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TESOL Journal
Vol. 7, No. 1
Autumn 1997

Reaching All Learners: Endless Possibilities for Teacher Growth
Linda New Levine and Nancy Cloud, Guest Editors 5

Valuing Diversity: Action Researching Disparate Learner Groups
Collaborative action research helped Australian adult education teachers refine their classroom skills
and reflect critically on their current practice.
Anne Burns 6
EFL Teacher Development Through Critical Reflection
An innovative second language teacher education project for EFL teachers from Egypt yielded rich
and lasting collaboration.
Lía D. Kamhi-Stein and José L. Galván 12
Professional Development Schools: A Balanced Wheel Makes it Better for Everyone
A team of elementary school and university educators worked together to foster culturally responsible
pedagogy, inspire reflective practice, and enhance student performance.
Peggy J. Anderson 19
A Critical Examination of Classroom Practices to Foster Teacher Growth and Increase Student
Staff from a British university worked with mainstream subject teachers in a local secondary school to
investigate classroom practice and develop effective teaching strategies.
Lynne J. Cameron 25
Collaboration, Reflection, and Professional Growth: A Mentoring Program for Adult ESL
Adult education ESL teachers in a World Relief Refugee Services program worked with mentors to
cultivate valuable professional habits.
Alan Seaman, Barry Sweeny, Pamela Meadows, and Marilyn Sweeny 31
School-University Partnerships to Promote Science With Students Learning English
Elementary school teachers and students who shared the same language and culture fostered effective
science instruction.
Sandra H. Fradd, Okhee Lee, Pete Cabrera, Vivian del Rio, Amelia Leth, Rita Morin, Marisela
Ceballos, Maria Santalla, Lucille Cross, Techeline Mathieu 35

Enhancing Teaching and Teacher Education With Peer Coaching Teresa Benedetti 41
Peer Conversations for Teacher Development Yvonne De Gaetano 42
Collegial Sharing Through Poster Sessions Ruth Weinstein-McShane 43
How to Use Cultural Brokers in Educational Settings Doris Páez and Laurie McCarty 44
The Role of Picture Books Fabiola Ehlers-Zavala and Jeffrey P. Bakken 46

Thirty Years of Becoming a Teacher: A Reader’s Rainbow
Teacher Sylvia Ashton-Warner
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Maya Angelou
Wishes, Lies, and Dreams Kenneth Koch
White Teacher Vivian Paley
Children of War Roger Rosenblatt
My Place Sally Morgan
The House on Mango Street Sandra Cisneros
Reviewed by Mary Lou McCloskey 48
Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching Sandra Lee McKay and Nancy H. Hornberger
Reviewed by Jette Gjaldbaek Hansen 51
Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers Adrian Doff
New Ways in Teacher Education Donald Freeman with Steve Cornwell
Reviewed by Timothy Micek 52

Readers’ Advice on supporting part-time faculty 54
A Question for Readers on unbiased employment notices 55

Guidelines for Contributors 3
Membership Application 56
Cover design by Ann Kammerer.

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Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ USA

Associate Editors
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA USA
University of California, Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, CA USA

Tips from the
Classroom Editor
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ USA

Reviews Editor
University of South Australia
Adelaide, South Australia

Ask the TJ Editor
Glendale, AZ USA

Managing Editor
Editorial Advisory Board
Nancy Cloud
Hofstra University
Hempstead, NY USA
Debra Deane
University of Akron
Akron, OH USA
Robert A. DeVillar
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA USA
Christopher Ely
Ball State University
Muncie, IN USA
Sandra H. Fradd
University of Miami
Coral Gables, FL USA
Linda Harklau
University of Georgia
Athens, GA USA
Ana Huerta-Macías
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, NM USA
Sarah Hudelson
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ USA
Linda New Levine
Mt. Kisco Elementary School
Mt. Kisco, NY USA
John Milon
University of Nevada
Reno, Nevada USA
Jeff McQuillan
California State University, Fullerton
Fullerton, CA USA

John Murphy
Georgia State University
Atlanta, GA USA
Joy Kreeft Peyton
Center for Applied Linguistics
Washington, DC USA
Ellen Riojas Clark
University of Texas
San Antonio, TX USA
Linda Schinke-Llano
Millikin University
Decatur, IL USA
Salina Shrofel
University of Regina
Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
Ann Snow
California State University, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA USA
Toshiko Sugino
The National Defense Academy
Yakosuka, Japan
Keiko Tanaka
California State University, Hayward
Hayward, CA USA
Marjorie Terdal
Portland State University
Portland, OR USA
Joan Wink
California State University, Stanislaus
Turlock, CA USA

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Guidelines for Contributors
TESOL Journal, a refereed publication
of teaching and classroom research, is
looking for submissions on matters related
to children, adolescents, and adults who
are learning English as an additional language. Appropriate topics include, but are
not limited to, classroom inquiry and
research, teacher preparation, literacy/
biliteracy, curriculum and policy issues,
and methodology.
TESOL Journal welcomes any of the
following types of submissions.

