# Time Integration

Suri Bala

Time Integration
Main objective is to find unknown displacements by numerically integrating the equations of motion which is a second-order linear/nonlinear ODE

For a single degree of freedom with no damping:

m && + kx = f ext (t ) x
Linear

m&& + f int (t ) = f ext (t ) x
Non-Linear

Numerical Solutions
Direct and Indirect Integration Techniques Direct
» No transformations » Examples
► ►

Explicit Implicit

Indirect
» Transformation » Examples

Mode Superposition

Numerical Solution - Explicit
Among many explicit methods, the central-difference technique is the most popular and is used in LS-DYNA

Time

Numerical Solution .Explicit Discretization in Time F(t) Time .

Numerical Solution .Explicit Current Time F(t) t n −1 tn t n +1 Time .

Explicit Current Acceleration an = M −1( Pn − Fn ) F(t) t n −1 tn t n +1 Time .Numerical Solution .

Numerical Solution .Explicit Mid-step parameteres an = M −1( Pn − Fn ) F(t) t n −1 t 1 n− 2 tn t 1 n+ 2 t n +1 Time .

Numerical Solution .Explicit Mid-Step Velocity vn + 1 = vn − 1 + Δtan 2 2 F(t) t n −1 t 1 n− 2 tn t 1 n+ 2 t n +1 Time .

Explicit Unknown displacement d n +1 = d n + Δtvn + 1 F(t) 2 t n −1 t 1 n− 2 tn t 1 n+ 2 t n +1 Time .Numerical Solution .

Explicit – Timestep Choosing an incremental timestep is based on the highest natural frequency of the system Δt < 2 ω max .

Explicit – Timestep Choosing an incremental timestep is based on the highest natural frequency of the system Δt < 2 ω max 2c ω max = l .

Explicit – Timestep Choosing an incremental timestep is based on the highest natural frequency of the system Δt < 2 ω max 2c ω max = l l Δt < c Courant-Frederick-Levy (CFL) Criteria .

lc Element based Computed Every Cycle Beam » Length between two nodes Excluded elements » Discrete beams and springs .Characteristic Length.

l3 . l3 . l2 . l4 ) lc = max(l1. d 2 ) lc = max( d1.Edge or Diagonal Length ? l4 l3 l1 l2 d4 d1 lc = min( l1. l4 ) lc = min( d1. l2 . d 2 ) .

Why Edge and Diagonal Length Fail Edge or diagonal length based method fails for collapsed or near collapsed elements lc > 0 A=0 .

l4 ) . l2 . l3 .Shell Element Characteristic Length l4 l3 d4 l2 d1 l1 A lc = max( l1.

Default Shell Element Characteristic Length l4 l3 d4 l2 β =0 l3 d1 l1 l2 β =1 l1 (1 + β ) A lc = max( l1. l3 . l2 . (1 − β )l4 ) .

(1 − β )l4 ) ⎦ . l4 + β 10e20)⎥ ⎣ max( l1. l2 .Shell Element Characteristic Length . min( l1. l3 . l2 . l3 . d 2 ) ISDO = 2 ⎡ ⎤ (1 + β ) A lc = MAX ⎢ .Options ISDO = 1 lc = (1 + β ) A max( d1.

Solid Element Volume lc = Areamax .

Springs – Timestep Choosing an incremental timestep is based on the highest natural frequency of the system Δt < 2 ω max k ( m1 + m2 ) ω max = m1m2 Δ t = TSSFAC * 2 2m 1 m 2 ( m 1 + m 2 )k .

Wave/Sound Speed. c E Crod / hughes _ liu _ beam / truss = ρ C shell = E (1 − υ 2 ) ρ C solid = E (1 − υ ) (1 + υ )(1 − 2υ ) ρ .

...... Δt n ) ..Global Timestep Δt = TSSFAC * min( Δt1..

Time Integration Loop Start .

