The Holocaust: A Chronology and Documentary by Robert A.

Michael Professor of European History University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (New York: Jason Aronson Publishers, 1998) ©1998 by Robert A. Michael

TABLE OF CONTENTS Epigraph Preface Introduction 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941

1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 Footnotes References

Epigraph He is an older man, walking with his young daughter through their disorderly English garden. She wonders aloud why all the mice are gone. He tells her that snakes have eaten them all. With the innocence of childhood, she looks into his face and asks, "Daddy, why do living things kill each other?" The father looks down into his daughter's face, reflecting on an answer. After a while his eyes fill with tears as he replies, "I don't know, my darling. I don't know." This anguished parent was Charles Darwin, a man who had answered so many other complicated questions about life and death. But even he, confronted by this fundamental issue can only utter an admission of ignorance. Imagine then the difficulty for an historian when confronted by the horror of the Holocaust? How does the historian explain why the Western world has chosen Jews as the metaphor for suffering and the reality of victimization? How does the historian confront the monstrous belief that the Jews are radical enemies of the state and of humanity, inherently evil beings who must be eradicated from the face of the earth? How does the historian explain the silence of the world to the Nazi atrocities? How does the historian face the murder of two million Jewish children? There are no easy answers for these questions. Eugon Kogon has suggested that

As you view the history of our time, turn and look at the piles of bodies, pause for a short moment and imagine that this poor residue of flesh and bones is your father, your child, your wife, is the one you love. See yourself and those nearest to you, to whom you are devoted heart and soul, thrown naked into the dirt, tortured, starving, killed.”

Preface: This chronology of the German war against the European Jews, the Holocaust (also called by the Hebrew Shoah, the Yiddish Hrbn, and in Nazi-Deutsch Endloesung der Juden Fragen, or Final Solution of the Jewish Problem), traces the events of the years 1933 through 1946. The intentional focus on the Jews victimized during the Holocaust is not meant to diminish the suffering and deaths of millions of others during this horrible period of history. A pragmatic German goal was to enslave and exploit the non-Jewish populations of Europe; incidental to this goal was the killing of millions of non-Jews. But the other, less pragmatic and more ideological, intention was the slaughter of the whole Jewish people in Europe. A chronology of the Holocaust can never be totally accurate. Authoritative histories differ not only as to the specific dates of important and well-known wartime events, such as the Soviet reconquest of Stalingrad (Volgograd), but they also disagree as to many of the most important dates concerning the Holocaust, such as the timetable for the decision on the Final Solution of the Jewish Problem. What follows is a chronology enhanced by eyewitness testimony, the experiences of Jewish victims, their victimizers, and the bystanders, all of whom speak for themselves. Included also are descriptions of occurrences and the reproduction of primary documents

before 1933 that run roughly parallel with the events and writtten material of the Holocaust. Secondary material is kept to a minimum.

Introduction: Anti-Jewishness was the essential cause of the Holocaust. The word antisemitism is a nineteenth-century German word (Antisemitismus) replacing Jew-hatred (Judenhass) in polite discourse. Antisemitism carries with it overtones of scientific authority and racism and is often applied to modern, allegedly secular, anti-Jewishness. Some scholars restrict the concept of antisemitism to those who not only dislike or hate Jews, but who foment political action against Jews.1 But history has repeatedly shown that anti-Jewish action results from anti-Jewish feelings. Are we to say that a bigot who writes anti-Jewish material read by thousands or even tens of millions of people but who does not directly connect to a political plan is not antisemitic? Certainly, not in the common usage of the word. Admittedly, there are distinctions to be made between St. Jerome, who claimed that all Jews were Judases who betrayed God for money; St. John Chrysostom, who argued that Jews “grew fit for slaughter"; Martin Luther, who described a multipoint plan to expropriate Jews, compel them into forced labor, exile them, and kill them; and Adolf Hitler, who articulated the previously existing anti-Jewish ideas and who expressed the previously existing anti-Jewish feelings of his audience, showed them a way finally to solve the "Jewish problem," and saw to it that it was carried out.

1Richard Levy, Antisemitism in the Modern World, 2-11.

