56 views

Uploaded by MuhamadSadiq

Total differentials

- Identification Letters - 1984 examples
- MAT495_CHAPTER_4
- final_exam_fall_2006_ap_calc_ab
- Calculus_Early Transcendentals_1st Edition_by Michael Sullivan, Kathleen Miranda-W.H. Freeman; 1st edition (March 14, 2014).pdf
- Thermodynamic Jonathan (3)
- 2012-2014DegreePlanFlowChart
- Multivariable Differential Calculus
- Calculus
- Gate Syllabus Cs & It
- Complex3 Derivative
- A-Level-Maths-C4
- Calculus, Author Notes
- 01 2016 Maths C Syllabus
- Calculus
- Algorithmic Thinking and Matlab in Computational Materials Science
- 9.2.1 to Determine the First Derivative Of
- Basic Calculus
- Mu DifferentialEquationsTest&Solutions National2014
- Handy Hint 1 Physics 521 ASU
- 41772_1

You are on page 1of 10

MAT 295

Chapter 5

Total

differentials

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

5.1 Introduction

In chapter 5, the concepts of increments and differentials of a single variable

functions will be generalized to functions of two or more variables. Given a

function of a single variable y f (x ) and a point (c, f (c )) on the curve, the

quantity

y f ( x0 x ) f ( x0 )

y

(c,f(c))

f(x0+x)

f(x0)

x0

x0+x

f(x)

67

MAT 295

dy f ' ( x ) dx

and represents the change in y along the tangent line at c produced by a change

in x.

Similar terminology is used for a function of two variables, z f ( x, y ). That is,

Definition

If z f ( x, y ) , the increment of z denoted as z is given by

z f ( x x, y y ) f ( x, y )

change in z as x changes by x and y changes by y . Precisely, the increment in

z refers to the actual change in z when x and/or y changes. To be exact, z

represents the change in the value of z when ( x, y ) changes from ( x, y ) to

( x x, y y ) .

z

f(x+x, y+y)

f(x,y)

z

y

y

(x,y)

x

(x+x, y+y)

68

MAT 295

Definition

If z f ( x, y ) , the total differential of z denoted as dz and given by

dz fx ( x, y )dx fy ( x, y )dy

or equivalently,

dz

z

z

dx

dy .

x

y

z dz

derivatives such that the total change in z (called total differential) is the

summation of the change in z due to the change in x (keeping y constant) and the

change in z due to the change in y (keeping x constant). The notations dz and

df can be used interchangeably since z f ( x, y ) .

The above definition can be extended to a function of three or more variables. For

instance, given the function w g( x, y, z) the differential in w denoted as dw is

given by,

dw g x dx g y dy g zdz .

Find partial differentiation

Apply total differential

Example 1

Find the differential df given f ( x, y ) x cos y y sin x .

Solution

Variables

: x and y

Find partial differentiation

fx cos y y cos x

69

fy x sin y sin x

df fx dx fy dy

(cos y y cos x )dx (x sin y sin x )dy

Example 2

Find the differential df given f ( x, y ) ln( xy ) x 2 y .

Solution

Variables

: x and y

Find partial differentiation

fx

1

1

( y ) 2x 2x

xy

x

fy

1

1

(x) 1 1

xy

y

df fx dx fy dy

1 y

1

dy

2x dx

x

Example 3

Find the increment and total differential of f ( x, y ) y 2 x 2 y .

Solution

f f ( x x, y y ) f ( x, y )

f y y 2 x x 2 y y y 2 x 2 y

y 2 2yy ( y ) 2 x 2 2xx ( x ) 2 y y y 2 x 2 y

70

MAT 295

MAT 295

y 2 x 2y

x 2xy yx y 2y y x 2 2xx ( x ) 2

df

f

f

dx

dy

x

y

fx 2xy

f y 2y x 2

df 2xy dx 2y x 2 dy

Warm up exercise

Let w ( p, q ) p 2 q 2 .

(i)

p p, q q .

(ii)

Write the formula for estimating the change in w using partial derivatives.

(iii)

a)

Calculate w.

b)

What is p and q

c)

your observation?