Time Integration Loop Start Apply boundary loads .

Time Integration Loop Start Apply boundary loads Process elements .

Time Integration Loop Start Apply boundary loads Process elements Process penalty contacts .

Time Integration Loop Start Apply boundary loads Process elements Update accelerations and Kinematic constraints Process penalty contacts .

Time Integration Loop Start Kinematic contacts and Rigidwalls Update accelerations and Kinematic constraints Apply boundary loads Process elements Process penalty contacts .

Time Integration Loop Write Databases Start Kinematic contacts and Rigidwalls Update accelerations and Kinematic constraints Apply boundary loads Process elements Process penalty contacts .

Time Integration Loop Update velocities Write Databases Start Kinematic contacts and Rigidwalls Update accelerations and Kinematic constraints Apply boundary loads Process elements Process penalty contacts .

Time Integration Loop Update displacements and new geometry Update velocities Write Databases Start Kinematic contacts and Rigidwalls Update accelerations and Kinematic constraints Apply boundary loads Process elements Process penalty contacts .

Time Integration Loop Update displacements and new geometry Update time and check for termination Update velocities Write Databases Start Kinematic contacts and Rigidwalls Update accelerations and Kinematic constraints Apply boundary loads Process elements Process penalty contacts .

Increasing CFL based timestep Stems from the desire to improve job turnaround with negligible effects on accuracy Two method exists » Mass Scaling » Stiffness scaling Mass Scaling » Sound speed is slower in denser materials thereby allows larger timestep Stiffness » Sound speed is slower in softer materials thereby allows larger timestep .

DT2MS > 0 in *CONTROL_TIMESTEP .Mass-Scaling.

Mass Scaling. DT2MS < 0 in *CONTROL_TIMESTEP .

Limiting mass-scaling to first cycle Mass-scaling is performed at every cycle by default MS1ST in *CONTROL_TIMESTEP allows to limit the mass-scaling routing to be executed at cycle 1 which allows the timestep to drop thereafter .

Selective Mass-Scaling Available from 971 Allows a larger mass-scaled timestep with negligible reduction in accuracy Automotive Applications » Detailed steering wheel » Any subsystem » Localized study .

E.Stiffness Scaling Alternative way of increasing the computed timestep Alter (reduce) the elastic stiffness. to decrease the sound speed thereby increasing the resulting timestep Options » Manually by updating the parameter in the *MAT keyword ► Can be used for ALL element types » Automatic by specifying the desired timestep. TSMIN. in *CONTROL_TIMESTEP keyword ► Applies for only shell elements using limited elastic-plastic material laws .

100 smallest timesteps in D3HSP NOT RECOMMENDED Timestep DESIRED Element Id .

Explicit – Advantages/Disadvantages + + + + Ideal for Highly Non-Linear short duration transient events Low Memory requirements Mature Contact treatments Inexpensive Timestep Calculations Limited by Courant stability limit Need to ignore geometric details - Long duration events not feasible .

Implicit Unknowns are embedded in a system of linear/non-linear equations » Stiffness matrix is formed » Need Efficient Linear/Non-Linear solver ~1 x n +1 = x n + s0 Δ u ~ ~0 n +1 ⎛ n +1 ⎞ K Δ u = P⎜ x ⎟ ~ t j ~i ~ ⎝ ~i ⎠ − F ( x n +1 ) = Q n +1 ~ ~i ~i .Numerical Solution .

A huge benefit for certain automotive structures - High Memory Requirements Very expensive Time Step calculations Contact Inexperience .Numerical Solution .Implicit Advantages/Disadvantageous + Unconditionally stable for any load/time step + Ideal for Long and Short Duration events + Geometric details can be included.

Choosing Solution Type Explicit » Short duration » High Strain-rate » Intertia dominated Implicit » Static » Quasi-static » Zero to low strain-rates Combination of both ? .

IMFLAG in *CONTROL_GENERAL .