What does it take to convince average people to murder defenseless Jewish adults and children, sick and elderly? Certainly not simply the ravings of a madman. It takes a charismatic leader who articulates the hatred and anger that the audience already feels toward the Jews and points out a remedy. Neither Sts. Jerome and Chrysostom nor Luther could have been Nazis; they lived centuries earlier. But what is so appalling is that their ideas parallel those of the Nazis. There is a "seamless web" among all three of these Jew haters, each of whom participated in establishing that Jews were evil and in giving authoritative "permission" to attack Jews for their alleged evil. As when a pebble is thrown into a pool, the resulting ripples are not equally powerful. At the heart of the horrors of the Holocaust were the Nazis and Germans, followed closely by their collaborators. Then came many citizens of the Allied nations, of occupied Europe, and of neutral Europe who knowingly turned their backs on the Jews. Antisemitism suggests that it was not the religion of the Jews that stirred hostility; it was instead aspects of the Jews' character (for example, greed and political radicalism) manifested in their behavior that caused anti-Jewish antagonism. But in the minds of those hostile toward Jews, anti-Jewishness is both a religious antipathy and an attack on the expression of the Jews’ nature and behavior. Because of this, I will use the words Jew-hatred, antisemitism, Judeophobia, and anti-

Jewishness synonymously. I apply the word antisemite to anyone who writes, or otherwise expresses a prejudice, against Jews, or who acts in an anti-Jewish manner. Christian anti-Jewishness is not by itself a sufficient cause of the Holocaust, but it is a necessary cause. The anti-Jewishness that sustains, indeed dominates, antisemitism is essentially a religious antipathy to Jews deeply rooted in Christian ideology. For nearly two millennia, theological animosity toward Jews and toward the Jewish spirit stands as the most significant explanation of Jew-hatred. The more entrenched Christianity became, for example, the worse and more frequent the anti-Jewish rhetoric of secular Roman law became. Christianized Roman emperors of the fourth and fifth centuries considered the Jews: “sacrilegious assemblies” “polluted with the Jewish disease” “contaminated with Jewish sacraments” “insulters of the Christian faith” a “plague that spreads widely” “the abominable and vile” “enemies of Roman law” “monstrous heretics” “the worst of men” “blindly senseless”

The emperors referred to Judaism as “a deadly and sacrilegious sect” “a brothel” “the Jewish perversity, alien and hostile to the Roman Empire” “the mark of Jewish filth” “corrupt with the filth of its particular sect” “the insanity of the Jewish blasphemy” “an abominable sect and rite” “frightful and hideous” These descriptions mirrored the language of the Church Fathers. Long before Hitler and the Nazis declared the Jews socially dead, Christians had proclaimed them evil. St. Ambrose, who saw any contact with Jews as a defilement, believed that due to "the stench of its crimes, the Jewish people soiled its pretended bodily purity by the internal feces of its soul." What does it take to convince average people to murder defenseless adults and children? Certainly not just the ravings of a madman. It takes a charismatic leader who articulates the hatred and anger that the audience already feels. St. Augustine called them Cains. St. John Chrysostom called for their deaths: like useless animals, Jews “grew fit for slaughter. This is why Christ said: ‘As for these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slay them before me.’” The Church Fathers, medieval theologians and Popes, the

sixteenth-century founders of Protestantism (Luther and Calvin), eighteenth-century philosophers, nineteenth-century writers and politicians, and many, if not most, ordinary people in the twentiethcentury until after the Holocaust felt that the Jews were alienated, dishonored people unworthy of human rights and protection, existing only by virtue of Christian charity. Anti-Jewish theology was so influential that even when Christians knew no Jews personally, a high degree of anti-Jewishness did exist. Ideology was not the only cause of the Nazi Holocaust—political, economic, psycho-social factors also contributed. But the anti-Jewish aspects of Christian thought and theology, the anti-Jewish Christian mindset and attitudes, and the precedents provided by the churches' historical relationship to Jews significantly conditioned the plan, establishment, and prosecution of the Holocaust. The churches and their theologians had formulated a compelling religious, social, and moral ideology (ideas with emotional impact) that provided a conceptual framework of the Jew as less than human or inhuman--as traitors, murderers, plague, pollution, filth, devils, and insects--long before the Christians of the Third Reich did. As Aldous Huxley observed that “If you call a man a bug, it means you propose to treat him as a bug.” Judeophobia was rife not only among Allied government officials but also among the Allied peoples and writers. That many of the

