DICTIONARY OF ANTISEMITISM BY ROBERT MICHAEL PHILIP ROSEN (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, January 2007) ©2007 by Robert Michael and

Philip Rosen

Introduction Who Is a Jew?

Who is a Jew?i Many Jews have a distinctive consciousness, a sense of sharing a common origin and fate and a unique religious, historical, and cultural heritage. The earliest Jewish communal

tradition is of a people chosen to keep God’s 613 commandments found in their Torah and to bring ethical monotheism to the peoples of the world. Although Jewish identities vary from atheism to ultra-Orthodoxy, many Jews observe rituals, holy days, and social-ethical behavior, including defense of the weak, sympathy for the stranger, aid the poor, and kindness to humans and animals. Many Jews support education, Jewish charities, Zionist groups, the Anti-Defamation League, and other Jewish organizations, as well as observing traditional ceremonies from birth to death. Many Jews revere the Hebrew language, follow a kosher diet, and eat special foods on Passover and other holy days. Most Jews define a Jew as one born of a

Jewish mother. Jews are not members of a biological race, the concept having no anthropological validity. Because of assimilation and intermarriage, Jews tend to resemble the peoples among whom they live. George Eliot observed: On the whole, one of the most

remarkable phenomena in the history of this scattered people, made for ages “a scorn and a hissing” is, that . . . they have come out of it . . . rivalling the nations of all European countries in healthiness and beauty of physique, in practical ability, in scientific and artistic aptitude, and in some forms of ethical

value. . . . The Jews, whose ways of thinking and whose very verbal forms are on our lips in every prayer which we end with an Amen.ii</ext> In the same essay, Eliot wrote that “the prejudiced, the puerile, the spiteful, and the abysmally ignorant” admire or abhor “the same motives, the same ideas, the same practices” according to their association with the historical or social accident of whether a human being is regarded as a Jew or not. Harvard psychologist Gordon Allport reported that Abraham Lincoln was admired because people see him as “thrifty, hardworking, eager for knowledge, ambitious, devoted to the rights of the average man, and

eminently successful in climbing the ladder of opportunity.” He then went on to ask, “Why do so many people dislike the Jews? They may tell you it is because they are thrifty, hardworking, eager for knowledge, ambitious, devoted to the rights of the average man, and eminently successful in climbing the ladder of opportunity.”iii When all is said and done, it just may be that “the prejudiced, the puerile, the spiteful, and the abysmally ignorant” will be the ones who define who is a Jew—and, therefore, what is antisemitism.

What Is Antisemitism?

In 1879 Wilhelm Marr created the word

Antisemitismus, and it swiftly found its way into Europe’s languages.iv Antisemitism in the broadest sense means hostility toward everything the Jew— not the “Semite”—stands for. There are no Semites; there are only peoples who speak Semitic languages. Antisemitism refers to the irrational dislike or hatred of Jews, the attempt to demoralize or satanize them, the rejection of the validity of the Jewish religion, the Jewish way of life, the Jewish spirit, the Jewish character, and, ultimately, the Jewish right to live.v As Allport has indicated, antisemitism and anti-Jewishness, like all ethnic prejudices, express themselves as antilocution, avoidance, discrimination, physical attack, and extermination.vi Assault, expropriation, expulsion,

torture, and murder could be added to his list. The German scholar Josef Joffe analyzed these psychosocial aspects of antisemitism: stereotyping, denigration, demonization, obsession, and elimination.vii To attempt to define and trace the permutations and combinations of antisemitism, the world’s longest and most pervasive hatred, is a daunting task. Three analogies from the chemical, medical, and biological sciences may clarify antisemitism’s ideological functions. First, although they exist within different historical contexts, antiJewish ideas, emotions, and behaviors are reactive elements easily combining with other ideologies, such as nationalism, racism, social Darwinism,

conservatism, fascism, and socialism to form an explosive compound. Second, like a virus, antiJewishness rests dormant at different levels of the societal and individual psyche, surfacing especially during the throes of social or personal crisis.viii Third, although Jews have often been compared to parasites in both medieval and modern antisemitic imagery, antisemitism itself is a parasitic idea, growing more powerful by feeding on the human emotions of fear, anger, anxiety, and guilt. In “Know Thyself,” Richard Wagner argued that the Jews represented the multifaceted power of evil, the “plastic demon” responsible for the decadence of all human society.ix This phrase of Wagner’s is better used to describe antisemitism itself, which

takes on such variegated forms as to render the concept almost indefinable. In 2005, the European Union Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia established a “Working Definition of Antisemitism”: Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or nonJewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities. In addition, such manifestations could also target the state of Israel,

conceived

as

a

Jewish

collectivity.

