Voice over LTE ............................................................................................................................................ 150
Circuit switch fallback (CS fallback) ............................................................................................................ 150
Solution VoLGA........................................................................................................................................... 152

Offer LTE-capable terminals to allow for QoE ............................................................................... 155

7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3

7.3

Election of the terminal (UE)........................................................................................................................ 155


Multimode terminals..................................................................................................................................... 156
Multiband terminals ...................................................................................................................................... 156

Quality of Service (QoS) .................................................................................................................. 157

7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5

7.4
7.5
7.6

EPS architecture and quality of service ........................................................................................................ 157


EPS Carrier ................................................................................................................................................... 158
QoS parameters............................................................................................................................................. 160
Packet Filters ................................................................................................................................................ 162
Mapping the QoS parameters for UMTS and EPS ....................................................................................... 162

Implementing a solution SON (Self Optimizing Network) to support efficiency .............................. 164
Reuse of access equipment .............................................................................................................. 164
Reuse and improvement of network backbone and backhaul transport .......................................... 166

7.6.1
7.6.2

7.7

Evolution LTE backhaul ............................................................................................................................... 168


Transport backhaul technologies LTE .......................................................................................................... 170

Summary of proposed technical requirements for deploying LTE .................................................. 172

7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.3
7.7.4
7.7.5
7.7.6
7.7.7
7.7.8
7.7.9
7.7.10

LTE BUSINESS PERSPECTIVES .................................................................................................................. 185


8.1
Global trend in demand for data ..................................................................................................... 186
8.2
LTE as a data access solution ......................................................................................................... 190
8.3
Operators Initiatives ........................................................................................................................ 192
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3

8.4

Operators in Asia .......................................................................................................................................... 195


Operators in Europe ...................................................................................................................................... 195
Operators in Latin America and the United States ........................................................................................ 196

Initiatives manufacturers ................................................................................................................. 198

8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.4.5
8.4.6

Frequency bands for equipment .................................................................................................................... 172


Modifications to the data network ................................................................................................................ 173
Technical Requirements multistandard base stations (UMTS/ HSPA +/ LTE) ............................................ 174
Technical requirements of the Radio Network Controller (RNC) ................................................................ 176
Technical characteristics of the packet core.................................................................................................. 178
Technical characteristics of interfaces .......................................................................................................... 179
Core Specifications SAE / LTE .................................................................................................................... 180
MME techniques features ............................................................................................................................. 180
Technical specifications of SAE Gateway .................................................................................................... 181
Technical management of the system ....................................................................................................... 183

Network Equipment ...................................................................................................................................... 198


User terminals ............................................................................................................................................... 206
Expectations and needs of end users ............................................................................................................. 213
New services can be provided with LTE ...................................................................................................... 214
The LTE Ecosystem ..................................................................................................................................... 218
For TeliaSonera ............................................................................................................................................ 220

8.5
Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................... 222
ACRONYMS .............................................................................................................................................. 225

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Evolution and trends of Mobile Telephony

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

1.1

Introduction

Traditionally, broadband service has been provided by means of fixed access


technologies because they offer greater accessibility, in comparison with mobile
access technologies.
Following this, in recent years, telecom operators have boosted the deployment of
wireless telecommunications networks, due to the possibility that the end user to use
higher-capacity systems, while allowing flexibility in terms of mobility. Because of this,
research groups around the world have and are devising new standards for wireless
access in order to implement systems that offer greater capacity for bandwidth in the
access, and that in turn make efficient use of the spectrum.
For this reason, mobile phone networks have evolved to provide higher bandwidth
using technologies such as HSPA + and LTE. The latter emerges as an initiative of
the 3GPP, in order to meet new technological needs that today's end users are
demanding. This envisages the delivery of new voice and data applications, as well
as improved speed of access to information. Also, LTE grows on a scalable flat
network design, which seeks to improve the services offered by second generation
networks and existing third-generation.
Among other things, the evolution of mobile systems have meant that today there are
standard technology solutions for the benefit of operators and manufacturers. The
first mobile communication systems (analog systems) were different for each country,
so that economies of scale were achieved worldwide. However, after the introduction
of Global System for Communications (GSM, Global System for Mobile
Communications) begins to speak of a single common solution worldwide in regard to
mobile telephony. Despite its success, factors such as lack of services and the need
for new connectivity solutions have led to the study and development of new mobile
technologies Third and Fourth Generation.
Because of this, this chapter outlines the technological and market reasons that
justify the emergence of new mobile technologies.

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

1.2

Importance of mobility in telecommunications

The possibility that a user can communicate at any time and from anywhere using a
single device, has always been one of the main challenges facing the
telecommunications system.
As part of the mobility in question, the mobile phone user must have the following
facilities:
1. Roaming: Allows a user to access the different telecommunications services
from any country that is, if there are prior agreements between the operator
who is subscribed and existing operators in different countries around the
world. Usually, for you may enjoy this feature, you must (apart from
subscribing to the service) have mobile terminals, allowing them to enjoy their
voice and data services contract to move to other countries.
2. Handover or transfer: The process that allows users to carry a mobile terminal
to maintain the connection and voice and data sessions, when they move
between different areas of coverage.
Based on the above, then discussed the trend toward mobile phone technology, for
which demand will respond to the needs of mobility, ubiquity and new services

1.3

Increased demand for mobile data services

The evolution of mobile communications networks, rather than by technological


necessity, is caused by the need to provide new telecommunications services. Using
the concept of service, have adopted new technologies and changing the approach
to providing basic voice services, to a model where the telecommunications operator
looking to offer new data services, with the aim of improving the user experience, and
increased revenues. Besides this, it seeks to enrich the ubiquitous mobile feature that
allows end users to access broadband and a portfolio of related services from their
mobile device at anytime, anywhere. Thus messaging services like MMS, SMS and
new services such as instant messaging, electronic commerce, and social networks
are contributing significantly to the income received by the telecommunications
operators.

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

1.3.1

Evolution of mobile terminals to the increased


demand for data

Today's mobile devices or terminals are becoming crucial to meet the communication
needs of individuals.
Aware of this, in recent years, handset manufacturers and telecom operators have
felt the need to adapt the devices to access the lifestyle of people, providing a tool for
them to have access to a diverse set of new services and applications.
Because of this, the mobile phone remains the main device of choice as well as
allowing voice communication, is becoming an important means for the user can
access entertainment services (example games and television), news and
advertising. In turn, being used as an ideal tool for starting content, such as, audio /
video and photographs, as well as to interact through social networks, which also
allow the creation, distribution and consumption of content.

10

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Today, in the market it can be found terminals with basic services like voice and
sending text messaging to more advanced terminals (type Smartphone) which have a
wide range of data services and in turn are characterized by smaller, lighter and
aesthetically adopted by many users.
It should be noted also that a factor in the expansion of mobile services, will be the
price of the terminals. For this reason, today, many telecom operators, in addition to
its range of services, are subsidizing the cost of 3G handsets as an incentive to
motivate its users to use new applications and services offered today in the market,
which in turn will help drive growth in mobile subscribers in the future. This excessive
increase that may arise should be complemented with more robust networks, namely
higher capacity, both during transport and access.

1.3.2

The phenomenon of Smartphone

As mentioned earlier, one of the fastest growing devices is the Smartphone. It is


estimated that smart phones will occupy 24.2% of the market for 2011, and this
number is expected to exceed 30% by 2012. In turn, as part of the e statistics support
this trend, the Kelsey Group and findings made a consumer survey of users of U.S.
mobile phones and reported that 18.9% of mobile consumers now use a
Smartphone.
Currently there are several types of smart phones such as RIM Blackberry, the Nokia
E61, the 6650, the HTC G1, the Sony Ericsson Xperia X1, the LG Incite, the HTC
FUZE, Apple iPhone and Palm Treo.

2010 PontoTech

11

LTE Fundamentals

1.4

Evolution of communications to mobile


broadband

Today's users demand higher speeds and quality of access to telecommunications


services and new value-added services, which require higher bandwidth for proper
performance. For this reason, the pursuit of meeting the needs of consumers, based
on the need for high capacity Internet access from their mobile devices (known as
mobile broadband), is one of the main reasons motivating the development.
As in Figure 1 an estimate on the number of broadband subscribers around the world
will be about 3400 million in 2014. For this year it is estimated that about 80% of
these consumers use mobile broadband.

Figure 1 - Estimated global growth of broadband subscribers

12

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

1.4.1

NGN as a principle to evolve towards


broadband

Access networks are a key element because of its influence on the supply and quality
of services. Today in particular, networks of broadband access play an important role
in the development and provision of new services supported on Internet.
As part of the need for users to enjoy higher bandwidth, born the concept of Next
Generation Networks (NGN New Generation Network) which defines the evolution of
telecommunications networks in the future. NGNs are based on Internet protocol (IP,
Internet Protocol) that allow the delivery of services through the use of multiple
access technologies, able to guarantee quality of service, and in which servicerelated functions are independent of the underlying technologies associated with
transport. Two of the elements that characterize the NGN are the end-to-end IP
connectivity and separation of the service platforms of the network infrastructure.
Figure 2 shows architecture similar to what in reality would be a next generation
network.

Figure 2 - General diagram of a next generation network (NGN)

2010 PontoTech

13

LTE Fundamentals

The demand for higher bandwidth requires the transformation of both backbone
networks and in terms of access, the latter being the one that requires greater
investment and effort from those involved. It uses the concept of Next Generation
Access (NGA, New Generation Access) to define the deployment of NGN access
networks.
For the foregoing reasons, it is estimated that in the future all the networks evolve
towards an NGN architecture model and the demand for higher bandwidth will drive
the deployment of new access technologies. And is also important to note that the
relevant element is not so much the technology or the type of network deployment,
but the services and bandwidth that may be provided by the evolution of existing
networks. Despite this, LTE is a technology that today is seeking to be implemented
by several operators around the world due to the capabilities in terms of new services
and applications that technology offers.

14

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

1.5

Evolution generation mobile networks

The evolution of mobile telephony has been marked by several generations. Each of
them has special characteristics that differ markedly from one another.
Between the late 70s and early 80s, appears the first generation (1G), which was
characterized as analog type. The same, using the technique called Access: Access
Frequency Division Multiple (FDMA, Frequency Division Multiple Access). Given its
limited bandwidth, the services were voice-only 1G. Moreover, given the limited
number of channels were blocked calls regularly. In turn, the unavailability of the
network and offering little security were the main complaints from users.
In the 90s, the cell phone industry has evolved into a second generation (2G).This
was characterized as the digital type, appearing also new services such as Caller ID,
Three Way Calling, low data transfer speed as well as sending short messages
(SMS, Short Message Service).The second generation evolved from TDMA / GSM to
GPRS, EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution).
In Europe, for example, adopted the TDMA-based 2G technology known as GSM
(Global System for Mobile Communications), which was implemented in many other
countries around the world.
Subsequently, new services and applications, were sued by the users, prompted him
to give rise to third generation (3G). Using the mobile technology Wireless for third
generation known as Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), which
increases data transmission rates of the systems GSM using interface CDMA air
instead of TDMA and therefore provides data rates much higher on mobile and
portable wireless devices than are offered by GSM for example. As an initial
improvement in the standard evolution and 3G / UMTS, joined the technology known
as High Speed Packet Access (HSPA). HSPA is continually evolving thanks to the
work of standardization 3GPP consortium, which regularly publishes Releases,
updated technical specifications that improve the standard. This evolutionary
improvement is commonly known as 3.5G and is considered the first step before the
fourth generation (4G).

2010 PontoTech

15

LTE Fundamentals

1.6

Towards the Fourth Generation (4G)

Today, as we think about the next step in evolution of mobile telecommunications,


which is known as fourth-generation networks (4G). Its development is directed to a
mobile network based entirely on IP, allowing the user to have higher access speeds
and a greater convergence of technologies. This means, that this generation is
designed to provide end users the possibility to enjoy a wireless connection
anywhere, anytime, with speeds of access to information much higher than those
offered by previous generations.
In this regard, ITU-R (corresponding to the radio division of the ITU) drafted a
document known as 4G/IMT, which establishes minimum requirements for mobile
access technologies must meet to be called 4G.
The following summarizes the key points of the document 4G/IMT defined for the
fourth generation:
Create a network to enable interoperability between different wireless
communication standards. This indicates that it will support various access
technologies, which will integrate seamlessly into a network layer based on IP
protocol. This means that the network must use only packet switching, which
is required for IPv6 is deployed instead of the IPv4 standard currently in use.
Using an access system that makes efficient use of spectrum. This will require
use base band modulation technologies such as OFDM (Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing), allowing the orthogonality of the carriers,
which is a multicarrier modulation scheme highly efficient.
Another technique to use is accessible MIMO (Multiple-Input and MultipleOutput), which is a radio technology that uses a multi-antenna system on the
side of the transmitter and receiver. Because of the multiple antennas, the
spatial dimension can be exploited to improve the performance of the wireless
link, making the signal stronger, more reliable and helps increase the speed of
access provided to end users.
In turn, 4G networks must meet high quality of service and security end to end,
and able to offer any service at any time, anywhere. This means you must
provide transparency in access to services, regardless of the access network
the user to use.
As one of the requirements that have been established, is to offer access
speeds of 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps, in outdoor environments (mobile) and
internal (fixed), respectively, which represents a high target to be achieved by
technology mobile.

16

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 3 shows an overview of the process that has marked the evolution of mobile
telephony into the fourth generation:

Figure 3 - Evolution of mobile access technologies

2010 PontoTech

17

LTE Fundamentals

The table on the next figure describes and compares the different generations of
mobile systems mentioned above:

Comparison between mobile telecommunications networks

Generation mobile telephony

1st generation (1G)

2nd Generation (2G)

3rd generation
(3G)

4th generation
(4G)

Use life

1970's-1980's

1990's-2020

2001 to date

In 2010 begins with


LTE

NMT, AMPS ...

GSM, D-AMPS, PDC ...

IMT-2000 (UMTS,
CDMA2000)

IMT-Advanced
(LTE)

Standards

Owners Standards

Closed standards

Open Standards

Integrating different
standards

Bandwidth used (Theoretical)

Used 30 KHz AMPS

Using D-AMPS uses 30 KHz


and 200 KHz GSM

Using 5 MHz WCDMA


Speeds up to 2 Mbps

Scalable band
widths.
Speeds up to 1Gbps.

System used

Analog / Digital

Analog

Digital

Digital

Digital

Packet Switched (PS) / circuit


switching (CS)

CS

CS

CS and PS

PS ("All IP")

Roaming

National

International

Global (With same


technology)

Global (Other
technologies)

Services

Voice

Voice and data (SMS, MMS,


internet narrow band)

Voice and data (SMS,


MMS, internet
broadband)

IP Multiservice

Figure 4 - Comparison between mobile telecommunications networks

1.6.1

Fourth Generation Technologies

The Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) officially defined the Fourth Generation
wireless systems (4G) called IMT-Advanced. 3GPP addressed the requirements of
IMT-Advanced version of LTE (Release 10), called LTE-Advanced. Other
technologies such as mobile WiMAX (Mobile WiMAX, Mobile Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access), specified in the IEEE 802.16m, and ultra
mobile ultra-wideband (3GPP2 UMB, Ultra Mobile Broadband) are presented as
candidates for 4G.
Of these three, mobile WiMAX and LTE are aimed to be the dominant standards that
give the initial basis for this emerging generation telecommunications technology in
the fourth generation.

18

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

1.7

Global demand for mobile access

Currently GSM is positioned as the technology most widely deployed worldwide,


representing more than eighty percent of mobile phone subscriptions.
The following figure shows the breakdown in terms of number of subscribers existing
technology.

Worldwide subscriptions by technology (December 2009)

Technology

Subscribers (thousands)

GSM

3.449.011,00

WCDMA

255.773,00

Relative share

80.06%

5.94%
WCDMA / HSDPA

132.079,00
3.07%

TDMA

753,00
0.02%

TD-SCDMA

825,00
0.02%

CDMA 2000 1X

309.508,00
7.18%

CDMA 2000 1X EV-DO

121.822,00
2.83%

CDMA 2000 1X EV-DO REV A

13.912,00

PDC

2.752,00

iDEN

21.362,00

0.32%
0.06%

0.50%
4 307 797,00

Figure 5 - Comparison between mobile telecommunications networks

2010 PontoTech

19

LTE Fundamentals

To see a bigger picture, the organization 3G Americas unites telecommunications


operators and vendors are located throughout the Americas, published a study
estimating the number of global mobile subscriptions. The following figure shows the
behavior of global demand for distributed mobile technology:

Global volume of subscribers by technology (million)


YEAR:

TECHNOLOGY

UMTS-HSPA
GSM
CDMA
WIMAX
LTE
TOTAL

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

438

649

957

1400

2000

2700

3700

3900

4000

3800

3400

2700
769

459

521

583

645

707

2,80

7,50

16,70

37,10

82,10

0,50

3,50

13,10

44,50

131,50

4600

5078

5560

5895

6233

6300

Figure 6 - Worldwide subscriptions by technology (Year 2009)

20

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

To complement the information previously shown, Figure 7 display graphically the


behavior described in Figure 6.

Subscribers by global wireless technology


- 2014)
( 2009
7000

6233

6300

5895
6000
5560
5078
1400
5000

2000

957

4600

2700
649

438

4000

3000
4000

3800

3900

3400

3700

2700

2000
S us criptores ( millones)

1000

459

521

583

2009

2010

2011

707

769

2013

2014

645

2012
YEAR

LTE

WIMAX

CDMA

GSM

UMTS -HSPA

Figure 7 - Expected growth in mobile subscribers worldwide

From the information presented above, it is expected that 3G technology is the


technology that will take an higher stake on the 2G technology swap. It is further
noted that the growth of adoption of LTE technology will begin to gradually increase
from the year 2010, taking the year 2014 demand of approximately 131.5 million
subscribers.

2010 PontoTech

21

LTE Fundamentals

For its part, based on the trend presented above, it is estimated that LTE will start to
grow significantly in demand since 2015, causing subscribers to gradually abandon
legacy technologies such as 2G and 3G. The above is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8 - LTE demand trend

Despite this trend so strong to move towards LTE, one must remember that mobile
WiMAX technology today is also considered as a candidate to evolve into the Fourth
Generation, which is why later on this book a brief comparison between technologies
will be presented.

22

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Comparison between WiMAX and LTE

The mobile WiMAX and LTE are emerging as key technologies for the evolution to
4G. The selection of any of these technologies by telecom operators will depend on
various factors including the availability of spectrum and their own business
strategies.

2010 PontoTech

23

LTE Fundamentals

2.1

WiMAX Technology Overview

World Interoperability for Microwave Access Worldwide (WiMAX) is a wireless


broadband technology. Is designated as the IEEE 802.16 working group IEEE
organization specializing in the access point to multipoint broadband using WiMAX
technology.
This technology is based primarily on the two substandard IEEE 802.16d for fixed
access, and 802.16e for mobile access. Presenting two different standards for
WiMAX operators has enabled the scalability of their networks according to different
requirements to support last-mile services.
Fixed WiMAX is particularly interesting in providing last-mile access to rural areas
without access to wired network infrastructure or other wireless infrastructure.
Primarily focuses on residential-type users without access to broadband services,
located in remote areas where it has so far been too expensive to access by
traditional broadband infrastructure.
Subsequently, given the need for users to maintain these services in mobile
environment, there is the standard known as IEEE 802.16m WiMAX version 2.0 or
Mobile WiMAX. This standard is an enhanced version of IEEE 802.16e standard and
has been proposed as a fourth-generation technology.

2.2

LTE Overview

As part of the standards that want to implement for the Fourth Generation, appears
LTE preliminary proposal, on which there has been significant investment in research
and development by stakeholders in the telecommunications industry as will be
shown forward.
However, to meet the requirements established by the ITU 4G, the highest governing
body for telecommunications in the world, the Group 3GPP (3rd Generation
Partnership Group) has been given the task of setting a new radio access technology
that has called LTE.

24

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

This has been done with the aim of working on the development and improvement of
the communication standard Third Generation WCDMA based UMTS system. This
path of evolution, born since the 3GPP, in late 1999, developed the first version of
WCDMA. By way of overview, the main versions or Releases that mark the
evolutionary path listed below:
Release 99: first version of WCDMA developed in late 1999 and was part of
IMT-2000 standards.
Release 5: This version developed in 2002, introduced speed improvements in
communications from the network to the user (downlink) creating the data
access protocol called HSDPA.
Release 6: This version completed in late 2004, introduced speed
improvements in communications from the user to the network (uplink)
creating the data access protocol called HSUPA.
Releases 7 to 10: versions are generally looking for in the stage of access of a
mobile network have higher bandwidth, lower latency and higher capacity to
meet demand in urban areas. In Release 7 defines the protocol HSPA +.The
Releases 8 and 9 correspond to the LTE standard and Version 10 is the
standard LTE-Advanced, which, unlike LTE, if it is accepted as standard
Fourth Generation.

2.3

LTE-Advanced for IMT-Advanced

Parallel to the work on LTE and future enhancements in Release 9, the 3GPP is
working on creating specifications that qualify in the process of IMT-Advanced in ITUR. ITU-R is developing a framework for next generation wireless networks. The
following are the requirements that the ITU-R has been defined for IMT-Advanced.
Support for speeds up to 1 Gbps in low mobility scenarios (nomad) and 100
Mbps for high mobility.
Support for large bandwidths.
Minimum requirements for spectral efficiency in different operating scenarios.
Besides the above, the 3GPP has an own set of requirements among which is
backwards compatibility with LTE (Release 8). This requirement is set so that a
device can access a network LTE LTE-Advanced (Release 10) and similarly a device
to LTE-Advanced LTE access network, in addition to any network or device that

2010 PontoTech

25

LTE Fundamentals

meets specifications Release 9. For its part is also due to mobility between LTEAdvanced and other radio access technologies such as GSM / EDGE, WCDMA and
CDMA2000. Ie, LTE Advanced is HSPA + and LTE, HSUPA, HSDPA is a UMTS, ie
they are extensions but do not cause incompatibility.
It is expected that the specifications of ITU-R was completed in early 2011, which
requires 3GPP prepare its first set of specifications for the end of 2010. Among the
improvements are under investigation and is expected to be part of these
specifications are:
It is hoped to extend coverage by allowing the user equipment further away
from a base station, send your information via relay nodes for better
communication.
Scalable bandwidth up to potentially around 100 MHz: It is expected that this
capacity is reached mainly based on the solutions that are expected to be
deployed in LTE, although not yet defined as to undertake this expansion.
Network mobility solutions and nomad / local area.
Flexible use of spectrum.
Configuration and network operating independently (Self Organizing Network).
Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception that relates to the use of
MIMO transmissions coordinated by different transmitters.

Although all the above items are under study, does not necessarily mean that they
will be included in the specifications of 3GPP Release 10. It may be that the decision
to include some aspects within the Release 9 and can also reach the conclusion that
its complexity is too high or the benefits are few to be considered within the
specifications for LTE-Advanced. It is hoped that this research is completed by the
end of 2010 in preparation for the start of the specification to be included in Release
10.
It is noteworthy that LTE will not only be evaluated by the ITU-R for IMT-Advanced
process, but so will other radio access technologies and if they meet the minimum
requirements will become part of the family of IMT -Advanced.

26

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The following figure presents the most important dates in the process of specification
of LTE-Advanced. You can see that this proposal is already in an advanced stage
and is expected to be completed no later than 2011.

Important Dates specification of LTE - Advanced

Progress made

Review article on LTE - Advanced adopted by 3GPP

Requirements for LTE - Advanced (TR 36913) approved by 3GPP

Prior submission of LTE - Advanced made to ITU-R

Preview LTE - Advanced made to ITU-R

Final presentation of LTE - Advanced made to ITU-R

Completion of Advanced LTE specifications made by the 3GPP

Response

March 2008

June 2008

September 2008

June 2009

October 2009

2010 -2011

Figure 9 - LTE specification schedule - Advanced

Moreover, given that the standard LTE-Advanced is not yet finalized and because
today, as indicated below, some operators are considering the benefits of deploying
LTE networks, then performing a comparison between the LTE and mobile WiMAX
standard, proposed as evolutionary paths to the Fourth Generation.

2010 PontoTech

27

LTE Fundamentals

2.4

Technical comparison between LTE and Mobile


WiMAX

Some of the key features that define the two technologies are presented in the next
figure.

Comparison between LTE and Mobile WiMAX


Feature

Mobile WiMAX

3GPP-LTE

Core Network

All IP Network

All IP Network

Access Technology.
Downlink (DL)

OFDMA

OFDMA

Uplink (UL)

OFDMA

SC-FDMA

Frequency band

2.3-2.4GHz ,2.496-2 0.67 GHz, 3.3-3.8 GHz

70,850,1800,2100,2500 MHz frequency bands

DL

75 Mbps

100Mbps

UL

25Mbps

50Mbps

Bandwidth of the channel

5, 8.75, 10MHz

1.25-20MHz

Cell Radio

2-7km

5km

100-200 users

> 200 users to 5MHz

Bit rate:

Cell Capacity
> 400 users for higher bandwidth
Spectral efficiency

3.75 (bps / Hz)

5 (bps / Hz)

Handover

Hard Handover

Soft handovers

DL

2Tx * 2RX

4Tx * 4RX

UL

1Tx * NRX

2Tx * 2RX

MIMO:

Figure 10 - Comparison between LTE and mobile WiMAX

28

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Based on the above, are the following similarities:


Mobile version of WiMAX will reach performance capabilities similar to LTE,
and both take advantage of multi antenna techniques (MIMO), which
dramatically improves the communication channels that will achieve better
data transmission rates.
Both WiMAX and LTE benefit from IP architecture that simplifies data
transmission, since it is optimized for that protocol.
The most important similarity between LTE and WiMAX OFDM is the
substantially improvement in the use of radio spectrum.
Despite these similarities, LTE appears to offer better performance because it offers
faster speeds and enhanced capabilities for cell about Wimax technology. LTE also
provides greater spectral efficiency, allowing you to make better use of radio
spectrum, a factor which is of utmost importance when choosing an access
technology.

2.5

Interoperability between the two technologies

There is an aspect that suggests that LTE is supplemented in some areas with
networks WIMAX . This is because there are remote places where there is no 2G and
3G coverage, but there WIMAX coverage plans.
Anticipating such a scenario of convergence, able to make a user can access mobile
broadband services using the same terminal, some manufacturers have focused their
efforts on the manufacture of electronic devices that can operate both technologies,
such is the case of chip maker Beceem who announced the first chip called BCS500,
which combines LTE and WiMAX. This is how this chip supports WiMAX 16e
standards and 16m and LTE Release 8 download capabilities allowing up to 150
Mbps perform handover between the two technologies. Beceem expects the chip is
ready to be marketed in the second quarter of 2011.
The actual technical aspect of the way it carries out the interconnectivity between
WiMAX and LTE, will be discussed in Section 5.11 of this job.

