Product and Brand Management: Project- Stage 1

Submitted To: Prof. S. Govindrajan

Submitted By: Meghna Singh- u108085 Sujit Sahoo- u108111 Swaroop Kumar Kar- u108112 Uday Bhanu Satpathy- u108116
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Contents
Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... 3 History and Evolution of Dove ...................................................................................................................... 3 Instrument of Data Collection....................................................................................................................... 5 Brand Asset Valuator Model (An adaption from Young & Rubicam BAV Model) .................................... 5 Laddering .................................................................................................................................................. 7 Findings and Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 8 Brand Asset Valuator Model ..................................................................................................................... 8 Laddering ................................................................................................................................................ 13 References .................................................................................................................................................. 20

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Executive Summary
With increase in disposable incomes, growth in rural demand is expected to increase because consumers are moving up towards premium products. Dove is positioned as premium soap in India. This Report aims at measuring the Brand Image of Dove. This Report tracks the brand image of Dove with two approaches a) Quantative Research b) Qualitative Research. The Project uses a suitable adaption of Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator model for Quantative Research and uses the Laddering method for Qualitative Research. With the help of Quantative Research, the project aims to find a quantify intangible pillars of Brand Dove like Differentiation, Relevance, Knowledge and Esteem. The BAV Model gives scores on the four pillars which demonstrate potential for Dove. The BAV Model scores of three Brands have been taken to compare the position of Brand Dove Vis-a Vis other Brands like Garnier and Nestle. The Power Grid shows the Brands health and momentum. The BAV Model findings and implications can be used for developing Brand strategies and tactics. Laddering as a qualitative research technique helps identify the core values that individual customers may associate with a brand and thus help in constructing a brand personality that the customers can identify with. The report gives a HVM (Hierarchical Value Map of Premium Soap Category, which was obtained by the laddering method. Content Analysis and Implication Matrix summary have also been covered in the report. Self Esteem and Self Worth are the most significant core values of respondents, and confidence is one of the key consequences of using premium soap.

History and Evolution of Dove
Dove is a personal care brand owned by Unilever. It was launched by Unilever in 1957 in US, years after Unilever acquired soap factory De Duif in The Netherlands, from which the brand name Dove is derived. Dove has been available in India since 1995. Dove's logo is a silhouette profile of a dove, the colour of which often varies. Dove's products include:

antiperspirants/deodorants, body washes, beauty bars, lotions/moisturizers, hair care and facial care products.

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Dove has grown from a US-only soap bar into one of Unilever’s biggest global brands. It is now the world's #1 cleansing brand, and #3 in the Anglo-Dutch company's portfolio behind Knorr and Lipton. During the 1990s, the group began to extend the brand across the complete personal care spectrum, and Dove now encompasses a wide range of products from bar soap to shower gel, and from deodorants to shampoo-conditioners. Its mantra is that it provides a refreshingly real alternative for women who recognise that beauty is not simply about how you look, it is about how you feel. Dove has been positioned throughout its history without referring to it as "soap", but as a "beauty bar" with one-fourth cleansing cream; they stress its moisturizing of skin while washing in contrast to the drying effects of regular soaps (which their advertising calls simply "soap"). Advertisements reinforced the message by showing the cream being poured into the beauty bar. In 1979, the phrase "cleansing cream" was replaced with "moisturizer cream". In 1979, a Pennsylvania dermatologist showed that Dove dried and irritated skin significantly less than ordinary soaps. As a result of this study, Unilever started aggressive marketing and won more than 24% of the market by 2003. Dove has attracted widespread media attention since 2004 for its marketing. That year, Ogilvy & Mather launched a series of ads for Dove portraying the "real beauty" of ordinary women. The brand competes fiercely with Procter & Gamble's Olay, Beiersdorf’s Nivea and Johnson & Johnson's Neutrogena, all of which have a similarly broad product range. In 2006, Dove started the Dove Self-Esteem Fund. It purports to be "an agent of change to educate and inspire girls on a wider definition of beauty and to make them feel more confident about themselves". To this end, Dove created a number of largely online-only short films, including Daughters, Evolution, Onslaught and Amy. Dove's ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ was praised by people in the advertising world, as well as from real consumers for representing something different to the typical fashion advertising. By focusing on the distorted perception of beauty that much of the fashion industry is guilty of promoting, Dove successfully separated its brand from that category and made it stand for something different and something real. The early part of the campaign was mainly driven by TV ads, and billboard ads featuring their "real" models. Later, Dove used social media, using it to drive even more interest online in the central theme behind the entire campaign. One of the most popular videos on YouTube right now is Dove's Evolution of Beauty, a video also posted on their website.
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Dove has evolved from functional brand to a brand with a point of view after Unilever designated it as a masterbrand, and expanded its portfolio to cover entries into a number of sectors beyond the original bath soap category. The development caused the brand team to take a fresh look at the cliches of the beauty industry. The result was the controversial Real Beauty campaign. As the campaign unfolded, Unilever learnt to use the Internet, and particularly social network media like YouTube, to manage controversy.