greatest American and British writers, the creators and caretakers of Western culture, were antagonistic to Jews reveals the depth and breadth of anti-Jewish attitudes. One single example, of dozens, before and during the Holocaust will suffice here. Employing traditional images of Judas and Shylock, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote this of a Jew who sat across from him at dinner one night: “There sat the very Jew of Jews; the distilled essence of all the Jews that have . . . been born since Jacob's time; he was Judas Iscariot; he was the Wandering Jew; he was the worst, and at the same time, the truest type of his race . . .. I never beheld anything so ugly and disagreeable, and preposterous, and laughable, as the outline of his profile; it was so hideously Jewish, and so cruel . . .. I rejoiced exceedingly in this Shylock, this Iscariot; for the sight of him justified me in the repugnance I have always felt towards his race.” In The Marble Faun, Hawthorne seems more "modern" in his antiJewishness when he refers to the Jews as “the ugliest, most evilminded” people, “resembling . . . maggots when they over-populate a decaying cheese.” This striking image is replicated by Adolf Hitler in Mein Kampf: “If you cut even cautiously into [the Jewish] abscess, you found, like a maggot in a rotting body, often dazzled by the sudden light—a kike!” It has been asked how Christian people could permit such

atrocities against the Jews as occurred during the Holocaust and why so few tried to intercede. The answer is that the same principles that run through earlier Christian assaults on Jews, Judaism, and Jewishness--on the Jewish spirit--drive the attack on the Jews during the Holocaust. It is obvious that Hitler and his collaborators (German and non-German) were not good Christians, yet almost all of them were born and raised in Christian homes; they and their children were baptized, confirmed, and married in churches, attended Church services, listened to priests' and ministers' sermons, served as altar boys, and were officially recorded as Christians. I am not implying that every Christian was anti-Jewish. Indeed, the evidence suggests that a sizable minority of Christians in every generation sympathized with Jews, had friendly relations with Jews, even married Jews. But antiJewish feelings were so prevalent among Christian individuals who have made their mark on history that we are surprised at least up to 1945 when an important Christian is not anti-Jewish. The most notorious racist of the twentieth century, Adolf Hitler, oftentimes talks as a traditional biological racist. But his rhetoric reminds us of Catholic Spain in the sixteenth century, when and where the first institutionalized racism occurred in the Christian government's purity of blood laws. Near the end of his life, Hitler concludes that biological racism is a sham. It is the Jewish mind and values, the “Jewish spirit,” that he hates. The only way to rid the world of this

Jewish spirit, he determines, is to destroy the Jewish bodies that house it. The Jews are “an abstract race of the mind [that] has its origins, admittedly, in the Hebrew religion . . .. A race of the mind is something more solid, more durable than just a [biological] race, pure and simple.” This description of Jews is close to the traditional religious anti-Jewishness and helps answer the question as to why Hitler and his collaborators chose the Jews to die in the first place. These ideas permeated Western Christian culture and ideology. Hitler's anti-Jewish ideas were imposed neither on the Germans nor on others who hated Jews, because they were already convinced that Jews were evil, and that is why Hitler and Nazi propaganda were so effective. Hitler was expressing ideas and feelings publicly and radically that many, if not most, Europeans--and many Americans-already entertained in regard to the Jews. The historical continuity of anti-Jewish ideas and imagery over the last two millennia is clear testimony that no essential difference exists between anti-Judaism and antisemitism.Three analogies from the chemical, medical, and biological sciences help clarify antisemitism’s ideological, social, and psychological nature. First, although they exist within different historical contexts, anti-Jewish ideas, emotions, and behaviors are reactive elements easily combining with other ideologies, such as nationalism, racism, social Darwinism, conservatism, fascism, and socialism to form an explosive compound.

