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Social Sciences Bilingual Section. IES Aljanadic.

2º ESO

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE


The Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) is the name given to
the Roman Empire that existed during the Middle Ages. Its capital was
Constantinople, which is located in Turkey and is now called Istanbul.
Unlike the Western Roman Empire, its people spoke Greek, not Latin and
had a largely Greek culture and identity.

The Corpus of Civil Law

For centuries the senate in Rome had been passing laws governing the
actions of Roman citizens. Roman emperors had also established thousands
of decrees and laws. Up until now, these laws were recorded in a variety of
scrolls, books, and tablets, which were spread throughout the Roman
Empire. This made it very difficult for Romans to understand their laws
and rights.

The Byzantines inherited their legal system from the Romans. The
Byzantine emperor Justinian hired a commission to review all the laws that
had accumulated over the centuries and to simplify them. This commission
categorised the laws into classes based on the issues that they dealt with.
They combined many similar laws, made complex laws more simple, while
getting rid of many outdated laws.

This new system of laws was recorded in a single book known as the
Corpus of Civil Law, or Justinian Code. The Corpus of Civil Law would
become the basis for the laws of many western civilisations.

The City of Constantinople

Tucked between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea lies a small neck of
land. In ancient times this peninsula was a popular travel route for

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Social Sciences Bilingual Section. IES Aljanadic.2º ESO

merchants and traders. Because it could be accessed from two different


seas, as well as by land, it was a perfect location for a city.

In addition, this location was easy to protect from attack. The water that
surrounded it made it difficult for opposing armies to attack. The one side
that was open to land could be protected by building a large thick wall.

Recognising the strategic value of this location, the Roman emperor


Constantine built a city here in A.D. 330. He named the city Constantinople
after himself.

The city of Constantinople quickly grew, becoming the wealthiest city in


the Roman Empire, even more wealthy than the city of Rome itself. In A.D.
395 when the Roman Empire was split, Constantinople was the most
logical location for the capital of the newly created Byzantine Empire.

At the end of May 1453 the Turks captured Constantinople and the Empire
came to an end. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople
became known as Istanbul, and is still known by this name. During the
Turk period, the Turks reused the main Byzantine churches as mosques and
built lots of new mosques as well. Nowadays, the cityscape is made up of
both Christian and Islamic architecture.

Byzantine Empire Word Search


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Social Sciences Bilingual Section. IES Aljanadic.2º ESO

Find the words below in the word search, then put each term with its definition:

CONSTANTINOPLE THEODORA
ALPHABET MOSAICS
JUSTINIAN JUSTINIAN CODE
CONSTANTINE HAGIA SOPHIA

T F R U G C P N I C H C M R Q N T M X H B M Y R R M O I B A Z I W T I
C O Z Z L I O N F I O O I E H G W G K N H J V W G Q Y O N A E A C Z M
R R Q D V S I N P K K N S L T K B F A D G M H O K X G A D J D L L M Q
A B L T L M U G S H R S T Y V R C O A M G V B Q B R I H K X O K G W R
I O B S E J M I G T B T F R A U O L O S E X S T E N Y U V O C A D J H
T H E O D O R A R G A A G G I C H P J D I D H E I X B L S A N V B B L
I G R J O G Z T K A H N D M L B A N O B K N K T G E F Y T E A I X O M
Y V E N E T I A N S S T T I V L U W O L Y F S Q Z T H Q C Z I U I C Y
R P C G Y R S W X I O I L I P A R T O W I U G R I I I O E L N F J H D
E N J O X C D G C Z O N L H N Y U Z I R J T C M X A V O J R I M O R P
J L G U I F D O A L X E A E U O J Q E O L E A I L I I P B Y T Y X Q C
P F H A C H N Z R F X B V B B B P F Z Y N E V N N D D U O B S H P I I
Q F S R B S X Z Z I E G Y I Y K N L H A I H P O S A I G A H U C E Z L
N O L Z X O V O N T X G R P B B M V E N C I T E M Z J M K L J V C F Q
M N U K C X U I A N S K L B N M Y O O X C J J U T T H D Q U U D M R M

TERM DEFINITION

1) moved the capital of Rome to Constantinople (East).