Antisemitism frequently charges Jews with conspiring to harm humanity, and it is often used to blame Jews for “why things go wrong.” It is expressed in speech, action, writing, and and visual employs negative forms and

sinister character

stereotypes traits.

Contemporary

examples

of

antisemitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into

account the overall context, include, but are not limited to:

• Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing or harming of Jews in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion. • Making dehumanizing, stereotypical mendacious, demonizing, allegations or

about

Jews as such or the power of Jews as collective—such as, especially but not exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish conspiracy or of Jews controlling the or media, other

economy,

government

societal institutions.

• Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible for real or imagined wrongdoing committed by a single Jewish person or group, or even for acts committed by non-Jews. • Denying the fact, scope,

mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National-Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust). • Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.

• Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel, or to the alleged priorities of Jews

worldwide, than to the interests of their own nations.

[Although criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitism] examples of the ways in itself which with

antisemitism

manifests

regard to the state of Israel taking into account include: the overall context could

• Denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g., by claiming that the existence of a State of Israel is a racist endeavor. • Applying requiring expected double of or it a standards behavior of by not any

demanded

other democratic nation. • Using the symbols and images associated with classic

antisemitism (e.g., claims of Jews killing Jesus or blood-libel) to

characterize Israel or Israelis. • Drawing comparisons of

contemporary Israeli policy to that

of the Nazis. • Holding Jews collectively

responsible for actions of the state of Israel. • Criminal acts are antisemitic when the targets of attacks, whether they are people or property—such as buildings, schools, places of worship and cemeteries—are

selected because they are, or are perceived to be, Jewish or linked to Jews. • Antisemitic discrimination is the denial to Jews of opportunities or services available to others and is

illegal in many countries.x

Antisemitism is comprised of constituent elements. Although religious, racial, cultural, literary, economic, ethnic, psychosocial, and political antisemitism are usually interwoven, the most basic, vigorous, and longest-lived cause of antisemitism has been religious. Even the aforesaid Wilhelm Marr’s secular racism existed alongside his religious antisemitism. On the one hand, Marr despised Jews because of their “disgusting . . . chemical” composition. On the other hand, he associated the “Germanness” he admired with Christianity and contrasted them both to Jewishness. Called “the new Luther “ and defending

Christian hostility to Jewish domination, Marr believed that Germany was a Christian country, and his goal was to rid Christianity of Judaism’s sway. His Antisemites’ League used a German oak leaf and a Christian cross as its symbols.xi In an 1891 article, Marr referred to his movement as composed of “Christians and Aryans.”xii

Christian Antisemitism Christian scholar Alan Davies has asked whether “centuries of religious anti-Judaism . . . so poisoned the conscience of the ordinary Christian as to blunt his capacity to recognize simple cruelty.”xiii John Gager wondered “not simply whether individual Christians had added fuel to modern European

antisemitism, but whether Christianity itself was, in its essence and from its beginnings, the primary source of antisemitism in Western culture.”xiv Robert Willis concluded that “theological antisemitism [established] a social and moral climate that allowed the ‘final solution’ to become a reality.”xv More recent studies have confirmed that antiJewish ideology embodied within Christianity provided the fundamental basis for an American antisemitism that on the surface seems so secular.xvi After a careful study of American opinion in the 1960s, Charles Glock and Rodney Stark concluded that “the heart and soul of antisemitism rested on Christianity” and that 95 percent of