Second, like a virus, anti-Jewishness rests dormant at different levels of the societal and individual psyche, surfacing especially during the throes of social or personal crisis. Third, although Jews have often been compared to parasites in both medieval and modern antisemitic imagery, antisemitism itself is a parasitic idea, growing more powerful by feeding on the negative human emotions of fear, anger, anxiety, and guilt. The major themes that emerge from the following chronology are: 1. There was widespread acceptance of Hitler's attitudes and policies in his attempt first to exile and then to murder the Jews of Europe. Just as the Nuremberg War Crimes tribunal observed of Hitler's Foreign Minister--"It is because Hitler's policy and plans coincided with his own ideas that Ribbentrop served him so willingly to the end"--so it can be said that many, if not most, Europeans, not just Germans, followed Hitler's directives not because they had to, but because they wanted to. Apathy, passivity, and fear assuredly influenced them, but Hitler pointed the way to "solving" the Jewish "problem," and, because centuries of anti-Jewish feelings had severed the bonds of human community between Christians and the Jews, most Europeans may not have wanted the Jews dead, but they certainly were willing to have them put out of the way. So pervasive were antiJewish feelings that many of Hitler's enemies in Germany, Eastern

Europe, France, England, and the United States sympathized with his antagonism toward the Jews. 2. In the eighteenth century, George Washington had promised the Jewish congregation of Newport, R.I., that “All [American citizens] possess alike liberty of conscience and immunities of citizenship. . . . For happily the government of the United States . . . gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance . . .. May the children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in this land continue to merit and enjoy the goodwill of the other inhabitants.” Yet despite their claims to be fighting a war for democracy and human rights, the attitudes of many important American and British officials concerned with foreign policy and refugees paralleled those of the Nazis and their collaborators. The Allied governments' antipathy toward Jews was far removed from the Nazi death factories, but even the indirect nature of this prejudice became murderous when it shut off all avenues of hope and relief for the millions of Jews trapped in Europe. Fear of the foreigner and economic concerns certainly influenced the Allied leaders and their peoples against Jewish immigrants, but anti-Jewishness had a permanent, widespread, and continually devastating impact. The silent or secret collaboration of the Allies confirmed to Hitler and his European accomplices the "validity" of their anti-Jewish ideology and Final Solution. 3. Palestine, then under British control, was geographically and

historically the best destination for Jewish refugees. The British War Cabinet and many other government officials, however, opposed allowing Palestine to serve as a refuge for Jews. These officials indicated, even when they realized that the Nazis were murdering millions of Jews, that they lacked the sense that Jews were human beings. 4. Members of the Allied governments, including the British and the American, knew of the Final Solution almost as soon as it was begun through American reporters trapped in Germany until 1941, reports from the Polish Government-in-Exile in London, testimony of Jewish escapees, diplomatic channels, and through intercepted and decoded German radio messages. 5. Thousands of individuals in the Allied nations and in occupied Europe treated the Jews with respect and the Holocaust with the urgency it deserved. As during the centuries that preceded the Holocaust, thousands of Jews are saved by thousands of Christians who overcame their fear of the Nazis and their collaborators and chose to risk their lives to save the innocent. These Christians passed the moral test of the times, which necessariily involved their attitudes and behavior towards Jews. 6. Many governments and many people in Europe, later allies of, or occupied by, Nazi Germany participated in a legal, political, economic, social, and finally murderous attack on Jewish civilians under

their control. Once the Third Reich's forces occupied these nations, they increasingly collaborated with Germany to destroy the Jews, their culture, and their religion. 7. Jews react in a variety of ways to the Nazis and their collaborators. A few Jews collaborated with the Germans, some American Jews fled from the attempt to put political pressure on their government to help with coreligionists, other Jews refused to face the realities of the Final Solution, but most Jews fell into a spectrum that ran from persistent adherence to their Judaism to guerrilla warfare against the murderers.