Instrument of Data Collection
Brand Asset Valuator Model (An adaption from Young & Rubicam BAV Model) Brand Asset Valuator suggests that brands are built in a very specific progression of four consumer perceptions: Differentiation, Relevance, Esteem and Knowledge. Differentiation = Distinctiveness (margin opportunity) Relevance = Appropriateness (broad appeal) Esteem= Reputation & Respect (retain customers) Knowledge= Depth of Understanding (affinity with the brand) We have used three sets of standard questionnaire (20 Questions each) for three Brands. A standard structured questionnaire has been used since the Young & Rubicam method adaption is a quantative one and cannot be open ended which will bring in subjectivity in the model. 1) Dove ( our chosen brand ) 2) Garnier 3) Nestle Methodology: A quantitative survey was conducted for all the three brands (Dove, Garnier and Nestle) separately among a homogenous population (students at XIM). Sample Size for Dove Survey: 61 Sample Size for Garnier Survey: 48 Sample Size for Survey: 46

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Assumptions 1) Since the population for the survey is homogenous, each respondent has equal probability of being in the sample of survey. 2) The reason for floating three independent surveys instead of a single survey was that, ( for example if a respondent gives the highest preference for dove on a particular attribute, that is strongly agree , he will be cognitively driven not to mark the same response for another brand say Garnier. However otherwise in the same population (which is uniform) another respondent might just give the highest preference for Garnier. So our objective was to avoid a sample which prefers one brand and is biased towards the other brands, just because he wants to mark a different response to the other brand. Also there is a tendency to mark at random when three questions are asked at the same time. This tendency is slightly reduced when the respondent is exposed to just one brand at a time. We have chosen 5 attributes each to measure the four pillars of BAV. From the 48 attributes used by Young and Rubicam, the group zeroed in on 5 attributes each (that is 20 attributes in all), our group could identify (with to that pillar) with most certainty. The following tables give the break up.

Relevance 1 2 3 4 5 Good Value Authenticity High Performance More Value Association 1 2 3 4 5

Differentiation Distinct Innovation Unique Different Original

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Esteem 1 2 3 4 5 Reliable Gaining In Popularity Trustworthy Prestigious brand High Quality 1 2 3 4 5

Knowledge Down to Earth Simplicity Tradition Socially responsible Healthy

Laddering Laddering is an interview technique that leads to identification of core values of the respondents and the corresponding attributes and consequences due to which the respondents use this attribute. Laddering is a method that helps you elicit the higher or lower level abstractions of the concepts that people use to organize their world. The laddering interview technique is an unstructured approach. The informants become reflective and elicit what is important to them and why. Laddering techniques involve creating, reviewing and modifying of hierarchical knowledge, often in the form of ladders (i.e. tree diagrams). Why is Laddering better than Aaaker’s Brand Personality Model? 1) Cannot be used to observe motives, attitudes or intentions and can lead to ambiguous or at times misleading results 2) Since the respondent may not be sure of what some attributes mean, there is a possibility of them being missed out which does not happen in case of laddering. 3) Laddering helps in synthesizing the core of the brand resulting in the visual representation of the brand’s central characteristics 4) Today competition is not just limited to product category and Aaker’s model is limited to a product category. This is a thing of past and is myopic in its approach.
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5) Aaker’s model does not give an insight into consumer behavior. The type of laddering used is Preference Consumption Differences. The questions were based on the differentiation with second best preferred brand. In case of absence of this, the questions focussed on the attributes due to which respondents use this brand. The identification of the major attributes led to their consequences and the underlying values.