2010 PontoTech

29

LTE Fundamentals

2.6

Tendency for operators to implement LTE

Currently WiMAX has an advantage in their favor on LTE, this advantage is the
anticipation that WiMAX was created with respect to LTE. This means that by the
time the new LTE networks are deployed, consolidated WiMAX networks already
exist in many markets around the world. Despite this, WiMAX technology has not
been as successful as hoped in the beginning and the prevision is that LTE will
surpass WIMAX in 2012.
For example, although since 2007 were initiated implementations of Wimax
technology, three years after the operator TeliaSonera has deployed, the first
commercial networks with LTE technology in the countries of Sweden and Norway.
This is the first step could lose the momentum operators to deploy WiMAX, a
situation well known manufacturers and operators, so that they are in a stage of
analysis to define future technology and initiate deployment their networks as quickly
as possible. Today, some of the biggest in the market as Nokia and Motorola have
turned to the development of LTE without even thinking about a side project with
WiMAX technology. In addition operators like AT & T, like T-Mobile and Verizon
Wireless have opted for the adoption of LTE and plan to carry out large deployments
with this technology. Another reason why many have decided on LTE is the aspect of
compatibility with legacy networks.
For its part, the compatibility issues that have arisen between the various versions of
IEEE 802.16 put many operators to reflect on the true capacity of these systems in
terms of their support back. LTE implies an evolution of the 3GPP legacy systems, so
you will live in the same network simultaneously 2G and 3G technologies, and future
4G LTE-Advanced.
But beyond seeing both as competing technologies, we can conclude that in reality
there is no rivalry. Today it is envisioned that both WiMAX and LTE will become real
technology fourth generation wireless. Still, if we consider that the vast majority of
operators who currently have 2G and 3G networks have decided to LTE, will spend a
few years to produce real growth and maturity of the LTE technology throughout the
world.

30

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Third-generation networks as the basis for


the evolution to LTE

2010 PontoTech

31

LTE Fundamentals

3.1

Evolution of a UMTS network to LTE

The third generation UMTS system based on access technology W-CDMA has been
developed in many parts of the world. To ensure that this system has to remain
competitive future, in November 2004 3GPP started a project to define a long-term
evolution of the cellular system called UMTS. Its main focus is to improve or evolve
the UTRAN network to LTE.
The specifications related to this effort is formally known as Access Evolved UMTS
Terrestrial Radio (E-UTRA, Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) and Enhanced
Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS evolved (E-UTRAN, Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access Network) but are commonly referred to as the LTE project. This first version
of LTE is documented in the specifications of 3GPP Release 8.
A side project called Evolution of System Architecture (SAE, System Architecture
Evolution) defines an all-IP architecture composed of a core packet switching
network called evolved packet core (EPC Evolved Packet Core).
The SAE network architecture is an evolution of the core network and has the
following characteristics:
Simplified architecture directed towards all-IP network.
Support for multiple systems such as GPRS.
Mobility between different radio access networks.

32

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The combination of EPC and define E-UTRAN evolved packet system (EPS, Evolved
Packet System). In this way the whole system is called the LTE / SAE or simply LTE.
When LTE solution for the 3GPP standard, is proposed as a future scenario, the
interoperability of this technology with existing networks 3G/WCDMA 2G/GSM is
garanteed.
For the foregoing reasons, the following is an overview of the number of thirdgeneration networks, specifically UMTS type, in order to know its architecture and its
basic features, which serve as reference for further understanding and proposing a
series of general recommendations on a technical level, to move towards LTE from
these mobile networks.
It is recalled that a telecommunications network 2G and 3G, is composed of three
main elements: a core network (CN, Core Network), a Radio Access Network (RAN,
Radio Access Network) and equipment (UE, User Equipment).

2010 PontoTech

33

LTE Fundamentals

3.2

3.2.1

UMTS Network Structure

UTRAN

The group designed specifically for UMTS 3GPP access network called Terrestrial
Radio Access Network UMTS (UTRAN, Terrestrial UMTS Radio Access Network),
which is described below. This network is composed of Radio Network Controllers
(RNC, Radio Network Controller) and base stations known as Node B, together make
up a Radio Network Subsystem (RNS Radio Network Subsystem).

Figure 11 - Radio Access Network UMTS.

34

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The following is a brief description of the elements of the UTRAN:


RNC: controls one or more nodes B. The interface between different RNC is a
logical interface, so there is not necessarily a direct physical connection
between them. The RNC is comparable to the base station controller (BSC,
Base Station Controller) in GSM networks.
Node B: Node is the liaison between the RNC and the mobile terminals.
Contains the physical layer radio interface so that performs the functions of
modulation and demodulation, error detection, time synchronization and
frequency, among others.
Given that there should be interoperability between the networks of 2G and 3G
access, it is important to mention that GSM access network consists of Base Station
Subsystem (BSS, Base Station Subsystem). Each subsystem consists of a Base
Station Controller (BSC, Base Station Controller) and one or more base transceiver
stations (BTS, Base Transceiver Station). The BSC controls the functionality of the
BTS with an air interface (A-bis). The following is a brief description of the elements
of the BSS:
BSC, in charge of the functions of radio resource management, power control
and handovers between cells, among others.
BTS: consists of one or more transceivers (TRX). BTS can be omni type with
one cell or sectorized with multiple cells, typically three.

2010 PontoTech

35

LTE Fundamentals

Interface -

Abis

BSS

Interface -

- A

Abis

BSS

Figure 12 - Radio Access Network GSM

36

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The next figure shows the UMTS network architecture coexisting with a GSM access
network.

Abis
B

Um

BSS
E
A
B
Gb

Iub
Cu

Uu

PSTN

PSTN

IuCS
H
Gs

USIM

IuPS
Gf

Gr

Gc

IuCS
Gn

RNS

Gl

IuPS
Iub

RNS

Figure 13 - UMTS network architecture coexisting with GSM

It is noteworthy that the interface "Uu" between the UE and UTRAN, and the interface
"Iu" between UTRAN and core network (CN, Core Network), are open-standard
interfaces, allowing you to connect terminals and equipment provided different
manufacturers.

2010 PontoTech

37

LTE Fundamentals

3.2.2

Core network

The core network is divided into two domains: the domain of packet switching and
circuit switching. The circuit switched domain provides the main element Switching
Center Mobile Services (MSC, Mobile Switching Center), while the packet domain
covers the main elements of the Service Support Node GPRS (SGSN, Serving
GPRS Support Node) Node Server and Service Support GPRS (SGSN).
The following describes these and other elements that make up the core network:
Switching Center Mobile Services (MSC) is the central element of the Core
Circuit Switched (CS-CN, Circuit Switching Core Network). The MSC of the
GSM network to 3G can be used that allows updates to comply with the
requirements of 3G. This element is connected to access networks of GSM
and UMTS, with the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN, Public
Switched Telephone Network), as well as with other MSC, SGSN and the
various registers of the core of the network (HLR, EIR), among others.
Visitor Location Register (VLR, Visitor Location Register): This is a temporary
database that contains all information from users who are present at any given
time in the location area controlled by the VLR. Overall MSC and VLR are
physically combined. Among its main features are, allow authentication of the
mobile and also connects to other VLR and HLR through the network signaling
system.
Local Location Register (HLR, Home Location Register) contains a permanent
record of subscriber data. While the records are temporary VLR in the HLR
are permanent, although they handle almost the same information.
Equipment Identification Register (EIR, Equipment Identify Register): Stores
Identities international Mobile Station Equipment (IMEI, International Mobile
Equipment Identities). Usually contains three lists to indicate the status of
equipment: IMEI of computers that are authorized to operate normally (white
list), stolen equipment and therefore are prevented from connecting to the
network (black list) and finally the gray list are registered with any equipment
malfunctions occur.
Authentication Center (AuC, Authentication Center) is associated with the
HLR. Authentication keys stored subscriber and International Mobile
Subscriber Identity (IMSI).
Gateway MSC (GMSC, Gateway MSC) is an MSC that is located between the
PSTN and other MSC located on the network. Its function is to achieve routing
incoming calls to the appropriate MSC.

38

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Server Node Service Support GPRS (SGSN) is the principal element in the
packet switching network, which contains subscription information and user
location.
Support Node Gateway GPRS (GGSN, Gateway GPRS Support Node):
Makes the interface between the packet core with external data networks,
such as the Internet.
The 3GPP Release 5 brings significant changes to the core architecture of the
network. The next figure shows the network architecture, Release 5:

Figure 14 - 3GPP Release 5 architecture

In this new architecture incorporates a control architecture known as IMS. At the


same time as bringing new elements such as Base subscriber server (HSS, Home
Subscriber Server), which functions as an HLR evolved, and is also the element of
connection between IMS and the packet switched domain.
For its part, this new architecture the MSC is divided into two entities, the media
gateway (MGW) and a MSC server. The control logic is performed by the MSC, while
the switching is done MGW. This separation allows the network to make use of more
efficient routes for the transmission of high-speed data, while control messages may
follow other routes.

2010 PontoTech

39

LTE Fundamentals

For his part, Release 5 incorporates an all-IP network, which means that all traffic,
including voice, is carried as IP packets.
The next figure shows the IMS architecture:

Figure 15 - Architecture of the IMS domain

In the domain of IMS data traffic is transported through SGSN and GGSN. For his
part, HSS combines and performs the functions that make the HLR and AuC. On the
other hand comes a function element called Call Session Control (CSCF Call
Session Control Function), which is the central element in IMS. There are three types
of CSCF:
Servant CSCF (S-CSCF): Provides the session control services for the
computer terminal. These include the decision of routing and session
establishment, maintenance and release of multimedia sessions. It also
generates information charges for the billing system;
Proxy CSCF (P-CSCF) is the first entity of IMS is contacted by the user's
computer when you log into the network. The P-CSCF passes the control of
the session towards the S-CSCF located in the home network;

40

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF) is the point of contact within the operator's


network for all connections destined for that network subscribers or
subscribers are roaming.
Finally, other elements within the domain of IMS are:
Disengage Control Function in Gateway (BGCF, Breakout Gateway Control
Function): selects the network in which the domain interoperability and circuitswitched PSTN is going to happen. If given in the same network BGCF select
a MGCF responsible for such interoperability. If another network with BGCF
redirects the session signaling to another BGCF in the net.
Function Control Media Gateway (MGCF, Media Gateway Control Function)
is an entity that is responsible for interoperability. Perform conversion of
protocols between the PSTN and IMS protocols call.
Processor Media Resource Function (MRFP, Multimedia Resource Function
Processor): handles the bearer channels and can handle different flows of
information.
Controller Media Resource Function (MRFC, Multimedia Resource Function
Controller) controls the flow of information resources in the MRFP, a task
accomplished by interpreting information that comes from application servers,
S-CSCF and the MRFP.
Media Gateway Intermediate (IM-MGW, Intermediate Media Gateway):
terminates bearer channels from a circuit network and information flows in a
packet network. MGFC interacts with resource control, in addition to owning
and managing other resources such as echo cancellers.
Subscriber Locator Function (SLF Subscription Locator Function): it is only
necessary when there are plenty of HSS bodies on a network.
Application Server (AS, Application Server) offers value-added services and
can reside either on the local network or in a third location.

2010 PontoTech

41

LTE Fundamentals

42

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Standardization and technical requirements


according to 3GPP LTE

Based on the above shown in the following chapter provides the key technical
requirements and standardization proposed to move towards LTE.

2010 PontoTech

43

LTE Fundamentals

4.1

Reason for the evolution of the system


architecture

The target for the development of system architecture to improve aspects such as
speed of access and transport as well as quality of service, using this a fully
converged network based on packet switching and ability to support mobility and
service continuity between heterogeneous access networks.
According to the technical report TR 23.882 were identified a number of high-level
requirements for an architecture based on SAE, among which we highlight a few:
Must support 3GPP and non 3GPP systems.
You must provide a scalable architecture without compromising the ability of
the system, separating the control plane and transport plane.
Must be based on IP connectivity with improved quality of service.
Mobility with other systems and even non-3GPP. 3GPP must support real time
applications as well as applications and services that are not real time.
Should enable interoperability between terminals, servers and systems with
IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity.
You must ensure at least the same level of security of Subscriber which is in
the current 3GPP networks.
Must support the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS, IP Multimedia Subsystem)
as well as systems in the domain of circuit switching.

4.2

Working groups and the definition of technical


specifications for LTE

The work focused on the decision of the radio technology as well as the system
architecture. It concluded that needed something new and not just an extension of
the WCDMA system as a result of a complex set of requirements to cover different
bandwidths and a certain amount of data transfer rates.
Within 3GPP Technical Specification Group of the Radio Access Network (3GPP
TSG RAN, 3GPP Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network) is
responsible for the development of LTE specifications for what is the access network.
This job specification is covered by the various working groups (WG, Working

44

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Groups) which are listed under each group of technical specifications (TSG,
Technical Specifications Group). This distribution is shown in the next figure.

Figure 16 - Work structure of the 3GPP

As part of the main specifications for the access network, it was decided to use
technology Multiple Access Orthogonal Frequency Division (OFDMA, Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiple Access) as technology in the downlink. To access uplink
technology was chosen Division Multiple Access Single Carrier Frequency (SCFDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) as the most favorable, a
decision that was supported by manufacturers and operators in general. A significant
improvement over WCDMA is the technology that both Frequency Division Duplexing
(FDD, Frequency Division Duplexing) such as Time Division Duplexing (TDD, Time
Division Duplexing) have the same solution for multiple access, ie that an adjustment
is made to minimize the differences in their modes of operation. This decision by the
multiple access was made official in 2005 and after that the work was focused on the
technologies chosen for LTE.
Also, it was decided that it should have a radio access network (RAN, Radio Access
Network) of a single node, which is achieved by putting all the functionality of the
radio base station (Node B). The name of this new element is eNodeB, representing
the letter "e", evolved. The main difference in relation to this aspect is that it removes
the element RNC delegating its functions to the eNodeBs.
The specifications for the evolved packet core (EPC Evolved Packet Core) are
covered by the technical specification group core network and terminals (TSG CT,
Technical Specification Group Core and Terminals) and also by the group of

2010 PontoTech

45

LTE Fundamentals

technical specifications services and systems (TSG SA, Technical Specification


Group Services and System Aspects). The group of technical specifications of the
radio access network GSM / EDGE (GERAN TSG, Technical Specification Group
GSM / EDGE Radio Access Network) is responsible for changes in GSM / EDGE
introduced in Release 8 to facilitate interoperability between LTE and GERAN. For its
part the group of technical specifications of the radio access network WCDMA (TSG
RAN, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network) is responsible for the
changes introduced in WCDMA Release 8 to facilitate interoperability between LTE
and WCDMA.

4.3

3GPP requirements for LTE

In November 2004, began work related to the evolution of the access network known
as UTRAN. In this work were present operators, manufacturers and research
institutes with a large number of proposals and views.
Then, in early 2005 began work on the specification of 3GPP LTE, which published
its technical report TR 25.913, Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN). After that recent versions have been published with
improvements and fixes, version 9.0.0 being the last one.
Key elements of this technical report are described below.

4.3.1

Requirements related to the ability

Data transfer rates: E-UTRA should support significant increases in data


transfer rates, which must be consistent with the spectrum allocation and
terminal configuration. For example, a terminal to be able to support maximum
speeds of 100 Mbps in the downlink (DL, downlink) and 50 Mbps in the uplink
(UL, uplink), each with an allocation of 20 MHz spectrum.
Latency: In the control plane must have a latency equal to or less than 50
milliseconds (ms) between active and inactive states. For the user plane must
have a latency no greater than 5ms for a one-way transmission from the
transmitted packet is available at the IP layer at the edge of the border UE /
RAN until it becomes available in the IP layer the other border RAN / EU.
However, this latter requirement should be revised, mainly because you need
to specify clearly the terms of latency for this case.

46

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.3.2

Requirements related to performance

Transfer Rate: Transfer rate (throughput) in the downlink (DL) should be for
the average user, 3 to 4 times compared to the specifications assigned to
HSDPA Release 6, using more than two transmission antennas in the base
station and two receive antennas in the terminal device. Besides the transfer
fee should be scalable in line with the allocation of spectrum. For the uplink
(UL) should have a transfer rate per user on average 2 to 3 times as specified
in Release 6, in this case using a transmitting antenna in the terminal and two
receiving antennas at the base station. It should get a higher data rate using
multiple transmit antennas in the terminal device.
Spectral Efficiency: Spectral efficiency (bps / Hz / site) in the downlink (DL)
should be 3 to 4 times that obtained with a system based on Release 6
HSDPA, using two transmission antennas in the base station and two
reception terminal. In the uplink (UL) should be 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSDPA
obtained and E-UTRA using a transmitting antenna in the terminal and two
reception at the base station.
Mobility: Must be optimal for the user transfer rates in the range of 0 km / h 15
km / h. For speeds of 15 km / h and 120 km / h mobility must be supported
with high performance. For its part, the mobility across the cellular network
must be maintained at speeds of 120 km / h 350 km / h, or 500 km / h
depending on the frequency band used (An example of this scenario would be
within high speed train). Services real-time voice and supported in the domain
of circuit-switched network UTRAN (Release 6) should be borne by the EUTRAN in the packet switched domain to a higher quality or at least equal.
Coverage: coverage up to 5 km in the range of cells must meet the
requirements of transfer rate (throughput), spectral efficiency and mobility
above. In a range of up to 30 km degradations accepted transfer rates and
spectrum efficiency, but must comply fully with the requirements of mobility.
For greater ranges requirements have not been defined.
Enhanced MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service), MBMS
service is a feature you are looking for an efficient way to deliver broadcast
and multicast services over the network core. E-UTRA should support
enhanced modes of UTRA MBMS in comparison with less downtime, provided
they are caused by the E-UTRAN network.
Network Synchronization: It is expected that the requirements described in
the technical report TR 25.913 are made in the deployment of the network
without the use of synchronization between sites.

2010 PontoTech

47

LTE Fundamentals

4.3.3

Requirements related to network deployment

Deployment scenarios: There is a wide range of deployment scenarios that


can be considered, however at a high level, E-UTRAN should be able to
support basically two different scenarios. The first is the deployment of EUTRAN network as an independent network, where the operator deploys the
network without the existence of other networks in the area or there are other
networks UTRAN / GERAN, or where there is no need for interoperability
between them. The second deployment scenario corresponds to a UTRAN
network integration and / or networks of GSM EDGE Radio Access (GERAN,
GSM EDGE Radio Access Network). In this case the network operator has to
totally cover the same geographical area. The deployment and the associated
requirements will be defined by demand for mobile services and the
environment of competition between operators.
Spectral Flexibility: Must support spectrum allocations of different sizes, which
means you should be able to operate in a bandwidth of 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5
MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz for uplink and in the downward. It should
also be flexible enough to support transmissions in both directions (DL & UL)
making optimal use of available spectrum.
Deployment in the radio spectrum: E-UTRA should be capable of withstanding
the following scenarios.
o GERAN/3G coexistence with adjacent channel
o Coexistence between operators on adjacent channels
o Coexisting with spectrum sharing and / or adjacent to the borders of
countries
o Operating as an independent network, ie without other networks
operating in the same geographic area
Coexistence and interoperability with other radio access technologies 3GPP
(3GPP RAT Radio Access Technology): Terminals UTRAN LTE will also
support and / or GERAN should be able to perform handovers to and from EUTRAN networks. Disruption of services in real time during a handover
between E-UTRAN network and a UTRAN should be less than 300 ms and for
services that are not in real time should not exceed 500ms. For handovers
between E-UTRAN and GERAN should meet the same requirements of time
in both cases.

48

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.3.4

Requirements for E-UTRAN architecture

E-UTRAN should have a single architecture based on packet switching, not ceasing
to be capable of supporting real-time services based on circuit switched domain. It
should also support quality of service (QoS, Quality of Service) point to point, taking
into consideration the different types of traffic. Finally, the E-UTRAN should be
designed so as to minimize delay variations (jitter) for packet TCP / IP.

4.3.5

Requirements for radio resource management

Improved support for quality of service point to point: E-UTRAN should be able
to support improved control over the quality of service, providing a better
matching of service requirements, protocols and applications with the
resources and network features access.
Efficient transmission of higher layers: You must provide mechanisms for the
transmission and operation of higher layer protocols on the radio interface.
Support of load sharing and policy management across different radio access
technologies (RAT): This aims to reduce latency and ensure quality of service
point to point, when there are different body handovers radio access
technologies.

4.3.6

Requirements related to the complexity of the


systems

Complexity of the system in general: Significantly reduce the complexity of the


system to stabilize the interoperability in early stages and further reduce costs
in terminals and the network itself.
Complexity of terminal: The requirements of E-UTRA and E-UTRAN should be
possible to reduce the complexity of terminal equipment in terms of size,
weight and battery life among others, always consistent with the advanced
network services.

2010 PontoTech

49

LTE Fundamentals

4.3.7

Protocols and services requirements

The architecture should enable optimization of communication protocols in addition to


reducing the cost of future network deployments. On the other hand all the interfaces
should be open to ensure interoperability among equipment manufacturers.
E-UTRA should efficiently support various types of services such as web browsing,
video streaming or voice over IP (VoIP) and more advanced services such as real
time video. The VoIP service should be supported with at least the same features as
the voice service over UMTS networks based on circuit switching.

4.3.8

Specifications for interoperability with legacy


networks

One of the requirements of the new system is to ensure interoperability with 3GPP
systems Rel.6, ie SAE expected to coexist with the 3GPP mobile communication
networks today. In this way, users can establish a data session in a LTE area where
coverage is insufficient, and continuing it in a transparent manner with UMTS,
minimizing packet loss and downtime.
Another notable design premise of this new architecture is that not only must ensure
interoperability with 3GPP legacy systems of second and third generation, but also
must provide seamless mobility and continuity of user session between 3GPP
accesses and not "3GPP, such as WiFi or WiMAX.
To handle mobility between 3GPP access and non-3GPP has chosen to use mobility
skills defined by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), such as Mobile-IP and
Proxy Mobile-IP in the SAE GW acts as an anchor point. This involves defining a new
interface between the SAE GW S2 and non-3GPP accesses and the requirement
that interfaces S5 and S8 (discussed below) support simultaneous GTP protocol
(3GPP accesses) and IETF-based protocols (non-3GPP access) depending on the
type of access.
Therefore, it was proposed an evolution of the architecture according to the 3GPP
standard deliveries (next figure).

50

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 17 - Evolution of 3GPP was a flatter architecture

2010 PontoTech

51

LTE Fundamentals

4.4

Standardization beyond Release 8

The specification work after the Release 8 has already started, including a series of
points that were defined for the Release 8 which was completed in 2009, as well as
specifications for LTE-Advanced which is expected to be published in the 3GPP
Release 10. Here are the key elements that are being defined in future specifications.
LTE MBMS, which is expected to support the operation with a dedicated
MBMS carrier or carrier shared. It can then sends a signal based on OFDMA
from different base stations (with the same content) and then be combined in
the device. This principle is used for example in digital video broadcasting for
personal devices, DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds), which is
also based on OFDMA.
Improved auto tunable networks (SON, Self Optimizing Networks) whose
specification continues in Release 9
Improved support for LTE VoIP, including the maximum number of users
supported simultaneously.
The requirements for base stations operating at different bandwidths and
different radio access technologies. The aim is to define the requirements for
the same frequency can transmit radio signals eg GSM or LTE and LTE and
WCDMA.

4.5

Architecture Overview of LTE / SAE

Evolved System Architecture (SAE, System Architecture Evolution) is the name given
to the Fourth Generation Network Evolved proposed by 3GPP for LTE .
This advanced network is made up primarily of two main components:
Network Access Evolved Universal Terrestrial (eutrophi, Evolved Universal
Terrestrial Radio Access Network)
The Packet Core Network Evolved (EPC, Paquet Evolved Core), also known
as evolved packet system (EPS).

52

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

As mentioned above, the idea to E-UTRAN, is that many of the features currently
present in the Third Generation Network (3G) to pass the eNode B (known as Node
B base stations evolved or developed). That is, the existing RNC would be
eliminated. This simplification will mean among other things, a redefinition of
signaling procedures, as well as reducing the number of nodes involved compared to
the current UTRAN architecture.
This e-NodeB will be able to interconnect with each other and the EPC. The eNodeB
will then be responsible for providing nodes termination of user plane protocols and
control plane to the user equipment (UE, User Equipment).
For its part, the main functions of the E-UTRAN will be the radio resource
management (control of radio carriers, radio admission control, dynamic resource
allocation in uplink and downlink to the UEs, header compression, encryption or
protection of user plane data and routing traffic to the EPC.
For his part to the EPC, also known as Core SAE, is considered as the main
component of the SAE Architecture. EPC is expected to be an optimized package
with a higher data rate, which supports multiple access technologies and also allow
new services to support voice and data.

2010 PontoTech

53

LTE Fundamentals

4.6

General elements of architecture

The following figure shows the network elements of LTE/SAE architecture. Logical
nodes and connections shown in this figure represent the basic configuration of the
system architecture. It also points to its four main elements:
User Equipment (UE, User Equipment)
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)
Evolved Packet Core (EPC Evolved Packet Core)
The service layer.

Figure 18 - Main elements of the network LTE / SAE

54

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

EU Areas, E-UTRAN and EPC, together, represent the connectivity layer Internet
Protocol (IP, Internet Protocol). This set is what is known as Evolved Packet System
(EPS, Evolved Packet System).
The main function of this layer is to provide IP-based connectivity, and optimized
solely for that purpose. All services are offered via IP, and therefore the circuit
switching nodes and interfaces present in previous 3GPP architectures are not
present in E-UTRAN and the EPC.
For its part, the EU is the device or the end user terminal used for communication.
Normally this is a handheld device like a Smartphone or data card (Data card) which
are incorporated into a computer.

2010 PontoTech

55

LTE Fundamentals

4.7

4.7.1

Particular elements of the architecture

The eNodeB

As mentioned earlier, E-UTRAN consists of nodes called eNodeB which are


distributed throughout the area of network coverage. That is, E-UTRAN is a mesh of
eNodeBs connected via X2 interface. All radio functions are concentrated in them
and they represent termination points for all related protocols.
In addition, the eNodeB has an important role in mobility management (MM, Mobility
Management), as monitors and analyzes the measurements of the radio signal
carried out by the EU and himself, and based on that perform decisions handover
between cells. It must be remembered that the eNodeB may be serving multiple EU
in its coverage area, but each UE is connected to a single eNodeB at a time. The
eNodeB had to be connected to the neighboring eNodeBs the transfer can take
place. This includes the exchange of signaling transfer between other eNodeBs and
the MME.
ENodeB functionally acts as a bridge to Layer 2 (data link layer) between the EU and
the EPC, being the focal point, using the radio protocols, to the EU, allowing the
transmission of data between the EU and EPC, with the latter based on IP
connectivity. The eNodeB also performs encryption / decryption of data, data security
and compression / decompression IP header, which means avoid repeatedly sending
the same data stream in the IP header.
The following figure shows the connections that eNodeB to neighboring nodes and
summarizes the main features of these interfaces. The eNodeB connections are
peer-to-point and point to multipoint.