The Holocaust: A Chronology and Documentary by Robert Michael

Epigraph He is an older man, walking with his young daughter through their disorderly English garden. She wonders aloud why all the mice are gone. He tells her that snakes have eaten them all. With the innocence of childhood, she looks into his face and asks, "Daddy, why do living things kill each other?" The father looks down into his

daughter's face, reflecting on an answer. After a while his eyes fill with tears as he replies, "I don't know, my darling. I don't know." This anguished parent was Charles Darwin, a man who had answered so many other complicated questions about life and death. But even he, confronted by this fundamental issue can only utter an admission of ignorance. Imagine then the difficulty for an historian when confronted by the horror of the Holocaust? How does the historian explain why the Western world has chosen Jews as the metaphor for suffering and the reality of victimization? How does the historian confront the monstrous belief that the Jews are radical enemies of the state and of humanity, inherently evil beings who must be eradicated from the face of the earth? How does the historian explain the silence of the world to the Nazi atrocities? How does the historian face the murder of two million Jewish children? There are no easy answers for these questions. As you view the history of our time, turn and look at the piles of bodies, pause for a short moment and imagine that this poor residue of flesh and bones is your father, your child, your wife, is th one you love. See yourself and those nearest to you, to whom you are devoted heart and soul, thrown naked into the dirt, tortured, starving, killed.”2

2Eugon Kogon citation is in Schoenberner, yellow star

Preface: This chronology of the German war against the European Jews, the Holocaust, traces the events of the years 1933 through 1946. The intentional focus on the Jews victimized during the Holocaust is not meant to diminish the suffering and deaths of millions of others during this horrible period of history. A pragmatic German goal was to enslave and exploit the non-Jewish populations of Europe; incidental to this goal was the killing of millions of non-Jews. But the other, less pragmatic and more ideological, intention was the slaughter of the whole Jewish people in Europe. A chronology of the Holocaust can never be totally accurate. Authoritative histories differ not only as to the specific dates of important and well-known events, such as the Soviet reconquest of Stalingrad (Volgagrad), but they also disagree as to many of the most important dates concerning the Holocaust, such as the timetable for the decision on the Final Solution of the Jewish Problem. What follows is a chronology enhanced by eyewitness testimony, the experiences of Jewish victims, their victimizers, and the bystanders, all of whom speak for themselves. Secondary material, including the author's own opinions, is kept to an absolute minimum, being layed out almost exclusively in the Introduction.

Introduction:

The word antisemitism, anti-Jewishness, the essential cause of the Holocaust, is a nineteenth-century German word, Antisemitismus, replacing Jew-hatred (Judenhass) in polite discourse and carrying with it overtones of scientific authority and racism.3 But in the minds of those hostile to Jews, antisemitism is not just an attack on the Jewish "race" (the expression of the Jews’ biological nature); it is also frequently a religious antipathy. For nearly 2,000 years before the Holocaust takes place, religious antipathy toward Jews and toward the Jewish spirit stands as the most significant explanation of Jew-hatred. The more entrenched Christianity became, the worse and more frequent the anti-Jewish rhetoric of Roman law became. The Jews were “sacrilegious assemblies” (353 C.E.), “polluted with the Jewish disease” (383), “contaminated with Jewish sacraments” (384), “insulters of the Christian faith” (408) a “plague that spreads widely” (408), “the abominable and vile” (409),

3See Moshe Zimmermann, Wilhelm Marr: The  Patriarch of Antisemitism (Oxford 1986), 113. The  Great Brockhaus dictionary of 1882 clearly defined  antisemite as a “Hater of Jews. Opponent of  Judaism.” See also Ben Halpern, “What Is  Antisemitism?” Modern Judaism 1(1981), 251­62. 

“enemies of Roman law” (438), “monstrous heretics” (438), “the worst of men” (438), and “blindly senseless” (438). Judaism was referred to as “a deadly and sacriligious sect” (329), “a brothel” (329), “the Jewish perversity, alien and hostile to the Roman Empire” (409), “the mark of Jewish filth” (415), “corrupt with the filth of its particular sect” (417), “the insanity of the Jewish blasphemy” (425), “an abominable sect and rite” (438), “frightful and hideous” (438).4

4C.T. 3:1:5, 15:5:5, 16:5:44, 16:7:3, 16:8:7, 16:8:19,  16:8:22, 16:9:4 and Codex Justinianus 1:9:3, 1:7:5,  and 1:5:7. See also Novella 3 to the law of Theodosius  II of 31 January 438, in Linder, The Jews in Roman  Imperial Legislation, doc. 54. See also Clyde Pharr,  tr., The Theodosian Code and Novels and the  Sirmondian Constitutions (Princeton 1952), 489.  Hereafter, the Codex Justinianus will be referred to as  C.J.

