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CHAPTER 2 :

Drying of processes materials

OBJECTIVES
STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE
TO :
UNDERSTAND THE DRYING
PRINCIPLES, DYING METHODS

DESCRIBE TYPE OF DRYERS

Drying application

DEFINITION
DRYING?

FROM SOLID MATERIAL


DEFINITION?

DRYING VS EVAPORATION?????

DRYING METHOD
HOW CAN WATER/OTHERS
LIQUIDS BE REMOVED FROM
SOLIDS?

THERMAL
MECHANICAL
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DRIED SUBSTANCE
BONE-DRY
PRODUCT CONTAIN NO LIQUID
DRIED TABLE SALT 0.5 % H2O

DRIED SUBSTANCE
Drying as a preservation technique
(biological materials, esp food)
< 10 % wt water
contentMicroorganisms are not active
Typically < 5% wt water content to
preserve flavor & nutrition

SOLID PARTICLES TO BE DRIED


MANY DIFFERENT FORMS :

LIQUID (SUSPENDED SOLID)

SOLUTION
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GENERAL DRYING METHOD


Batch
Material inserted into the

drying equipment and


drying proceeds for a given time period of time
Continuous
Material continuously added to the dryer
Dried material continuously removed

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GENERAL DRYING METHOD


Physical condition used to add heat &
remove water vapor :

1. Direct contact with heated air at atmospheric


pressure
2. Vacuum drying (low pressure) & heat flow indirectly
(in contact with metal wall or radiation)
3. Freeze drying, water is sublimed from frozen
material
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CLASSIFICATION OF DRYERS
CONTINUOUS OR BATCH
AGITATION/UNAGITATION
SOLID IS EXPOSED TO :

1. DIRECT CONTACT WITH HOT


GAS
2. EXTERNAL MEDIUM
(CONDENSING STEAM)
3. HEATED BY
ELECTRIC/RADIANT/MICROWAVE
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CLASSIFICATION OF DRYERS

1. ADIABATIC OR DIRECT DRYERS


SOLIDS ARE EXPOSED TO HOT GAS

2. NON-ADIABATIC OR INDIRECT
DRYERS
HEAT IS TRANSFERRED FROM EXTERNAL MEDIUM
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SOLID HANDLING IN DRYER

Gas flow across a static bed of solids

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Gas passing through a


bed of preformed
solids

Showering action in a rotary dryer

SOLID HANDLING IN DRYER


Fluidized solids bed

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Cocurrent gas-solid flow in


a pneumatic-conveyer flash
dryer

DRYING EQUIPMENT

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DRYING EQUIPMENT

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1. Tray Dryers
1. In tray dryers, the food is spread out, generally quite
thinly, on trays in which the drying takes place.
2. Heating may be by an air current sweeping across the
trays, by conduction from heated trays or heated shelves
on which the trays lie, or by radiation from heated
surfaces.
3. Most tray dryers are heated by air, which also removes
the moist vapours.

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2. Continuous Tunnel Dryers


1. Developments of the tray dryer :
the trays on trolleys move
through a tunnel where the heat
is applied and the vapours
removed.
2. In most cases, air is used in
tunnel drying and the material
can move through the dryer
either parallel or counter current
to the air flow.
3. Sometimes the dryers are
compartmented, and cross-flow
may also be used.
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3. Roller or Drum Dryers


1. In these the food is spread over the surface of a
heated drum.
2. The drum rotates, with the food being applied to
the drum at one part of the cycle.
3. The food remains on the drum surface for the
greater part of the rotation, during which time
the drying takes place, and is then scraped off.
4. Drum drying may be regarded as conduction
drying.

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4. Spray Dryers
1. Liquid or fine solid material in a slurry is
sprayed in the form of a fine droplet
dispersion into a current of heated air.
2. Air and solids may move in parallel or
counterflow.
3. Drying occurs very rapidly, so that this
process is very useful for materials that
are damaged by exposure to heat for any
appreciable length of time.
4. The dryer body is large so that the
particles can settle, as they dry, without
touching the walls on which they might
otherwise stick.
5. Commercial dryers can be very large of
the order of 10 m diameter and 20 m high.

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FIND THE INFORMATION


Analyse the advantages &
disadvantages of the following
type of dryers :
1. Tray driers
2. Rotary driers
3. Spray Driers
4. Freeze dryer

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REFERENCES
Books :
1.

Geankoplis C. J., Transport Processes and


Separation Process Principles, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall,
2003.

2.

McCabe W. M., Smith J. C. and Harriott P., Unit


Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th Ed., McGraw Hill,
2005.

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THANK YOU.

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