5.3 Applications

In measurement, the total differential is used in estimating f of a function f based

on x of the independent variable x and y of the independent variable y such

that

f fx ( x, y )x fy ( x, y )y

71

MAT 295

Find partial differentiation

Identify values of x, y, x and y (if any)

Apply total differential

Example 4

Estimate by a differential the change in f if ( x, y ) changes from (32, 16) to

2

Solution

Variables

: x and y

Find partial differentiation

3

2

fx yx 5 y

5

fy

2

5

x

1 x

2 y

( x, y ) (32,16)

and

( x x, y y ) (35,18)

(32,16)

zdz

x=3

(35, 18)

y=2

x 35 32 3

y 18 16 2

f fx x fy y

72

MAT 295

1 x

2

5

f yx

y x x 5

y

2 y

5

3

2

1 (32)

2

5

5

df (16 )(32) 16 (3) (32)

( 2)

2 16

5

3 4 2( 4 4)

5

2

5

30.4

30

Example 5

Use differential to estimate

27 3 1021

Solution

function

f ( x, y ) x 3 y

f (27,1021) 27 3 1021

fx ( x, y )

fy ( x, y )

2 x

x

33 y2

For

x = 25;

x = 27 25 = 2

y = 1000;

10

fx (25,1000 )

10

1

y = 1021- 1000 = 21

5

3(100 )

1

60

fy (25,1000 )

73

MAT 295

df fx dx fy dy

1

(1)(2) (21)

60

2.35

f ( x x, y y ) f ( x, y ) f

f (27,1021) f (25,1000 ) f

f (25,1000 ) df

; f df

25 3 1000 2.35

(50(10 ) 2.35

52.35

Example 6

Given that y kw 4 , where k is a constant. Calculate the approximate

percentage in y if w is increased by 3% and is decreased by 2.5%.

Solution

Given

y kw 4

w 3% of w 0.03w

2.5% of 0.025

y w k 4

y 4kw 3

dy y w w y

0.03kw 4 0.1kw 4

kw 4 (0.03 0.1)

0.07kw 4 0.07 y

74

MAT 295

Warm up exercise

Let f ( x, y ) x 4 y

(i) Find f x and fy .

(ii) Find x and y if the change in f is from (121, 16) to (125, 17),

(iii) Find f x and fy if x = 121 and y = 16.

(iv) Use the total differential to find the approximate value of

125 4 17 .

Exercise 5

Total Differential and its Application

1.

2.

3.

125 4 17 .

to (2.1, 1.9).

4.

P to Q. Compare your estimate with the actual change in f ( x, y ) .

a) f ( x, y ) x 2 2xy 4x ; P(1, 2), Q(1.01, 2.04)

b) f ( x, y )

c) f ( x, y )

d)

5.

1 1

3

x y2;

xy

; P(-1, -2), Q(-1.02, -2.04)

xy

Use the differential to estimate the change in z xy 2 from its value at (0.5, 1.0)

to its value at (0.503, 1,004). Compare the error in this estimate with the distance

between the points (0.5, 1.0) and (0.503, 1.004).

75

6.

MAT 295

1

2 2

3y ) .

Use

and (6.1, 2.2) correct to 4 decimal places.

7.

Estimate

the

value

of

V(1.02,1.99)

using

differential

if

V ( x, y ) 2y 3 3x 4 6x 2y 3

8.

a) f ( x, y )

1

2

xy

given

x 1,

y 4, x 0.1, y 0.2

b) f ( x, y ) 3x 2 2xy y 2 , given x 2, y 5,

9.

x 0.01,

y 0.05

changes from (2,1) to (2.01, 0.99). Hence, use it to evaluate f(2.01, 0.99).

10.

The dimensions of a cylindrical tin can, change from radius 3 cm and height 4 cm

to radius 2.9 cm and height 4.2 cm. Estimate the change in the volume.

11.

changes from 32,16 to 35,18 . Hence, estimate f(35,18).

76

2

5

x

x y and ( x, y )