56

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 19 - ENodeB connections with other logical nodes and their primary functions

2010 PontoTech

57

LTE Fundamentals

4.7.2

Entity Mobility Management (MME, Mobile


Management Entity)

Mobility Management (MME Mobility Management Entity) is the main element of


control in the EPC. The MME also has a direct logical connection to the EU and this
connection is used as the main control channel between the UE and the network.
The following are the main functions of the MME in a basic configuration of the
system architecture:
Authentication and security: When the UE is registered on the network for the
first time, the MME initiates authentication by doing the following: seeking
permanent identity of the EU in any of the previously visited network, or at the
EU, claims that the Home Subscription Server (HSS), the vectors of local
network authentication request containing the authentication, sends the
request to the EU and EU response compared to those received by the local
network. This function is necessary to ensure that the EU is the one who
claims to be. The MME also assigns each a unique identity temporary EU
Global (Global Unique Temporary Identity, GUTI), so the need to send the
permanent identity EU - International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) - on the
radio interface is minimized.
Mobility Management: The MME tracks the location of all EU in its service
area. When a UE makes its entry to the network, the MME will create an entry
for the UE, and sends the location to the HSS of the network which is the EU.
It also asks the right resources in the eNodeB, as well as the S-GW to be
selected for the EU. In turn, the MME handles the creation and release of
resources based on changes in activity of the EU. The MME is also involved in
controlling the handover of the EU between eNodeBs, S-GW or MMEs. MME
is involved in each change of eNodeB, as there is a separate Radio Network
Controller to monitor these events.
Subscription Management and Service Profile of Connectivity: The MME
retrieves the subscription profile in the local network and stores this
information for the period in which the EU is in service. This profile determines
which network connection data packets should be allocated to the UE in the
network. The MME automatically configures the default carrier, which gives
the EU the basic IP connectivity. This includes signage eNodeB the CP and e
S-GW. The figure bellow shows the MME with logical connections to
surrounding nodes, and summarizes the main functions of these interfaces.

58

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 20 - MME connections to other logical nodes and their main functions.

2010 PontoTech

59

LTE Fundamentals

4.7.3

SAE GW

The EPC is composed of an element called SAE GW, which is the combination of the
two gateways, the Service Gateway (S-GW, Serving-Gateway) and Gateway Packet
Data (P-GW, Packet Data Network Gateway) defined for traffic management in the
EPC. Its implementation as a single node SAE GW represents one possible scenario,
however, the standards define the interface between them, and all operations have
been specified for when they are separated. It is important to note that the basic
architecture of the system configuration and functionality are documented in 3GPP
TS 23.401.This document shows the operation when the S5/S8 interface uses the
GTP protocol. However, when the interface protocol used PMIP S5/S8, the
functionality of these interfaces is slightly different, and GXC interface is also needed
between the Appeal and Collection Policy Functions (PCRF, Resource Policy and
Charging Function) and the S-GW. The appropriate places are clearly marked and
additional functions are described in detail in 3GPP TS 23.402.The following sections
describe the functions together for some cases involving E-UTRAN.

4.7.4

Gateway service (S-GW, Serving Gateway)

The S-GW is part of network infrastructure facilities located in the operator. When
S5/S8 interface is based on the GTP, S-GW GTP tunnels will in all User interfaces
Plane. The mapping between IP services and the GTP tunnels on P-GW, and S-GW
does not need to be connected to the PCRF. All control is related to the tunnel is of
GTP, and comes from any MME and P-GW. On the other hand, when using the
PMIP S5/S8 interface, the S-GW perform the mapping between IP services and the
GTP tunnels in the S1-U interface, and connect to the PCRF to receive mapping
information.
The S-GW has a minor role in the control functions. Only responsible for their own
resources, and maps based on requests from MME, P-GW and the PCRF, which in
turn act on the need to create, modify or delete resources for the EU.
During the mobility of the EU among eNodeB, the S-GW acts as a local mobility
anchor. The MME tells the S-GW to change the tunnel of a eNodeB to another.
During the handover thr MME may request the S-GW tunnels to provide resources to
relay information eNodeB source to eNodeB target. Mobility scenarios also include
changes to a S-GW to another, and the MME handles this change as a result, by
eliminating the tunnels of the old S-GW and put in a new S-GW.
For all data flows belonging to the EU in connection mode, the S-GW forwards the
data between eNodeB and P-GW. However, when the UE is in idle mode, eNodeB
resources are freed, and the data path ends in the S-GW. If the S-GW receives data
packets from the P-GW in any tunnel, you should ask the MME start EU location,
forcing it to connect to the network and when the tunnels are reconnected, the
packets are sent to the EU. The S-GW data tracks in tunnels, and may also collect

60

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

data necessary for accounting and charging the user. The next figure shows how the
S-GW is connected to other logical nodes, and lists the main functions of these
interfaces.

Figure 21 - GW connections with other logical nodes and their primary functions

All these interfaces must be configured in a point-to-multipoint, because the S-GW


can only serve a specific geographical area, with a limited set of eNodeBs, and there
is also a limited set of MMES that controls that area. The S-GW should be able to
connect to any P-GW in the entire network, since the P-GW is not going to change,
while the S-GW if you can change when you move the EU.
In the above figure also shows the case of indirect data forwarding between
eNodeBs through the S-GW. It is clear, yet there are no specifications for the
interface name associated between the S-GWs, as the format is exactly the same as
in the S1-U interface and S-GWs involved may consider that they are communicating
directly with a eNodeB.

2010 PontoTech

61

LTE Fundamentals

4.7.5

Gateway Packet Data Network (P-GW, Packet


Data Network Gateway)

The P-GW, also often abbreviated as PDN-GW is the router boundary between the
EPS and external data networks. It is the anchor of the highest level of mobility in the
system, given that if a UE moves from an S-GW to another, the P-GW will receive a
prompt to change to the new S-GW. In addition, usually acting as the EU IP
connection.
The P-GW also performs traffic gate functions and filtering as required by the service.
Like the S-GW, the P-GW is maintained in a centralized location in the operator's
premises.
Normally, the P-GW IP address is assigned by the EU and the EU is used to
communicate with other hosts on external networks like the Internet. It is also
possible that the external PDN the UE is connected to assign the address to use the
EU and P-GW tunnels direct all traffic to that network. The P-GW IP performs this
assignment by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or query to an
external DHCP server, and provides direction to the EU. The P-GW can be
configured for IPv4, IPv6 or both protocols as needed.
The P-GW performs the synchronization and filtering functions as required by the
policies established by the EU and the service. The P-GW also has features for
monitoring the data flow for statistical purposes, or for lawful interception.
The following figure shows the logical connections to nodes surrounding the P-GW,
and lists the main functions of these interfaces. Each P-GW can be connected to one
or more PCRF, S-GW and external networks.

62

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 22 - P-GW connections to neighboring nodes, with per-interface features

2010 PontoTech

63

LTE Fundamentals

4.7.6

Feature Collection Policy and Resources


(PCRF, Policies and Charging Resource
Function)

Is the network element that is responsible for the Policy and Charging Control (PCC).
Make decisions about how to manage services in terms of quality of service.
The PCRF is a server that is normally found with other switching elements. The
information provided by the PCRF to the P-GW is known as the PCC rules. The
PCRF sends these PCC rules every time a new subscriber is configured. The PCRF
PCC may establish rules based on a request from the P-GW and the S-GW in case
PMIP and also based on the request of the application function (FA). Each PCRF
may be associated with one or more AF, P-GW and S-GW.
The connections between the PCRF and the other nodes shown on the next figure.

Figure 23 - PCRF connections with logical nodes and their primary functions

64

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.7.7

Local subscriber server (HSS, Home


Subscriber Server)

This server represents the subscription database for all users. It also records the
user's location in the visited node level control network, such as the MME.
The HSS stores information about the subscriber profile, contains information about
the services that are applicable to you, including information on PDN connections
allowed, and whether or not to allow roaming to a visited network in particular. To
encourage mobility between non 3GPP access networks, the HSS also stores the
identity of the P-GW in use. The permanent key is used to calculate the
authentication vectors are sent to a host network for user authentication and obtain
the following keys for encryption and integrity protection, is stored in the
Authentication Center (AUC), which is usually part of the HSS.
HSS interacts with the MME, ie must be able to contact all MME throughout the
network, where the EU in question are allowed to move. For each UE, the HSS
records will point to a single MME in use at once and as soon as a new MME informs
serve the EU, the HSS will leave the location of the previous MME.

2010 PontoTech

65

LTE Fundamentals

4.8

Interfaces and protocols in the setting of the


basic system architecture

The following figure shows the protocols in the control plane (CP, Control Plane)
related to a connection from the EU to a PDN. The interfaces are shown in two parts,
one on E-UTRAN protocols (LTE-Uu) and the EU, and other protocols to gateways
(S1-MME).
The protocols are shown in white are developed by the 3GPP, while light gray
background protocols are developed by the IETF, and represent the standard
Internet technologies used for transport in the EPS. 3GPP has defined only ways of
how to use these protocols.

Figure 24 - Interfaces Protocols LTE-Uu, S1-MME at the EPS control.

66

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.1

Interface LTE-Uu

LTE-Uu interface is the radio interface between the terminal and the eNodeB. The
top layer of the CP is the NAS (Non-Access Stratum), which consists of two protocols
(EMM and ESM), which performed in the signaling transport directly between the EU
and the MME.
The contents of the NAS layer protocols is not visible to the eNodeB, and eNodeB
not involved in these operations than the transportation of messages, and provide
some guidance on the transport layer. Here are the protocols for LTE-Uu interface.

4.8.1.1

Protocol EPS Mobility Management (EMM, EPS Mobility


Management)

EMM protocol is responsible for managing mobility within the EU. It includes features
to connect and disconnect the EU's network and performs the update of its location in
the middle. This is called a Tracking Area Update (TAU, Tracking Area Updating),
and occurs in idle mode. Authentication and identity protection EU, ie the allocation
of GUTI (Global Unique Temporary Identity) to the EU, are also part of the EMM layer
and control layer encryption and integrity protection.

4.8.1.2

EPS Protocol Session Management (ESM, EPS Session


Management)

This protocol can be used to handle the management within the limits of coverage
between the UE and MME and is used in conjunction with the management of EUTRAN limits. The ESM has procedures for the application of resources (IP
connectivity to a PDN or resources dedicated to the carrier) by the EU.

4.8.1.3

2010 PontoTech

Protocol Radio Resource Control (RRC, Radio Resource


Control)

67

LTE Fundamentals

This protocol manages the utilization of radio resources. Management signaling and
data connections of the UE and includes functions for the handover.

4.8.1.4

Convergent Protocol Packet Data (PDCP, Packet Data


Convergence Protocol)

The main functions of PDCP are the IP header compression in the user plane, as
well as encryption and integrity protection at the level of control.

4.8.1.5

Protocol Radio Link Control (RLC, Radio Link Control)

The RLC protocol is responsible for the segmentation and concatenation to the
interface transmission PDCP-PDU (PDCP-Payload Data Unit). It also performs error
correction method of automatic repeat request (ARQ, Automatic Repeat Request).

4.8.1.6

The Medium Access Control (MAC Medium Access


Control)

The MAC layer is responsible for scheduling the data according to priorities, and
multiplexing of data to layer 1 transport block. The MAC layer also provides error
correction with Hybrid ARQ.

4.8.1.7

The physical layer (PHY, Physical)

This is the layer 1 of the LTE radio interface Uu.

68

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.2

S1-MME interface

S1-MME interface connects with eNodeBs MME (which are connected to the EU).
The messages are transferred between the MME and eNodeB through Protocol
Application S1 (S1-AP, S1 Application Protocol).NAS messages are transferred
between the MME and the EU.
S1-MME interface has the following features:
Transportation S1AP messages on SCTP.
NAS message transport in S1AP.

4.8.2.1

S1 Application Protocol (S1AP, S1 Application Protocol)

S1AP EU manages connections, control plane and user between E-UTRAN and
EPC, including participation in the handover in the EPC. S1AP service also provides
signaling between E-UTRAN and EPC.
S1AP services are divided into two groups:
Services not related to EU: These refer to all instances of the interface
between ENB and MME S1 using a signaling connection is not associated with
the EU.
Services associated with the EU: S1AP Functions that provide these services
are associated signaling connection that holds for a specific EU.

4.8.2.2

Protocol SCTP / IP signaling transport

SCTP is a transport layer protocol that provides congestion control sequences to


convey messages. SCTP is designed to carry signaling messages over IP.

2010 PontoTech

69

LTE Fundamentals

SCTP offers the following services to its users:


Error free recognition without duplicating the user data transfer.
Data fragmentation to conform to set the size of the MTU (Maximum
Transmission Unit).
Sequential delivery of user messages in multiple channels, in order of arrival
of each user's messages.
Grouping of multiple user messages into a single SCTP packet.

4.8.3

S11 interface

The S11 joins the MME interface with the S-GW. As this interface, some other
interfaces such as S2, S4, S10 and S10, use the same protocols and communication
layers of the system.

Figure 25 - GTP S11 interface protocols - Map control

70

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The protocols described on the next lines are involved, in the S11 interface.

4.8.3.1

Protocol GPRS Tunneling Protocol, Control Plane (GTPC, GPRS Tunneling Protocol Control Plane)

This protocol manages the connections in the EPC. This includes signaling
depending on the quality of service (QoS) and other parameters. GTP-C also
performs mobility management within the EPC. The mobility management system of
GPRS and UMTS is similar, and is based on the protocol GTP (GPRS Tunneling
Protocol) defined by ETSI for mobility management in GPRS networks.
Mobility in these systems is achieved below the network layer, link level. Thus, the
address of any protocol used in layer 3 is fixed throughout the session data
regardless of the location of the mobile terminal and its path across the mobile
network coverage.
The following figure shows how a session is routed within the GPRS architecture.

Figure 26 - GPRS operation.

In the previous figure is shown how mobile terminal connects to SGSN nearest to
send in a GTP tunnel user data to the GGSN in charge of connecting to the data
network designated by the user. In GPRS, it is called Routing Area RA (Routing

2010 PontoTech

71

LTE Fundamentals

Area) to a set of cells, and is identified by a routing area identifier (RAI). A device
called SGSN, will handle the service area contains one or more areas of routing. The
SGSN is responsible for tracking the terminal for its service area, maintaining and
updating location information as the terminal moves. The mobile station sets the
session is always connected to the same GGSN, keeping your e-layer 3 (IP address)
for the entire data session. Once the session, if the terminal moves it can change
from SGSN. Ultimately, the HLR and the GGSN specific services a subscriber must
know which SGSN manages mobility of the user at all times.

4.8.4

S5/S8 Interface

S5/S8 interface is the interface that connects the S-GW and P-GW. S5/S8 called
because it involves two stages. S5 is called when the S-GW and P-GW in the same
PLMN, while if they are in different PLMN is referred to that interface S8.
According to the 3GPP there are two main protocols for S5/S8 interface. According to
specification 3GPP TS 23.401 may be based on GTP-C protocol, while the
specification 3GPP TS 23.402 indicates that may be based on PMIP protocol on the
control plane and its equivalent for the user plane and GTP-U GRE.
Below are explained the protocols for both specifications.

4.8.5

GTP S5/S8 Interface

The GTP control plane is constructed mainly by two protocols:


GPRS Tunneling Protocol, Control Plane (GTP-C, Control Plane GPRS
Tunneling Protocol) handles the connections in the EPC. This includes the
signaling QoS and other parameters. If GTP is used in the S5/S8 interface
also manages the GTP-U tunnels. GTP-C also performs the functions of
mobility management in the EPC.
Protocol Data Unit (UDP / IP) transport. The UDP protocol is used instead of
TCP, since the upper layers and reliable transportation services, with error
recovery and data re-transmission.
With respect to the GTP user plane the next figure shows the layers below the layer
of the end user, i.e. level 2 protocols, used to transport IP packets to the end user.

72

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 27 - User plane protocols

The protocol structure is very similar to the CP. This emphasizes the fact that the
whole system is designed for generic data packet transport, and signaling both CPs
and the data are ultimately UP packet data. Only the volumes are different.
GPRS Tunneling Protocol, User Plane (GTP-U) GTP-U is used when the type
S5/S8 GTP. Form the GTP-U tunnel is used to send IP packets end-user
belonging to a node in EPS. It is used in the S1-U interface.

2010 PontoTech

73

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.6

PMIP S5/S8 Interface

The following protocols are used, when the interface is based on PMIP S5/S8:

Figure 28 - PMIP related protocols

Proxy Mobile IP (PMIP) in the control plane: PMIP is the alternative protocol
for the S5/S8 interface.
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE, Generic Routing Encapsulation) in the
user plane: GRE is used in the S5/S8 interface in conjunction with PMIP. GRE
is an IP in IP tunnel to transport all data belonging to the EU. That is why such
protocols are used to interconnect with legacy systems such as LTE and
WiMAX CDMA.

74

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.7

Interface X2

The following figure illustrates the structure of X2 interface protocols.

Figure 29 - Control plane protocols and user interface for X2

It resembles the S1 Interface, only changes to the CP. The interface uses the
protocol X2AP in mobility between eNodeBs, including tasks for the preparation of
the handover and generally maintaining the relationship between eNodeBs
neighbors. In the user plane, the X2 interface is used for data transmission in a
transient state during delivery, when the radio interface and is disconnected at the
source side, and has not resumed on the destination side. The data transmission is
done for downlink data since uplink data can be controlled effectively by the EU.
The protocol of this interface is described on the next sections.

2010 PontoTech

75

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.7.1

X2AP Protocol

X2AP protocol provides the following functions:


Mobility Management: This feature allows you to ENB shift responsibility for
control of a certain EU to another ENB. For its part, the transmission of user
plane data, the transfer status and context of the EU are part of the
management mobility.
Cargo Management: This function is used by eNBs to indicate the status of
resources, the overhead and burden of each other.
Notice of general error situations: This function allows reporting of error
situations.
Resetting the X2 interface: This function is used to restore the X2 interface.
X2 interface configuration: This feature is used to exchange information
necessary for X2 interface configuration of the ENB.
Updated Settings ENB: This feature allows you to update the application-level
data necessary for two eNBs to interoperate properly with the X2 interface.

4.8.8

SGI interface

Connecting the P-GW with IP networks is carried out Through the Gi interface and
SGI, as shown bellow.
The GGSN / P-GW is the domain accessible package for the interoperation with the
IP network. In this case, the packet network domain will look like any other IP
network or subnet.

76

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 30 - The protocol stacks GGSN and P-GW to the IP network interworking

From the point of view of the external IP network, the GGSN / P-GW is seen as a
normal IP router. L2 and L1 layers are specific to each manufacturer.

2010 PontoTech

77

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.9

S6a/S6d Interface

The interface connects to the MME S6a the Subscriber Server HSS. Allows the
transfer of subscription and authentication data and authorization of user access to
the EPS. The SGSN also uses S6d interface to inform the HSS SGSN service area in
which the subscriber is located. The interface is based S6d two protocols, the
diamater and SCTP, as shown bellow.

Figure 31 - S6d interface protocol

The main objective S6d interface is to enable the HSS to keep track of the location of
the user equipment (UE) and provide the SGSN / S-GW subscriber data and
authentication.
Its main functions are to update location information in the HSS and updates
membership data in the SGSN / S-GW.
The protocols for this interface are described on the next lines.

78

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.9.1

DIAMETER Protocol

The DIAMETER protocol whose development is based on the protocol RADIUS, is a


protocol that aims to provide new access technologies, authentication, authorization
and accounting ( AAA, Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). DIAMETER is
designed to work both as local as in a roaming state. The Diameter protocol is so
named for being twice the RADIUS in English. (Diameter is twice the radius).
The Diameter protocol can offer the following services:
Delivery partners "Attribute Value" (AVP, Attribute Value Pairs).
Negotiation skills.
Reporting errors.
Extensibility, through addition of new commands and AVP.
Basic services required by applications, such as management of user
sessions or log.
The AVP is the most important object of the DIAMETER protocol, are used to send
all data. Some AVP DIAMETER need them to run their own, while others are used to
transmit proprietary data applications using DIAMETER. The AVP leading
application-specific information can be added freely to the DIAMETER message,
provided the necessary AVP are present, and those that are added are not explicitly
prohibited by the rules of protocol. The DIAMETER AVP needs to provide its features
are used to:
Transport authentication information in order that the DIAMETER server to
authenticate users.
Transport service-specific information between clients and servers, allowing
participants to decide whether or not the access request from a user.
Exchange information about resource usage, which may be required to
register, capacity planning, etc.
DIAMETER redirect messages through a server hierarchy.
These AVP, DIAMETER is able to provide the minimum requirements to
implement a solid AAA architecture.
For its part, the SCTP protocol shown above has already been described.

2010 PontoTech

79

LTE Fundamentals

4.8.10

Rx Interface

The Rx reference point is used to exchange information between the applications


and services and the application function (AF). As defined in specifications 3GPP TS
23 203, this information is part of the input used by the PCRF.
The next tables summarize the protocols and interfaces in the basic configuration of
the system architecture.

Summary of LTE interface protocols according to 3GPP specifications


Interface

Protocol

LTE-Uu

CP: RRC / PDCP / RLC / MAC / PHY

3GPP TS 36,413, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio


Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial

Specification

UP: PDCP / RLC / MAC / PHY

Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description


(Release 8). "

CP: X2AP/SCTP/IP

3GPP TS 36,423, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio


Access Network (E-UTRAN); X2 Application Protocol
(X2AP) (Release 8)."

UP: GTP-U/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunnelling Protocol


(Gtoe) for EPS (Release 8). "

S1-MME

S1AP/SCTP/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 36,413, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio


Access (E-UTRA); S1 Application Protocol (S1AP)
(Release 8)."

SI-U

GTP-U/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol


(Gtoe) for EPS (Release 8). "

S10

GTP-C/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol


(Gtoe) for EPS (Release 8). "

S11

GTP-C/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol


(Gtoe) for EPS (Release 8). "

S5/S8 (GTP)

GTP / UDP / IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol


(Gtoe) for EPS (Release 8). "

X2

CP: PMIP / IP

S5/S8 (PMIP)

UP: GRE / IP

SGI

IP (also Diameter & Radius)

S6A

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,275, 'PMIP based Mobility and Tunneling


protocols (Release 8). "

3GPP TS 29,061, 'Inter-working Between the Public Land


Mobile Network (PLMN) Supporting packet based services
and Packet Data Networks (PDN) (Release 8). "

3GPP TS 29,272, 'MME Related Interfaces Based on


Diameter Protocol (Release 8). "

Figure 32 - Summary of LTE interface protocols according to 3GPP specifications (I)

80

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Interface

Protocol

Specification

Gx

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,212, "Policy and charging control over Gx reference point


(Release 8)."

GXC

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,212, "Policy and charging control over Gx reference point


(Release 8)."

Rx

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,214, "Policy and charging control over Rx reference point


(Release 8)."

EU - MME

EMM ESM

3GPP TS 24,301, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet


System (EPS) (Release 8)."

Figure 33 - Summary of LTE interface protocols according to 3GPP specifications (II)

2010 PontoTech

81

LTE Fundamentals

4.9

System Architecture and E-UTRAN access


networks legacy

The following sections are devoted to details of the architectures and protocols of the
3GPP and non 3GPP networks coupled with a network in LTE / EPC.

4.9.1

Interconnection infrastructure architecture


Bequeathed LTE 3GPP

The following figure describes the architecture and network elements defined by
3GPP. The items referred to are the Access Nodes (ANs, Access nodes), E-UTRAN
and GERAN, which are connected to the EPC.

Figure 34 - System architecture based on 3GPP SAE

82

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

This architecture is called 3GPP Interworking System Configuration Architecture


which allows the interconnection and interoperability between access networks
mentioned.
Functionally the E-UTRAN, the UTRAN and GERAN similar provide connectivity
services, especially from the user point of view, where the differences may be the
different data rates and an improvement in performance. From the point of view of
architecture access nodes are quite different. For example, there are big differences
in how the bearers or carriers are handled in the EPS, compared with existing access
networks UTRAN or GERAN. However, when UTRAN or GERAN are connected to
the EPC, could continue to operate as they do today from this perspective, and for
this purpose the S-GW assumes the role of the GGSN (GPRS Support Node).
Again optimized network environment with E-UTRAN, GERAN access nodes and
UTRAN work the same way as they do when they interact. The differences become
more visible in the EPC, because it was the GGSN is the S-GW, which can be
modified with the SGSN for mobility of the EU.
For the coexistence of these networks, the EPC requires new interfaces and
functions that allow the interconnection and interoperation with UTRAN and GERAN.
The corresponding functions will also be required by the GERAN and UTRAN. The
new interfaces are the S3, S4, and S12 as shown above.
The interface from the SGSN to the HSS can also be updated S6d interface (which
uses the Diameter protocol), but the use of existing MAP protocol assigned to the Gr
interface also can be reused.
Consequently, the evolved Node B (eNodeB) has no direct interface with other 3GPP
access nodes and interaction with the EPC is the same. However, the optimized
network environment means that the network will be able to make the control of
mobility events such as handovers and provide the functionality to maintain
communication allowing minimal disruption of services. This means that ENB must
have the ability to coordinate the user equipment (UE, User Equipment), monitoring
the UTRAN and GERAN cells, and improve handover decisions based on
measurement results, and thus interface protocols E-UTRAN radio should be added
to support new functions. Similar aggregates will be required for UTRAN and GERAN
to support handover to E-UTRAN.

2010 PontoTech

83

LTE Fundamentals

Summary of additional protocols and interfaces to interconnect with legacy networks 3GPP EPS

Interface

Protocols

Specification

S3

GTP-C/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol (Gtoe) for EPS


(Release 8). "

S4

GTP / UDP / IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol (Gtoe) for EPS


(Release 8). "

S12

GTP-U/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol (Gtoe) for EPS


(Release 8). "

S16

GTP / UDP / IP

3GPP TS 29,274, 'Evolved GPRS Tunneling Protocol (Gtoe) for EPS


(Release 8). "

S6d

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,272, 'MME Related Interfaces Based on Diameter Protocol


(Release 8). "

Figure 35 - Summary of additional protocols and interfaces to interconnect with legacy networks 3GPP EPS

The explanation of the previous interfaces corresponds to the following:


S3 interface between the MME and SGSN. It uses the same protocols and
interface layers S1 explained above.
S4 interface between the SGW and the SGSN. It uses the same protocols and
interface layers S1 explained above.
S12 interface between the SGW and the RNC. It uses the same protocols and
interface layers S1 explained above.
S16 interface between different SGSN. It uses the same protocols and
interface layers S1 explained above.
S6d interface between the HSS and the SGSN. It uses the same protocols
and interface layers S6A explained above.