Feature Articles
A feature article should be 1,000-3,000
words and should:
1. analyze, present, or discuss novel ESOL
methodology, curriculum materials and
design, teacher education, and classroom
inquiry and research in terms accessible
to classroom teachers. You should connect your inquiry and research to theoretical principles; heavy referencing,
however, is discouraged.

diverse programs or teaching situations.
Submissions should not be recounted in
the manner of a diary, but rather as a set of
guidelines for successful implementation. Tips might include the following
information: appropriate levels, objectives, approximate class time and preparation time required, necessary materials,
implementation procedure, and any
caveats or alternatives to the recommended procedure. Submissions should be
250-800 words.
Send your submissions to Bridget
Gersten, Editor, Tips from the Classroom,
TESOL Journal, College of Education,
Box 871411, Arizona State University,
Tempe, Arizona 85287-1411 USA.

Readers Respond
Readers Respond offers you a forum to
comment on or react to any article, perspective, or tip from previous issues.
Submissions should not exceed 500

Ask the TJ
Ask the TJ responds to questions submitted by readers to TESOL Journal on
matters relating to teaching and classroom
research. Responses should not exceed
100 words.
Send your questions or responses to
Chris Boosalis, Editor, Ask the TJ,
Thunderbird, American Graduate School
of International Management, Department
of Modern Languages, 15249 North 59th
Avenue, Glendale, Arizona 85306-6012

Your submission must be a
previously unpublished manuscript and
should conform to the following
1. Three copies of each submission; all
references to the author’s identity
2. Typed, double-spaced, with 1” margins
on top, bottom, and sides of each page.

We urge you to send copies of student artwork, writing samples, or sample exercises
as well as photographs to illustrate all submissions.

2. discuss and reflect upon research findings that are applicable to classrooms
in which there are ESL/EFL learners.
3. encourage practitioners to engage in
their own reflective practice and classroom research on connections between
oral and written language during language and content learning.
Send your submissions to Christian J.
Faltis, Editor, TESOL Journal, at the
address listed below.

A perspective submission should present your views on ESOL-related
sociopolitical and professional concerns
around the world. You should present a
cogent argument for your views but with
only a limited number of references. Perspectives should be 300-800 words.
Send your submissions to Christian J.
Faltis, Editor, TESOL Journal, at the
address listed below.

Tips from the Classroom
Tips from the Classroom briefly
recount successful ESOL techniques,
activities, or methods in such a way that
they could be adapted by teachers in

Send your submissions to Christian J.
Faltis, Editor, TESOL Journal, at the
address listed below.

Reviews should evaluate recently published ESOL classroom materials such as
textbooks, curriculum guides, computer
programs, or videos. Reviews should be
between 500 and 750 words.
In the body of the review, include
1. a brief summary of important features
of the material (without commentary)
2. an evaluation of these features, with
the merits/demerits of the material
3. a discussion of any wider ESOL pedagogical issues in the material
4. possibly a discussion relating the
review materials to ESOL methodology, theory, or current trends
5. an explanation as to why the teacherreader would want to use the material
(or not)
Send your submissions to Jill
Burton, School of Education, University
of South Australia, Underdale Campus,
GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia

3. Copies, not the originals, of student artwork and/or black and white photographs. Originals will be requested if
the submission is accepted.
4. Source citations according to APA
(American Psychological Association)
5. A biographical statement of up to 50
words for each author, including the
name and address to which correspondence may be sent. A telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address are
also requested.
Submissions of feature articles, perspectives, tips, and reviews will be acknowledged within 1 month of their receipt.
TESOL Journal retains the right to
edit all manuscripts that are accepted for
General inquiries regarding TESOL
Journal should be sent to:
Christian J. Faltis
College of Education, Box 871411
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona 85287-1411 USA,
Fax 602-965-5477

Special Issue:

Immigrant Students in Secondary
Schools: Creating Structures That
Promote Achievement

Coeditors: Joy Kreeft Peyton and Carolyn Temple Adger

The Autumn 1998 special issue of TESOL Journal will focus on improving programs in secondary
schools so that immigrant students (in some countries called migrant students) throughout the
world can excel and gain access to challenging postsecondary education and work. We
welcome submissions related to all aspects of this unexplored and challenging topic, including
those from educators who are working or have worked outside the United States. Some
possible topics of interest follow.
• those with age-appropriate schooling
and content knowledge but limited
proficiency in English
• those with limited or interrupted prior
schooling, who are behind their sameage peers in content knowledge
• those with low literacy skills
• those not placed in an ESL/ELT
program, but who are not yet fully
English proficient

