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Outline

Introduction

Need for TIEBREAK

Basics of Contact Treatment

Understanding TIEBREAK

Failure and Damage in TIEBREAK contacts

Examples

Introduction

TIEBREAK allows the modeling of connections which transmits both compressive and tensile forces with optional failure criteria

TIEBREAK contacts are penalty based while TIED contacts are constraint based

Slave and Master Nodes can belong to other constraint type definitions such as NODAL_RIGID_BODY, SPOTWELD, etc

There is no sliding allowed between the elements used in the tiebreak definitions

Parts in contact that experience tensile forces undergo separation with no resistance Connections such as Glued surfaces transmit both tensile and compressive forces until a failure of the glue. Such connections require the use of TIEBREAK contacts Glue Mating Parts Physical Solid Representation Shell Representation .Need for TIEBREAK Contacts Traditional contacts transmit only compressive forces.

Basics of Contact Treatment In any contact treatment. once the slave and master information is provided. understanding steps involved. is important Besides segment-to-segment contact. all other contact types at the root level is always working with a node-segment pair in which the node is just a point (with mass) and the segment is either a 3-noded or 4-noded connectivity information referencing a shell element or one of the faces of a solid element The node is usually called as “slave” node and the segment is usually called as “master” segment as shown below “slave” node “master” segment .

Contact Point Before a node-segment pair is assembled. LS-DYNA uses a small increase in the area of the segment in which it scales the master segment area by an additional 2% in an attempt to collect nodes that may lie near the edges The contact point is calculated just once (at time zero) for all TIED and TIEBREAK contacts while it is computed at every cycle for all other contacts Contact point is computed in the isoparametric coordinates of the master segment . along the master segment normal. must lie within the area enclosed by the 3 or 4 nodes of the segment. the following must occur The contact (projection) point of the node onto the master segment.

d “scaled” segment “master” segment “contact” point .Contact Point “slave” node segment normal “projection distance”.

d. is zero the slave is said to be ON the master segment surface “positive” (offset) Master segment surface “zero” (on surface) “negative” (penetration) .d. d The projection distance is simply the orthogonal distance of the slave node from the master segment along the master segment normal The projection distance is computed in a local coordinate system embedded in the master segment – If the projection distance. is positive it is often termed as zero penetration or “positive offet” – If the projection distance. is negative it is often called as “penetration” – If the project distance. d.Projection Distance.

Force Calculation In standard contact treatment if the penetration depth is found to be negative. the absolute value will indicate the depth of the penetration A slave nodal force is then calculated proportional to the penetration depth and a internally computed contact stiffness fs Contact force Kc Contact stiffness Penetration .

1) 2 1 3 4 3 (-1.Force Distribution to the Master Segment Nodes After the slave force evaluation. the iso-parametric shape functions are used 2 (-1. -1) . 1) 1 (1. the same force needs to be distributed to the master segment nodes The magnitude of the force that each master segment node receives is dependent on its relative location to the contact point To achieve this. -1) 4 (1.

Master Nodal Force Each master node gets a fraction of the slave force that is based on contact point location N1 1 1 4 1 f i m Ni . * fs N2 N3 1 1 4 1 1 4 N4 1 1 4 1 1 1 .

Quick Summary Of TIEBREAK Allows the transmission of both tensile and compressive forces resulting in a TIE. The separation of the slave node from the master is resisted by a linear contact spring for both tensile and compressive forces until failure after which the tensile coupling is removed BREAK part of the contact allows the modeling of failure where the spring decouples the tensile forces allowing independent motion of the slave node under tension Post failure in all TIEBREAK contacts allows the node to interact with the segment as in traditional compression only contacts Failure can be based on – Force (One-Way Only) – Stress (Two-Way Only) .

What contacts model TIE-BREAK type connections ? Non-Automatic – *CONTACT_TIEBREAK_NODES_TO_SURFACE – *CONTACT_TIEBREAK_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE – *CONTACT_TIEBREAK_NODES_ONLY Automatic – *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBREAK – *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_ONE_WAY_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBREAK There are some subtle differences between the two basic types but for most purposes their functionality is identical in all the contact types .

