EE5702R Advance Power System
Analysis:: Introduction
Panida Jirutitijaroen
Fall 2011
17/08/2011
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Assessment
Tentative syllabus
Learning outcomes
ABOUT THIS CLASS
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
About This Class
Instructors:
Asst. Prof. Panida Jirutitijaroen (1st half)
Assoc. Prof. Chang Che Sau (2nd half)
Core module for MEng or PhD students majoring in Power
and Energy area, seen from suffice R.
Assume that all students have adequate background in
power systems analysis equivalent to EE4501.
Assume that all students are familiar with software used to
perform analysis such as C program or MATLAB.
Fundamental materials for power systems analysis.
Followed by case studies to discuss current research
activities. Students prepare report and discuss their
findings in class.
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Assessment
Homework 20%
To test your understanding in the fundamental concepts
Case Study 10%
To apply your knowledge to analyze and evaluate related
materials in research papers
Two MiniProjects 40%
To be able to formulate the problem, run experiments,
analyze the results and draw conclusion based on the
knowledge acquired.
Final 30%
To test your knowledge in the subject.
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Tentative Syllabus
Week
1
2:17/08
3:24/08
4:31/08
5:07/09
6:14/09
Recess:
21/09
7:28/09
8:05/10
9:12/10
10:19/10
11:26/10
12:02/11
13:09/11
8/11/2011
Topics
Instructor
Overview of power system
operation. Network representation.
Power flow analysis I
Power flow analysis II
Economic dispatch and optimal
power flow
Power system state estimation I
Power system state estimation II
PJ
Case study 1&2 presentation
Transient stability I
Transient stability II
Smallperturbation stability I
Smallperturbation stability II
Loadfrequency stability
PJ
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
PJ
PJ
PJ
PJ
PJ
Assignment
Homework 1,
Homework 4
MiniProject 1
Homework 2
Case Study 1
Homework 3
Case Study 2,
MiniProject 2
Due
Homework 1
Homework 2
Homework 3
MiniProject 1
Homework 4
Homework 5
Homework 6
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Homework 5
MiniProject 2
Homework 6
Learning Outcome
Understand fundamental concepts in power
system analysis, namely, power flow, optimal
power flow, state estimation, transient stability,
smallperturbation stability, loadfrequency
control.
Apply fundamental to solve application problems.
Formulate the problem
Design the experiment
Draw conclusion
Understand and evaluate research papers using
fundamental concepts.
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Todays Outline
Overview of power systems
Component modeling
Network modeling
Network solution
IEEE test system
Homework 1
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Reading Materials
MATLAB tutorial
Background reading
Chapter 2 Basic Principle, Power Systems Analysis 2nd edition
by Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal.
Chapter 2 Fundamentals, Power System Analysis and Design
4th editionby J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S. Sarma, Thomas J.
Overbye.
Todays material
Chapter 9.19.3, Network Matrices, Power Systems Analysis
2nd edition by Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal.
Supplementary reading
Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Electric Power System by XiaoPing
Zhang
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Main components in power systems
One line diagram
Power system operation and control
OVERVIEW OF POWER SYSTEMS
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
Main Components of a Power System
Generation (11 36 KV)
Transmission and distribution (110 765 KV)
Load (0.12 138 KV)
Industrial customer (23 138 KV)
Commercial customer (4.16 34.5 KV)
Residential customer (120 240 V)
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
10
Taken from FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC
POWER SYSTEMS by Xiao  Ping Zhang
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
11
Balanced 3 Circuit
Why 3phase?
More efficient use of equipment
and materials: 3 conductors
instead of 6.
Saving in I 2 R losses
Any pair of voltage sources
differ by 120 with equal
impedance
2 sequences, positive and
negative
In practice, phase sequence
depends on how we label the
wires.
8/11/2011
Positive
sequence,
Vcn 1 120
Van 10
abc
Negative
sequence,
acb
Vbn 1 120
Vbn 1 120
Van 10
Vcn 1 120
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
12
A Oneline Diagram
Show the
interconnections of a
transmission system
Generator
Load
Transmission line
Transformer
3 circuit
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
13
Power System Operation and Control
Power flow analysis is the fundamental tool
for,
Operational planning
Operation control
Security analysis
Power system planning
Securityconstrained economic dispatch
Optimal power flow
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
14
Energy Management System
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
15
Generator
Transmission line
Transformer
Load
COMPONENT MODELING
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
16
Generator
Simple steadystate equivalent circuit.
Governor controls valve which, as a result,
controls constant power.
Generator field current controls constant
voltage magnitude.
Ea
+
~