The most notorious racist of the twentieth century, Adolf Hitler, oftentimes talks as a traditional biological racist. His rhetoric reminds us of Catholic Spain in the 16th century, where the first institutionalized racism occurred.5 But he concludes near the end of his life that biological racism is a sham. It is the Jewish mind and values, the “Jewish spirit,” that he hates. The only way to rid the world of this Jewish spirit, he determines, is to destroy the Jewish bodies that house it. Hitler tells his last private secretary, close associate, and second-incommand, Martin Bormann, that “we use the term Jewish race as a matter of convenience, for in reality and from the genetic point of view there is no such thing as the Jewish race. There does, however, exist a community. . . . It is [a] spiritually homogeneous group [to] which all Jews throughout the world deliberately adhere . . . and it is this group of human beings to which we give the title Jewish race.”6 Hitler describes the Jews as “an abstract race of the mind [that] has its

5Poliakov. 6First published in French by Fayard as Le Testament  politique de Hitler: Notes Recueillies par Martin  Bormann (Paris 1959), it contains an important  monologue of 13 February 1945. Republished in  English as The Testament of Adolf Hitler: The Hitler­ Bormann Documents, February­April 1945 (London  1961).

origins, admittedly, in the Hebrew religion . . .. A race of the mind is something more solid, more durable that just a [biological] race, pure and simple.”7 In describing an ideological Jewishness, based on religion, Hitler brings himself close to the traditional religious antagonism toward Jews and helps answer the question as to why Hitler and his collaborators chose the Jews to die in the first place. Three analogies from the chemical, medical, and biological sciences help clarify antisemitism’s ideological, social, and psychological nature. First, although they exist within different historical contexts,8 anti-Jewish ideas, emotions, and behaviors are reactive elements easily combining with other ideologies, such as nationalism, racism, social darwinism, conservatism, fascism, and socialism to form an explosive compound.9 Second, like a virus, antiJewishness rests dormant at different levels of the societal and individual psyche,10 surfacing especially during the throes of social or

7Hitler, The Testament of Adolf Hitler, 55­6. 8See Marcel Simon, Verus Israel (Eng.) 395. 9See Robert Wistrich, Antisemitism: The Longest  Hatred (London 1991), xvi­xvii. 10“As historical horizons shifted [antisemitism] could  maintain its power and still accommodate all sorts of  variations on the basic pattern.” Alter, “From Myth to  Murder,” 41. See also Uriel Tal, Christians and Jews in 

personal crisis. Third, although Jews have often been compared to parasites in both medieval and modern antisemitic imagery, antisemitism itself is a parasitic idea, growing more powerful by feeding on the negative human emotions of fear, anger, anxiety, and guilt. The major themes that emerge from the following Holocaust chronology are: 1. The widespread acceptance of Hitler's attitudes and policies in his attempt first to exile and then to murder the Jews of Europe. Just as the Nuremberg War Crimes tribunal observed of Hitler's Foreign Minister--"It is because Hitler's policy and plans coincided with his own ideas that Ribbentrop served him so willingly to the end"11--so it can be said that many, if not most, Europeans felt a strong antipathy toward Jews. Apathy, passivity, and fear were assuredly influences on the non-Jews of Europe. But Hitler also expressed the same feelings about Jews that most Europeans had experienced for centuries. He pointed the way to "solving" the Jewish "problem," and many Europeans, not just Germans, followed Hitler not because they had to, but because they wanted to. True, the traditional Christian ideological approach to the Jews saw them punished but not perished. Christians were sometimes envious, othertimes contemptuous of Jews, occasionally

Germany (Ithaca 1975), 276. 11Snyder,Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, 296.