- Identification Letters - 1984 examplesUploaded byPetcas Bogdan
- MAT495_CHAPTER_4Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- final_exam_fall_2006_ap_calc_abUploaded byteachopensource
- Calculus_Early Transcendentals_1st Edition_by Michael Sullivan, Kathleen Miranda-W.H. Freeman; 1st edition (March 14, 2014).pdfUploaded byceasornicareasa
- Thermodynamic Jonathan (3)Uploaded byJohnyGonzalez
- 2012-2014DegreePlanFlowChartUploaded byAyesha Siddika
- Multivariable Differential CalculusUploaded bySofia Fuentes
- CalculusUploaded byNasir Uddin
- A-Level-Maths-C4Uploaded bymalp23
- Complex3 DerivativeUploaded byalienxx
- Calculus, Author NotesUploaded bydavparan
- 01 2016 Maths C SyllabusUploaded byVincents Genesius Evans
- Gate Syllabus Cs & ItUploaded byHaveit12
- CalculusUploaded bypuerto_arnaldo
- Algorithmic Thinking and Matlab in Computational Materials ScienceUploaded byTygerYashanshu
- 9.2.1 to Determine the First Derivative OfUploaded bycygNemo
- Basic CalculusUploaded byபாலரத்தினம் தமிழன்
- Mu DifferentialEquationsTest&Solutions National2014Uploaded byKishan Patel
- Handy Hint 1 Physics 521 ASUUploaded byJonah Shoemaker
- 41772_1Uploaded byHari Narayanan
- Test 1 ReviewUploaded bymplukie
- Eng 6 EngineeringUploaded byMathew Freeman
- Lecture Notes 1006Uploaded byAqua Nail Spa
- MEI C3 June 2009Uploaded byrukiaichigo2008
- 11Uploaded byAndrea Medina Navas
- Finding the SlopeUploaded byCatherine Fadriquelan
- Calculus With the TIUploaded bySam Farmer
- Optimal Gait and Form for Animal LocomotionUploaded byAirbar
- Bab i.docx Sogi AkbarUploaded byMau-ZyJr.
- Portofolio for Karolina MeliawatiUploaded byYb Andik Adi Cahyono

- Anthropogenic Global Warming Science Assessment ReportUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Report HydroUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Terramodel ManualUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- NAV Edit ManualUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch13 LeadingUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch01-Mgt & ManagerUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Hydropro ManualUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Hydro AbstractUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- MAT495_Chapter 10Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch09-Designing Contemporary OrgnUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- ch12-CommUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch08-Quality, Productivity & SatisfactionUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch07 Decision MakingUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Data and Result for TraversingUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch02-Evolution & ThoughtUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- ch10-HRMUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Engeneering2Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- F2F-Ukuran Di Lapangan_Apr2009Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Course IntroductionUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- List Name AP220 Mgt632Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch11 Org CultureUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- MAT495_Chapter 11Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch06 Decision MakingUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch05 Strategic PlanningUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- MAT495_Chapter 12Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- MAT495_Chapter 13Uploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch04 PlanningUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Ch03-Sec Responsibilities & EthicsUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Unplanned Land Use PoliciesUploaded byMuhamadSadiq
- Global Warming, Climate Change and SustainabilityUploaded byMuhamadSadiq

- paper2Uploaded bysuperpindonga
- C3-100 Installation GuideUploaded byjessvelazquez
- Character SheetUploaded bysjupiter
- Cable StandardsUploaded bygyani1982
- 240142782 Correction TD 1 Identification Des Sols CHEBAP 2009 2010Uploaded byfaramus12
- Exam PrarambhikUploaded bychandra-calgary
- Statistics 2Uploaded bywaleed
- Fusione Agribusiness Concept RevisitedUploaded byCarlos Quintero
- Literate-programming.pdfUploaded by3187265
- PlagiarismUploaded byArshad Khan
- Formatted DBM Feb 27.pdfUploaded bymuneeb.irfan9873
- Fnr5 Diagram SensorUploaded byBalo Chacon
- Thesis JbackUploaded byAndressa Habibe
- R&DUploaded byM Hassan
- UT Dallas Syllabus for geog2302.001.10s taught by Stuart Murchison (sbm018100)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Zinc exhibits ideal physiological corrosion behavior for bioabsorbable stents (Bowen et al., Advanced Materials, 2013)Uploaded byPatrick Bowen
- 8054041Uploaded byMia Sam
- Eastron SDM320M User Manual 2014 V2.0Uploaded byzzaazz
- Adhesive Cementation of Etchable Ceramic Esthetic RestorationsUploaded byGuadalupe García Figueroa
- Curtin Scholarship FormUploaded byAshraf Noor
- Bibra EU Classification of Nicotine Mixtures Acute Oral and Dermal ToxicityUploaded byECITA_EU
- 300578I - Xtreme Airless SprayersUploaded byEngTamer
- Data Visualization Workshop ReportUploaded bymickamal
- Exxon - OIMS_Framework_Brochure.pdfUploaded byeayujig
- Speed Plate Brochure 0109Uploaded byyuva_86
- AIF Report as on 17.03.2016Uploaded byRamKumar
- Well Fed_ Paleo Recipes for People Who L - Melissa JoulwanUploaded byPatty Shine
- On Site Sewage ConstructionUploaded byaadya_agrawal
- AP.docUploaded byPRINCIPAL ALS
- Article Final_mechanical Project and Control of Robot Guidelines for Visual DisabilitiesUploaded byPriscila Lima