Automatic and Non-Automatic Comparison Features NON-AUTOMATIC TIEBREAK AUTOMATIC TIEBREAK Scope of Slave Nodes that are Tied All slave nodes. THKOFF can be set to 1(default 0) to invoke this feature only for two-way contacts Yes (Except TIEBREAK_NODES_ONLY) Yes Post Failure Interaction Considered No Yes Shell Thickness Offsets Considered in Post Failure Interaction Yes Damage Modeling No Yes. “Initially in contact” means that node has a projection distance that is either zero. positive offset less than 1% of master diagonal or negative No Yes Force Based Failure Stress Based Failure Automatic Shell Normal Orientation No. Care must be taken to ensure that the slave node is roughly 10% of master segment diagonal for stable solutions Yes (One-Way Type Only) Yes (Two-Way Type Only) Depends on the parameter OPTION. Many options available based on OPTION parameter . Shell Normals Must Face Each Other.3 all nodes that are initially in contact and that come later into contact will be tied. irrespective of their distance from the closest master segment are tied to it at time zero. When OPTION = 1. However. All other values will only treat nodes that are initially in contact.

Why So Many ? Simply because they have evolved over time Old ones are retained to support backward compatibility The basic functionality remains the same in all contacts .

a contact spring is internally created between the slave node and the contact point on the master segment For any subsequent incremental change in the projected distance.How does tying work ? Tying is always defined between a node-segment pair For every slave node. we first locate a unique master segment based on the smallest projected normal distance Once a unique master segment is found. a force that is proportional to the incremental change in the projected distance is applied to the slave node and is distributed to the master nodes based on the contact point The force applied is irrespective of the sign of the incremental projected distance in TIEBREAK contacts while the force is applied only if the projected distance is negative (indicating penetration) in traditional (non-TIEBREAK) contacts .

Understanding TIEBREAK Following topics are extremely important to understand before using TIEBREAK contacts – – – – Criteria for Tying Pre-Tying Behavior Tied Behavior Post-Break Behavior .

all nodes or nodes that are initially in contact are tied. no tolerance is used to determine if a slave node is to be tied or not ALL slave nodes are tied to a master segment if a contact point on it can be found This can cause difficulties if the projected distance between a slave node and a master segment is extremely large In AUTOMATIC TIEBRAK. A good guideline is to ensure that the projected distance is within a small fraction of the master segment thickness . depending on the value of OPTION.3 will tie all nodes that are initially in contact and that may come in contact. Values 1.Criteria for Tying Unlike TIED based contacts.

Future versions may include them) All AUTOMATIC TIEBREAK contacts allow option to determine what nodes are tied initially. it is extremely important to understand what nodes are tied initially and later in the simulation . This is controlled using the parameter OPTION In both types of contact.Pre-Tying Behavior Depending on the type of contact. how the surfaces (slave and master) interact before tying conditions are established is important to understand All non-AUTOMATIC TIEBREAK contacts establish the contact spring from the start of the simulation (Note: BIRTH is not supported in TIEBREAK contacts as of version 971 R2.

OPTION OPTION must be specified Acceptable values for OPTION are the following -3 POSITIVE Moments are not transferred -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NEGATIVE Moments are transferred .Pre-Tying in AUTOMATIC based TIEBREAK .

OPTION One-Way and Two-Way 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBREAK ONE_WAY_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBREAK .Pre-Tying in AUTOMATIC based TIEBREAK .

OPTION Scope of nodes that will be tied Only Nodes Initially (t=0) in Contact Will Be Tied 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Nodes in Contact and All Nodes That Come In Contact Will Be Tied .Pre-Tying in AUTOMATIC based TIEBREAK .

OPTION Elements types that can be tied 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Solids Only .Pre-Tying in AUTOMATIC based TIEBREAK .

the interface acts as traditional contacts which resist compressive forces only . post-failure.Failure All TIEBREAK contacts allow the modeling of failure One-Way failure is based on Forces Only Two-Way failure is based on Stresses Only Except for TIEBREAK_NODES_ONLY.