Americans got their secular stereotypes of Jews from the Christian religion.xvii Gordon Allport concluded that religion stood as the focus of prejudice because “it is the pivot of the cultural tradition of a group.”xviii Christianity, unlike any other group in Western history, has dominated the West for the last 1,700 years. Although bigots have found biblical sanction for their antipathy to women, gays, and blacks, among others, the Church Fathers most effectively used the Christian Scriptures as a warehouse for material against Jews.xix Jews were no longer merely those annoying people whom a minority of pagans disdained for their “laziness” on the Sabbath or refusal to eat pork.xx With the

establishment of Christianity, Jews became deicides, Christ-killers, God murderers. Rationally, even Christian antisemites recognize that Jews could not have murdered God. But antisemitism is rarely rational. Besides, Christianity established its own identity in large part by distancing itself from Judaism. St. Jerome called all Jews “Judases”; St. Augustine, “Cains”; St. John Chrysostom, “useless animals who should be slaughtered.”xxi By the Middle Ages, Christian Crusaders, townsmen, and authorities defamed, ghettoized, assaulted, expropriated, expelled, physically attacked, tortured, and murdered tens— perhaps hundreds—of thousands of Jews.xxii These Judenschachter, Jew-slaughterers, no less than the

SS Totenkopfverbanden or members of the Einsatzgruppen, saw Jews as threats to their very lives, as demons, monsters, plague-rats that had to be killed.xxiii To achieve this separation, Christian writers turned fundamental aspects of Judaism on their heads: Jewish law was obsolete, fulfilled in Jesus; Israel was superseded by Christianity, which now became the new Israel; God’s covenant passed from the Jews to the Christian churches.xxiv Instead of perceiving Jesus of Nazareth as of the blood and bone and religion of the Jewish people, the Church Fathers accused Jews of rejecting the messiah, of a stiff-necked refusal to see the “truth” of Christianity, of being religious hypocrites, deicides,

children of the devil, eternally doomed.xxv The Jews’ punishment was meant to be eternal wandering, lives in servitude, and inferiority to the Christians they lived among. Jewish holy books and practices were misread, misinterpreted, and demonized. The Talmud—rabbinic discussions of the meaning of the Jewish Scriptures and Jewish practices—was judged heretical and burned during the Middle Ages and into the 20th century.xxvi It is almost impossible to find examples of antisemitism that are exclusively racial, economic, or political, and free of religious taint. Although Jews are not a “race,” antisemites often hate Jews, whom they consider members of a “Jewish race.” This kind of antisemitism has existed since the

birth of Christianity. Ignoring the salvific power of the sacrament of baptism, several Church Fathers argued that a Jew could no more become a Christian than a leopard change its spots.xxvii Spain combined religious and racist antisemitism to establish history’s first institutionalized racism from the 15th through the 19th centuries and called the Inquisition.xxviii In the latter century, racial antisemitism strengthened all across Europe.xxix Nationalism and racism mixed with religious antisemitism into the potentially explosive brew that would fully erupt during the Holocaust. Many “secular” 19th-century antisemites regarded Jews as a race with inborn evil traits rather than merely a religious community. Neither assimilation nor

conversion could save the Jews. Jews did not partake of the national essence—the German Aryan spirit, the Slavic soul, the French esprit.xxx Jews were, are, and would always be dishonest, unscrupulous, clannish, materialistic, unpatriotic, parasitical, domineering, and exploitative. Blood would always tell. Contemporary antisemites often confuse Jews, Israelis, Zionists, and “Semites.”xxxi In the fourth century, Church Father St. Jerome identified all Jews as Judas. During the High Middle Ages, because the Church barred Christians from usury, the field was left open to the Jews, who were barred from most other occupations. In the 16th century, Shakespeare’s image of Shylock stuck: Jews were stereotyped as ruthless, money-hungry,

materialistic, unproductive, exploitive, and cruel. In the 19th century came Dickens’s Fagin image: Jews corrupting youth and engaged in criminal activity. Then there was Du Maurier’s Svengali image: the manipulating Jew, who through occult tricks preyed upon innocent Christian young women, a variation on the ritual-murder myth. False, contrived, mythical accusations leveled against Jews oftentimes led to mass murder. These defamations included ritual murder (allegedly Jews in every generation killed a Christian child as a repetition of Jesus’ crucifixion); blood libel (Jews supposedly used the blood drained from a Christian child to make matzoh for Passover and to drink so that they could rid themselves of their alleged Jew

stink); desecration of the Host (Jews allegedly stole and stabbed consecrated wafers in order to maliciously injure Jesus); and poisoning the wells to cause plague as part of the supposed Jewish conspiracy to damage Christians and control the world. Jewish evil was unending. Popes ordered civil authorities to force Jews to wear stigmatic emblems to mark out Jews to prevent Christian fraternization. Jews were confined to ghettos— unhealthy, overcrowded, walled, and guarded—and in Russia to a Pale of Settlement, a circumscribed area where Jews were forced live. At the mercy of their Christian rulers and townspeople, forbidden to own or train in the use of arms, a tiny and scattered minority, Jews were