Findings and Conclusion
Brand Asset Valuator Model Results and Analysis The average scores for Brand Dove on all four pillars (out of 25) are Differentiation Relevance Knowledge Esteem 19.02 18.11 15.21 20.18

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19.20 19.00 18.80 18.60 18.40 18.20 18.00 17.80 17.60

19.02

Dove Brand Strength

18.11

Brand Strength

Differentiation

Relevance

Differentiation > Relevance Since differentiation is greater than relevance, the brand has potential to grow. The brand has the power to build relevance. However as the data suggests there is not a huge difference between differentiation of the vis –a-vis the relevance of the brand. Differentiation is the engine that pulls the brand train. Differentiation is critical in the successful development and maintenance of a brand. Combination of Differentiation and Relevance forms Brand Strength. Since Differentiation and Relevance for Brand Dove is almost same, Brand Strength is high, which implies Brand Dove can exist in the market as a viable entry. High Brand Strength allows the brand to both defend itself from competition and generate margin, earnings and economic value.

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Dove Brand Stature
25 20.18 20 15.21 15 10 5 0 Knowledge Esteem Dove Brand Stature

Esteem > Knowledge A healthy sign for Brand Dove is absorbed, as the Esteem score for Brand Dove is significantly higher than knowledge. Brand Dove is better liked than known. Customers would like to know Brand Dove better. Esteem relates to how well a brand fulfills its implied or overtly stated consumer promise. It doesn’t occur without Differentiation and Relevance having preceded it, but it can outlive those Pillars by many years. The combination of Esteem and Knowledge forms Brand Stature. The combination of Esteem and Knowledge is slightly lower, which implies the brand pervasiveness in the market is low.

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4 Pillars Of BAV
25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 Differentiation Relevance Knowledge Esteem 4 Pillars Of BAV 19.02 20.18 18.11 15.21

Dove has the highest Esteem score out of the the four pillars. The perceived quality and consumer perceptions about dove are good and its popularity is growing. The brand is keeping its promises. The consumer's response to a marketer's brand-building activity is driven by his perception of two factors: quality and popularity, both of which vary by country and culture, which in case of Dove is high in case of Dove indicating good health of the Brand. Differentiation score of dove is the next highest. The brand stands apart from its competitors is unique in its offering. Brand health is built and maintained by offering a set of differentiating promises to consumers and delivering those promises to leverage value.
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POWER GRID From the consumer survey, it was found out that the values for relevance and knowledge are much lower with respect to differentiation and esteem.

Calculation of Brand strength (Differentiation & Relevance) and brand stature (Esteem & Knowledge) • Brand Strength = Mean of (Product of Differentiation & Relevance scores of each respondent) converted to a scale of 100 by diving by the maximum score possible • Brand Stature = Mean of (Product of Esteem & Knowledge scores of each respondent) converted to a scale of 100 by diving by the maximum score possible

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Dove comes in a zone which shows that it is beginning to exit from leadership stage and is slightly moving towards the declining stage. Its strength and stature scores are both above 50%. The decline can probably be attributed to low scores in knowledge. Even though the score for relevance is low, the brand strength has been carried largely through its differentiation. As a recommendation, relevance scores can be increased by showing more value to the customer and strengthening the identity of brand Dove.

A competitor in the same category as Dove is Garnier. Garnier is in a zone which is called the New zone. It means that it has only begun to create differentiation in the market and has started pulling customers towards its relevance. It needs to build on its esteem and differentiation to move on to upper zones.

A different category FMCG brand is Nestle. Across the surveyed consumers, Nestle was found to occupy a major position in terms of strength and stature. It possesses high esteem and high relevance scores.

Laddering Results and Analysis The responses were analyzed to form Attribute-Consequence-Value chains for all the respondents. The similar attributes, consequences and values were grouped together. These ACVs were and organized to form the following table. Some of the entities were derived from sub entities which are specified below. Attributes 1 2 3 4 5 6 Smell Gentle No Harmful Chemicals Moisturising Premium Product Acts as a conditioner
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Sub Attributes Fragrance, Lightness Light Colour, Soft Feel , Texture

Packaging, Ads, Price

Consequences 7 Confidence Professionalism No Harmful Effect on Skin, 8 9 Healthy Feel Good Factor Glow on the Skin Healthy Skin

10 Good Looking 11 Better Personality

No 12 Convenience 13 Value For Money 14 Sophistication 15 Indulgence 16 Show off 17 Perception 18 Long Term benefits Values 19 Self Esteem 20 Individuality 21 Self Worth 22 Security

extra

moisturiser,

Low

consumption of Time Superior Value

Tidyness, Unkempt, Grooming

Respect, Dignity, Acceptance Independence, Distinction Accomplishment Sincerity, Security

The serial numbers of the ACVs from the table were taken as the codes for further analysis. The ACVs were transformed to the following