Force Based Failure This option applies for one-way contact types only – CONTACT_TIEBREAK_NODES_TO_SURFACE – CONTACT_TIEBREAK_NODES_ONLY The failure force can be based on normal or shear or both When the squared normalized radius of the circle is greater than 1. Rs failure No failure fn Normal Force Ratio Squared. then failure is assumed and the tensile spring is immediately deactivated Shear Force Ratio Sqared. Shear FaiLure Force . Normal FaiLure Force SFLF. Rn 2 fS NFLF SFLF 2 1 NFLF.

3.3.6) – CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_ONE_WAY_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBREAK (OPTION=2. then failure is assumed and the tensile spring is deactivated Shear Force Ratio Squared. Rn 2 S NFLS NFLS.6) When the squared normalized radius of the circle is equal to or greater than 1. SFLS Normal FaiLure Stress Shear FaiLure Stress . SFLS.Stress Based Failure This option applies for two-way contact types only – CONTACT_TIEBREAK_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE – CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBRAK (OPTION=2. Rs failure 2 n No failure Normal Force Ratio Squared.

0) NFLS SFLS (1 sin( PARAM ) min(0.Damage Modeling OPTION = 7 – allows crack initiation using Dycos Discrete Crack Model as shown below 2 s max( n . n )) 1 Yield Stress Time Stress Profile .

Some notes on Failure Each node-segment pair is independently evaluated allowing the modeling of “peeling” The stress due to contact forces. is computed based on the spring force and the area of the segment The components are then decomposed into normal and shear components in the local coordinate system of the master segment Significant noise can be present in the forces so some percentage of viscous damping should be used to avoid pre-mature failure . “contact” stresses.

0 Removal of tensile spring Stress Damage Scale Factor Crack width opening Time Stress Profile Damage Profile . the yield condition is 1 NLFS – In addition.Damage Modeling OPTION = 5 (shells and solids) – allows damage by scaling the stress components after the failure is met – Stress is limited by a perfectly plastic yield condition – In tension the yield condition is 2 2 3 s n 1 NLFS – In compression. the stress is scaled by a factor that is user-defined as a function of the crack width opening using SFLS which becomes the load curve id 3 2 s Yield 1.

Damage Modeling OPTION = 6 (Solids Only) – allows damage by scaling the stress components after the failure is met – Damage is initiated when the stress reaches the failure criteria specified by 2 n S 2 NFLS SFLS – After the damage is initiated. a the stress is linearly scaled down until the crack depth reaches PARAM which is CCRIT 1.0 Removal of tensile spring at CCRIT Yield Stress Damage Scale Factor Crack width opening Time Stress Profile Damage Profile .

0 Removal of tensile spring at CCRIT Yield Stress Damage Scale Factor Crack width opening Time Stress Profile Damage Profile .Damage Modeling OPTION = 8 (Offset Shells Only) – To be used only with ONE_WAY AUTOMATIC TIEBREAK – Allows damage by scaling the stress components after the failure is met – Damage is initiated when the stress reaches the failure criteria specified by 2 n S 2 NFLS SFLS – After the damage is initiated. a the stress is linearly scaled down until the crack depth reaches PARAM which is CCRIT 1.

Using a LoadCurve so Nonlinearity is allowed. 0 ) NFLS sin( PARAM 2 S ) min( 0 . shell offsets are ignored after failure NONE 3 NFLS N NONE SFLS 4 nfls 3 s 2 1 NONE Causes SFLS to be a frictional stress limit 5 T 2 n NLFS 2 n S 2 1 NLFS C s 3 1 2 Yes. )) 1 8 n 2 NFLS SFLS 9 Cohesive Model See MAT_COHESIVE_MIX ED_MOD See MAT_COHESIVE_MIXED_MOD . Nodes will stick permanantly NONE NONE Values Initiation of Failure Significance of PARAM 1 2 n S 2 NONE.OPTION comparison Damage Evolution NONE. Yes. Linear Causes SFLS to become a loadcurve id that defines stress reduction scale factor vs crack opening 6 NFLS 2 s SFLS Causes PARAM to become a CCRIT which is the critical crack opening for complete failure NONE Causes SFLS to become frictional angle 7 SFLS (1 n max( n . Nodes will stick permanently 2 NFLS 2 n S 2 SFLS When PARAM=1.

Examples “Initially in contact” “Peeling” “Post-Failure” Interaction “Linear-Damage Modeling” “Nonlinear-Damage Modeling” .