84

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.9.2

Interfacing with legacy infrastructure 3GPP CS

To summarize, bellow it is indicated the additional protocols and interfaces that allow
the EPS to interact with legacy systems of circuit switching.

Summary of protocols and additional interfaces for interconnection with 3GPP CS Core Network.

Interface

Protocols

Specification

SGs

SGsAP / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,118 Mobility Management Entity (MME)-Visitor Location Register


(VLR) SGs interface specification (Release 8)

Sv

GTP-C (subset) / UDP / IP

3GPP TS 29,280, '3 GPP Sv EPS interface (MME to MSC) for SRVCC (Release
8). "

Figure 36 - Summary of protocols and additional interfaces for the interconnection of 3GPP CS

2010 PontoTech

85

LTE Fundamentals

4.10

Interconnection Architecture LTE infrastructure


Bequeathed No - 3GPP

The general architecture for interconnecting networks of the non-3GPP is shown


bellow

Figure 37 - System architecture for access networks and non-3GPP 3GPP

This figure shows two types of nodes non 3GPP. They are the trusted nodes
(reliable) and untrusted nodes (not reliable).

86

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.10.1

User Equipment

The interconnection between the nodes of non-3GPP access requires the user
equipment for supporting the radio technologies and specific mobility procedures.
Mobility procedures depend on whether the optimizations are performed or not.

2010 PontoTech

87

LTE Fundamentals

4.10.2

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

The EPC has additional features to support the non-3GPP access nodes. The main
changes are in the P-GW, PCRF, HSS, and in the S-GW. Additionally, new elements
have been introduced as EPDG (Evolved Packet Data Gateway) and the AAA server.
The fllowing figure highlights the AAA server connections and functions for non3GPP access nodes.

Figure 38 - Interfaces and main functions of the 3GPP AAA server

The P-GW is the focal point for mobility for access node (AN Access Node). P-GW
node also connects to the AAA server, which connects to the HSS. This link is made
to tell the HSS database selected the P-GW. In this way this is enabled for a user
with mobility between non 3GPP AN, they authenticate and authorize the mobility
using the S2C interface. Each P-GW can be connected to more than one AAA
server.
The EPDG is a node dedicated to control the user equipment (UE) and the
connection between networks when a node non-3GPP access is connected to the
EPC.
The AAA server checks the authenticity of the user and informs the AN on its output.
Depending on the AN at issue, the AAA server can also send information about the
user profile to the AN that best serves the user.

88

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

4.10.3

Non-3GPP access network reliable

The term reliability for non-3GPP nodes AN (AN Access Node and Access Nodes)
refers to those networks that are reliable and capable of reliability defined by the
3GPP.
The security specification 3GPP Release 8 for non-3GPP access nodes states that
have improved the protocol extensible authentication method for authentication and
key agreement for 3rd Generation (EAP-AKA, Extensible Authentication Protocol
Method for 3rd Generation Authentication and Key Agreement). The procedures
relating to this have been improved on the interface Shasta supports the delivery of
information relating to user profiles from the server Authentication, Authorization and
Accounting (AAA, Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) / HSS) to
access nodes (AN) and its loading data from access nodes to the AAA server, which
are typical functions required in mobile networks

4.10.4

Access networks unreliable non-3GPP

The concepts of the architecture that apply to non-3GPP access nodes are unreliable
inherited from the wireless local area networks (WLAN IW, Wireless Local Area
Network Inter-Working) originally defined in Release 6. One of the main functional
requirements for Release 8 is that ANs should take the specific function of packet
delivery. A data security tunnel is established between the EU and a specific node
called Gate Enhanced Packet data (EPDG, Enhanced Packet Data Gateway) using
the interface SWU, and delivery of packages from these nodes takes place through
that tunnel.

2010 PontoTech

89

LTE Fundamentals

4.10.5

Main elements of the Interconnection System

One of the main elements is the P-GW, which is responsible for carrying out the role
of mobility, and that is where they connect 3GPP access nodes, using this S2a
interfaces (connecting nodes are not reliable 3GPP) and S2B (connecting nodes
untrusted non-3GPP). Both use the IP control layer mobility using the PMIP protocol.
For networks that do not support PMIP, client mode is enabled MIPv4 Foreign Agent
(MIPv4 Foreign Agent Client Mode) as an option in S2a. In addition to the functions
of mobility, the architecture includes interfaces for authentication of user equipment
(UE) to the nodes of non-3GPP access and also allows the functionality and Charges
Policy Convergence (PCC, Policy and Charging Convergence) in them GXA and
interfaces using Gxb. However Gxb interface is not specified in Release 8.
Another scenario, which provides additional flexibility is called scenario S8 and
S2a/S2b chain. In this scenario the non-3GPP access nodes are connected to the SGW located in the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN, Public Land Mobile Network)
accessed through the interfaces S2a or S2b, while the P-GW will be located in home
network or local PLMN network. This allows the visited network, offer users roaming
the use of non-3GPP access nodes which are not necessarily related at all with the
local operator, even in cases where the P-GW is located on the local network PLMN.
This scenario requires that the S-GW improve certain functions that normally belong
to the P-GW for this node serves as a terminal for S2a or S2b interfaces.

4.10.6

Interfaces and protocols for the


interconnection of the 3GPP networks

As discussed above, to connect 3GPP networks to EPC it are required additional


interfaces. The figure bellow shows these interfaces. For each interface, the relevant
specification as well as the supported protocol is depicted.

90

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Summary of protocols and additional interfaces for the interconnection of the EPS to Non-3GPP networks
Interface

Protocols

Specification

S2a

PMIP / IP, orMIPv4/UDP/IP

3GPP TS 29,275, 'PMIP based Mobility and Tunneling protocols (Release


8). "

S2b

PMIP / IP

S2C

DSMIPv6, IKEv2

S6B

Diameter / SCTP / IP

Gxa

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,212, "Policy and charging control over Gx reference point


(Release 8)."

Gxb

Not defined Release 8

N/A

STa

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 24,303, "Mobility management based on Dual-Stack Mobile IPv6


(Release 8)."
3GPP TS 29,273, 'Evolved Packet System (EPS) EPS 3GPP AAA interfaces
(Release 8). "

SWA

Diameter / SCTP / IP

SWD

Diameter / SCTP / IP

SWM

Diameter / SCTP / IP

SWN

PMIP

SWU

IKEv2, MOBIKE

SWx

Diameter / SCTP / IP

3GPP TS 29,273, 'Evolved Packet System (EPS) EPS 3GPP AAA interfaces
(Release 8). "

3GPP TS 29,275, 'PMIP based Mobility and Tunneling protocols (Release


8). "
3GPP TS 24,302, 'Access to the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) via non-3GPP
access networks (Release 8). "
3GPP TS 29,273, 'Evolved Packet System (EPS) EPS 3GPP AAA interfaces
(Release 8). "

3GPP TS 24,304, "Mobility management based on Mobile IPv4; User


Equipment (UE) - foreign agent interface (Release 8)."

EU - foreign agent in trusted non-3GPP


Access

MIPv4

EU - Trusted or Un-trusted non-3GPP


access

EAP-AKA

3GPP TS 24,302, 'Access to the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) via non-3GPP
access networks (Release 8). "

Figure 39 - Summary of protocols and additional interfaces for the interconnection of the EPS to Non-3GPP networks

2010 PontoTech

91

LTE Fundamentals

92

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Aspects of LTE Radio

The following chapter discusses issues related with the radio interface used on the
LTE Technology.

2010 PontoTech

93

LTE Fundamentals

5.1

Definition of the radio interface

To connect subscribers with base stations, radio links are established using a
carefully defined communication protocol, called the radio interface. The radio
interface (IR) should ensure high reliability in the channel to ensure that data is
correctly sent and received between the mobile and base station.

5.1.1

Access Technologies

LTE radio interface uses Multiple Access Orthogonal Frequency Division (OFDMA,
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) in the downlink and the Division
Multiple Access Single Carrier Frequency (SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency
Division Multiple Access) the uplink. These techniques are very suitable for the
operation of flexible bandwidth. This enables operators to deploy LTE in different
frequency bands and bandwidths available.
Addition, access in both directions is done through technology Multiple Input Multiple
Output (MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output).

5.1.1.1

OFDMA

This technique is a multiuser version of the Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency


Division (OFDM). It is used to get a set of users of a telecommunication system to
share the spectrum of a certain channel. Multiple accesses is achieved by dividing
the channel, which allows you to split the transmission of data and sending them in
different subcarriers. The next figure illustrates this principle of multiple carriers.

94

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 40 - Principle of multiple carriers

Regarding this aspect, the OFDM technique seeks to these subcarriers are
orthogonal in frequency. Orthogonal channels, avoiding the use of guard bands while
allowing efficient use of spectrum.
In turn, each of the subcarrier are modulated with a conventional technique is like
QPSK , 16QAM or 64QAM. The modulation / demodulation "classic" OFDM, are
complex execution and adjustment. However the feasibility of a performing these
operations using Digital Signal Processing (DSP), through discrete Fourier
transforms,
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT, Discrete Fourier Transform).
Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT, Inverse Discrete Fourier
Transform).
There is an algorithm called FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) which allows fast and
efficient calculation of the DFT and IDFT, which has promoted the application of
these transformations to modern digital communications. Thus the application of
FFT to the OFDM allows a compact, efficient and economical use of signal
processing.
This is how the implementation of OFDMA is based on the use of Fourier transform
(FF, Fast Fourier Transform) and inverse transform (IFFT, Inverse Fast Fourier
Transform) to move between the domains of time and frequency. The FFT moving a
signal from time domain to frequency domain and IFFT does in the opposite

2010 PontoTech

95

LTE Fundamentals

direction. So in LTE using the FFT and IFFT receiving the transmission as shown
bellow.

Figure 41 - OFDMA transmitter and receiver

96

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

5.1.1.2

SC-FDMA

The transmission through a single carrier (SC, Single Carrier) means that the
information is modulated only in a carrier, adjusting the phase, amplitude or both on
the carrier. SC-FDMA is a multiple access technique that uses a single carrier in the
transmission of information, using both in FDD and TDD. Its modulation is by
quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).
Unlike FDMA uses low power for transmission. The LTE uplink uses this technique
to simplify design and reduce energy consumption. Thus the ratio of peak to average
power (PAPR) in SC-FDMA does not grow with the bandwidth used.
SC-FDMA in the FFT and IFFT are used for both the transmitter and receiver. The
equalization is done at the receiver after passing through the stage of the FFT, so the
effects of fading in frequency and phase distortion fall.
The transmission and reception system with SC-FDMA as well as the transmission
using SC-FDMA from the terminals to the radio base is shown on the next figures.

Figure 42 - Transmitter and receiver SC-FDMA

2010 PontoTech

97

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 43 - Transmission from terminals to the radio base with SC-FDMA

In summary, the following illustrates how working OFDMA and SC-FDMA. As shown
in bellow, in OFDMA pass through "M" symbols in parallel, dividing the bandwidth
between them, each symbol has a duration equal to the symbol time. In SC-FDMA
pass through "M" symbols sequentially each occupying the entire available
bandwidth and with a length equal to a symbol of the time.

98

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 44 - Performance of OFDMA and SC-FDMA

The figure shows a sequence of four QPSK symbols, each of them modulating its
own sub-carrier (shown in figure four) in the appropriate QPSK phase. After a period
of OFDMA symbol, may be a time (so that no duplication) before the next symbol
period.
In SC-FDMA, each symbol is transmitted sequentially. Thus, the 4 symbols are
transmitted in the same period of time (1 / M). Each symbol used all the available
width. After four symbols left to avoid overlapping time above.

2010 PontoTech

99

LTE Fundamentals

5.1.2

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)

The use of multiple antenna systems in uplink and downlink, known as MIMO is
another important feature of LTE.
In recent years MIMO technology has been widely used in wireless communications
and significantly increases the rate of transfer of information through different
channels in the transmission of data or spatial multiplexing by multiple antennas
physically separated.
According to the architecture have the following variants:
MIMO: Multiple input multiple output, this is the case in which both transmitter
and receiver have multiple antennas.
MISO: Multiple Input Single output, in the case of several broadcasting
antennas but only one receiver.
SIMO: Single input multiple output, in the case of only one transmitting
antenna and multiple antennas at the receiver.

100

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 45 - Access modes and Radio channels

MIMO systems offer significantly higher data rates and are therefore an essential
component of LTE.
The principle of spatial multiplexing MIMO is sent signals from multiple antennas and
receiving those signals through multiple antennas. The arrangement of these
antennas are increased by a factor of 2 (eg arrays of 2x2 and 4 x 4).
These transmit signals from different antennas are evaluated by the receiver as the
signal to noise ratio (SNR, Signal Noise Ratio) and this way take advantage of
physical phenomena such as multipath propagation to increase the transmission rate
and reduce the error rate, increasing the spectral efficiency of wireless
communication system.

2010 PontoTech

101

LTE Fundamentals

5.1.3

Element and resource block

A resource element is the smallest unit in the physical layer and occupies a symbol
OFDM or SC-FDMA in the time domain and a subcarrier in the frequency domain. A
resource block (RB) is the smallest unit that can be scheduled for transmission. RB
physically occupies a 0.5 ms (1 slot) in the time domain and 180 kHz in frequency
domain. This is shown bellow.

Figure 46 - The resource network for uplink (a) and downlink (b)

5.1.4

Downlink transmission

As mentioned above, the LTE downlink transmission is based on (OFDM). The


following figure shows the time-frequency grid for the link descent in LTE, where
each element of the resources corresponds to a subcarrier OFDM over an interval of
OFDM symbol. A resource block corresponds to 12 OFDM subcarriers of 15 KHz
each one, during a slot time (timeslot) of 0.5 ms.

102

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 47 - DL resource allocation

The symbol time is chosen to 66.7s LTE. This choice is based on radio channel
average delay spread (a measure of the dispersion of time on the radio channel) and
the coherence time (a measure of how times change radio channel).The symbol time
should be much longer than the delay spread in order to maintain the inter-symbol
interference (ISI Inter Symbol Interference) low. In addition, the cyclic prefix must be
greater than the expected delay spread in order to completely eliminate the ISI.
However, if the symbol time is too long (ie longer than the coherence time), the radio
channel will change considerably in a symbol. This would lead to interference
between Carriers (ICI, Inter Carrier Interference).

2010 PontoTech

103

LTE Fundamentals

5.1.5

LTE OFDM cyclic prefix, CP

There are two truly remarkable aspects of OFDM. First, each OFDM symbol is
preceded by a cyclic prefix (CP), which is used to effectively eliminate ISI. Second,
the sub-carriers are very tightly spaced to make efficient use of available bandwidth,
yet there is virtually no interference among adjacent sub-carriers (Inter Carrier
Interference, or ICI). These two unique features are actually closely related. In order
to understand how OFDM deals with multipath distortion, its useful to consider the
signal in both the time and frequency domains.
In areas where inter-symbol interference is expected, it can be avoided by inserting a
guard period into the timing at the beginning of each data symbol. It is then possible
to copy a section from the end of the symbol to the beginning. This is known as the
cyclic prefix, CP. The receiver can then sample the waveform at the optimum time
and avoid any inter-symbol interference caused by reflections that are delayed by
times up to the length of the cyclic prefix, CP.
The length of the cyclic prefix, CP is important. If it is not long enough then it will not
counteract the multipath reflection delay spread. If it is too long, then it will reduce the
data throughput capacity. For LTE, the standard length of the cyclic prefix has been
chosen to be 4.69 s. This enables the system to accommodate path variations of up
to 1.4 km. With the symbol length in LTE set to 66.7 s.
The symbol length is defined by the fact that for OFDM systems the symbol length is
equal to the reciprocal of the carrier spacing so that orthogonality is achieved. With a
carrier spacing of 15 kHz, this gives the symbol length of 66.7 s.
Cyclic Prefix (CP). A cyclic prefix consists of the last few symbols of the output from
IFFT and is placed in front of the IFFT output, which together with the output make up
a whole frame. It is used to preserve the orthogonality property over the duration of
one transmissed signal and also as guard symbols to remove the ISI.
There are two cyclic-prefix lengths defined: Normal cyclic prefix and extended cyclic
prefix corresponding to seven and six SC-FDMA symbol per slot respectively.
Normal cyclic prefix: TCP = 160 Ts (SC-FDMA symbol #0) , TCP = 144 Ts
(SC-FDMA symbol #1 to #6)
Extended cyclic prefix: TCP-e = 512 Ts (SC-FDMA symbol #0 to SC-FDMA
symbol #5)

104

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

5.1.6

Uplink transmission technique

In contrast to the downlink, the uplink resource blocks allocated to a mobile terminal
should always be consecutive in the frequency domain.

Figure 48 - UL resource allocation

2010 PontoTech

105

LTE Fundamentals

5.2

Access modes and frequency bands LTE.

In this section we examine the access modes and frequency bands used by LTE.

5.2.1

Access Modes

LTE has a duplex property, ie there is a transmission and reception at both ends.
Since both share the same communications medium, it is necessary to establish
some mechanism to control access. The main methods are FDD and TDD. LTE
supports both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex).
Bidirectional Transmission Technique for Frequency Division (FDD, Frequency
Division Duplex) is based on the use of two different frequency bands for
transmission, one for sending and another for the reception. This technique is also
used in second generation mobile telephony (GSM) and third generation (WCDMA).
For its part, the Bidirectional Transmission Technology Time Division (TDD, Time
Division Duplex), unlike the FDD technique, using a single frequency band for
sending and receiving information, sharing of transmission periods.
The figure bellow shows both modes of transmission.

106

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 49 - Frequency division duplex vs time

There are advantages and disadvantages to using both methods. TDD has more
overhead and latency due to frequent switching time. TDD mode is also easier to
implement in areas with limited spectrum available.
For its part, FDD has the advantage of not having to resort to temporary guard bands
as in TDD. This means that this technique is best suited to voice traffic, since it
allows for a minimum delay, but nevertheless requires a more expensive
implementation, mainly for the purchase of a license to operate in the spectrum. The
disadvantage is having to resort to good crossover filters (since they are usually gang
related). These filters are called duplexers. Despite this there is a mode called half
duplex FDD (HD-FDD), where the EU does not have to transmit at the same time
receiving information. Therefore, the EU can be manufactured at a lower cost
because the duplex filter is not necessary.

2010 PontoTech

107

LTE Fundamentals

5.2.2

Supported frequency bands.

LTE specifications include the frequency bands identified for UMTS. There are
currently 15 blocks operating in FDD and TDD bands 8. The following figure shows
the current distributions of these frequencies.

LTE operating frequency


E-UTRA operating Band

Uplink data (UL)

Downlink data (DL)

Duplex Mode

1920 - 1980 MHz

2110 - 2170 MHz

FDD

1850 - 1910 MHz

1930 - 1990 MHz

1710 - 1785 MHz

1802 - 1880 MHz

1710 - 1755 MHz

2110 - 2155 MHz

FDD

824 to 840 MHz

869 to 894 MHz

FDD

830 to 840 MHz

875 to 882 MHz

FDD

2500 - 2570 MHz

2620 - 2690 MHz

FDD

FDD
FDD

880 to 915 MHz

925 to 960 MHz

FDD

1749.9 - 1770 MHz

1844.9 - 1879.9 MHz

FDD

10

1710 - 1770 MHz

2110 - 2170 MHz

11

1427.9 - 1452.9 MHz

1472.9 - 1500.9 MHz

FDD

12

688 to 716 MHz

728 to 746 MHz

FDD

13

777 to 787 MHz

746 to 756 MHz

FDD

14

788 to 798 MHz

758 to 768 MHz

FDD

704 to 716 MHz

734 to 746 MHz

FDD

33

1900 - 1920 MHz

1900 - 1920 MHz

TDD

34

2010 - 2025 MHz

2010 - 2025 MHz

TDD

35

1850 - 1910 MHz

1850 - 1910 MHz

TDD

36

1930 - 1990 MHz

1930 - 1990 MHz

37

1910 - 1930 MHz

1910 - 1930 MHz

38

2570 - 2620 MHz

2570 - 2620 MHz

TDD

39

1880 1820 MHz

1880 1820 MHz

TDD

40

2300 - 2400 MHz

2300 - 2400 MHz

TDD

FDD

...
17
...

TDD
TDD

Figure 50 - LTE operating frequency

5.2.3

Bandwidth of transmission

LTE must support international radio regulations, so these specifications include


frequencies ranging from 1.4 to 20 MHz with 15 kHz subcarrier. The following figure
shows the number of resource blocks allocated to the different bandwidths of the
channel.

108

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 51 - Bandwidth of Channel

The spectrum flexibility incorporates the ability to use both FDD and TDD effectively.
Furthermore, support for the operation in six different bandwidths, 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15
and 20 MHz, plays an important role flexibility on the part of the spectrum in the
normalization of the radio interface.

2010 PontoTech

109

LTE Fundamentals

5.3

Radio layers and protocols used in LTE

Similar to WCDMA / HSPA, as well as most other modern communication systems,


the transformation is indicated for LTE is structured in different protocol layers.
Although several of these layers there are some differences or new protocols
involved, be recalled and noted that the architecture of the LTE radio access node is
a unique, eNodeB.
This section contains an overview of protocol layers and their interaction.
An overview of the LTE protocol architecture for the downlink is shown bellow. LTE
protocol structure connected with the transmission in the uplink is similar to the
structure of Downlink.

Figure 52 - LTE transmission (downlink) structure

110

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The protocols involved are described below:


Packet Data Protocol Convergence (PDCP) performs IP header compression
to reduce the number of bits transmitted through the radio interface. The
header compression mechanism is based on Robust Header Compression
(ROHC), a header compression algorithm standard that is also used in
WCDMA, and several other mobile communication standards. PDCP is also
responsible for encryption and integrity protection of data transmitted. On the
receiving side, PDCP protocol performs the corresponding decryption and
decompression operations. There is a PDCP entity for SAE bearer configured
for a mobile terminal.
Radio Link Control (RLC) is responsible for the segmentation / concatenation,
manipulation of the broadcast, and streaming delivery to higher layers. Unlike
WCDMA, RLC protocol is located in the eNodeB since there is only one type
of node in the LTE network architecture. Segmentation of RLC offers services
to the PDCP in the form of radio bearers.
Media Access Control (MAC, Media Access Control): is responsible for hybrid
ARQ transmissions and uplink and downlink. Planning functionality found in
the eNodeB, which has a MAC entity per cell, for both uplink and downlink.
Hybrid ARQ protocol is present in both transmission and reception end of the
MAC protocol. The MAC serves as the RLC logical channels.
The physical layer (PHY) is responsible for encoding / decoding, modulation /
demodulation, multi-antenna allocation, and other typical physical layer
functions. It also offers services to the MAC layer in the form of transport
channels.

2010 PontoTech

111

LTE Fundamentals

5.3.1

Radio Link Control (RLC)

Similar to WCDMA / HSPA, LTE RLC is responsible for the segmentation /


concatenation of IP packets, also known as RLC SDUs, the PDCP in appropriate
sizes RLC PDU .Also handles the retransmission of erroneously received PDUs, and
the elimination of duplicate PDUs received. Finally, the RLC is secured in sequence
SDU delivery to higher layers. Depending on the type of service, the RLC can be
configured in different ways to carry out some or all of these functions.
Segmentation and concatenation, one of the main functions of RLC. It are shown
bellow .Depending on the decision of the planner, a certain amount of data is
selected for transmission buffer of the RLC SDU and the SDU are segmented /
concatenated to create the RLC PDU.

Figure 53 - RLC segmentation and concatenation

The RLC retransmission mechanism is also responsible for preventing data delivery
errors to the upper layers. To accomplish this, a retransmission protocol operates
between RLC entities in the receiver and transmitter. By monitoring the sequence
numbers of incoming PDU, the RLC receiver can identify any missing PDU. Status
reports are fedback to the transmitting entity requesting the retransmission of missing
PDUs. Based on the status report received, the RLC entity at the transmitter can take
appropriate action and forward the PDU is missing if necessary.

112

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

5.3.2

Media Access Control (MAC)

The MAC layer handles the multiplexing of logical channels, hybrid ARQ
retransmissions, and the planning of the uplink and downlink. LTE only defines a cell
because there is no uplink diversity.

2010 PontoTech

113

LTE Fundamentals

5.3.3

Logical channels and transport channels.

MAC serves as the RLC logical channel. A logical channel is defined by the type of
information that has and is generally classified as a control channel used for
transmission control and configuration information necessary for the operation of an
LTE system, or a traffic channel, used for user data. The whole logical channel types
specified for LTE include:

MAC layer transport channels


Downlink
Transport Channel Type

Description

Downlink shared channel


DL-SCH

(Downlink shared channel)

Broadcast Channel
BCH
(Broadcast Channel)

Paging Channel
PCH
(Paging Channel)
Channel multicast addresses
MCH
(Multicast Channel)

Functions

Support for HARQ, the modulation of dynamic


linking, dynamic resource allocation and semi-static,
discontinuous reception EU and MBMS
transmission. Capable of being transmitted
throughout the coverage area of the cell to allow
beamforming.

Transport fixed format


Must be conveyed throughout the coverage area of
cell

EU support for discontinuous reception. Must be


transmitted throughout the cell coverage area,
assigned to physical resources.

Support MBSFN, resource allocation, semi-static


should be disseminated throughout the area of cell
coverage

Uplink
Transport Channel Type

Description

Functions

Shared data channel ascendants

Support for dynamic link adaptation, HARQ,


dynamic, and semi-static resource allocation
possibility to use beamforming

UL-SCH
(Uplink Shared Channel)
Random Access Channel
RACH

Information control limit, the collision risk


(Random Access Channel)

Figure 54 - MAC layer transport channels

Part of the functionality of the MAC is the multiplexing of different logical channels
and the mapping of logical channels appropriate transport channels. The
assignments of support among the logical channels and transport channels will be
shown for downlink and uplink on the following figures. The figures clearly show how
DL-SCH and UL-SCH are the downlink and the main transport channels for uplink,
respectively.