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Raw Data for Dove Analysis Respondents Attribute Consequence --> Values Depth 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 4 2 5 6 3 2 4 5 1 2 6 3 2 2 4 2 9 10 14 12 8 8 10 14 9 10 12 8 10 8 9 3 8 15 15 13 9 7 11 15 7 11 13 9 17 7 7 4 18 11 20 21 17 14 17 7 19 17 21 11 21 17 19 5 22 16 0 0 7 17 7 11 0 19 0 17 0 21 0 6 0 19 0 0 19 19 19 16 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 19 0 0 0

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Summary Implication Matrix
7 1 Smell 2 Gentle 3 No Harmful Chems 4 Moisturising 5 Premium Product 6 Acts as a conditioner 7 Confidence 8 Healthy 2 9 Feel Good Factor 2 10 Good Looking 11 Better Personality 12 Conveniece 13 Value For Money 14 Sophistication 15 Indulgence 1 16 Show off 17 Perception 2 18 Long Term benefits 19 Self Esteem 20 Indivuality 21 Self Worth 22 Security 8 2 2 2 9 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

The cutoff value for the HVM matrix was taken was 2 as it was the most common value in the Implication matrix. Using this and the data from the Implication table the ladder was built.

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Self Esteem emerged as the core value for most of the respondents. It was followed by self worth and Individualism.

The consequence that mattered the most was Confidence. In fact it led to both Self Esteem and Self Worth. It was supported by consequences like feeling good, external perception and looking good.

Respondents who see confidence as a consequence of using the products see Gentleness, Lack of harmful chemicals and Moisturizer were the product attributes that drove it.

The conditioning attribute was seen as a value for money proposition by some users at it led to saving of time and effort from using other conditioners which led to Self Worth as a core value.

Consumers who viewed premiumness of the soap took it as a reflection of their level of sophistication. This led to the satisfaction of their core value that was Individualism.

A few respondents felt a sense of security from the long term benefits promised and perceived from the brand.
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Conclusions 1) Segmentation: Ladder Frequencies for Attribute - Value Linkage Attribute Value Social Self Esteem Smell Gentle No 1 3 Security 0 0 0 Total 1 3 2 Achievement Self Worth 0 2 0 Individuality 0 0 0 Total 0 2 0

Harmful 2

Chemicals Moisturising Premium Product Acts as a 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 2

conditioner 9 6

The four values have been classified to higher level values as follows: Social: Self Esteem and Security- These two values are more to do with social standing of a person as to how a person is seen in the society.

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Personal: Self worth and individuality- These two values relate a person to oneself as to how a person stands upto his/ her expectations. Self worth is inclusive of acceptance of oneself and dignity. From the ladder frequencies for attribute- value linkage, the results are as follows: Social- 9 respondents i.e. 60% respondents Personal- 6 respondents i.e. 40% respondents It is evident that this range of products and this brand is more applicable to people who are conscious about their social values and worth in the eyes of others. 2) Developing Advertising Strategy: Means- Ends Conceptualization of Components of Advertising Strategy: Driving Force- The value orientation for the brand needs to be social values. It is important to note that the values that are derived from maximum respondents are self esteem and self worth. So, we can conclude that this range of products cater to an inherent need in a person to feel confident about himself/herself. This leads to a person seeing that he/she is accepted in the society and people perception about that person is positive. Leverage Point- The value which has to be reinforced by the ads is Self Esteem as this is the value exhibited by the maximum number of respondents. Executional Framework- Since the brand is perceived to be a premium one and one which has a sophisticated imagery, the tone and style of the advertisement should reflect the same. The consequences and benefits should be put subtlety so that the viewer is tasked with interpreting them. This comes from the HVM which depicts varied benefits perceived by the users. Consumer Benefit- Confidence is the clear winner when it comes to consumer consequence. The underlying consequences leading to this are external perception, feeling of goodness and looking good. Hence one or more of these consequences need to be emphasised visually in the advertisements. The coherent theme which needs to be communicated verbally is Confidence.
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Message Elements- What emerges from the Hierarchical Value Model is the importance of confidence in the four major values – Self Esteem, Self Worth, Individuality and Security. The product attributes which leads to the consequence of Confidence are gentleness, absence of harmful chemicals and moisturising property. These product attributes need to be highlighted in the advertisements to induce the need for confidence among the viewers.

References
• • • • • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dove_(brand) http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com/supports.asp?section=campaign&id=93 http://www.adbrands.net/us/dove_us.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_(advertisement) http://rohitbhargava.typepad.com/weblog/2006/10/doves_evolution.html

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