vulnerable to attack, riots, outright murder, and devastations called pogroms. Ghetto residents were subject to proselytizing sermons, forced baptisms, and kidnappings. Social and sexual intercourse with Christians was proscribed. Ghetto dwellers were subject to special restrictions, such as limitations on marriage age and the number of children and synagogues. Jews were subject to genocidal attacks and to mass expulsions from towns, cities, principalities, and whole countries. Crusaders murdered Jews in Europe and the Holy Land. The Inquisition burned thousands of Jews and converted Jews at the stake. To many modern Christians, no matter how assimilated the Jews became, they were considered

the foreigner, the strange one, the alien who does not celebrate Christian rituals or festivals, who may dress differently and speak in a strange language. Mark Twain, whose Austrian critics accused him of being a Jew, wrote that “by his make and ways [the Jew] is substantially a foreigner wherever he may be, and even the angels dislike a foreigner.”xxxii The young Chaim Weizmann felt that the Jews were like a splinter in the eye: even if it were gold, it was still an incapacitating irritant.xxxiii The converted Jew Heinrich Heine believed that “Jewishness was an incurable malady.”xxxiv Jews were caricatured as villainous and dark with exaggerated noses. On the one hand, because the strong sense of social justice among many Jews

led them to criticize society in favor of the underdog and minorities, modern antisemites accused Jews of radicalism—in 2006, for many, even liberalism is enough to stir criticism of Jews— trying to upset the traditional order. On the other hand, Jewish success in business and the professions, engendering jealousy, has led to charges that Jews control the economy, especially banking, and are archcapitalists who engage in immoral business practices, war profiteering, and control of the press. Moreover, Jews are charged with engaging in pornography, cheapening culture, and displaying coarse and unrefined nouveau riche habits. Social and economic discrimination, restrictive covenants in housing, and gentlemen’s

agreements in social clubs, hotels, colleges, corporation boardrooms, and other private organizations excluded Jews. Among the great literary figures of Europe and the United States, religious antisemitism was widespread. In much of 19th-century literature, Jewish characters are stereotypes, not characters with good and bad traits but universally alien and evil. Authors of this literature, during the century often regarded as the most secular and racist of centuries, reveal their own hostile feelings about Jews in their negative Jewish characters—with the authors’ antisemitism often confirmed in their letters and essays. The term Jew itself became a curse word.

Mark Gelber has observed that “without a truly significant counterbalance to a negative Jewish character or to pejorative references to Jews, such depictions or references must be considered as examples of literary antisemitism.”xxxv This is the case with Balzac, Trollope, Hawthorne, and hundreds of other important authors who were taught their antisemitism at their mother’s knee, their father’s table, their teacher’s bench, and their priest’s or minister’s pulpit. Their work is cited in this book and speaks for itself. What offers hope is the case of the physician, professor, and poet Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. An advocate of religious toleration, Holmes observed that it is right that “the stately synagogue should

lift its walls by the side of the aspiring cathedral, a perpetual reminder that there are many mansions in the Father’s earthly house as well as in the heavenly one.”xxxvi But Holmes confessed that, as a young man, “I shared more or less the prevailing prejudices against the persecuted race,” which he traced to Christian teaching and Puritan exclusiveness. In a remarkable poem originally entitled “A Hebrew Tale,” Holmes demonstrated how he overcame his early antisemitism. This poem provides us with an important insight into the process of how antisemitism works: how one event can trigger a sequence of hostile thoughts and feelings about Jews. Holmes recounts how he was hemmed in by Jews attending a play. He found

their appearance distasteful, reminding him of their deicide, of their perfidy, of their usury, of their murder of Christian children. In this one poem, Holmes captures the two millennia of Jewish history in Christian lands, and the promise of a better future. Holmes mentions the hooked-nosed kite of carrion clothes, The sneaky usurer, him that crawls And cheats . . . Spawn of the race that slew its Lord. Up came their murderous deeds of old,

. . . Of children caught and crucified; . . . of Judas and his bribe . ..

But when Holmes looked more closely into the faces of the Jews surrounding him, he thought Jesus must have resembled them.