114

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 55 - Mapping the downstream channels

Figure 56 - Mapping the upstream channels

2010 PontoTech

115

LTE Fundamentals

5.3.4

Physical Layer

The physical layer is responsible for the coding, physical layer HARQ processing,
modulation, multi-antenna processing, and mapping the signal to a physical resource.
It also handles the mapping of transport channels to physical channels. A simplified
view of the transformation of the DL-SCH is shown bellow. As mentioned before, the
physical layer offers services to the MAC layer in the form of transport channels. In
the downlink, the DL-SCH is the main channel for data transmission, but the
treatment of PCH and MCH is similar.

Figure 57 - Simplified view of the DL-SCH

The verification rate is used not only to match the number of bits of code to the
amount of resources allocated for the DL-SCH transmission, but also to generate
different versions of controlled redundancy HARQ protocol.
After comparing cases, coded bits are modulated by QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM,
followed by the mapping of the antenna. The latter can be configured to provide
different patterns of multi-antenna transmission, including transmit diversity,
beamforming and spatial multiplexing. Finally, the output of the process of the
antenna is attached to the physical resources used to DL-SCH.
For its part, the physical layer processing of the UL-SCH is closely monitoring the
processing of DL-SCH. However, the MAC scheduler in the eNodeB is responsible
for selecting the transport format of the mobile terminal and the resources to be used

116

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

for uplink transmission. In addition, the UL is not compatible with spatial multiplexing,
and therefore no allocation of the antenna in the uplink.
Both the uplink and downlink reference signals are (RS), known as pilot signals in
other standards, which are used by the receiver to estimate the amplitude and the
phase of the received signal. Without the use of the RS, the changes in phase and
amplitude of the received signal demodulations produce unreliable, especially in high
modulations such as 16QAM or 64QAM.

LTE physical signs


Downlink physical signs

Purpose

Primary synchronization signal

Used for cell search and identification the cell id


(One of three orthogonal sequences)

Secondary synchronization signal

Used for cell search and identification by the EU. Take the rest of the cell identification
(One of the 168 binary sequences)

Reference signal

It is used to estimate the downstream channel. The exact sequence derived from the cell id
(One of 3 x 168 = 504 pseudo random sequences)

Uplink physical signs

Purpose

Reference signals (demodulation and


sounding)

It is used for synchronization of the EU and the estimated uplink channel

Figure 58 - LTE physical signs

2010 PontoTech

117

LTE Fundamentals

A physical channel corresponds to the time-frequency resources used for the


transmission of a particular transport channel and each transport channel is assigned
to a corresponding physical channel.

Figure 59 - Channel Mapping

Having the description of the different channels may illustrate the mapping of each
channel resource blocks as follows:

118

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 60 - Example mapping of signals in different channels and resource blocks for downlink

In addition to the physical channels with a corresponding transport channel, there are
also physical channels without a corresponding transport channel. These channels
L1/L2 known as channels, are used for downstream control information (DCI), which
provides the terminal with the information necessary for the proper reception and
decoding of downlink data and control information for uplink (UCI) is used to provide
the planner and the hybrid ARQ protocol with the necessary information on the
situation in the terminal.

2010 PontoTech

119

LTE Fundamentals

The physical type channels that are defined in LTE are:

Physical channels
DL Channels

Full Name

Purpose

Physical Broadcast Channel


PBoC

Take the information specific to the cell


(Physical Broadcast Channel)
Physical Multicast Channel

PMCH

Take the transport channel MCH


(Physical Multibroadcast Channel)
Physical Control Channel Data Descending

PDCCH

Planning ACK / NACK


(Physical Downlink Control Channel)
Shared physical data channel downstream

PDSCH

Billing Information
(Physical Downlink Shared Channel)
Physical Control Channel Format Indicator

PCFICH
(Physical Control Channel Format
Indicator)

Defines the number of OFDMA symbols


PDCCH by subplot (1, 2, 3 or 4)

Physical channel Hybrid-ARQ indicator


PHICH

HARG carries ACK / NACK


(Ph ysical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel)

UL Channels

Full Name

Purpose

Physical Random Access Channel


Prach

Call Initialization
(Physical Random Access Channel)
Physical Control Channel Data Ascending

PUCCH

Planning ACK / NACK


(Physical Uplink Control Channel)
Physicists Canal Ascending Copart Data

Pusch

Billing Information
(Physical Uplink Shared Channel)

Figure 61 - Physical channels

Keep in mind that some of the physical channels, in particular, control channels used
for downlink (PCFICH, PDCCH, PHICH) and control information uplink (PUCCH) do
not have a corresponding transport channel.
This can be found on the following specifications:
3GPP Technical Specification, TS 36,211, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access (E-UTRA), Physical channels and modulation", 3GPP,
September 2008 v 8.4.0.
3GPP Technical Specification, TS 36,212, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access (E-UTRA), Multiplexing and channel coding ', 3GPP, v 8.4.0,
September 2008.
3GPP Technical Specification, TS 36,213, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical layer procedures', 3GPP, v 8.4.0,
September 2008.
3GPP Technical Specification, TS 36,214, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical Layer Measurements', 3GPP, v 8.4.0,
September 2008.

120

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

5.4

Frame structure

The physical layer supports both multiple access systems described above:
OFDMA in the downlink and SC-FDMA in the uplink. It is also supported for even and
odd spectra using frequency division duplex (FDD) and time division duplex (TDD),
respectively.
Although the downlink and uplink use different access schemes, they share a
common frame structure. The frame structure defines the frame, slot, and symbol in
the time domain. Two radio frame structures are defined for LTE and shown bellow.

Figure 62 - LTE Frame Structure Type 1.

The frame structure type 1 is defined for the FDD mode. Each radio frame is 10 ms
long and consists of 10 sub-plots. Each sub-frame contains two slots. In the FDD, the
uplink and downlink using the same structure despite the use of different spectrum.

2010 PontoTech

121

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 63 - LTE Frame Structure Type 2, 5ms of periodicity in the switch

The frame structure type 2 is defined for the TDD mode. An example is shown in
above.This example is for a period of 5 ms at the point of switching and is composed
of two half-frames of 5 ms for a total duration of 10 ms. The subplots consist of a link
up or down, or the transmission of a special subframe containing downlink and uplink
pilot time slot (DwPTS and UpPTS) separated by a guard period of transmission (GP,
Guard Period).The distribution of uplink subframes, descending, and special subplots
is determined by one of the seven configurations.

122

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

5.5

Modulation

Permitted signs and channel modulation schemes for downlink and uplink are shown
bellow.

Modulation schemes for the downlink and uplink LTE


Downlink

Downlink channels

Modulation scheme

PBoC

QPSK

PDCCH

QPSK

PDSCH

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

PMCH

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

PCFICH

QPSK

PHICH

BPSK modulated in the I and Q with diffusion factor 2 or 4 Walsh codes

Physical Signs

Modulation scheme

Reference signal

Pseudo random sequence complex I + jQ (sequence length Gold-31) derived from Cell ID

Primary Synchronization

One of the three sequences Zadoff-Chu

Secondary Synchronization

Two sequences of 31 bit BPSK M


Uplink

Physical Channels

Modulation scheme

PUCCH

BPSK, QPSK

Pusch

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Prach

Uth Zadoff-Chu root

Physical Signs

Modulation scheme

Demodulation RS

Zadoff-Chu

RS probe

Chu Zadoff-based

Figure 64 - Modulation schemes for the downlink and uplink in LTE

2010 PontoTech

123

LTE Fundamentals

5.6

Data Flow

To summarize the flow of downlink data across all layers of protocols, an illustration
of an example for a case with three IP packets, two in a radio carrier and one on
another radio carrier, is given on the figure bellow The data flow in case of uplink
transmission is similar. The PDCP performs optionally the IP header compression l,
followed by encryption. A PDCP header is added to decode the mobile terminal. The
output of the PDCP fed to the RLC.
The RLC protocol performs concatenation and / or segmentation of PDCP SDU and
RLC adds a header. The header used in delivery sequence (logical channel) in the
mobile terminal and the identification of RLC PDU for retransmission. The RLC PDU
is sent to the MAC layer, which has a number of RLC PDU, the SDU meets on a
Mac, and inserts the MAC header to form a transport block. The transport block size
depends on the instantaneous velocity data using the link adaptation mechanism.
Therefore, the link adaptation affects both the MAC and the RLC processing. Finally,
the physical layer attaches a CRC in the transport block for error detection purposes,
performs coding and modulation, and transmits the resulting signal through the air.

Figure 65 - Example of data flow in a transmission

124

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

5.7

EU states and zone concepts

LTE is developed to have a flatter architecture (fewer nodes) and minus signs (fewer
messages) to UTRAN. In addition, the number of EU states may have (for RRC
states) fell from 5 in UTRAN (DETACHED, IDLE, URA_PCH, CELL_FACH,
CELL_DCH) and only 3 in LTE (DETACHED, IDLE and CONNECTED) (Off, Off, On).

Figure 66 - EU states in LTE

Moreover, the concept that simplifies zone compared to UTRAN. LTE in a single area
of mobility is defined idle mode, Area Monitoring (Tracking Area, TA). In UTRAN, the
routing area RA (Routing Area) and area of signs up UTRAN (URA UTRAN Routing
Area) is defined for the PS traffic and location areas (LA, Localization Areas) for CS
traffic.
In ECM-IDLE (EPS idle connection management) of the EU's position is known only
to the network at the level of support, while in ECM-CONNECTED EU location is
known at the cell level by the ENB.
When a UE is connected to the network is assigned an IP address of a P-GW. The IP
address is maintained regardless of whether the EU goes into sleep mode or not,
provided it is connected to the network, but is released when EU emerges from the
network.

2010 PontoTech

125

LTE Fundamentals

Bellow the categories are depicted.

Figure 67 - EU states mobility

5.8

Rates of end user data, EU capabilities

It is estimated that the data rate for LTE ideally have ranges of 100 to 326 Mbps in
the downlink and 50 to 86 Mbps in the uplink depending on configurations of
antennas and modulation. The following table shows the results of some tests with
various arrays of antennas and different terminals divided into categories depending
on the capacity of bandwidth to download or upload according to 3GPP TS 36,306

126

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Categories, different uplink and downlink antenna arrays

EU Status

Downlink peak data rate


(Mbps)

Downlink antenna
configuration (ENB
transmitters x receivers
EU)

Peak uplink
data rate
(Mbps)

Support 64QAM
uplink

Category 1

10.29

1x2

6.16

Not Supported

Category 2

51.02

2x2

25.45

Not Supported

Category 3

102.04

2x2

51.02

Not Supported

Category 4

150.75

2x2

51.02

Not Supported

Category 5

302.75

4x2

75.37

Yes

Figure 68 - Categories, downlink and uplink with different antenna arrays

For any transmitter output power is a key metric. However, measuring equipment
should ensure that all EU-development can be measured in the same way. As
defined by the 3GPP LTE, the compliance test involving power transmission and
power output. The metrics evaluated under the category of transmission power
include maximum output power (MOP, Maximum Output Power), peak power
reduction (MPR Maximum Power Reduction), and the EU further reduction of peak
power (A-MPR Additional maximum power reduction).The output tests are applied to
control power, minimum power output, and transmit power.
For LTE uplink, the power output is not a simple measure with a single maximum
value for each category of EU. In actual use, a UE cannot transmit the excess energy
it has the potential to interfere with other UEs and adjacent systems. MOP defines
the maximum transmit power in the channel bandwidth of all channels of the
transmission bandwidth (NRB)
As an example, take the Category 3, the first category has been real progress in the
measurement of output power.
It has been standardized (3GPP TS 36,101 V8.3.0) power and tolerance.These
powers are transmitted to UEs with a maximum of 4 bands of operation. For UEs that
support 5 or more bands are expected to descend power each additional band.

2010 PontoTech

127

LTE Fundamentals

LTE Band

Cat 1

Tolerance

Cat 2

Tolerance

(DMB)

(DB)

(DMB)

(DB)

Cat 3
(DMB)

23.

1 to 17

Tolerance

Cat 4

Tolerance

(DB)

(DMB)

(DB)

(200 mW)

...

33 to 40

23.

Figure 69 - EU transmit power.

Note: The table is incomplete in the specification TS 36.101.


The modulation is also related to the bandwidth of transmission.

Bandwidth of channels / Settings-bandwidth transmission (R8)


MPR
(dB)

Modulation
1.4 MHz

3.0 MHz

5 MHz

10 MHz

15 MHz

20 MHz

QPSK

>5

>4

>8

>12

>16

>18

16 QAM

12

16

18

16 QAM

>5

>4

>8

>12

>16

>18

Figure 70 - Reduction of peak power, bandwidth and modulation

128

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Considerations for LTE Radio Spectrum

2010 PontoTech

129

LTE Fundamentals

6.1

Overview of Radio Spectrum

Spectrum is known as a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupied by radio


waves, in other words, used mainly for telecommunications. Spectrum is a valuable
resource and time limited, it is necessary to make a rational and efficient use of it.
At present there is a growing demand for spectrum for new wireless services
consolidation, as evidenced by, among others, mobile communications systems,
networks of terrestrial digital TV broadcasting or the various systems of wireless
broadband access.
This growing demand is necessary to add that not all parts of it with the same
characteristics, resulting in different coverage capabilities or different properties from
noise and interference, love of technology or cost implications. Also different types of
information (voice, audio, data and video) require margins of spectrum (frequency
bands) specific. All these features lead to so far have been found in some specific
areas of the spectrum are particularly suited to provide some specific services,
including, at times, inevitable conflicts between different services competing for the
same frequency band.

130

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

6.2

Actors involved in spectrum management

Considering the trend of offering broadband services using wireless systems, and its
time considering that end-users, in their role as purchasers of services and recipients
of public telecommunications services, they need among other things, to have
sufficient spectrum to enjoy new applications and services that require this
broadband, competition is predicted by the acquisition of spectrum by different
stakeholders. These actors include:
Equipment manufacturers and telecommunications Emperor: The operators
offer services based on a technology and using standard equipment features.
This is how the radio equipment are negotiated between manufacturers of
such equipment and operators of telecommunications services. Because of
this telecom operators must comply with the frequency recommended by the
operators who are in the vanguard, who ultimately encourage the frequencies
at which it must operate a given technology, taking into consideration the
characteristics and availability of spectrum they possess. Failure to do so,
each operator would have to manufacture equipment (eg mobile devices) on a
small scale, making the unit cost will be higher.
Regulators: The radio spectrum is a public good. In each country there is a
controller that manages the use of frequency bands in it. The regulatory body
acting under its "National Plan of Frequency Allocations" and the rules and
recommendations, international, has the power of management, administration
and control of radio spectrum, including the powers attributed to certain uses,
specific bands assign frequencies to specific users and monitor their correct
use.

2010 PontoTech

131

LTE Fundamentals

6.3

LTE spectral efficiency

In telecommunications, the spectral efficiency is a measure to know how well used is


a particular frequency band when transmitting data ( bits ).The higher the value,
better exploited is that bandwidths mathematical definition is defined by the following
formula:

Where E is the spectral efficiency, R the transmission rate in bps ( bits / s ) and B the
bandwidth of the channel in Hz, therefore, the spectral efficiency is measured in bps /
Hz (bits / second / Hertz).
One of the priorities that are looking to LTE, is to improve spectral efficiency. Below is
a comparison between the LTE and other technologies.

Spectral efficiency of mobile technology

Technology

Spectral Efficiency (bps / Hz)

GPRS

0,07

W-CDMA

0,4

HSDPA

2,8

HSPA + 2x2

8,4

LTE

LTE 2x2

8,6

LTE 4x4

16,3

Figure 71 - Comparative spectral efficiency

Visible as the incursion of new technologies much more efficient, as is the case of
LTE, will allow better use of the spectrum.

132

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

6.4

Spectrum bands allocated for LTE

The international body 3GPP has identified some of the bands identified for UMTS
LTE, also support FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division
Duplex).The Agency has identified 15 bands for FDD mode operation and 8 bands
for LTE TDD operation, which gives operators the flexibility to adjust their networks,
spectrum and existing business objectives for mobile broadband services.
The figure 50 above indicated the current distributions of these frequencies. As noted
in the table, the ranges defined for LTE frequency range from 700 MHz to 2.6 GHz
bands also mentioned, there are others that are in the process of study such as the
digital dividend (790 - 862 MHz), 3.5 GHz in the band from 3400 to 3600 and in 3.7
GHz band of 3600 to 3800.

6.4.1

Frequency bands currently used for LTE

Today, some telecom operators are investing in order to acquire sufficient spectrum
to enable them to deploy LTE. Of the available bands for LTE, which are being most
desirable for the implementation of this technology are: The 700 MHz band, the band
of 1.7 and 2.1 GHz and 2.6-GHz band.
Three operators are betting on LTE in these bands are listed below:
NTT DoCoMo (Japan) in the 2.1GHz band.
Verizon Wireless (USA) in the 700MHz band.
TeliaSonera (Sweden and Norway) in the 2.6GHz band.

2010 PontoTech

133

LTE Fundamentals

6.4.2

Aspects to consider when choosing the


frequency of implementation

Moreover, when comparing two of the bands for LTE world (the 700 MHz compared
to 2.6 GHz), in terms of coverage of 700 MHz provides better coverage and requires
using fewer base stations as shown in the following figures:

Figure 72 - Frequency bands and radio coverage ranges required bases

134

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 73 - Comparative frequency coverage as used in LTE

As you can see, higher frequencies have smaller propagation distances, but have a
greater capacity for data transmission. In economic terms, these characteristics
determine the infrastructure costs to allocate. A better spread means less investment
in base stations.

2010 PontoTech

135

LTE Fundamentals

For example, if we compare the use of 700 MHz compared to other higher
frequencies, the network infrastructure, network costs (CAPEX) are approximately
4.5 times less than if we use the 2.5 GHz band and about 1, 3 times if you used the
850 MHz band.

CAPEX relative percentage required for


investment in network infrastructure

1230%

1400%

1200%

1000%

675%
800%

455%
600%

328%
400%

126%

100%
200%

0%

700

850

2100

2500

3500

5800

Frequency (MHz)

Capex

Figure 74 - Comparative CAPEX investment by the spectral band used

That is, the option of deploying LTE in the frequency band of 700 MHz, turns out to
be the optimal choice if you are looking for great coverage with little infrastructure,
contributing to reducing the digital dividend. Furthermore, as noted above, for the
operator this will represent a reduction of costs associated with the implementation of
the network.

136

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Today the 700MHz band is currently used for UHF television services, as happens
today in most European Countries. Regarding this aspect, with the conversion of
analog to digital television (DVBT, which will free up a significant portion of radio
spectrum in the 700MHz band, called digital dividend. The following figure provides
the portion of spectrum allocated for digital dividend, with the range of 698-806 MHz
that is allocated for this purpose.

Figure 75 - Spectrum plan mobile and digital TV

6.4.3

The choice of refarming as an alternative


implementation

Today, some telecom operators are considering future reuse of existing GSM and
UMTS bands for LTE deployment. This process of reusing or rearranging of the radio
spectrum when deploying a new radio technology is known as "Spectrum refarming."
This is because the cost to the operator to make purchases of new spectrum.
Therefore most of the operators should consider the possibility of reorganization of
the spectrum so that it is reused for LTE. However, the operator considers this
possibility should have sufficient amount of spectrum to efficiently support LTE
technology, while using the remaining spectrum to support the traffic of other legacy
technologies. This requires cooperation and coordination not only between the
parties concerned, but also with the relevant regulator.

2010 PontoTech

137

LTE Fundamentals

6.5

Amount of spectrum required for LTE deployment

An important consideration is to know the amount of spectrum needed to provide the


service capacity offered by LTE.
LTE current specifications suggest that rates could provide more than 300 Mbit / s
per cell. However, this applies and requires the optimal configuration of the antennas
and radio ideal conditions, any of which can be assumed at this stage of study. More
realistically, the configurable maximum bandwidth of 20 MHz, the estimated
maximum data rate (peak) of 100 Mbit / s is estimated that for this bandwidth, an
average of 40 to 50 Mbit / s may be achievable. These figures are further reduced if
the available bandwidth is reduced, as shown bellow.

Attainable speeds with LTE

Bandwidth (MHz)
Speeds
1.4.

10

15

20

Pico (Mbps)

4.5.

20

40

60

100

Average (Mbps)

2.2.5.

4.5.

10 -12

20 -25

35 -40

40-50

Peak with 2x2 MIMO (Mbps)

12,04

25,8

43

86

129

172

Peak with 4x4 MIMO (Mbps)

22,82

48,9

81,5

163

244,5

326

Figure 76 - Attainable speeds with LTE

Based on the above, an operator with spectrum in FDD mode shall be at least 2x20
is 40 MHz to deploy LTE in its maximum capacity.

138

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Other considerations on a migration to LTE

2010 PontoTech

139

LTE Fundamentals

The evolution of LTE could be said to be implemented (the first stages with the
analog FDMA network and the second digital TDMA).Subsequently gave rise to three
clearly defined stages. The first of these steps was the implementation of a GSM /
GPRS, the second was the implementation of a UMTS / HSPA, as a third stage aims
to deploy an LTE network in all terms of access and core packages.
The goal of migration is to implement a converged mobile network capable of
supporting GSM, 3G/HSPA + & LTE. That is, taking into account the design and
development of the LTE, the emphasis is to ensure future interoperability with
existing 3GPP technologies, 3G/HSPA + and GSM. This will ensure that HSPA + and
LTE to coexist, and being LTE technology that complements HSPA +, providing
increased capacity in areas of high demand. Initial implementations of LTE will be
most appropriate in specific urban areas of high demand, while that HSPA + will
cover the vast existing HSPA coverage.
The figure bellow shows the migration to LTE which international markets have bet,
as it is considered that LTE is the technology that will prevail in the medium and long
term.

Figure 77 - Migration Trends in mobile technology LTE

How you can see, it is estimated that 88% of the markets tend to use the evolutionary
path marked with number 1, namely GSM - UMTS - LTE.

140

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

There are several factors that a Telecom operator should take into account when
moving towards LTE. Among others, we can identify three main parts, which can
impact heavily on the successful development of this technology in the coming years:
Economic aspect: It is imperative that the operator takes into account the
investments to be made for the deployment of network and parallel to the
market environment, will allow future will recover investments made in the
implementation of this technology.
Regulatory environment: Indicates the legal framework under which govern
the networks and services. In this regard, an operator must have sufficient
spectrum for the deployment of this technology.
Technological requirements: A telecommunications operator shall evaluate the
existing offerings in terms of terminals and network equipment so that you can
implement this technology. At the same time must take into account the
technical requirements for the implementation of an LTE network, assessing
the possibility and need for new applications and services can coexist in a
converged environment, allowing the interconnection of these networks with
existing 2G namely, 3G and Wimax.
To summarize, the figure bellow indicates these and other aspects to be considered
for migration to LTE.

Figure 78 - Planning stages for LTE cell

2010 PontoTech

141

LTE Fundamentals

7.1

Special considerations must take into account an


operator

In addition to the above considerations, bellow it will be listed a series of more


specific issues, recommended for the evolution to LTE.

7.1.1

Considerations for network planning

Planning involves three stages, which are depicted bellow:

Figure 79 - Planning stages

They correspond to the initial planning stage (Initial Planning), detailed planning
(Detailed Planning) and finally the stage of optimization (Optimization Planning).

142

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.1.2

Initiation stage

This first stage is to gather information about the networking features to be


developed, such as aspects of coverage desired capacity, quality of service to be
allocated (QoS), and the portfolio of services to be provided. It also includes the
amount of expenditures to be allocated to cover their CAPEX and OPEX. In turn, the
system must meet the necessary regulatory requirements, among other things.

7.1.3

Stage details

This step involves sizing issues such as estimating traffic by user, location of existing
base stations sites, coverage predictions and estimated capacity, which are required
for detailed planning of the network. This stage can be divided into the following
processes:
Site Selection: In cellular systems, site selection is an important aspect to
consider. Also includes the number of sites required, key performance
indicators (KPIs, Key Performance Indicator) with respect to coverage and
capacity.
Coverage and capacity planning: For LTE, the planning capacity and
coverage is interrelated. The main objective in the planning of network
capacity that supports LTE is the requirements of user traffic. For its part, the
main target for coverage planning is to ensure network availability and their
services in designated service areas.
Configuration Planning: The objective of this process is complete the setup
of equipment needed for the access and transport networks can provide
applications and services that supports LTE and allow interoperability with
legacy networks, namely 2G 3G and WiMAX.

7.1.4

Optimization stage

The optimization is probably the most important step when planning the deployment
of an LTE network. Typically it can be separated into pre-launch optimization and
post-launch optimization. There are a number of areas that can be optimized, among
which include required capacity, coverage requirements, configuration and reuse of
equipment, among others.
2010 PontoTech

143

LTE Fundamentals

7.1.5

Deploying services over LTE

When deploying services over LTE networks, a telecommunications operator would


have the following choices:
1. LTE network dedicate solely to provide data services.
2. Dedicate LTE network to offer data services and offering voice service on 2G
and 3G networks.
3. Using the LTE network to provide voice and data services.
This shows that an operator could start using its LTE network to deliver and support it
and data services continue to offer voice service from their 2G and 3G networks. At a
later stage could offer this new network voice over LTE. Another option is that the
operator choose the first instance to provide both services on their networks LTE, ie
without going through steps 1 and 2 above.
The following sections explains in more detail these three strategies.

7.1.5.1

LTE data services

The advantage of offering these services exclusively, is that the operator will deploy a
more agile LTE access network independent, so do not require complex
modifications and adjustments to its core network to provide voice service. The
above can be seen on the next figure.

144

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 80 - LTE IP network for data services

The previous strategy would allow a convergence of mobility and access to data
services using multiple technologies. This means having a seamless mobility
between LTE and legacy technologies (2G/3G), which is critical to ensure the best
coverage and access to services that the user has at any time and from anywhere.

2010 PontoTech

145

LTE Fundamentals

Initially, the deployment of LTE technology, could be done in areas of high traffic
(known as Hot-Zones) established by the operator or operators interested in
deploying the technology. The above is shown on the next figure.

Figure 81 - Areas LTE

For his part, although users could not achieve the same speed of access outside the
network coverage LTE, a future operator would deliver multiple access devices
(compatible with LTE, GPRS and UMTS) to enable them to parity and transparency
of services used by the user and also allows the user to stay connected.

146

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.1.5.2

Session continuity solutions for data services

There are three mechanisms that can be used in the packet core to reach an
interconnection "soft" between LTE and legacy networks 3GPP 2G and 3G. The
mechanisms are:
Handover method in the packet network
23.401 TS specification defines a general procedure for Inter-RAT Handover
using the S-GW as an anchor point for all 3GPP radio access technologies.
In order to support this new concept, and SGSN must be updated to support
new interfaces S3 and S4.The specification or sheet describes the
nomenclature to distinguish the S4 SGSN Release 8 of the previous version,
which supports the Gn and Gp interfaces. The next figure illustrates this
method.

