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EE5702R Advance Power System

Analysis:: Introduction
Panida Jirutitijaroen
Fall 2011
17/08/2011
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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Assessment
Tentative syllabus
Learning outcomes

ABOUT THIS CLASS

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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

About This Class


Instructors:
Asst. Prof. Panida Jirutitijaroen (1st half)
Assoc. Prof. Chang Che Sau (2nd half)

Core module for MEng or PhD students majoring in Power


and Energy area, seen from suffice R.
Assume that all students have adequate background in
power systems analysis equivalent to EE4501.
Assume that all students are familiar with software used to
perform analysis such as C program or MATLAB.
Fundamental materials for power systems analysis.
Followed by case studies to discuss current research
activities. Students prepare report and discuss their
findings in class.
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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Assessment
Homework 20%
To test your understanding in the fundamental concepts

Case Study 10%


To apply your knowledge to analyze and evaluate related
materials in research papers

Two Mini-Projects 40%


To be able to formulate the problem, run experiments,
analyze the results and draw conclusion based on the
knowledge acquired.

Final 30%
To test your knowledge in the subject.
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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Tentative Syllabus
Week
1
2:17/08
3:24/08
4:31/08
5:07/09
6:14/09
Recess:
21/09
7:28/09
8:05/10
9:12/10
10:19/10
11:26/10
12:02/11
13:09/11

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Topics

Instructor

Overview of power system


operation. Network representation.
Power flow analysis I
Power flow analysis II
Economic dispatch and optimal
power flow
Power system state estimation I
Power system state estimation II

PJ

Case study 1&2 presentation


Transient stability I
Transient stability II
Small-perturbation stability I
Small-perturbation stability II
Load-frequency stability

PJ
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS

PJ
PJ
PJ
PJ
PJ

Assignment
Homework 1,
Homework 4
Mini-Project 1
Homework 2
Case Study 1
Homework 3
Case Study 2,
Mini-Project 2

Due

Homework 1
Homework 2

Homework 3

Mini-Project 1
Homework 4
Homework 5
Homework 6

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Homework 5
Mini-Project 2
Homework 6

Learning Outcome
Understand fundamental concepts in power
system analysis, namely, power flow, optimal
power flow, state estimation, transient stability,
small-perturbation stability, load-frequency
control.
Apply fundamental to solve application problems.
Formulate the problem
Design the experiment
Draw conclusion

Understand and evaluate research papers using


fundamental concepts.
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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Todays Outline

Overview of power systems


Component modeling
Network modeling
Network solution
IEEE test system
Homework 1

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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Reading Materials
MATLAB tutorial
Background reading
Chapter 2 Basic Principle, Power Systems Analysis 2nd edition
by Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal.
Chapter 2 Fundamentals, Power System Analysis and Design
4th editionby J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S. Sarma, Thomas J.
Overbye.

Todays material
Chapter 9.1-9.3, Network Matrices, Power Systems Analysis
2nd edition by Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal.

Supplementary reading
Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Electric Power System by Xiao-Ping
Zhang
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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Main components in power systems


One line diagram
Power system operation and control

OVERVIEW OF POWER SYSTEMS

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EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

Main Components of a Power System


Generation (11 36 KV)
Transmission and distribution (110 765 KV)
Load (0.12 138 KV)
Industrial customer (23 138 KV)
Commercial customer (4.16 34.5 KV)
Residential customer (120 240 V)

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Taken from FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC


POWER SYSTEMS by Xiao - Ping Zhang

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Balanced 3 Circuit
Why 3-phase?
More efficient use of equipment
and materials: 3 conductors
instead of 6.
Saving in I 2 R losses

Any pair of voltage sources


differ by 120 with equal
impedance
2 sequences, positive and
negative
In practice, phase sequence
depends on how we label the
wires.
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Positive
sequence,

Vcn 1 120
Van 10

abc

Negative
sequence,
acb

Vbn 1 120
Vbn 1 120
Van 10
Vcn 1 120

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

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A One-line Diagram
Show the
interconnections of a
transmission system
Generator
Load
Transmission line
Transformer

3 circuit
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Power System Operation and Control


Power flow analysis is the fundamental tool
for,
Operational planning
Operation control
Security analysis
Power system planning

Security-constrained economic dispatch


Optimal power flow
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Energy Management System

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Generator
Transmission line
Transformer
Load

COMPONENT MODELING

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Generator
Simple steady-state equivalent circuit.
Governor controls valve which, as a result,
controls constant power.
Generator field current controls constant
voltage magnitude.
Ea
+