The shadow floated from my soul, And to my lips a whisper stole,— . . . From thee the son of Mary came,

With thee the Father deigned to dwell,— Peace be upon thee, Israel.xxxvii

In the first half of the 20th century, governments sponsored pogroms, passed restrictive immigration laws, ignored talented Jewish candidates for important positions, limited the number of Jews in prestigious schools, and turned a blind eye to persecution and violence against Jews—most notably during the Holocaust. During those terrible days, the U.S. Treasury Department’s report entitled “The Acquiescence of This Government in the Murder of the Jews”

summarized the relationship between the Western Allies and the Germans and many other Europeans and their governments in discrimination against, and mass murder of, Jews. The “Final Solution of the Jewish Problem” combined religious, nationalist, racist, sociocultural, and economic antisemitism. As Raul Hilberg put it: “The missionaries of Christianity had said in effect: You have no right to live among us as Jews. The secular rulers who followed had proclaimed: You have no right to live among us. The German Nazis at last decreed: You have no right to live.”xxxviii

Islamic Antisemitism Islam also discriminated against Jews and

Christians as dhimmis—People of the Book inferior to Muslims—but also afforded them limited protection if they paid special taxes and “behaved.” Though Jewish dhimmis were denied full civil and political rights and though pogroms and forced conversions continued in the Muslim world, for centuries during the period of Islamic dominance, Muslims treated Jews better than Christian rulers did. However, as the Islamic world, particularly the Arab nations, approached the 21st century, classic antisemitism invaded its belief system. Many contemporary Muslims fear and hate Jews and believe that Jews are an evil religious community who deserve no homeland and ought to be annihilated.xxxix The presence of Israel interrupts

the geographic continuity of the Arab world. Many Arabs believe that Israel is a catastrophe imposed imperialistically as an enclave of Western culture— Israeli “depravity” exemplified by liberated Jewish women. Jews are accused of introducing communism into the Middle East since they supported Palestinian, Syrian, Egyptian, and Lebanese communist parties. With no right to exist in a Jewish state, at best Jews should live as they did under caliphs—as dhimmis. At worst, Jews must be destroyed, as some medieval Crusaders proclaimed, down to the last baby at the breast.xl

Despite the tragic history of antisemitism reflected in the entries of this dictionary, antisemitism is not

one unending continuum. There were periods in Jewish history like the Golden Age of Jews in medieval Spain of relative tolerance and peaceful coexistence between Jews and Christians, Jews and Muslims. During the post-Holocaust period, until the last decade, antisemitism has lain dormant. There has been considerable improvement of conditions for Jews since the Holocaust and, since 1965, in the eyes of the Roman Catholic Church at the start of the 21st century. Yet the virus of antisemitism has once again resurrected, and the need to catalogue its manifestations and identify its proponents has never been more necessary.

DEDICATION Robert Michael To all those Jewish and Christian souls who have endured, who have fought hatred and prejudice, and who have made the world a better place. To my parents, Gilbert E. Friedberg and Jeanne Greene Friedberg. To my brother, Stephen H. Friedberg. And, especially, to my wife, Susan, and to my children, Stephanie, Andrew, and Carolyn.

Philip Rosen In his famous Mishna Torah, the great Jewish philosopher Maimonides wrote: “How would one know we were in the days of the Messiah? Only that the Jews would no longer be persecuted.” To my daughters Serena and Ruth.
Short Biography of Dr. Robert MICHAEL

Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, founder of the scholarly email list H-ANTISEMITISM, and a recipient of the American Historical Association's James Harvey Robinson Prize for the "most outstanding contribution to the teaching and learning of history," Dr. Robert Michael was a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Boston University in Philosophy, a Woodrow Wilson Fellow at Columbia University, and an NDEA Fellow at the University of Connecticut. He has taught classes at Central European University in Budapest, Inter-American University in Puerto Rico, and has delivered lectures at the University of Vienna, the Ateneo Veneto, and the University of Venice (Italy). Dr. Michael has published poetry and more than 50 articles and a dozen books on the Holocaust and History of Antisemitism. He served in the United States Army from 1958 to 1961 and worked as a book editor in New York City publishing for 6 years. Professor Michael currently teaches on the Graduate Faculty of Florida Gulf Coast University, University of South Florida, and Ringling School of Art & Design. Short Biography of Dr. Philip Rosen Philip Rosen received his doctor's degree from Carnegie-Mellon University researching American ethnity. He was the Director of the Holocaust Museum at Gratz College in Philadelphia and has

authored two books on the Holocaust. He is currently teaching at Temple University and Arcadia University in the Greater Philadelphia area where he lives with his wife Lillian.

i

<notes> Bryan Mark Rigg spends his first two chapters attempting to answer this question. in Hitler’s Jewish

.

Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish Descent in the German Military (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002).
ii.

George Eliot, “The Modern Hep! Hep! Hep!” in

Impressions of Theophrastus Such (Ames: Iowa University Press, 1994).
iii.

Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1954), 184. Moshe Zimmermann, Wilhelm Marr: The Patriarch of Antisemitism (Oxford: Oxford University

iv.

Press, 1986).
v.

Raul Hilberg, Destruction of the European Jews, rev. ed. (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985). Allport, Nature of Prejudice, 48. Josef Joffe, “Nations We Love to Hate: Israel, America and the New Antisemitism,” Posen Papers in

vi.

vii.

Contemporary Antisemitism, No. 1 (Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2005), 1–16.
viii.

What is endemic becomes epidemic. See Imre Hermann, Psychologie de l’Antisémitisme (Paris:

Eclat, 2006); Danielle Knafo, “Antisemitism in the Clinical Setting: Transference and Countertransference Dimensions,” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 47, no. 1 (1999), 35–63; Guy Sapriel, “La permanence antisémite: Une étude psychanalytique; La trace mnésique irréductible,” Pardès: Études et culture juive: Psychanalyse de l’antisémitisme contemporain (2004): 11–20, 16.
ix.

Richard Wagner, “Know Thyself,” in Richard Wagner’s Prose Works, trans. William Ashton Ellis

(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1892–99), 6:264–65, 271.

x.

European Union Monitoring Center on Racism and

Xenophobia, “Working Definition of Antisemitism,” EUMC. Discussion Papers—Racism, Xenophobia, Antisemitism, March 16, 2005,. eumc.eu.int/eumc/indexhttp://eumc.europa.eu/eumc/ material/pub/AS/AS-WorkingDefinition-draft.pdf.
xi.

Paul Rose, Revolutionary Antisemitism in Germany from Kant to Wagner (Princeton, NJ: Princeton

University Press, 1990), 14; Uriel Tal, Christians and Jews in Germany: Religion, Politics, and Ideology in the Second Reich, 1870–1914 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1975), 264.
xii.

Moshe Zimmermann, Wilhelm Marr: The Patriarch of Antisemitism (Oxford, UK: Oxford University

Press,1986), 83, 88–94, 105, 107, 112.
xiii.

Alan Davies, Antisemitism and the Christian Mind; The Crisis of Conscience after Auschwitz (New

York: Herder and Herder, 1969), 39.
xiv.

John Gager, The Origins of Antisemitism: Attitudes toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity

(New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 13.
xv.

Robert Willis, “Christian Theology after Auschwitz,”

Journal of Ecumenical Studies (Fall 1975): 495.
xvi.

Robert Michael summarizes the argument in his introduction “The United States Is Above All Things

a Christian Nation” for his Concise History of American Antisemitism (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005). See also, e.g., Egal Feldman, Dual Destinies: The Jewish Encounter with Protestant

America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990); and Leonard Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).; Robert Michael, Concise History of American Antisemitism (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), summarizes the argument in his “Introduction: ‘The United States is Above All Things a Christian Nation.’”
xvii.

Charles Glock and Rodney Stark, Christian Beliefs

and Antisemitism (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), xvi, 185–87, 50–65, 73–74, 105. See also Rodney Stark, et al., Wayward Shepherds (New York: Harper & Row, 1971), 5, 9–10, 50; and Alphons Silbermann, Sind Wir Antisemiten? (Cologne, Germany: Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik, 1982), 51–52.
xviii.

Allport, Nature of Prejudice, 446.

xix.

Irving Zeitlin, Jesus and the Judaism of His Time (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1988), 184–201. Menachem Stern, Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, 3 vols. (Jerusalem: Israel Academy

xx.

of Sciences and Humanities,1984).
xxi.