Figure 82 - Handover method specification in Packet Network TS23.401

The new S4 interface can be used to direct data routing so that packets in
transit, while the handover is executed, it can be sent to the respective access
technology, minimizing packet loss in transit. This feature, along with the IdleMode Signaling Reduction (ISR) are the two main advantages of this method
of Release 8.

2010 PontoTech

147

LTE Fundamentals

Incorporation of MME
23,401 TS specification defines the method Release 8 for interworking access
technologies (I-RAT interworking) requires SGSNs in the network are also
upgraded or replaced. The main premise of this method indicates that the
MME is incorporated into 2G-3G legacy networks as another SGSN and the PGW acts as a GGSN.
The multi-mode terminal that also supports or has the ability to LTE will be
coupled to the network using the P-GW/GGSN, macro anchor point for
mobility, as shown in the figure below:

Figure 83 - P-GW/GGSN macro anchor for mobility

148

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

IDLE mode signaling


Assuming LTE access antennas are installed on the same radio base which
holds 2G and 3G, when a user equipment (UE) performs the handover from
2G-3G to LTE, has to perform a procedure called TAU, which if successful, deregister the user to the 2G-3G network and recorded in the HSS to use LTE.
For his part, when you handover from an LTE network coverage to a network
of 2G-3G coverage, it will perform a procedure called RAU and will be
deregistered LTE network. This procedure results in a kind of effects such as
"ping-pong" with common procedures RAU / TAUS and records related to the
mobility of user equipment in idle-mode. This increases the signaling traffic.
The next figure shows the trajectory of a UE entering a region with LTE
coverage area and because it enters TAU procedure followed by the
procedure RAUs when you leave these areas.

Figure 84 - Handover 2G-3G to LTE and vice versa

This effect occurs when there are multi-mode terminals in the network.
Importantly, the data card (Data cards) are not expected to generate this
effect, but have the capacity for multi-mode, do not tend to have the ability to
handover from the point of view of mobility.
3GPP proposes a technique to simultaneously perform the RA and TA. This
technique, known as the Idle-Mode Signaling Reduction or ISR, proposed not
to increase the signal when the EU is going through a border to change radio

2010 PontoTech

149

LTE Fundamentals

technology coverage. EU User Team ISR mode will be simultaneously


registered in both technologies and re-selected cells in both technologies.
RAU recording is activated or TAU only if there is a change in the EU has
mobilized off the lists TA or RA.
The benefit of ISR leads to increased paging due to EU should be paged in
both technologies. Due to the need for simultaneous paging, the ISR
architecture that supports must be compatible with a user plane common
anchor for the two radio technologies.
The 3GPP Release 8, the common anchor point is located in the S-GW.
Therefore, when a packet arrives at the S-GW and sent to a UE in idle mode
benchmarks S4 and S11 can be used to make the paging request to initiate
the MME and SGSN. It is important to note that the method of I-RAT
interworking cannot be used to support ISR, since in this case the common
anchor point is the P-GW and the page cannot be initialized from it. ISR is
based on the network is capable of supporting I-RAT according to the
specification TS 23.401 of Release 8 so that the S-GW becomes the anchor
point for the 3GPP technologies. As a minimum, the legacy SGSN they should
do the upgrade to support the S3 and S4 interfaces and a new interface S6d
at HSS.
Therefore, the method Release 8 has the advantage of eliminating Idle mode
signaling through dual RAT records, but this requires updating the existing
SGSNs pass S3/S4 interfaces. The method described in the specification is
more practical 23.401 TS cannot require them to SGSNs upgrade.

7.1.6

Voice over LTE

While LTE has the advantage of being a fully network packet switching, has the
disadvantage that services like voice calls and SMS messaging, today's major
revenue generators for mobile operators, no preliminary be available from an LTE
access network, since they are based on circuit switching. To counter this problem,
3GPP has made several solutions to counter this problem, it will be described below.

7.1.7

Circuit switch fallback (CS fallback)

CS-Fallback solution (specified in 3GPP TS 23.272), is based on 2G-3G networks to


provide voice services over LTE and allows subscribers to LTE terminals transition to
a circuit switched network for 2G-3G receiving voice services. Although CS-Fallback

150

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

introduces a time delay in the establishment of the call, that inherently leads to other
concerns of the subscriber such as the need for voice communication and SMS
messaging keep the same coverage, and that there is transparency and parity of
services.
To implement CS-Fallback, operators must offer devices with the ability of CSFallback and perform the "upgrade" their MSCs to support the SGs interface. SGs
interface provides a logical connection between the 2G-3G MSC and LTE MME. It is
based on the Gs interface (TS23.0.60), which is between the 2G-3G MSC circuit
switched domain (CS) and 2G-3G SGSN located in the packet switching network
(PS).
Regarding the operation of this method, as shown bellow, there is an interface that is
the MSC SGs to the MME to achieve paging. S3 interface MME far to the SGSN
provides the continuation of an active data session while the user equipment makes
handover from an LTE network to a 3G network.

Figure 85 - CS Fall back for handover between 3GPP networks

SGs interface can also be used to support the delivery of SMS messaging on LTE.
The registration process of the terminal to the network is initiated when a device able
to support GSM / UMTS / LTE is added to the LTE network and further requests that
it be registered on the GSM / UMTS available. This record is held by the MME, which
acts as an SGSN and MSC suggests that the terminal is connected to the 2G/3G
network. The MME 2G/3G MSC must provide the location where is located the
theory, information extracted from the LTE network to which the terminal is already
attached.

2010 PontoTech

151

LTE Fundamentals

SMS service for the terminal can remain in the LTE network. To receive a message,
the message is forwarded from the MSC to the MME with the interface Gs / SGs and
there with RRC signaling on the LTE radio network to the terminal. The shipment
from an LTE terminal is similar but is not required to return to the legacy networks.
No doubt the use of this mechanism for voice and messaging is not as simple as one
might think at first, but it can function as an intermediate solution for voice while
establishing a concrete mechanism to provide these services over IMS.

7.1.8

Solution VoLGA

As explained above, LTE is a wireless technology based data access in an all-IP.


Given that an organization called Volga Forum has proposed a solution known as
Voice over LTE through Generic Access (Voice Over Generic Access via LTE or
Volga) which aims to provide mobile operators the ability to provide voice and
messaging services through LTE access networks based on 3GPP standard called
Generic Access Network (GAN).Using this standard GSM, UMTS and LTE, VoLGA
has the ability to provide mobile subscribers voice services, SMS and other services
based on circuit switching, when they make the transition years between the 3GPP
access technologies, leveraging existing 2G-3G network.

Figure 86 - Volga solution for supporting voice services in LTE

152

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

VOLGA solution requires a driver access network (Vance, VoLGA Access Network
Controller), which must be added to the core of the current GSM / UMTS. This driver
will support the creation of IP tunnels in order to provide messaging services and
Voice over LTE.
From the point of view of the LTE network, the VANC connects to the P-GW over
IMS interface. For the other teams behave more like an IP node.
Now from the point of view of the circuit switched network VANC connects to GSM
and UMTS MSC as the first VANC sees as a BSC while the latter sees it as a RNC.
In addition to support voice and SMS is not necessary to amend the various nodes
connected to Vance.
When a terminal is initialized and detects the LTE network, the first thing to do is
register with the MME. The MME retrieves subscriber information from HLR / HSS.
After that proceed to establish the connection to the VANC, which requires an IP
address which can be stocked earlier in the terminal or obtained via a DHCP server.
Since the IP terminal establishes an IPSec tunnel toward the VANC and then register
with the MSC using the protocol DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part).

2010 PontoTech

153

LTE Fundamentals

For the process of handover from a GSM network or UMTS to LTE, the process is as
follows:
When the eNodeB detects that the terminal can be served better by cells of a
GSM / UMTS, instructs the device to make measurements of signal strength
for these cells. Based on this information the eNodeB tells MME is required to
perform the handover
The MME informs the VANC that the handover will be performed by a
message indicating the identification of the target cell and the subscriber
identification
The Vance uses this information to create a message of handover that is
standardized. If the destination cell is attached to the same MSC that VANC,
then the process is prepared locally and the handover takes place once the
cell is ready. If you are connected to another MSC initiates a standard
procedure for inter MSC handover.

Figure 87 - Volga process for handover between 3GPP networks

154

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.2

Offer LTE-capable terminals to allow for QoE

Operators looking to deploy LTE will need to offer terminals that support multiple
access technologies with networks that enable mobility and service continuity
between GSM, GPRS, UMTS and LTE. Parallel to this, subscribers to LTE expect a
better service, which includes improved speed and applications over 3G.
Moreover, a comprehensive coverage including 2G-3G interoperability is essential,
hence the need to offer terminals to obtain better performance with respect to what
offer 2G-3G terminals today, for voice services and new multimedia applications.
Linked to this, the user is looking to have quality of experience (QoE, Quality of
Experience).QoE takes into account any factor that contributes to the perception of
service by the user and this includes factors such as speed, bandwidth, coverage
area, mobility, cost, customization, etc.
To provide QoE, according to user expectations, then discusses two critical factors to
consider in the implementation of LTE systems:
LTE terminal must be capable of processing high data rates with low latency.
The LTE system will provide transparency and parity of services to the mobile
terminal. This means that the terminal must allow access technology agnostic,
allowing users to stay connected (always on).
In general, today's 3G networks do not offer to subscribers in the service quality data.
Instead, today's users are subject to the best effort when access to data services.

7.2.1

Election of the terminal (UE)

When choosing the terminals should be taken into account the preferences that the
user has. Other critical factors include multimode terminals, multi-band terminals,
capable IPv4/IPv6 and skills as SRVCC or CS-Fallback. These considerations are
extended as follows:

2010 PontoTech

155

LTE Fundamentals

7.2.2

Multimode terminals

In order to provide the user with a wider coverage, not only needs to build an
architecture that allows the coexistence of 2G, 3G and LTE. Also need to provide this
capability multimode terminals. This will allow the user access to services, regardless
of the technology used.

7.2.3

Multiband terminals

To complement the feature of multimode, several radio frequency bands for LTE
enabled. For this reason, the operator must ensure that the user has access to multiband devices with this capability that allows users to enjoy mobility, equality and
transparency of service.
For example, mobile operators in Europe and Asia use different frequency bands that
are also used in North America.
Depending on the operator and the country, European and Asian operators using the
frequency bands of 900 MHz (GSM) 1800 MHz band (DCS) and 2100 MHz band (WCDMA). In North America, you use the 700 MHz band, 800 MHz (mobile), 1700/2100
MHz (AWS), and 1900 MHz (PCS).
Some other important features that the user equipment must support are:
Handover for voice between LTE and 3G networks, the terminal requires
SRVCC support capacities.
Turn requires support CS-Fallback capabilities.
A terminal that supports VoLGA defines its capacity for voice services, it also
requires a set of requirements for interacting with the IMS platform.
The voice terminals operating in LTE required to have location capabilities.
One of this method is the Assisted Global Positioning System (AGPS).
LTE terminals must also support services such as SMS.

156

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.3

Quality of Service (QoS)

Just as we defined an architecture for Quality of Service (QoS) end-to-end UMTS,


with the appearance of evolved packet system (EPS) is also necessary to define a
set of parameters and mechanisms in order to ensure quality of service in this new
system. Recalling that EPS is the set of SAE with LTE, EPS has significant
improvements in the quality of service in relation to 3GPP systems that precede it.

7.3.1

EPS architecture and quality of service

For EPS architecture is clearly defined with attributes and functions to achieve a
quality point to point service.

Figure 88 - Architecture EPS QoS bearer channels

Service quality point to point means you must have a service carrier and EPS
external carrier, the latter in order to support services and from outside the network
nodes. The EPS bearer service is a service carrier and a carrier radio access.

2010 PontoTech

157

LTE Fundamentals

7.3.2

EPS Carrier

Considering the qualities of an "All IP" and the nature of bursts in data services, from
3GPP Release 8 introduces the concept of EPS carrier, called from now on as
"carrier" for simplicity.
The carrier is a concept from which identifies packet flows receive the same
treatment in terms of quality of service between the terminal equipment (UE) and the
gateway PDN-GW. PDP context is equivalent to the standards used in 2G/GPRS and
3G/UMTS. The carrier is composed of three elements, namely:
S5 Carrier: implemented through a tunnel that transports packets between the
S-GW and the PDN-GW
S1 Carrier: implemented through a tunnel that transports packets between the
S-GW and eNodeB
Radio carrier, implemented by a protocol connection with RLC (Radio Link
Control) between eNodeB and the EU.

Figure 89 - EPS carrier elements and their location in the network

158

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The elementary stream data in EPS is known as SDF (Service Data Flow).This flow
is characterized by five aspects: source IP, destination IP address, source port,
destination port and protocol for identifying the protocol is over IP. This serves to
determine points where the flow begins and ends, and to determine which application
or service is in use.
In the terminal there is a carrier for each class of service quality and IP address,
which means that a terminal can have both multiple IP addresses assigned using
different services and therefore have different carriers associated with multiple
qualities of service. The carrier is the differentiating factor that facilitates traffic
allocation quality of service requirements.
You can define two types of carriers as a key differentiating factor: the carriers with a
guaranteed bit rate (GBR, Guaranteed Bit Rate) and those that do not guarantee
(non GBR, non Guaranteed Bit Rate). Then one can assume that a service using a
carrier GBR no packet loss due to congestion, which is carried out by the different
admission control functions located in different network nodes. With the other type of
carrier cannot be assured the above. A GBR carrier to carry out its function properly
you need to reserve network resources, so that its place is not for long periods, while
a non-GBR bearer does not reserve resources so if your facility allows for longer
periods time.
Similar to the classification of carriers GBR and no mention is made of dedicated
carriers or default. The default carrier is set when the terminal is connected to the
network and is maintained by the terminal while maintaining the same IP address.
Because the carrier is maintained for long periods then classified as non-GBR. To
provide different qualities of service to different packet flows requires the use of
dedicated carrier, which can be GBR or not RBM. The mapping of packet flows is
dedicated to carrying through policies in the network that can be modified by the
network operator.

2010 PontoTech

159

LTE Fundamentals

7.3.3

QoS parameters

EPS carrier is characterized by the following parameters:


Allocation and retention priority (ARP Assignation Retention Priority): refers
to priority mechanisms used for allocation and retention. This parameter is
used for example in cases where there is congestion and must decide which
carriers are preserved and which discarded.
Guaranteed bit rate (GBR, Guaranteed Bit Rate): This parameter applies only
to carriers GBR requiring guaranteed quality of service and voice service.
Maximum bit rate (MBR, Maximum Bit Rate): this parameter is set a limit for
bit rates of services offered.
Class Identifier quality of service (QCI, Quality of Service Class Identifier) is
used within the access network as a reference to a number of parameters that
control the processing of packets through different network nodes. Each QCI
is associated with a number of characteristics

QCI

Resource Type

Priority

PDB (ms) 1

PLR 2

Examples of services

13

100

10 -2

Conversational voice

23

1000

10 -3

Conversational video

50

10

43

300

10.6

Video not conversational

53

100

10.6

IMS Signaling

64

300

10.6

Video streaming, www, email, chat, ftp, p2p, etc.

GBR

Real-time Gaming

-3

100

10

85

300

10.6

Video streaming, www, email, chat, ftp, p2p, etc.

96

300

10.6

Video streaming, www, email, chat, ftp, p2p, etc.

Voice, video, interactive game

-3

No GBR

1 must be subtracted from a delay of 20 ms between the base station and PCEF to
determinate the PDB that applies to the radio interface. This is an average of delay
considering the cases in which the PCEF is close (approximately 10 ms) and which
is far (about 50 ms). It should be noted that the PDB set an upper limit, so you
should expect that delays are significantly lower, especially for GBR traffic.

Applies to the radio interface between the UE and the eNodeB.

associated with operator-controlled services.

can be used for prioritizing specific services according to the specification of the
operator.
4

can be used to carry dedicated user or premium user groups with privileges.

carriers typically used for default unprivileged users.

Figure 90 - Specific features for the QCI

160

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Resource type: determines whether the carrier is GBR or not RBM.


Priority: is used to differentiate the connections SDF. Each QCI is associated
with a priority, with 1 being the highest priority.
Packet delay budget (PDB, Packet Delay Budget): refers to the possible
latency of data packets transported between the terminal and the PDN-GW.
This is the same for the downlink and up to one QCI.
Packet loss rate (PLR Packet Loss Ratio): describes the maximum rate of
packets transmitted to the upper layer of all packets processed by the link
layer. Like the PDB is the same for the uplink and downlink for the same QCI.
In addition to the carrier level parameters, there is a parameter of quality of
service associated with the terminal called maximum aggregate bit rate
(AMBR, Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate) which applies only to non-GBR
bearers. Serves to limit the bit rate of subscribers differently, it is also defined
but not for a carrier to a carrier group of a subscriber

2010 PontoTech

161

LTE Fundamentals

7.3.4

Packet Filters

A packet filter has to be created in the PDN-GW (and signaled the EU) of each SDF
in order to allow proper allocation of the data in the EPS bearer channel and correct
routing. The EPS bearer channel is associated with a TFT (one on one in the UL and
DL) and therefore an EPS bearer channel can carry only one SDF, while all data from
the same EPS bearer experience the same QoS. The SDF can be assigned a same
carrier EPS only if they have the same QCI and ARP.
The packet filters are sequentially applied to the input data (in the EU in UL and DL in
the PDN GW) according to values of packet filters in the Index-Evaluation-Priority. If
the data do not match should be sent to the carrier that has no associated packet
filters. If no such carrier data must be returned.
The packet filter package has a unique identifier (1-8) in the TFT and consists of one
or more of the following attributes in terms of its configuration with respect to the
application that entail:
Source / Destination IP address subnet mask
Number of protocol overhead (eg, TCP / UDP)
Destination port range.
Source port range.
Index IPSec security parameter.
Service type, identifies the quality of service
Flow level, only used for IPv6

7.3.5

Mapping the QoS parameters for UMTS and


EPS

Since its beginning in LTE / SAE will have to live with 2G/GPRS and 3G/UMTS
networks, it is necessary to map the parameters between networks as they are
distinct together. The following figure summarizes the mapping between parameters.

162

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

PDP R97/98

PDP R99

EPS R8

Delay

Traffic Class

Carrier Type

Priority traffic management

Reliability

SDU Error Rate

PLR

Bit error rate residual


Delivery of erroneous SDU

Peak transfer rate

Maximum bit rate for uplink

MBR

Maximum bit rate for downlink

Precedence

ARP

ARP

Average transfer rate

N/A

N/A

N/A

Maximum SDU size

N/A

N/A

Transfer delay

PDB

N/A

GBR

GBR

N/A

N/A

AMBR

Figure 91 - Mapping of QoS parameters for UMTS and EPS

2010 PontoTech

163

LTE Fundamentals

7.4

Implementing a solution SON (Self Optimizing


Network) to support efficiency

This section identifies two important measures that the telecommunications operator
should take into account when deciding to migrate from one network GSM-UMTS to
LTE. The first one is to increase automation in the management of radio access
network and the second concerns as to efficiently activate new subscribers.
The mobile telecommunications industry is developing LTE to support a wide variety
of applications requiring high data rates and signaling requirements resulting in
robust quality of service (QoS).
The implementation of a large number of base stations (eNBs) Femtocells known as
Home-eNBs is within a highly complex since it combines a number of parameters
that must be put in place and to ensure interoperability.
One of the main specifications created by the International TR36.902 3GPP is
indicated regarding the Self-Optimizing Networks (SONs).
The Sons automatically configure and optimize networks in order to minimize
operating costs. SONs displays the interaction between base stations and connecting
them with the Core Network, with the aim of improving the functions of embedded
optimization. The three main features of SON are: self-configuration, self optimization
and self-healing.

7.5

Reuse of access equipment

It is always advisable to install antennas and feeders separately when installing new
technologies. This recommendation maximizes system performance, minimizing the
impact on existing systems, eliminating the interaction during the optimization of the
network, minimizing interference and simplifies the tasks of Operation, Administration
and Maintenance (OA&M).
However, mobile operators 2G and 3G are looking to install multiple antennas at
each base station, because the sites where these antennas are usually installed
rentals and permit application required for the installation of the same and this means
high costs. Therefore, making sharing of antennas located at a base station BTS can
save time and money.
This technique can be divided into two main categories: Multi-Band and Co-Band.
Mobile phone operators 2G-3G most likely be using both techniques to combine

164

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

GSM and UMTS. This could complicate the purposes of implementing the same site
antennas for the new LTE technology.
Multi-band technique: Techniques for Multi-Band combines the signals
received and transmitted from different base stations operating in different
frequency bands.
Technical Co-band: The Co-Band techniques combines the signals received
and transmitted from different base stations operating in the same frequency
bands.
For its part, must take into account the shared antenna systems, share patterns and
coverage antennas, this means that an adjustment in these antennas to optimize the
system could affect the operation of the entire system of sharing the antennas.

2010 PontoTech

165

LTE Fundamentals

7.6

Reuse and improvement of network backbone


and backhaul transport

Here arises an important question, Are you ready to decant cellular operators in their
networks exponential growth in data traffic? The answer is no, because in general
their transport networks (backhaul) are based on technologies and protocols that
were designed for voice traffic. Importantly, the backhaul network is connecting
access nodes to the backbone IP network.

Figure 92 - Backhaul Backbone and IP

The data transmission networks of the operators will have to reach eventually migrate
to new technologies, which allow the growth of data traffic while maintaining the
profitability of operators. This challenge can only be achieved with a transport
architecture that is efficient in data traffic, and that has a wide possibility of scalability.

166

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Do not forget also that the demand for voice services continues to grow, and network
traffic increases not only the data but in the traditional services. Thus, it imposes a
greater need to free up capacity on legacy networks, and to accommodate data traffic
in the infrastructure of next generation based on IP / Ethernet that allows for growth
by increasing costs marginally, to introduce technologies such as HSPA+ and LTE.
Among the major requirements to be met by a backhaul network to support LTE are:
Increased capacity: 100 Mbps exceed its deployment
Low Latency: must meet requirements of 10 ms for point to point
Improved services: should point to point interface (S1) and multipoint interface
(X2) efficiently
Support services and legacy equipment
Moreover in the industry are shuffled some figures regarding the ability of each
technology required for transport:
HSPA supports 50 Mbps per sector
HSPA+ up to 100 Mbps per sector
LTE will support up to 170 Mbps per sector
More details of the Japanese manufacturer Fujitsu suggests that the capacity
required per site is only the spectrum (channel size) available by the operator
multiplied by the spectral efficiency of the air interface. The following figure
summarizes these requirements for various wireless access technologies.

2010 PontoTech

167

LTE Fundamentals

Voice
Data Spectral
Spectral
Efficiency (bit
Efficiency (bit
/ Hz)
/ Hz)

Technology

Vocal
Spectrum
(MHz)

Spectrum
data (MHz)

Sectors

% Utilization

Required
capacity
(Mbps)

Number of
E1s

2G GSM

1.2

0.52

70%

1.3

GSM / EDGE 2.75G

1.2

2-3

0.52

70%

6.1

3G HSDPA

70%

21.0

14

LTE

3.8

70%

39.9

N/A

LTE

10

3.8

70%

79.8

N/A

Figure 93 - Requirements for mobile network capacity

As shown, for a site with 3 sectors and a 5 MHz channel capacity will require about
40 Mbps, while for a 10 MHz channel will be 80 Mbps and thus the requirement will
increase to reach 20 MHz channel that supports LTE.

7.6.1

Evolution LTE backhaul

Today the vast majority of operators have to transport TDM voice and data backhaul.
The option to keep adding E1 to provide more capacity becomes immediately
feasible, since it would require a disproportionate amount of them to support traffic
growth is anticipated in the future. Fortunately, industry and operators have identified
the technologies to start migrating their transport networks in order to accommodate
the growing traffic.
The future of transport networks of cellular operators offer goes through the Ethernetbased services and transport networks based on IP / MPLS and Carrier Ethernet,
which lived for several years with the networks eventually replaced, as TDM, ATM,
SDH / SONET and Frame Relay, which have been used to carry voice traffic and
data over E1 connections, mainly.
In fact, the convergence of transportation costs needed to manage these services do
not increase proportionally to use, has caused the Broadband Forum, which took
over the IP / MPLS Forum-unite with the Metro Ethernet Forum ( MEF) for IP / MPLS

168

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

to offer Carrier Ethernet services. It seems that in future transport networks


accounting is themselves with a portion in the core IP / MPLS and other nearby base
stations, based on Carrier Class Ethernet, which has attributes conducive to cellular
backhaul, as for example:
Standardized services
Scalability
Quality of service
Reliability
Service Management
The dilemma of the operators is, therefore, how to perform this migration while
respecting the existing services that now account for most of the income, while
preparing its transport network to evolve its offering of data according to the expected
growth is projected for the next three to four years.
For operators with large investments in TDM migration route is more feasible
coexistence, at least initially, TDM to Ethernet networks, where networks would
handle all existing TDM voice traffic while the data stream is transported over
Ethernet . And is that even though it might seem that managing two networks
simultaneously affects a high OPEX for the operators, the costs would be
comparatively lower than more input E1 lines for greater data capacity.
And in the future transport networks will necessarily migrate to data transmission
networks where Carrier Ethernet and IP / MPLS current bets seem to offer Ethernetbased services and emulate those based on legacy technologies. Strategically,
cellular backhaul over Ethernet allows not only to offer services HSPA today, but
leaves the transportation network ready for launch of HSPA+ and, above all, LTE
which is an IP network from end to end and whose base stations have only Ethernet
interfaces for transport tasks from the base station to the core of the operator's
network.

2010 PontoTech

169

LTE Fundamentals

7.6.2

Transport backhaul technologies LTE

To meet the transport capacity growing demand, the following technologies are
evaluated, backhaul fiber and microwave backhaul ranges 6-38GHz and 60-80 GHz.

7.6.2.1

Optical fiber

Fiber is technically very good complement to the backhaul. With systems that can
easily scale it beyond 10 Gbps, the fiber will solve any problem that may have
operators in terms of capacity requirements. The fiber can be deployed in redundant
ring topologies, high-capacity but the infrastructure to do so can significantly increase
costs. Finally, the fiber is capable of Synchronous Ethernet allowing the management
of multiple service levels and providing synchronization LTE. Given these
capabilities, if the fiber has already been deployed and is available, is the perfect
option for LTE backhaul.