8/11/2011
PGi jQGi
zG
PDi jQDi
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
17
Load
Steadystate mode, three types: Constant power (kVA with pf) such as motor load.
PDi jQDi
Constant current (A) such as welding machine
with constant current source.
I Di
Constant impedance (Ohm) such as lighting.
z Di
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
18
Transmission Line Model
Mediumlength model (equivalent circuit)
I1
+
V1
I2
z
y
2
y
2
V2
y 1
I1 2 z
I 1
2
z
1
V
1
z
y 1 V2
2 z
Z is the series impedance of the line = R + jX (ohm)
Y is the total shunt admittance of the line = jB (mho)
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
19
Transformer Model
Transformer (except phase shifting
transformer)
Caution: usually the transformer parameter is
given as per unit. If there is a change of base,
this value needs to be adjusted accordingly.
I1
yp.u.
I2
V1
V2
8/11/2011
I1 yp.u. yp.u. V1
I y
y
p.u. V2
2 p.u.
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
20
A TapChanging Transformer
A tapchanging transformer,
yp.u.
I2
I1
V1
V2
V1
V2
I1
a:1
yp.u.
I2
1 a
a 1
y
y
y
y
p.u.
p.u.
2
a
a
V1
I1 a 2
a
V
I y
2
y 2
a
What will happen if the we have phaseshift transformer instead
of a tapchanging transformer?
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
21
A Transmission Line with Transformer
Transmission line with transformer
I1
a:1
V1

I2
y
2
y
2
V2

y
1
1 a 1
2
I1 a z 2 a
az
I
1
2
az
8/11/2011
I1
1
az
I2
V1
V2
y
1 a 1
2
2
a z 2a
a 1 1 y
a z 2
V1
az
a 1 1 y 1 V2
a z 2 az
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
22
Node voltage equation
Bus admittance matrix
Bus admittance matrix by inspection
Example
NETWORK MODELING
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
23
Node Voltage Equation
Ip
Iq
Vp
y1
V
y
y2
Vq

Vq
1
1
1
I p Vp 1
y1 V p Vq
y
I p 1 z
z
z
z
I 1
Vq V p
1
1
q
I q Vq y2
V p y2 Vq
z
z
z
z
1
z V p
1 Vq
y2
z
Z = impedance (R+jX) and Y = admittance
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
24
Bus Admittance Matrix
Ybus : Bus admittance matrix
Matrix form of node voltage equation,
I YbusV
I = Vector of injected node current
V = Vector of node voltage
Iq
z
where
Ip
+
Vp