~
-

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PGi jQGi

zG

PDi jQDi

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

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Load
Steady-state mode, three types: Constant power (kVA with pf) such as motor load.
PDi jQDi

Constant current (A) such as welding machine


with constant current source.
I Di

Constant impedance (Ohm) such as lighting.


z Di
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Transmission Line Model


Medium-length model (-equivalent circuit)
I1
+

V1

I2

z
y
2

y
2

V2

y 1
I1 2 z
I 1
2
z

1
V
1
z
y 1 V2

2 z

Z is the series impedance of the line = R + jX (ohm)


Y is the total shunt admittance of the line = -jB (mho)
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Transformer Model
Transformer (except phase shifting
transformer)
Caution: usually the transformer parameter is
given as per unit. If there is a change of base,
this value needs to be adjusted accordingly.
I1

yp.u.

I2

V1

V2

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I1 yp.u. yp.u. V1

I y
y
p.u. V2
2 p.u.

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

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A Tap-Changing Transformer
A tap-changing transformer,

yp.u.

I2

I1

V1

V2

V1

V2

I1

a:1

yp.u.

I2

1 a
a 1
y
y
y
y

p.u.
p.u.
2

a
a

V1
I1 a 2
a
V
I y
2
y 2
a

What will happen if the we have phase-shift transformer instead


of a tap-changing transformer?
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A Transmission Line with Transformer


Transmission line with transformer
I1

a:1

V1
-

I2

y
2

y
2

V2
-

y
1
1 a 1
2

I1 a z 2 a
az

I
1
2

az
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I1

1
az

I2

V1

V2

y
1 a 1

2
2
a z 2a

a 1 1 y


a z 2

V1
az

a 1 1 y 1 V2


a z 2 az

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

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Node voltage equation


Bus admittance matrix
Bus admittance matrix by inspection
Example

NETWORK MODELING

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Node Voltage Equation


Ip

Iq

Vp

y1

V
y

y2

Vq
-

Vq
1
1
1

I p Vp 1
y1 V p Vq
y

I p 1 z
z
z
z

I 1

Vq V p
1
1

q
I q Vq y2
V p y2 Vq
z
z
z
z

1
z V p
1 Vq
y2
z

Z = impedance (R+jX) and Y = admittance


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Bus Admittance Matrix


Ybus : Bus admittance matrix
Matrix form of node voltage equation,
I YbusV

I = Vector of injected node current


V = Vector of node voltage
Iq
z

where

Ip
+

Vp
-

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y1

y2

Vq
-

Ybus

I p y1 z
I 1
q
z

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

1
V
p
z
1 Vq
y2
z
25

Bus Admittance Matrix by Inspection


Symmetric matrix:
Ybusk , m Ybusm, k
Diagonal entries:
Ybus k, k = Sum of the admittance of all components
connected to node i.

Off-diagonal entries:
Ybusk, m = Negative of the admittance of all components
connected between node i and j.

Can Y-bus be non-symmetric?


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Bus Admittance Matrix: Example


1

G1

zG1

y12

Load
yload
y13

Z- impedance
Y- admittance

z G2

y34
3

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y24

G2

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Motivation
Triangular Factorization
Gaussian elimination

NETWORK SOLUTION

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Motivation
Given Ybus, nodal voltage equation is,
I YbusV

Our goal is to find node voltage magnitude


and angle.
Different operating condition leads to
different external sources (current injection).
Most of the time Y bus remains constant.
To find V, (not so) simple Y bus inversion?
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Numerical Solution of Linear Equations


Matrix inversion is NOT an easy job for a large
dimension problem.
Common computationally efficient algorithm: Triangular factorization
Ybus LU
L is lower triangular matrix
U is upper triangular matrix.

Applicable to square matrix, not necessarily


symmetric.
Together with Gaussian elimination
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Solution Procedure
From

Ybus LU ,

I YbusV LUV

First we find,
~
I LV

Then,

Forward substitution

~
V UV
Backward substitution

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Lower and Upper Triangular Matrix


1 0 0 u11 u12 u13 Work backward to find the
M LU l21 1 0 0 u22 u23 ls and us elements

0 u33
l31 l32 1 0
From original Y bus

u12
u13
u11

M l21u11 l21u12 u22


l21u13 u23

l31u11 l31u12 l32u22 l31u13 l32u23 u33

u11 u12 u13


Y l21 u22 u23

l31 l32 u33

1st iteration
Calculate new value and overwrite
Y21(1) Y21(0)/Y11(0)
the original Y bus to save memory
Y31(1) Y31(0)/Y11(0)
2nd iteration
Y22(1) Y22(0) [Y21(0)Y12(0)]/Y11(0) Y32(2) Y32(1)/Y22(1)
Y23(1) Y23(0) [Y21(0)Y13(0)]/Y11(0) Y33(2) Y33(1) [Y32(1)Y23(1)]/Y22(1)
Y32(1) Y32(0) [Y31(0)Y12(0)]/Y11(0)
Y33(1) Y33(0) [Y31(0)Y13(0)]/Y11(0)
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Triangular Factorization Algorithm