7.6.2.2

Microwave

Traditionally, microwave (range 6-38GHz) have capacity constraints in a range


between 150 and 300 Mbps, however, with new technological advances in the
microwave field may give more than 1 Gbps and some systems up to 4 Gbps. There
are still many versions of microwave systems available, with packages based on
microwave technology commonly used for backhaul. For its part emerging microwave
products are offered to distribute synchronization capabilities for LTE base stations.
Also, some of them are equipped with ring exchange capacity, ie allowing to set
different ring architectures dynamically, with service capabilities high end
performance.

170

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.6.2.3

Millimeter Wave Technology

Recently, some operators have begun to evaluate millimeter wave technologies for
4G backhaul. These products can generally meet the requirements of 4G capacity
when most systems reach only 1 Gbps capacity. Many of these systems prioritization
so that they can be multiple levels of service. 60-80 GHz systems do not currently
provide Synchronous Ethernet capabilities but it is assumed that they probably will
because the LTE deployments require. In economic terms, the costs of 60-80 GHz
are quite similar to those of 6-38 GHz microwave
On the other hand, the greatest challenge millimeter wave systems is its availability
and the resulting range of capabilities due to rain fade. Because these litters are at
millimeter wave frequencies as high, are very susceptible to rain, resulting in limited
sections of link in order to achieve reasonable capacity. It is also limited to less than
two miles stretches.
Then noticed that there are several viable options to meet the requirements of
backhaul and access networks is predicted, LTE network will use any one
technology. Certainly there will be a mixture of two or more optimal network
technologies driven by the location of the site and distribution sites. For new
construction sites that require miles of range, shows a typical preference for
microwave technology from the perspective of cost and accessibility. However, in a
large network find fiber in the central area where very high capacities are required
and may be some millimeter wave technology in sectors where the scope permits.

2010 PontoTech

171

LTE Fundamentals

7.7

Summary of proposed technical requirements for


deploying LTE

In general we could say that if an operator want to evolve their existing networks to
LTE, changes in these networks consider switching at the hardware level (additions
and / or upgrades), software (upgrade or update), or hardware and software at a
time. This can occur in both radio access network as the core of the network.
3G/LTE Network basically consist of:
Radio Access Network 3G/LTE - RAN (Radio Access Network)
Packet Switched Network - CNPS (Core Network Packet Switching).
IP Transmission System for Fiber Optics
Support System O&M for each of the three previous items

7.7.1

Frequency bands for equipment

The operator is responsible for the suitability of spectrum for operation of GSM,
UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE. For example, the working frequency of the equipment for
LTE (FDD and TDD) may be any of the following frequency bands:
2100 MHz (1920-1980/2110-2170)
1800 MHz (1710-1785 / 1805-1880 MHz)
850 MHz (824-849/869-894)
700 MHz in the case of release of the Analog TV spectrum in this band.

172

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.7.2

Modifications to the data network

The system should include all elements of hardware and software for the
operation of the data, with the latest revision of UMTS/HSPA+ & LTE, both
CNPS data backbone (Core Packet Switching Network,), as in the base
stations ( Node B) and the RNC (radio network controllers).It should allow the
operation of this network to UMTS / HSPA / HSPA+ & LTE data mode with the
latest versions of available terminals.
There should be no hardware or software limitations on the nodes of the
system to prevent the use of all data features adopted by the 3GPP to date in
making the network implementation. In this sense, should be included every
element of network-level hardware (HW) and software (SW) considered
necessary for the proper functioning of the system.
Integration should include physical and logical level of all elements of the
3G/LTE network with the current GSM network. To this effect should consider
all logical interfaces required for such integration, as well as with regard to
physical integration.
The system to be implemented to allow for the coexistence of UMTS, HSPA,
HSPA+ and LTE. It is important to mention that the 3G NodeB should have
changes at the HW and SW (upgrade) for it to support LTE and their
respective protocols.
A Packet Switched Network (CNPS) for UMTS, HSPA+ / LTE 3GPP Release 7
and 8, which must comply with the technical specifications, among many
others at least should include, the following items :
o A Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) R 7 and 8.
o A Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) R 7 and 8.
o SAE Gateway architecture (SAE / LTE).
o MME architecture (SAE / LTE).
o HSS.

2010 PontoTech

173

LTE Fundamentals

7.7.3

Technical Requirements multistandard base


stations (UMTS/ HSPA +/ LTE)

It should be noted that the migration of existing UMTS-HSPA towards LTE


technology, is considering the possibility of reusing existing base stations equipped
with technology SDR (Software Defined Radio).This technology allows the use of a
common hardware platform capable of supporting different radio interfaces (GSM,
UMTS and LTE) through a software update.
Both are defined by at least the following requirements:
Type outdoor base stations and also distributed multistandard UMTS / HSPA /
LTE.
In each radio base should be able to insert modules UMTS/HSPA+ and LTE in
the same cabin or cabinet. Initially, the base stations will be equipped with
UMTS/HSPA+.
The base station should enable the joint operation of UMTS and LTE, with an
efficient and optimized transport, synchronization, energy and management.
Nodes B and RRU for UMTS must comply with the recommendations and
subsequent developments Release R7 (R8, etc.).
The RRU eNode B and LTE must comply with the recommendations and
subsequent developments Release R8 (R9, R10, etc.).
Based on the foregoing, the Node B must be enabled to HSPA +
functionalities and other features of this Release (eg Iu-PS and Iu-CS over IP).
The base stations must support a minimum of 3 sectors.
It is up to each network provider the amount of RRU that will be needed by
industry.
LTE should be able to allow for the use of MIMO antennas (2x2 and 4x4) in
both Rx and Tx.
The base stations must withstand operation in the bands allocated to LTE.
All base stations should have the following characteristics:
o Integration with the system operator "All IP" as well as backhaul
interfaces Fast Ethernet to support UMTS / HSPA / LTE
o Base Stations must be able to logically separate voice and data traffic in
different VPNs:
a) VPN for voice traffic of UMTS / HSPA + (interface lub-CS).

174

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

b) VPN data traffic for UMTS / HSPA + (Iub interface-PS)


c) VPN traffic from one eNodeB to another eNodeB LTE Interface
(X2)
d) VPN traffic to a eNodeB LTE MME interface (S1)
e) VPN traffic from one eNodeB to LTE-SAE GW (S1-U interface)
These VPN must be multiplexed onto the same physical interface, or Fast-Ethernet
interface the minimum amount possible.
The base stations should support the following types of services, details of
which shall specify:
o CS Domain Services (voice and data transparent and not transparent to
different rates).
o PS Domain Services.
o Combined services (voice, data services in the CS domain, domain
data services in PS).
o Location Services handovers (Softer, Soft and Hard, including
bidirectional handover 2G-3G and 3G-4G).
o Access technology of the E-UTRA (base stations) to LTE will be full
duplex FDD.
o LTE should be possible to use flexible bandwidths from 1.25 MHz to 20
MHz.
o In the downlink, OFDMA and 64QAM modulation schemes, 16QAM and
QPSK.
o In the uplink SC-FDMA and BPSK modulation schemes, QPSK, 8PSK
and 16QAM.

2010 PontoTech

175

LTE Fundamentals

7.7.4

Technical requirements of the Radio Network


Controller (RNC)

The RNC is the component of the UMTS network responsible for controlling
the Node Bs (base stations) via the Iub interface.
The equipment manufacturer should describe the various architectures and EUTRAN supported by their equipment, but shall at least comply with the
reference architecture.
The manufacturer shall provide all the technical facilities of the RAN (Radio
Access Network UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE).Here are some of the most
important.
The folling table depicts Facilities RAN techniques.

Facility

RAN

Assignment
dynamics
resources

Dynamic resource allocation of hardware and


software according to the QoS requested by
UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
the EU and the burden of the various
elements of the system.

QoS classes

The system must support the four service


classes defined by 3GPP (conversational, UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
streaming, interactive, background)

Control
overload

Faced with massive access attempt phones,


should provide mechanisms to ensure that
UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
these efforts do not destabilize the operation
of the RAN.

EU Location

Shall provide software functionality that


allows the location of DU LBS for UMTS UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
HSPA and LTE similar

SMS point to point

SMS broadcast
Point to point

176

Description

Ability to send from


alphanumeric messages

to

mobile

UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE

Possibility of sending an SMS while all


subscribers registered in a number of sectors UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
to be defined.
Ability to send / receive MMS in EU

UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

MMS
MMS broadcast

Possibility of sending an MMS while all EU


UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
registered in a given set of cells

Call
Emergency

It should be possible to assign higher priority


to emergency calls (to numbers prefixed)
UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
compared to the rest of the calls originated.
CS applies to Voice and VoIP.

Reconfiguration
Automatic
Channels
logical

Automatic
channels

reconfiguration

of

the

logical

UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE

Control
power

Initial control and dynamic power transmitted


by the Node B and the EU in all its forms, and UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
uplink and downlink.

Efficient use
resources
sectors and / or
Node B

Faced with a lack of resources in a sector


and / or Node B (number of codes, power,
processing power, transmission, etc.), The
system should allow the redirection of calls to
UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
other sectors and / or Node B same or
different carrier. This procedure should act
when attempting to establish the service and
during the course of a communication.

Handover
intra

ENodeB Intra, Inter eNodeB, with different


MME eNodeB Inter, Inter MME eNodeB the
same but different SAE GW, Inter RAT
(Radio Access Technology).

LTE

Handover
intersystem

It should allow two-way handover between


UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE

Mechanisms
reselection
sectors

By parameterized algorithms would allow the


EU camp in areas that at first would not be UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
the best server (Sector Hierarchy)

Scheduling

Dynamic allocation of EU resources to uplink


UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
and downlink.

Compression and IP header compression and encryption of


UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
IP Encryption
user data

2010 PontoTech

177

LTE Fundamentals

Physical Access
FDD

FDD for paired spectrum.


Downlink in different frequency

Physical Access
TDD

TDD mode for unpaired spectrum. Uplink and


Downlink at the same frequency, whose plots
met delays of no more than 10ms.

LTE

Physical Access
FDD and TDD

FDD and TDD physical access to the same


base.

LTE

Configuration.
common

Simultaneous configuration of common


parameters for associated eNodeB

LTE

Modulation
LTE

Downlink: OFDMA: 64 QAM, 16QAM and


QPSK.
Uplink: SC-FDMA 16QAM, 8PSK, QPSK,
BPSK

LTE

VoIP

Voice over IP protocol with less delay

Handover to
WLAN

7.7.5

Uplink

and

LTE

UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE

Relayed directions between Wireless Access


UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE
networks and non-3GPP 3GPP.

Technical characteristics of the packet core

For the implementation of a Packet Switched Network (PS-CN, Packet Switched


Core Network) UMTS-HSPA+ and SAE / LTE recommends:
The system (ie the set of nodes and packet core functionality) should be
designed such that it can join other Next Generation Networks (NGN),
enabling further expansion of its capacity later.
Includes the acquisition of Gateway SAE / LTE, MME and HSS.
As for the reference architecture is depicted below a generic block diagram of the
wireless network, which includes the nodes of the architecture and the interfaces
involved. Each interface must be considered both from the standpoint of physical and
logical. Blocks and interfaces that are illustrated in the following figure, should be
taken as reference, where necessary, for submission of the required information.

178

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 94 - Proposed system architecture for LTE

This system then must support access 3G and LTE. The system offered by each
operator must ensure the compatibility of its components with the future
implementation of functionality as the IMS architecture.

7.7.6

Technical characteristics of interfaces

The system must support the following quoted logical interfaces defined by the
3GPP standard: Iu, Gr, Gs, Gd, Ge, Gf, Lg, Gc, Gn / Gp, Ga, Gi, interfaces for
LTE (S1-MME, S1-U , S3, S4, S5, S6A, S7, S8a, S10, S11, SGI, Rx) and
other interfaces required to implement the architecture referred. Physical
interfaces must be optical, or optical-electrical connections for Fast Ethernet
and Giga Ethernet. SS7 signaling is over-IP (SIGTRAN).
All interfaces shall comply with the specifications: TS 29002, TS 29016, TS
29.018, TS 29.078, TS 29.060, TS 29.061, TS 32.015, TS 32.215 and all
connected by them.

2010 PontoTech

179

LTE Fundamentals

7.7.7

Core Specifications SAE / LTE

Support for multiple types of access: LTE, HSPA, HSPA + and non access
technologies standardized by the 3GPP.
Must support air interfaces LTE as well as roaming and mobility between LTE
and UTRAN / GERAN: S1-MME, S1-U, S3, S4, S5, S6A, S7, S8a, S10, S11,
SGI, Rx +, etc.
Must support interfaces and standards for access to technologies
standardized by the 3GPP, S2a, S2b, S2C, S6C, S6d, S9, SWA, SWD, SWN,
SWX, SWU and STa.
Support for Quality of Service (QoS).

7.7.8

MME techniques features

This node control plane, handles the control signaling for mobility between 3GPP
networks and manage identification and security parameters of the EU. The MME
shall perform the following functions:
Selection of Serving Gateway and the PDN Gateway.
Selection of MME to MME handovers with others.
SGSN selection for handovers to access networks 2G or 3G.
Facilitate roaming between access networks.

180

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.7.9

Technical specifications of SAE Gateway

The SAE Gateway consists of two logical entities of the user plane the S-GW and the
PDN-GW serving as interfaces between Access Network and the various packet
networks. These logical entities can be implemented as a single element Network.

7.7.9.1

Serving Gateway (S-GW)

Is the node responsible for E-UTRAN termination. Serving GW functionalities are:


Mobility Management handover between eNodeB.
Mobility management for handover between 3GPP LTE and other
technologies.
Transmission and routing of packets.

7.7.9.2

PDN Gateway

Is the node to be made by the end of the SGI interface to the PDN.
The functionality of the PDN GW should be:
Seamless mobility management and continuity of user sessions when moving
between technologically heterogeneous access networks (aligned and not
aligned with the 3GPP).
Application of QoS policies.
Packet filtering user.
Support charging for traffic between PCRF and the PDN-GW.
Location UE's IP address.

2010 PontoTech

181

LTE Fundamentals

7.7.9.3

HSS Home Subscriber Server

The HSS is the database of subscribers converged LTE, which will be recorded and
audited profiles and devices, and will support future network deployments "All IP".
Must support open standards allowing full interoperability vulnerability to the
elements of multi-vendor network.
The HSS shall administer:
The identities of subscribers and services.
Service profiles.
Authentication.
Authorization.
QoS for Long Term Evolution (LTE) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).
Shall comply fully with the 3GPP Release 8, to environments multi-vendor
interoperability, these should include standardized interfaces LTE: S6A (towards
MME) S6d (towards SGSN), SWx (towards 3GPP AAA), IMS interfaces (Sh, Cx).
Other features are:
Support for Locating Subscribers (Dx, Dh, Dw).
3GPP AAA support for interoperation with non-3GPP networks, reliable and
unreliable.
Must support seamless mobility features, and portability of services across IP
networks.
Flexibility to support multimedia services.
Database Subscriber Profile converged HLR / HSS.

182

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

7.7.10

Technical management of the system

The architecture of SGSN, GGSN, MME, SAE GW, HSS and other items should
have the role of OAM (Operation Administration and Maintenance), which will be
responsible for collecting data (alarms, statistics system HW and SW ), management
and user control of the control tasks of HW and SW, etc.

2010 PontoTech

183

LTE Fundamentals

184

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

LTE Business Perspectives

The following are important aspects that allow for a comprehensive overview for
anyone interested in implementing operator LTE technology. These aspects indicate
a growing trend in the consumption data from mobile terminals existing today. Also,
are some commercial LTE equipment that already exist in the market with the aim of
which is evaluated by the operators that choose to implement this technology
forward. Finally it includes the case of LTE network deployment made by the operator
Teliasonera, with the aim to indicate that the use and marketing of services using
these networks today is a reality.

2010 PontoTech

185

LTE Fundamentals

8.1

Global trend in demand for data

The mobile broadband connection is one way that the user can access the Internet
wirelessly from anywhere you are. The following figure shows an estimate of the
behavior of global demand in recent years have had the voice and data services, with
a decrease in voice service revenues and an increase in revenue due to the demand
for services data.

Figure 95 - ARPU by traffic type, b) Revenue by type of traffic

186

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The overall market trend has been perceived by operators such as AT & T, Orange,
Vodafone, Telefonica, Vivo and Telstra as shown bellow.

Figure 96 - Wireless markets revenues increased tendency

2010 PontoTech

187

LTE Fundamentals

In relation to the above, some predictions indicate a steady growth of users who
make use of a large number of devices to connect to mobile networks.

Figure 97 - Wideband subscribers to mobile-device type

188

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

In this connection, the user is expected that greater use of adaptive devices to
personal computers (such as data cards) for wireless access to applications and data
services.

Figure 98 - Traffic subscribers in mobile access networks

2010 PontoTech

189

LTE Fundamentals

8.2

LTE as a data access solution

It is expected that the introduction of this technology to market operators have


benefits such as reduced costs as CAPEX and OPEX. In turn, because LTE is
focused on facilitating access to new data services and better rates, it is estimated
that it allows an increase in revenue for the operator.

Figure 99 - Market trends in mobile broadband

190

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

For their part, some other aspirations and needs as displayed with LTE operators are
listed in the following figure.

Aspirations of operators to deploy LTE


Feature

Potential Impact

Justification

ARPU

Services and value-added applications


Revenue from new services
Proliferation of broadband devices

CCPU

All-IP networks
Backhaul
Network Virtualization
Migration, multiple networks, OSSS, etc.

Customer
retention time

CPGA

Subscribers

CAPEX

New applications 4G
More devices per user
New payment without contracts
Economy of scale
Customer acquisition.
Best subsidies.
New applications for new market segments
Higher bandwidths, aimed to improve
performance
More devices with mobile broadband capability
Economy of scale
All-IP networks and spectrum efficiency.
Network Virtualization
Multiple networks in transition.

Figure 100 - Aspirations market operators including LTE

2010 PontoTech

191

LTE Fundamentals

8.3

Operators Initiatives

Today we already have confirmed more than 50 operators committed to LTE in the
coming years. The following figure shows an overview of the operators committed to
this initiative.

Figure 101 - Project operators committed to the LTE / EPC

192

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

To complement this, bellow, depicted with red markers are countries where operators
committed to deploying LTE in the coming years. For its part, the blue markers
represent das networks deployed by the operator TeliaSonera in the countries of
Sweden and Norway.

Figure 102 - Map of countries with operators committed to deploy LTE networks

With regard to these deployments, one of the great unknowns in relation to LTE is
about why some traders are choosing to invest and deploy LTE immediately, while
others have adopted more than a stance of "wait and see what happens."
One explanation is that the resources of the spectrum that the operators have
determined the technology and time of release. In Europe, for example, many
operators are strongly committed to LTE will have to wait for the spectrum to be
auctioned, especially in the 2.6GHz band. Operators such as Telecom Italia and
Vodafone UK are laying the groundwork to deploy LTE, but until the spectrum is
released, it is difficult to anticipate the time of release of LTE. For its part, the key
band in the U.S. for LTE, is 700 MHz, while the 2.1 GHz band will be more frequent
in China and Japan.
Another explanation is the difference between CDMA and UMTS. Operators with
CDMA networks - technology that has no next evolutionary stage in their 3G platform
- are migrating directly to 4G, while operators with UMTS networks have many
phases of development ahead for their HSPA networks. AT&T for example, seems to
have no urgency to deploy LTE, because the operator has been adding thousands of
sites, antennas, towers, backhaul connection, etc., To support high broadband
speeds offered through its HSPA network. For AT&T, LTE will add more capacity and

2010 PontoTech

193

LTE Fundamentals

bandwidth to meet the growing demand for data services. However, the operator
plans to continue developing HSPA speeds increase to 14.4Mbps (now offers a
speed of 7.2 Mbps), then migrate to HSPA+ and finally launch an LTE network in
2012.
This means that for some operators to migrate to LTE will be simpler than others. For
example, operators have already launched a 3G network, will require an upgrade of
its network ahead of its evolution.
Moreover, as shown bellow, two of the main reasons why operators are investing in
technology is the need to offer new services to meet user expectations and the
possibility of reusing existing 3G infrastructure.

Figure 103 - Main reasons why operators are investing in LTE

Addition, as mentioned above, the evolution to LTE is attractive to many operators


because it reduces the CAPEX and OPEX compared to legacy technologies such as
3G networks. In fact, a report published by the UMTS Forum indicates that the cost
per megabyte for LTE services will be 83% lower with respect to (W-CDMA) and 66%
lower compared to HSDPA.

194

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

8.3.1

Operators in Asia

In Asia, NTT DoCoMo in Japan is an operator that has been very active with respect
to LTE, driven by demand for high-speed data services in the country and the
company's commitment to implement cutting-edge technologies quickly. This
operator has tested at speeds of 250 Mbps in the downlink and 50 Mbps uplink using
4x4 MIMO technology. These tests were performed at frequencies of 1.7 GHz in a
bandwidth of 20 MHz, respectively. For these tests are used equipments from
manufacturer Fujitsu.
NTT DoCoMo plans to launch a commercial LTE network in December 2010, and in
principle, only be accessible via USB modems for personal computers. For the year
2011, would begin selling phones to offer dual LTE/3G national coverage that users
acquire, and a quick solution for the supply of voice and SMS services on these
devices.
China Mobile for its part, has actively participated in LTE trials with vendors. The
company has announced for mid-2010 plans to build a commercial pre LTE TDD
network in China and continue the testing stages at the end of this year.

8.3.2

Operators in Europe

In Europe, the operator TeliaSonera LTE deployed in Norway and Sweden and this
has had the support of the company Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Networks.
Another operator is Telefnica (Spain), which has tested getting data download
speeds in excess of 140 Mbps will soon begin installation of LTE base stations to
conduct pilot tests, which the operator expects to reach speeds Download up to 340
Mbps pilot project conducted in collaboration with manufacturers such as AlcatelLucent, Ericsson, Huawei, NEC, Nokia Siemens Networks and ZTE.
Other European operators like Vodafone have been tested in Europe with technology
supplied by Ericsson, Huawei and Qualcomm Inc., hoping to start selling services
over LTE networks between 2011 and 2012.

2010 PontoTech

195

LTE Fundamentals

8.3.3

Operators in Latin America and the United


States

Many operators in the region (Telefnica Chile, Movistar, etc.), use in parallel
different technologies such as UMTS with GSM. According to experts who gathered
at the conference LTE Latin America 2010 held in Brazil, LTE cannot be deployed as
a traditional network.
In Latin America until recently, the vast majority of operators deployed their 3G
networks, as LTE is an issue that is just beginning to arise. Inclusive, some operators
are evaluating the possibility to migrate first HSPA + and thereby delay the
deployment to LTE. The following figure shows different scenarios that operators
continue to migrate to LTE.

Figure 104 - Plans evolutionary operators around the world

196

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

It is expected that in 2012 made the first official release of LTE in Latin America, and
why would delay which could be mainly due to spectral problems, experts say. Also
expected to make many trials and tests in 2010 and 2011. Operators such as Entel
PCS (Chile) could provide technical and LTE, but for the same reasons of spectrum
is not possible to do today. In Costa Rica, ICE assistant manager of
telecommunications, Claudio Bermudez, announced in March 2010 that the
institution is preparing a development plan for 2015, where he is studying the
proposal for LTE as well as mobile WiMAX.

2010 PontoTech

197

LTE Fundamentals

8.4

Initiatives manufacturers

In this section shows some terminals and LTE network equipment already available
in the market.

8.4.1

Network Equipment

Today, several equipment manufacturers and mobile networks are in some network
equipment market for this technology, other manufacturers are still under design and
test stages. Here are some of the major manufacturers and their network equipment
proposed for LTE.

8.4.1.1

Huawei

Huawei is one manufacturer that offers a solution that allows you to deploy an LTE
network without the need to have legacy infrastructure to other mobile networks, it
also allows migration from networks such as WCDMA. This solution includes
terminals, access network, transmission network SAE and unified management of the
network.
The solution proposed by this manufacturer and emphasizes the simplicity of the
network, since it combines elements such as SGSN, AG, MME in a single node
called unified service node. Also joining the GGSN, PDSN, ASN-GW, PDG, S-GW
and PDN-GW in a single node called Unified Gateway.
With respect to the nodes B, they are composed of a remote radio unit (RRU,
Remote Radio Unit) which is installed near the antenna, and the base band unit
(BBU Band Base Units), both teams are interconnected by fiber optic cables.
To migrate from a node B to HSPA+, its necessary to upgrade the software on
computers RRU and BBU. To migrate an RRU configured to HSPA + to LTE at the
same frequency band, also due to a software upgrade, however if you use a different
frequency should change the team by adding a new LTE RRU.
In the case of the BBU, to migrate a card adds LTE (LTE Card) to your computer.
The migration process is shown in bellow.

198

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Figure 105 - Migration process from a Node B UMTS Huawei HSDPA to LTE.

2010 PontoTech

199

LTE Fundamentals

Today, Huawei offers an evolved Node B called NBS, which support multiple radio
access technologies (GSM, UMTS, CDMA, TD-SCDMA and LTE).This commercial
version is known as DBS3900 and is shown bellow:

Figure 106 - DBS3900 Huawei Base Station.

Each of these nodes consists of an indoor unit RRU and BBU model 3201 model
3900. The unit supports up to 3000 users per eNodeB, in the downlink can achieve
173Mbps with a 2x2 MIMO configuration, 64 QAM modulation and a bandwidth of 20
MHz, while in the uplink can reach 84 Mbps with 1x2 SIMO, 64 QAM at 20 MHz per
cell.

200

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.1.2

Motorola

The Motorola solution includes core network equipment (CPE) and access (EUTRAN). For the access network equipment manufactured WBR series 500 and 700,
which are only eNodeB LTE equipment from Motorola. These support FDD and TDD
bands 700, 800, 900, 1800, 2100, 2300 and 2600 MHz, and a variety of bandwidths
ranging from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz.
The purpose of this manufacturer for the core network is based on the number of
WBC 700 teams with mobility management entity (MME WBC 700), gateway packet
data (WBG 700 P-GW) and service (WBG 700 S-GW), policies and billing (WBC 700
PCRF) and node management (WBM 700 Manager).
The teams previously mentioned are shown bellow.

Equipment

Image

Description

MME WBC700

It also has a hardware acceleration platform


designed to accelerate packet processing
enabling high performance platform.

WBC 700 P-GW

High Performance Team, which integrates


advanced services IP gateway security
services such as deep packet inspection
(DPI), stateful firewall, load capacity, and
rapid mobility that allows mitigation of security.

WBC 700 S-GW

Is a router based on the integration of IP


services with support for LTE Gateway
functions.