8/11/2011
y1
y2
Vq

Ybus
I p y1 z
I 1
q
z
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
1
V
p
z
1 Vq
y2
z
25
Bus Admittance Matrix by Inspection
Symmetric matrix:
Ybusk , m Ybusm, k
Diagonal entries:
Ybus k, k = Sum of the admittance of all components
connected to node i.
Offdiagonal entries:
Ybusk, m = Negative of the admittance of all components
connected between node i and j.
Can Ybus be nonsymmetric?
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
26
Bus Admittance Matrix: Example
1
G1
zG1
y12
Load
yload
y13
Z impedance
Y admittance
z G2
y34
3
8/11/2011
y24
G2
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
27
Motivation
Triangular Factorization
Gaussian elimination
NETWORK SOLUTION
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
28
Motivation
Given Ybus, nodal voltage equation is,
I YbusV
Our goal is to find node voltage magnitude
and angle.
Different operating condition leads to
different external sources (current injection).
Most of the time Y bus remains constant.
To find V, (not so) simple Y bus inversion?
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
29
Numerical Solution of Linear Equations
Matrix inversion is NOT an easy job for a large
dimension problem.
Common computationally efficient algorithm: Triangular factorization
Ybus LU
L is lower triangular matrix
U is upper triangular matrix.
Applicable to square matrix, not necessarily
symmetric.
Together with Gaussian elimination
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
30
Solution Procedure
From
Ybus LU ,
I YbusV LUV
First we find,
~
I LV
Then,
Forward substitution
~
V UV
Backward substitution
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
31
Lower and Upper Triangular Matrix
1 0 0 u11 u12 u13 Work backward to find the
M LU l21 1 0 0 u22 u23 ls and us elements
0 u33
l31 l32 1 0
From original Y bus
u12
u13
u11
M l21u11 l21u12 u22
l21u13 u23
l31u11 l31u12 l32u22 l31u13 l32u23 u33
u11 u12 u13
Y l21 u22 u23
l31 l32 u33
1st iteration
Calculate new value and overwrite
Y21(1) Y21(0)/Y11(0)
the original Y bus to save memory
Y31(1) Y31(0)/Y11(0)
2nd iteration
Y22(1) Y22(0) [Y21(0)Y12(0)]/Y11(0) Y32(2) Y32(1)/Y22(1)
Y23(1) Y23(0) [Y21(0)Y13(0)]/Y11(0) Y33(2) Y33(1) [Y32(1)Y23(1)]/Y22(1)
Y32(1) Y32(0) [Y31(0)Y12(0)]/Y11(0)
Y33(1) Y33(0) [Y31(0)Y13(0)]/Y11(0)
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
32
Triangular Factorization Algorithm
START, k = 1
k = k+1
Y bus is n x n matrix
Yes
k=n
No
Ykk 0
No
END
Yes
Yik
Yik
Ykk
i = k+1, , n
YikYki
Yij Yij
Ykk
8/11/2011
i, j = k+1, , n
When will the algorithm
be unstable and how to
prevent it?
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
33
Triangular Factorization Example
Find L and U of the following matrix.
5 3 2
A 3 2 1
3 1 5
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
34
IllConditioned Y bus Matrix
If Ykk is very small, the algorithm may be unstable.
Can be fix by permutation.
In addition, the computation time depends on number
of nonzero elements, permutation may help to reduce
this number.
For more information, read:
FERNANDO L. ALVARADO, WILLIAM F. TINNEY, and MARK
K. ENNS, SPARSITY IN LARGESCALE NETWORK
COMPUTATION, Advances in electric Power and Energy
Conversion System Dynamics and Control, Academic
Press, 1991, C. T. Leondes, editor (with permission).
Corrections 15 Feb 93.
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
35
Motivation
Kron reduction
NETWORK REDUCTION
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
36
Motivation
Consider the matrix in this example.
1
G1
I1 y11
0 y
21
0 y31
I 4 y41
y12
y13
y22
y23
y32
y33
y42
y43
Impedance
Load
y14 V1
y24 V2
y34 V3
y44 V4
G2
3
What is the current injection to node 2 and 3?
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
37
KRON Reduction
Eliminate node with zero injection to reduce
the size of Y bus matrix.
y y
y y
I1 y11
I y
2 21
0 y31
y12
y22
y32
13 31
y
y13 V1
11
I1
y33
I
y23 V2
2 y21 y13 y31
y33 V3
y33
y31
y32
V3
V1
V2
y33
y33
To eliminate node k:
8/11/2011
new
ij
yij
y33 V1
y y
y22 23 32 V2
y33
y12
yik ykj
ykk
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
13 32
i,j = I,2, .. ,n,
38
Test case archive
IEEE common data format
14 bus test system
IEEE TEST SYSTEM
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
39
Power Systems Test Case Archive
Managed by Richard D.
Christie, an Associate
Professor at the
University of
Washington, Seattle,
Washington, USA
http://www.ee.washing
ton.edu/research/pstca
/
Thanks!, Richard.
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
40
IEEE Common Data Format
http://www.ee.washing
ton.edu/research/pstca
/formats/cdf.txt
8/11/2011
Title data
Bus data
Branch data
Loss zone data
Interchange data
Tie line data
Data type codes:
A  Alphanumeric (no
special characters)
I  Integer
F  Floating point
*  Mandatory item
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
41
14Bus
Common
Data
Format
Title data
Bus data
Branch data
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
42
Title Data
Columns 2 9 Date, in format DD/MM/YY with
leading zeros. If no date provided, use 0b/0b/0b
where b is blank.
Columns 1130 Originator's name (A)
Columns 3237 MVA Base (F*)
Columns 3942 Year (I)
Column 44 Season (S  Summer, W  Winter)
Column 4673 Case identification (A)
Date
8/11/2011
Originators name
MVA base
Year Season
Case Identification
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
43
Bus Data
Bus number
Type of bus, 0load bus, 2generator bus, 3 swing bus
Generation (MW)
Generation (MVAR)
Load P (MW)
Controlled voltage (pu) Shunt susceptance B (pu)
Load Q (MVAR)
Final voltage (pu) and angle (degree)
Name (left justify)
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
44
Branch Data
Tap bus number Branch resistance R (pu)
Z bus number
Branch reactance X (pu)
Line charging B (pu) (total line charging,
Transformer turns ratio
for each bus, this has to be divided by
two)
0.978:1
j0.20912
Example:
V4

8/11/2011
V7

EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
45
Homework 1: 14Bus Test System
Find Ybus of this system
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
46
MATLAB Basics
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/le
arn_matlab/bqr_2pl.html
Read
Matrices and Arrays:
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/learn_
matlab/f28955.html
Programming:
http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/learn_
matlab/f48955.html
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
47
Next Lecture
Power flow equations
Power flow problem
Iterative solution techniques
NR Application to power flow problem
Miniproject I
8/11/2011
EE5702R Advance Power System Analysis:: Introduction by P. Jirutitijaroen
48