St. Jerome, De Antichristo in Danielem 4, 11:21–30, in Commentarii in Danielem, ed. Francisci

Glorie, Libri 3–4 [Corpus Christinaorum, Series Latina] (Turnhout Turnholti: Brepols, 1964), 75A:917–20; St. Augustine, “Reply to Faustus, the Manichaean,” in Disputation and Dialogue, ed. Frank Talmage (New York: KTAV, 1975), 31; St. John Chrysostom, Homilies against Judaizing Christians, 1.2.4–6.
xxii.

Joshua Trachtenberg, The Devil and the Jews (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1961).

xxiii.

Frederick Schweitzer, “The Tap-Root of Antisemitism: The Demonization of the Jews,” in

Remembering for the Future: Jews and Christians during and after the Holocaust: Theme One (Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 1988), 879–90.
xxiv.

Jacob Neusner, “Christian Missionaries—Jewish Scholars,” Midstream (October 1991), 31. St. Ambrose, Epistola 74:3 (Patrologiae, Cursus Completus, Series Latina, ed. J.-P. Migne,

xxv.

16:1255), cited in Shlomo Simonsohn, The Apostolic See and the Jews: History (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1991), 9n29.
xxvi.

Robert Chazan, Medieval Jewry in Northern

France (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974), 178 and chapters 5 and 6; Solomon Grayzel, ed., The Church and the Jews in the Thirteenth Century (New York: Hermon Press, 1966), 32n60, 278n3;. . Werner Keller, Diaspora: The Post-Biblical History of the Jews (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969), 225; Simonsohn, The Apostolic See and the Jews: History, 303–7, 315.
xxvii.

St. Isidore of Seville, Contra Judaeos, 1, 18, in Rosemary Ruether, Faith and Fratricide: The

Theological Roots of Antisemitism (New York: Seabury, 1965), 130.

xxviii.

Yosef Yerushalmi, Assimilation and Racial

Antisemitism: The Iberian and the German Models (New York: Leo Baeck Institute, 1982); Léon Poliakov, The Aryan Myth (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1974); Albert Sicroff, Les controverses des statuts de “pureté de sang” en Espagne du XVe au XVIIe siècle (Paris: Didier, 1960); Michael Glatzer, “Pablo de Santa Maria on the Events of 1391,” in Shmuel Almog, Antisemitism through the Ages (Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 1988), 127–37.
xxix.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Reden an die deutsche Nation

(1808), Sixth Address, Point 81; Hans-Joachim Becker, Fichtes Idee der Nation und das Judentum (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000); Eleonore Sterling, Judenhass: Die Anfänge des politischen Antisemitismus in Deutschland, 1815–1850 (Frankfurt:

Europaische Verlag, 1969), 128–29.
xxx.

Peter Pulzer, The Rise of Political Antisemitism in Germany and Austria, rev. ed. (Cambridge, MA:

Harvard University Press, 1988), 312.
xxxi.

Riccardo Calimani, Ebrei e pregiudizio: Introduzione alla dinamica dell’odio (Milan: Oscar

Mondadori, 2000).
xxxii.

Mark Twain, “Concerning the Jews,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (September 1899), reprinted

in The Complete Essays of Mark Twain, ed. Charles Neider (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963),
xxxiii.

Fritz Stern, “The Burden of Success: Reflections on German Jewry,” in Dreams and Delusions

(New York: Knopf, 1987), 111n.
xxxiv.

Heinrich Heine, quoted inby Jacob Katz, Out of the Ghetto (New York: Schocken, 1973), 210. Mark Gelber, “What Is Literary Antiseimitism?” Jewish Social Studies 42, no. 1 (Winter 1985);

xxxv.

Lionel Trilling, “The Changing Myth of the Jew,” Commentary 66, no. 2 (August 1978); Alvin Rosenfeld, “What to Do about Literary Antisemitism,” Midstream 24, no. 10 (1978).
xxxvi.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Over the Teacups (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1891), 197. Oliver Wendell Holmes, The Complete Poetical Works of Oliver Wendell Holmes (Boston:

xxxvii.

Houghton-Mifflin, 1895), 189.
xxxviii.

Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, rev. ed., (New York: Holmes and Meier,

1985), 1:8–9.
xxxix.

Robert S. Wistrich, Muslim Antisemitism: A Clear and

Present Danger (New York: American Jewish Committee, 2002).
xl.

An anonymous chronicler of Mainz, quoted in Robert Chazan, “The Hebrew First-Crusade

Chronicles,” Revue des Études Juives: Historia Judaica 33 (January–June 1974): 249–50, 253. </notes>