WBR 500 LTE based RF


Remote Macro eNodeB

Access equipment that uses OFDM and smart


antennas. This equipment allows spectrally
efficient, modular design that supports a wide
variety of deployment scenarios

Figure 107 - Equipment Motorola LTE

2010 PontoTech

201

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.1.3

Nokia Siemens Networks

Nokia Siemens Networks has launched Nokia Flexi base stations (Flexi BTS), with
the aim of providing the possibility of advancing technologies to 2G, 3G and LTE.
Platform based on the Flexi base station, radio base extends the capabilities of its
predecessor by incorporating GSM / EDGE, WCDMA / HSPA and LTE in a single
device.

8.4.1.4

Ericsson

Ericsson has a range of equipment to deploy LTE networks, including the RBS 6000
series antennas, which are mobile phone masts are characterized by multi-standard
and be prepared to cover both GSM / EDGE, and WCDMA / HSPA and LTE, it is
compatible with previous generations of antenna.

Equipment

Image

Description

RBS 6000

The RBS 6000 series features a compact


design, so it requires only 25 percent of the
space occupied by previous generations of
antennas. Despite its size, the RBS 6000
series has doubled its capacity, while reducing
consumption by 20 to 65 percent over previous
models. [48]

SGSN-MME

Provides access to 2G/3G/LTE, MME and


SGSN QoS, Router etc. functionality.

Figure 108 - Equipment Ericsson LTE (I)

202

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Equipment

Gateway GPRS

Converged Packet Gateway

HSS and SAPC Server

Image

Description

Gateway GPRS which supports multi


2G/3G/LTE
access,
functionality MPG,
throughput greater than 40 Gbps.

Converged Packet Gateway which provides


access to 2G/3G/LTE, Release 7 and 8,
extensive support for VPN, 200-Gbps
throughput

HSS and SAPC server for centralized control


of the IMS, can evolve in Release 7 to Release
8 supports up to 60 million subscribers per
node.

Figure 109 - Equipment Ericsson LTE (II)

2010 PontoTech

203

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.1.5

NEC

This manufacturer offers a comprehensive network solution. It consists of an EPC


system into one that incorporates all the MME, the S-GW and the PDN-GW. The
EPC system is shown bellow.

Figure 110 - CORE compact network (EPC) for LTE

This system supports about 300 000 subscribers and can handle more than 100
base stations LTE.
For its part, the solution for access network consists of units of baseband and radio
frequency (BBU and RRU), also proposes the use of Femtocells LTE to offer better
coverage indoors. NEC also offers the opportunity for a smooth migration from UMTS
networks primarily by changes in the elements of network access.

204

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.1.6

Fujitsu

LTE offers equipment for the access network (E-UTRAN) to the network core (EPC)
as well as terminals. The products are offered under the brand BroadOne.

2010 PontoTech

205

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.2

User terminals

The trend indicates that the devices connected to 3G/4G networks will suffer a
significant multiplication process in the coming years, with the proliferation of smart
phones (smartphones), netbooks, laptops, smartbooks (hybrid between netbook and
Smartphone) and all portable electronics. LTE is planned to start providing data
devices such cards or USB modems.
Bellow there is a summary of the terminals for LTE, which now have been announced
by different manufacturers.

Manufacturer

Model

Device

Huawei

E398 LTE / GSM / HSPA


2.6 GHz, 900 MHz

USB modem

Samsung

GT-B3710 (2.6 GHz)

USB modem

LG

LD100

USB modem

LG

M13

Modem

Nokia

RD-3

USB modem

Samsung

N150 LTE chipset with


Kalmia

Netbook

Samsung

GT-B3710 USB

Modem

Samsung

SCH - R900

Mobile Terminal

ZyXEL

ZLR-2070S

Router

Qualcomm

MDM9200, MSM8960

chipset

FourGee 3100/8200, 6150


Altair Semiconductor
for TDD

chipset

ST-Ericsson

M700, M710

chipset

Infineon

LU SMARTi LTE/3G/2G
Multimode RF Transceiver

chipset

Figure 111 - Device Manufacturers and models for LTE

Hereby some terminal characteristics mentioned above.

206

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.2.1

LG

LG Electronics already have a modem chip for the technology and has implemented
a data card called LD100 LTE that is capable of providing speeds up to 50 Mbps in
the uplink and 100 Mbps download speed.

Figure 112 - LG LD100 terminal modem.

2010 PontoTech

207

LTE Fundamentals

For its part the terminal LG M13 is a dual device LTE / CDMA capable of operating in
700 MHz band. This terminal supports bandwidths of 5 and 10 MHz and is expected
to have transfer rates of 70 Mbps in downlink and 20 Mbps in the uplink.

Figure 113 - LG modem M13 Terminal

208

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.2.2

Samsung

For its part, Samsung has introduced a chipset called Kalmia LTE modem, which has
enabled the creation of model Netbook N150 LTE connectivity.

Figure 114 - Netbooks N150 model

2010 PontoTech

209

LTE Fundamentals

Samsung also unveiled its SCH-R900 mobile terminal which is expected to be


available in late 2010 and will operate with the operator MetroPCS in the United
States will be able to LTE and CDMA.

Figure 115 - Terminal Samsung SCH - R900 and modem USBGT-B3710

Samsung also put into operation together with Telia Sonera the USB modem GTB3710 with downlink capacities of 150 Mbps

8.4.2.3

Motorola

The Motorola LTE terminal Tablet was unveiled at the Consumers Electronic Show
(CES) in January 2010, running on a test network operator Verizon, who plans to
deploy networks using this technology. The device runs on Google's Android
platform, has a 7 inch touch screen, 32 GB of internal memory, Nvidia video chip and
the Motorola LTE modem. If this device hits the market could do with an initial cost of
$ 300

210

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.2.4

Huawei

Huawei introduced at the beginning of 2010 the E398 modem. The E398 is the first
modem LTE of this company with triple-mode is compatible with LTE, UMTS and
GSM.

Figure 116 - LTE Modem Huawei

8.4.2.5

Nokia

Nokia also introduced its LTE modem DR-3. The modem DR-3 also supports
interoperability with GSM / EDGE and WCDMA / HSPA. On Nokia devices there is
little information yet available.

2010 PontoTech

211

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.2.6

ST-Ericsson

ST-Ericsson showed its M710 chipset which has interoperability between LTE and
HSPA networks, with this the company showed download speeds of 100 Mbps and
50 Mbps upload. Its main features are provided by the manufacturer:
Multi-mode LTE / HSPA / EDGE
Capacity of 100 Mbps in download, 50 Mbps on the rise
LTE UE Class 3
Quad band LTE
Tri-band WCDMA
GPRS / EDGE quad band band
Supports bandwidths of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
LTE MIMO
High Speed USB 2.0
USB Ethernet for data access

212

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.3

Expectations and needs of end users

End users can now enjoy the mobile broadband from their laptops and netbooks as
well as from their mobile phones. Therefore, to provide an improved user experience
is essential and which devices can provide intuitive interfaces and unlimited access
to content and applications of particular interest.
For this reason, the introduction of high capacity mobile devices such as iPhone,
have boosted mobile broadband, which is increasingly being used as a substitute for
fixed broadband. However, the availability of high quality content, including audio and
video, has led to a significant increase in data traffic. Consistent with this, is expected
to increase six times in the global IP traffic between 2007 and 2012 (mainly driven by
video services), which will have an impact on mobile networks and fixed networks.
This projected growth justifies the view of operators for LTE technology for mobile
broadband.

2010 PontoTech

213

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.4

New services can be provided with LTE

The primary objective of deploying LTE technology is that by far exceed the
capabilities offered by today's 2G and 3G. Following are a series of new services or
improvements to them that the operator would be able to provide to Technology LTE.
The following table depicts the mobile services that offered by LTE.

Enabled services and improved over LTE Technology


Sector

LTE Ecosystem
Components / features in
the service
applications and devices

Consumer Services

Devices and
user interfaces
and servicespecific
applications

* Innovation in all
* Innovative services for multiple
components: operating
market segments.
system (OS), protocols,
processors, antennas,
batteries, multi-touch screens.
* Interactive interfaces.
* User-friendly services.
* Open platforms which allow
new applications, services,
content, portals
access.
* New terminal for narrowband
and broadband markets.

The Internet

214

* All that provides Web 2.0:


Communication,
interoperability, sharing,
collaboration
large databases for
consumers and the
product marketing.

* Social networking.
* Share photos, video and music.
* Access to blogs, news, chat,
games,
travel information, communities
and interest groups.
* Internet TV, Streaming and
Downloading
Personalized and location.

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Navigation and
Location

* GPS and location services


per cell
* Geographic Information
Services (GIS
* Directory services to store
and organize information of
network users.

* Content based on location


*Access to location information
and presence of contacts
*Shopping and sections of
products from mobile terminal
according to location
* Mobile access to the itineraries
of travel agencies.

Transportation

Banking

* Vehicle manufacturers
* Government agencies.
* Entertainment systems in
automobiles.
Chipsets and devices to
measure.
* Service centers for mobile
applications.
* Content providers
Radio and television services
adapted for use in vehicles

* Wireless Monitoring and


automobile services

* Includes regarding banks,


credit card and financial
companies

* Mobile Online Banking and


electronic commerce.
* Communications between
devices Proximity (NFC or Near
Field Communications).
* Mobile terminal as a means of
entrance fees, vending machine
products
, Public transportation.
* Payments based custom
circumstances such as location.

* Includes vending machines


* Includes access security
systems and scanning.

Health

* Includes databases dental


centers, hospitals and
institutes of Insurance
* Includes control devices
* Includes websites with
advice and access to
information to results of

2010 PontoTech

* Automatic updating of
automotive applications.
* Databases real-time information
based on location and access to
traffic updates.
* Pay the toll with the mobile
device.
* Internet access from the car to
allow interactivity for online
gaming and access to audio and
video downloads.

* Mobile access to health advice


sites.
* Access to personal data base of
clinical history, radiographs, etc.
* Remote diagnostics with video
support.
* Access to online medical advice

215

LTE Fundamentals

medical examinations.

at both national and international.

* Access to TV news and events


in real time
Journalism

Security and
control

Consumer
Applications

* Includes newspapers,
magazines, radio and
television stations,
blogs, etc..

* Access to blogs to exchange of


views
* Access to the servers that
store information not recent
news.

* Monitoring high-definition
* Includes alarms for cars and mobile and access to reports of
buildings.
alarms installed in buildings
* Includes monitoring and
* Storage and online monitoring
reporting of security systems
of surveillance cameras
* Includes access systems
* Control of heating equipment
* Includes control of heating
and air conditioning
and air conditioning.
* Includes integrated security * With LTE terminals will have
applications in many services greater storage capacity for
content monitor.
* Integration of devices on a
Gateway (Home Gateway at
home), including printers,
digital appliances, audio
equipment, televisions,
surveillance systems, game
consoles.
* Interconnection of Home
Gateway with small nodes
called Femtocells which allow
better network coverage
indoors.
* Reading E-books or
electronic books

* Remote access to devices


connected to the Home Gateway.
Access from the mobile terminal
to backup cameras.
* Access to applications hosted
on the web (Cloud services).
* Download and access to books
in electronic format.

* Access to servers and


download Software (Software
as a Service).

216

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

In relation to these services, Ovum, which specializes in researching trends in


telecommunications, made a report of the LTE industry. As part of that, there were
more than 30 interviews with operators, suppliers, regulators and standards bodies,
as well as end-user research, for which they were interviewed about 550 people,
divided between the U.S., Korea , Japan, Germany, France, Italy, UK and Spain. The
results of the survey was conducted among regular users of 3G data services,
indicate that LTE will stimulate further growth in demand video services and other
multimedia services (35% - 40%), but will be access e-mail, web browsing and
search, online shopping and social networking services will be increased
consumption registering a growth of use between 15% and 25%. Location-based
services (linked to GPS) and telecommunication services for the automobile, are
seen as important areas of application that end users see as attractive.
For his part, although it is possible to support some of these services mentioned in
legacy networks, namely 2G and 3G, will be the capacity, scalability and performance
characteristics of network access and transport as well as a broader ecosystem
services and applications, which will differentiate from its predecessors LTE.

2010 PontoTech

217

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.5

The LTE Ecosystem

LTE will be characterized by a complex ecosystem that includes operators, service


providers, devices, components, applications and content and platform developers.
For this reason, LTE along with the transformation of the business model of
operators, provide the company with the business environment that will enable
operators to reductions in capital and operating costs in an increasingly competitive
market.
The ecosystem also includes regulators and standardization. LTE standards are
being implemented by the chip vendors to the point that the first chips and devices
are already being used in interoperability testing and performance. These trials and
testing initiatives supported by the industry through NGMN and LSTI, the latter
playing a key role in the extent of testing and experimentation activities.
As part of this ecosystem, collaborative efforts in the industry involve the coordination
of their players to allow all the benefits of LTE will be thrown into the world market
efficiently. The following figure illustrates the major stakeholders in the ecosystem
and the relationships between them.

Figure 117 - LTE ecosystem

The following figure supports the existence of interactions among many industry
players, hence the so-called "Ecosystem LTE."The ecosystem in question is divided
into three components: the Foundation Group, The Enabler Group and the
Momentum Group.

218

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

The Foundation Group consists of the vendor community, which includes chip
vendors, device vendors, infrastructure providers, test equipment
manufacturers, software developers and application providers and services.
Members of this group work together to provide three products related to LTE:
LTE infrastructure equipment, user devices, which includes mobile phones,
laptops, application specific devices, game consoles and consumer
electronics, all of which provide access and interfaces with the third group,
which includes the content, services and applications
The Enabler Group is formed by standardization bodies, regulators and
industry players. Through them, the group develops and provides technology
standards, establishes the regulatory framework, and ensures the alignment of
industry players for the optimal development of LTE.
The Momentum Group consists of telecommunications operators worldwide.
Your support has encouraged the development of LTE, which has encouraged
equipment vendors to deliver the first commercial products to meet work plans
that have provided operators for the year 2010. Linked to this, once the LTE
technology was introduced, the growth of the ecosystem depend on operators
to commit to deploy their networks. This will encourage all other ecosystem
members invest and devote more resources to this development.
In summary, the report noted OVUM in this paper indicates that the rapid and
effective progress is being made across the industry to attain, in the LTE
ecosystem, a commitment of all parties, thus allowing a better evolution of
technology, devices and applications to market.

Figure 118 - LTE Ecosystem value chain

2010 PontoTech

219

LTE Fundamentals

8.4.6

For TeliaSonera

With the first commercial deployment of LTE network by TeliaSonera, there are a
number of elements that the other operators should take into account in order to
learn from the experiences of the mobile operator.
Ericsson and TeliaSonera announced Huawei and its network providers to implement
their LTE networks. These deployments were conducted at the 2.6 GHz band, which
has been one of the recommended bands in the world for the deployment of 4G.
For the January 13, 2010, TeliaSonera announced that it will continue expanding its
LTE network in the Baltic countries and in 25 other municipalities in Sweden and four
municipalities in Norway. The core of the network 4G/LTE, in other words, the EPC
will be issued only to the Swedish company Ericsson, while the radio network, will be
delivered by Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Network. This agreement will expand LTE
networks in Sweden, Norway and Finland between 2010 and 2011.
It is noteworthy that in May this year was awarded to TeliaSonera (Denmark)
2x20MHz bandwidth of 10MHz spectrum pair and odd spectrum (TDD) at the
haunting of 2.5GHz. Because of this, the president of businesses in the area of
mobile services TeliaSonera, Hkan Dahlstrm Danish announcement to customers
that have LTE technology at your fingertips in less than a year.
In summary below highlights some important aspects in relation to the operator
Teliasonera:
Clients: According to surveys conducted by the operator TeliaSonera, the new
LTE network users habits have changed considerably in the use of mobile.
The same download large files, watch more videos on line, and television and
web browsing also increased significantly. Of the users surveyed, more than
half of the users sure would not change back to 3G.
Devices: Initially, the device offered a dongle Samsung LTE only for
broadband access to data. It is hoped that the standardization of voice in LTE
and the launch in the market of smartphones that support LTE can offer a
whole range of data services, voice, SMS and a variety of applications.
Pricing: TeliaSonera has decided to offer flat-rate data with 30GB of monthly
usage. Operators and industry experts are reserved to comment on this
decision but are expectant on earnings that may generate in the future or
when other competitors enter the market.
Spectrum: The Scandinavian LTE network is operating in the 2.6 GHz band,
opting for a frequency that gives them great ability but not much coverage. In
other parts of Europe have been auctioned off frequencies for the digital
dividend, so that future deployments are expected to take place in these
bands.

220

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Performance: Although theoretically LTE provides peak downlink rates higher


than 100Mbps, a recent study showed that barely reached half of this
performance. The average download rates were approximately 16 Mbps,
which is a breakthrough in relation to 3G but does not yet reach promised to
LTE. Be analyzed when the network reaches a greater maturity in order to
establish the true performance of LTE in real operating environments.

2010 PontoTech

221

LTE Fundamentals

8.5

Conclusions

LTE will provide data services with high bandwidth and quality of service,
taking this a great impact on business strategies in terms of providing data
services.
In turn, the use of LTE provides resource management and some networking
solutions provide the solutions are, which is expected to automatically
configure and optimize the network with this minimizing operating costs.
LTE will serve to unify the broadband and mobile telephony, offering the
possibility that the end user can access new converged multimedia services,
some of which could only be provided from fixed access networks.
Today you are considering initiatives to implement services such as voice and
SMS messaging on LTE technology by implementing solutions such as Circuit
Switched Fallback (CSFB), One Voice based on IMS and Volga.
Leading manufacturers related to the telecommunications industry are closely
involved with the development and deployment of LTE networks. Currently in
the market, and LTE equipment available for the core (Core) and access
network, some operators such as TeliaSonera case, are already implementing
the first LTE networks in some cities.
It has been stated that the choice of the frequency used for the deployment of
LTE, is an aspect that should be considered in the strategy of each operator
concerned. As has been observed, theoretically the lower frequency bands are
of considerable interest because of its wide coverage capability, a factor that
benefits of mobile broadband services, however the high capacity offered by
these frequencies, the acquisition of this spectrum may be more expensive.
It was possible to observe internationally recognized operators are betting on
LTE implement three main frequencies: 700 MHz, 2100 MHz and 2600 MHz In
turn, the possibility exists that operators currently using 850 MHz bands like,
make a reuse and realignment in these bands. Despite this the choice of the
band in which each operator decides to implement LTE, depend on aspects
such as frequency of operation that equipment manufacturers are betting, and
this path is being marked as the deployments that are making these operators
at the forefront in the implementation of technology.
If the operator deploys LTE in the 850 and 2100 MHz bands, it could do by
refarming in the first band and designing short-range LTE islands in the band
of 2100 MHz in areas of high demand for data traffic, getting the maximum
capacity this technology as carriers would have 2x20 MHz. However, it is
known that the 850 MHz band currently used by the operator in Costa Rica to
offer third-generation it using WCDMA technology, which requires 5 MHz for
its operation. Therefore, if you want to use the 850 MHz band would
necessarily have to isolate the cells in 5 MHz of 20 MHz

222

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

As for using the 700 MHz band, in Costa Rica is expected in the medium term
the conversion from analogue to digital (DVB-T or DTT), which will free up a
significant portion of radio spectrum in this band it would have high demand
due to high capacities offered. Despite this, Latin America, the process is
delayed, because it is not yet defined the standard for digital TV in most
countries, so the possibility of having the band in this region was postponed at
least until 2015.
It has been shown that technically there is the possibility of both LTE network
interface with legacy networks, namely 2G and 3G and a 3G network to evolve
towards LTE. This will ensure that technologies such as HSPA+ and LTE to
coexist, being complementary to LTE/HSPA+, offering improvements in
capacity.
LTE terminals operate on different frequencies and technology access to the
network is different (OFDMA, SC-FDMA) for GSM and UMTS so the end user
will have to change or terminal. For the client will not be affected by a high
cost of terminal, operators should offer the terminals within comfortable
service plans to suit different clients and different services for a fixed period as
is currently the 3G handsets, in this case looking for additional services
leveraging the high bandwidth you can provide.
The third-generation networks, specifically developed for the Release 6 and 7
can be migrated to LTE (Release 8) through software updates, replacement or
addition of cards and replacing the appropriate frequency antennas and MIMO
type.

2010 PontoTech

223

LTE Fundamentals

224

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

Acronyms

2010 PontoTech

225

LTE Fundamentals

1G
2G
3G
3GPP
3GPP2
4G
AAA
ADSL2+
ARPU
ARQ
AS
ASN
AUC
AVP
B3G
BBERF
BBU
BGCF
BS
BSC
BSS
BTS
CAPEX
CCPU
CDMA
CDMA 2000 1X
CDMA 2000 1X
EV-DO
CDMA 2000 1X
EV-DO REV A
CDMA2000
CN
CPGA
CSCF
CSFB
CSN
DCS
DHCP
DL
DOCSIS
EDGE

226

First Generation
Second Generation
Third Generation
Third Generation Partnership Project
Third Generation Partnership Project 2
Fourth Generation
Authentication Authorization and Accounting
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line 2+
Average Revenue Per User
Automatic Repeat Request
Application Server
Access Service Network
Authentication Center
Attribute Value Pairs
Beyond 3G
Barrier Binding and Event Report Finction
Base Band Unid
Breakout Gateway Control Function
Base Satation
Base Station Controller
Base Station Subsystem
Base Transceiver Station
CAPital EXpenditures
Cash Cost Per User
Code Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access 1x
Code Division Multiple Access 1x Evolution-Data Only
Code Division Multiple Access 1x Evolution-Data Only Rev A
Code Division Multiple Access 2000
Core Network
Cash Per Gross Addition
Call Session Control Function
Circuit Switched Fall Back
Conectivity Service Network
Digital Cellular Service
Dynamic Host Configuracin Protocol
Downlink
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

EEUU
E-GSM
EIR
EMM
EPC
EPDG
EPS
ESM
E-UTRA
E-UTRAN
EVDO
FDD
FFT
FTTH
FTTN
FTTX
GERAN
GGSN
GMSC
GPRS
GPS
GRAN
GSM
GTP
GUTI
HARQ
HFC
HLR
HSDPA
HSPA
HSPA+
HSS
HSUPA
ICE
ICIC
I-CSCF
iDEN
IEEE
IETF
IMEI
IM-MGW

2010 PontoTech

United States
Extended GSM-900 Band (includes Standard GSM-900
band)
Equipment Identity Register
EPS Mobility Management
Evolved Packet Core
Evolved Packet Data Gateway
Evolved Packet System
EPS Session Management
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
Evolution Data Optimizad
Frequency Division Duplexing
Fast Fourier Transform
Fiber to The Home
Fiber to The Node
Fiber to the X
GSM EDGE Radio Access Network
Gateway GPRS Support Node
Gateway MSC
General packet radio service
Global Positional System
Generic Radio Access Network
Global System for Mobile Communications
GPRS Tunneling Protocol
Global Unique Temporary Identity
Hybrid Automatic Repeat and Request
Hibrid Fiber Coax
Home Location Register
High Speed Download Packet Access
High Speed Packet Access
High Speed Packet Access +
Home Subscriber Server
High Speed Upload Packet Access
Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad
Inter Cell Interferente Coordination
Interrogating CSCF
Integrated Digital Enhanced Network
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Internet Engineering Task Force
International Mobile Equipment Identities
Intermediate Media Gateway

227

LTE Fundamentals

IMS
IMSI
IMT
IMT-2000
IP
IPv4
IPv6
ISI
ITU
kbps
LTE
MAC
MAN
Mbps
MGCF
MGW
MHz
MIMO
MME
MMS
MRFC
MRFP
MS
MSC
MTU
NGA
NGMN
NGN
OFDM
OFDMA
OPEX
P- GSM
PAPR
PCC
PCEF
PCRF
PCS
P-CSCF
PDC
PDCP
PDN
PHY

228

IP Multimedia Subsystem
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
International Mobile Telecommunications
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol version 4
Internet Protocol version 6
Inter Simbol Interferente
International Telecommunication Union
kilobits per second
Long Term Evolution
Medium Access Control
Metropolitan Area Network
Megabits per second
Media Gateway Control Function
Media GateWay
Megahertz
Multiple Input Multiple Output
Mobile Management Entity
Multimedia Messaging System
Multimedia Resource Function Controller
Multimedia Resource Function Processor
Mobile Station
Mobile Switching Center
Maximum Transmission Unit
New Generation Access
New Generation Mobile Networks
New Generation Network
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
Operational EXpenditures
Standard or Primary GSM
Peak to Average Power Ratio
Policy and Charging Convergente
Policy and Charging Enforcement Function
Policy and Charging Resource Function
Personal Communications Service
Proxy CSCF
Celular Digital Personal
Packet Data Convergence Protocol
Packet Data Networks
Physical

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

PLMN
PMIP
PSTN
QoS
RA
RADIUS,
RAN
RAT
R-GSM
RLC
RNC
RNS
RRC
RRU
S GW,
SAE
SCFDMA
S-CSCF
SGSN
SIP
SLF
SMS
SON
SR-VCC
SS
SUTEL
TAU
TCP/IP
TDD
TDM
TDMA
TD-SCDMA
T-GSM
TSG
TTI
UE
UIT
UIT -R
UL
UMB
UMTS

2010 PontoTech

Public Land Mobile Network


Proxy Mobile IP
Public Switched Telephone Network
Quality of Service
Routing Area
Remote Authentication DIAL In User Service
Radio Access Network
Radio Access Technology
Railways GSM-900 Band (includes Standard and Extended
GSM-900 band)
Radio Link Control
Radio Network Controller
Radio Network Subsystem
Radio Resource Control
Remote Radio Unit
Serving Gateway
System Architecture Evolution
Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
Serving CSCF
Serving GPRS Support Node
Session Initiation Protocol
Subscription Locator Function
Short Message System
Self Optimizing Networks
Single Radio Voice Call Continuity
Subscriber Station
SUPERINTENDENCIA DE TELECOMUNICACIONES
Tracking Area Updating
Transmission Control Protocol
Time Division Duplexing
Time Division Multiplexing
Time Division Multiple Access
Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access
TETRA-GSM
Technical Specifications Group
Transmisin Time Interna
User Equipmet
Unin Internacional de Telecomunicaciones
Union Internacional de Telecomunicaciones
Radicomunicaciones
Uplink
Ultra Mobile Broadband
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

229

LTE Fundamentals

USB
UTRA
UTRAN
VLR
VoIP
WAP
W-CDMA
WG
Wi-Fi
WiMAX
WiMAX II
WLAN IW

230

Universal Serial Bus


UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
Visitor Location Register
Voice over IP
Wireless Application Protocol
Wideband CDMA
Working Groups
Wide Fidelity
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Release 2
Wireless Local Area Network Inter Working

2010 PontoTech

LTE Fundamentals

2010 PontoTech

231

LTE Fundamentals

232

2010 PontoTech