START, k = 1

k = k+1

Y bus is n x n matrix
Yes

k=n
No
Ykk 0

No

END

Yes
Yik
Yik
Ykk

i = k+1, , n

YikYki
Yij Yij
Ykk
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i, j = k+1, , n

When will the algorithm


be unstable and how to
prevent it?

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

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Triangular Factorization Example


Find L and U of the following matrix.
5 3 2
A 3 2 1

3 1 5

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Ill-Conditioned Y bus Matrix


If Ykk is very small, the algorithm may be unstable.
Can be fix by permutation.
In addition, the computation time depends on number
of non-zero elements, permutation may help to reduce
this number.
For more information, read:
FERNANDO L. ALVARADO, WILLIAM F. TINNEY, and MARK
K. ENNS, SPARSITY IN LARGE-SCALE NETWORK
COMPUTATION, Advances in electric Power and Energy
Conversion System Dynamics and Control, Academic
Press, 1991, C. T. Leondes, editor (with permission).
Corrections 15 Feb 93.

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Motivation
Kron reduction

NETWORK REDUCTION

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Motivation
Consider the matrix in this example.
1

G1
I1 y11
0 y
21
0 y31

I 4 y41

y12

y13

y22

y23

y32

y33

y42

y43

Impedance
Load

y14 V1
y24 V2

y34 V3

y44 V4

G2
3

What is the current injection to node 2 and 3?


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KRON Reduction
Eliminate node with zero injection to reduce
the size of Y bus matrix.
y y
y y

I1 y11
I y
2 21
0 y31

y12

y22
y32

13 31
y

y13 V1
11
I1
y33

I
y23 V2

2 y21 y13 y31
y33 V3

y33
y31
y32
V3
V1
V2
y33
y33

To eliminate node k:
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new
ij

yij

y33 V1

y y
y22 23 32 V2
y33
y12

yik ykj
ykk

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen

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i,j = I,2, .. ,n,


38

Test case archive


IEEE common data format
14 bus test system

IEEE TEST SYSTEM

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Power Systems Test Case Archive


Managed by Richard D.
Christie, an Associate
Professor at the
University of
Washington, Seattle,
Washington, USA
http://www.ee.washing
ton.edu/research/pstca
/
Thanks!, Richard.
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IEEE Common Data Format


http://www.ee.washing
ton.edu/research/pstca
/formats/cdf.txt

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Title data
Bus data
Branch data
Loss zone data
Interchange data
Tie line data

Data type codes:


A - Alphanumeric (no
special characters)
I - Integer
F - Floating point
* - Mandatory item

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14-Bus
Common
Data
Format
Title data
Bus data

Branch data
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Title Data
Columns 2- 9 Date, in format DD/MM/YY with
leading zeros. If no date provided, use 0b/0b/0b
where b is blank.
Columns 11-30 Originator's name (A)
Columns 32-37 MVA Base (F*)
Columns 39-42 Year (I)
Column 44 Season (S - Summer, W - Winter)
Column 46-73 Case identification (A)
Date
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Originators name

MVA base

Year Season

Case Identification

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Bus Data
Bus number
Type of bus, 0-load bus, 2-generator bus, 3 swing bus
Generation (MW)

Generation (MVAR)

Load P (MW)
Controlled voltage (pu) Shunt susceptance B (pu)
Load Q (MVAR)
Final voltage (pu) and angle (degree)

Name (left justify)

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Branch Data

Tap bus number Branch resistance R (pu)


Z bus number
Branch reactance X (pu)

Line charging B (pu) (total line charging,


Transformer turns ratio
for each bus, this has to be divided by
two)
0.978:1
j0.20912
Example:

V4
-

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V7
-

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Homework 1: 14-Bus Test System

Find Ybus of this system


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MATLAB Basics
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/le
arn_matlab/bqr_2pl.html
Read
Matrices and Arrays:
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/learn_
matlab/f2-8955.html
Programming:
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/learn_
matlab/f4-8955.html
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Next Lecture

Power flow equations


Power flow problem
Iterative solution techniques
N-R Application to power flow problem
Mini-project I

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