murderous (six million Jews may have already been murdered within Christendom over the previous 1900 years). Most Europeans wanted the Jews out of the way. Centuries of antisemitism had severed the bonds of human community between most Christians and Jews. 2. Thousands of individuals in the Allied nations and in Occupied Europe treat the Jews with respect and the Holocaust with the urgency it deserves. As during the centuries that preceded the Holocaust, thousands of Jews are saved by thousands of Christians who overcame their fear of the Nazis and their collaborators and choose to risk their lives to save the innocent. 3. In the 18th century, George Washington had promised the Jewish congregation of Newport, R.I., that “All [American citizens] possess alike liberty of conscience and immunities of citizenship. . . . For happily the government of the United States . . . gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance . . .. May the children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in this land continue to merit and enjoy the goodwill of the other inhabitants.”12 Yet despite their claims to be

12George Washington, “A Reply to the Hebrew  Congregation of Newport,” Paul Mendes­Flohr and  Jehuda Reinharz, The Jew in the Modern World: A  Documentary History (New York 1980), Ch. 9,  Document 8. A century later, Russian Jews were  appealing to their American brothers to “come to our 

fighting a war for democracy and human rights, the attitudes of many important American and British officials concerned with foreign policy and refugees parallel those of the Nazis and their collaborators. The Allied governments' antipathy toward Jews is far removed from the Nazi death factories, but even the indirect nature of this prejudice becomes murderous when it shuts off all avenues of hope and relief for the millions of Jews trapped in Europe. Fear of the foreigner and economic concerns certainly influenced the Allied leaders and their peoples against Jewish immigrants, but antisemitism had a widespread and devastating impact. The silent or secret collaboration of the Allies confirms to Hitler and his European accomplices the "validity" of their anti-Jewish ideology and Final Solution. 4. Palestine, then under British control, is geographically and historically the best destination for Jewish refugees. The British War Cabinet and many other government officials, however, oppose allowing Palestine to serve as a refuge for Jews. These officials indicate, even when they realize that the Nazis are murdering millions of Jews, that they lack the sense that Jews are human beings. 5. The long history of antisemitism had conditioned many, perhaps most, Europeans and Americans to regard the Jews as dangerous, evil people who should be kept out of Christian

help . . . let us touch the sacred soil of Washington.”  Feingold, Zion in America, 118.

society, if not fully exterminated. The position of the Church Fathers themselves on the Jews is perhaps best summarized in the words of the 4th century St. Ambrose, who sees any contact with Jews as a defilement. He believes that due to "the stench of its crimes, the Jewish people soils its pretended bodily purity by the internal feces of its soul [ordures interieures de l'ame]." Antisemitism is rife not only among Allied government officials but also among the Allied peoples and writers. That many if not most of the greatest American and British writers, the creators and caretakers of our national heritage and culture, were extraordinarily antagonistic to Jews reveals the depth and breadth of antisemitism among the allied nations. One single example, of dozens, should suffice here: Nathanael Hawthorne wrote this of a Jew who sat across from him at dinner one night: “There sat the very Jew of Jews; the distilled essence of all the Jews that have . . . been born since Jacob's time; he was Judas Iscariot; he was the Wandering Jew; he was the worst, and at the same time, the truest type of his race . . .. I never beheld anything so ugly and disagreeable, and preposterous, and laughable, as the outline of his profile; it was so hideously Jewish, and so cruel . . .. I rejoiced exceedingly in this Shylock, this Iscariot; for the sight of him justified me in the repugnance I have

always felt towards his race.”13 6. Many governments and many people in Europe, later allies of, or occupied by, Nazi Germany participate in a legal, political, economic, social, and finally murderous attack on Jewish civilians under their control. Once the Third Reich's forces occupy these nations, they increasingly collaborate with Germany to destroy the Jews, their culture, and their religion. 7. Jews react in a variety of ways to the Nazis and their collaborators. Some Jews collaborated with the Germans, some American Jews fled from the attempt to put political pressure on their government to help with coreligionists, other Jews refused to face the realities of the Final Solution, but most Jews fell into a spectrum that ran from persistent adherence to their Judaism to guerrilla warfare against the murderers.

13Hawthorne, The English Notebooks (New York 1941), p. 321.