1) Christian city. 2) Latin was the official language.
1) a Macedonian. 2) strong ruler. 3) considered the greatest Byzantine
emperor. 4) served in the army and a good general.
1) Justinian's wife. 2) made her most important contribution in 532.
1) considered one of Justinian's greatest achievements. 2) was the law of
the land.
1) the church. 2) called "Holy Wisdom"
colourful pictures made of stone or glass
(Cyrillic) 1) based on the Greek version. 2) named in honour of the man who
_________ helped create it.

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Social Sciences Bilingual Section. IES Aljanadic.2º ESO

Solution:

T F R U G C P N I C H C M R Q N T M X H B M Y R R M O I B A Z I W
C O Z Z L I O N F I O O I E H G W G K N H J V W G Q Y O N A E A C
R R Q D V S I N P K K N S L T K B F A D G M H O K X G A D J D L L
A B L T L M U G S H R S T Y V R C O A M G V B Q B R I H K X O K G
I O B S E J M I G T B T F R A U O L O S E X S T E N Y U V O C A D
T H E O D O R A R G A A G G I C H P J D I D H E I X B L S A N V B
I G R J O G Z T K A H N D M L B A N O B K N K T G E F Y T E A I X
Y V E N E T I A N S S T T I V L U W O L Y F S Q Z T H Q C Z I U I
R P C G Y R S W X I O I L I P A R T O W I U G R I I I O E L N F J
E N J O X C D G C Z O N L H N Y U Z I R J T C M X A V O J R I M O
J L G U I F D O A L X E A E U O J Q E O L E A I L I I P B Y T Y X
P F H A C H N Z R F X B V B B B P F Z Y N E V N N D D U O B S H P
Q F S R B S X Z Z I E G Y I Y K N L H A I H P O S A I G A H U C E
N O L Z X O V O N T X G R P B B M V E N C I T E M Z J M K L J V C
M N U K C X U I A N S K L B N M Y O O X C J J U T T H D Q U U D M

Term Definition

Constantine 1) moved the capital of Rome to Constantinople (East).


Constantinople 1) Christian city. 2) Latin was the official language.
1) a Macedonian. 2) strong ruler. 3) considered the greatest Byzantine
Justinian
emperor. 4) served in the army and a good general.
Theodora 1) Justinian's wife. 2) made her most important contribution in 532.
1) considered one of Justinian's greatest achievements. 2) was the law
Justinian Code
of the land.
Hagia Sophia 1) the church. 2) called "Holy Wisdom"
Mosaics colourful pictures made of stone or glass
(Cyrillic) 1) based on the Greek version. 2) named in honour of the man who
Alphabet helped create it.

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Social Sciences Bilingual Section. IES Aljanadic.2º ESO

GLOSSARY:

The Middle Ages – la Edad Media


To be located – estar, situar, encontrarse
Unlike – diferente, distinto
largely – en gran parte
culture – cultura
identity – identidad
to pass laws – aprobar leyes
citizens – ciudadanos
decrees – decretos
to establish – establecer, instituir
emperor – emperador
Up until now – hasta ahora
To record - anotar
Rights – derechos
Tablets – tablilla
To be spread - extenderse
throughout – en todo
scroll – rollo
to inherit – heredar
legal system – sistema legal
to hire – alquilar, contratar
commission – comisión
review – revisión, resumen
to accumulate – acumular
to simplify – simplificar
to categorise – clasificar
classes – clases, tipos
is based on – está basado en, se base en
issues – temas, asuntos. cuestiones
to deal with – tratar de
complex – complejo
simple – sencillo
while – mientras (que)
to get rid of – deshacerse de
outdated – pasado de moda, anticuado
basis – base
civilisation – civilización
To tuck between – meter entre
neck of land – istmo de tierra
In ancient times – en tiempos antiguos, en la época antigua
peninsula – península
route – ruta, camino
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Social Sciences Bilingual Section. IES Aljanadic.2º ESO

merchant - comerciante
trader – vendedor
to access – obtener acceso a, entrar a
In addition – además
to protect – proteger
to attack – atacar
surrounded by – rodeado por
to make sth difficult – hacer algo difícil
opposing armies – ejércitos enemigos, opuestos
building – edificio
to recognis – reconocer
strategic value – valor estratégico
wealthiest – el más rico, adinerado
to split – partir, dividir
to capture – capturar
to come to an end – terminar, concluir
to fall – caerse
churches -
mosques
cityscape
Islamic
made up of
Christian
architecture
general
ruler
served
achievements