• creating and maintaining literacy and
sheltered content courses
• establishing a sequence of challenging,
credit-bearing courses that enable
immigrant students to progress to
• making specialized courses, such as
Gifted and Talented courses and
Career Academies, available to
students learning English

• structures to support students
throughout their time in the school
and beyond—from intake, through the
course sequence, after exiting the
ESL/ELT/second language sequence,
from middle school to high school, and
after graduation to further education
and careers
• extracurricular activities that meet the
needs and interests of English language
learners unfamiliar with the school
• structures that benefit all students,
while facilitating immigrant students’
• nonacademic support systems

• linkages with local universities,
community groups, and businesses

• standards
• assessments and graduation

• in-service programs for teachers and
administrators on working with
immigrant students
• structures in which teachers consider
school and district data in making
program and instructional decisions

Contributions may take the form of articles, tips from the classroom, perspectives, and reviews
on any of these topics or others that fit the theme of this special issue.

The deadline for submissions is
January 2, 1998.
Send inquiries and material to Joy Kreeft Peyton, Center for Applied Linguistics, 1118 22nd St.
NW, Washington, DC 20037 USA. Queries only to

Reaching All Learners: Endless Possibilities
for Teacher Growth
Linda New Levine and Nancy Cloud, Guest Editors

“All of us must cross the line between
ignorance and insight many times
before we truly understand.” Not only
must we cross that line many times, but,
in the words of the old spiritual,
nobody can cross it for us, we must
cross it by ourselves.
John Holt (1967, p. 132)
Our classrooms offer us unparalleled
opportunities for learning. As new and different learners cross our thresholds each year,
they challenge us to develop the skills, competencies, and attitudes necessary to promote
successful learning experiences.
As co-editors of this special issue dedicated to professional development, we could
not help but reflect on the multiple roles we
ourselves have played in education, roles that
have contributed to our own professional
growth. We have been first and second language learners, parents, teachers, administrators, curriculum and staff developers, grant
authors, and cultural brokers to a wide variety
of learner groups. We have taught children,
adults, and TESOL educators both within and
outside of English-speaking countries. We
have taught in jungles and suburbs, in hotels
and huts, in elementary schools and universities. Every time we have taken on a new role,
taught in a new setting, implemented a new
curriculum or a new program structure,
demonstrated a lesson or made instructional
recommendations for an individual child, we
have increased our own repertoire of skills
and competencies. The unmet learning needs
of our students raised the bar for us, telling us
there was still more to learn, to do, to be as
professionals. When we have had the opportunity to work with learners with unfamiliar
characteristics—be they cultural, linguistic, or
learning—we have captured that moment of
possibility that keeps life fresh, that makes us
aware that learning is endless if we reach out.
So, too, it was with the construction of this
special issue. By reaching out to other professionals, we had the opportunity to experience
vicariously their processes of professional
growth; to understand the situations that

required them to change and grow; to become
aware of the mechanisms that allowed them
to respond to their unique situations and the
personal benefits they derived from their
Pre- and in-service teacher development,
action research in classrooms, collaboration,
collegial sharing, networking, and partnerships of all kinds are making this growth process far less lonely. No longer under the
illusion that we are in it alone, we are sure
that we are in it together. We hope the sharing
that this issue brings will allow you to consider other avenues for nurturing yourself,
those with whom you work most closely, and
those with whom you have never worked, but
The impetus for our professional growth is
often a problem. Something is not working.
Something is not happening as we had
planned. We are frustrated and eager to
search for a solution. This juxtaposition of
awesome challenge and satisfying reward is
at the heart of the learning process. We
believe that, for teachers, as John Holt (1969)
observed for students, “True learning—learning that is permanent and useful, that leads to
intelligent action and further learning—can
arise only out of the experiences, interests,
and concerns of the learner” (p. 3). And so we
struggle to make changes in our assumptions
and techniques. We observe, reflect, and
thoughtfully experiment.
Thus the fundamental premise of this special issue is that by attempting to reach all
learners, teachers can find endless possibilities for their own growth as professionals. In
each section of this special issue, you will
find evidence of professional growth processes, processes that have been experienced
or facilitated by our contributors.
• Anne Burns reports on an action research
project for teachers of an immigrant population in Australia.
• Lía Kamhi-Stein and José Galván share a
range of state-of-the-art teacher development techniques they designed for visiting
Egyptian secondary EFL teachers. Hosted

by the authors’ university, the teachers
reflect critically on their teaching practices
with large classes in relation to current
best practices.
• Peggy Anderson chronicles the establishment of a professional development school
(PDS) in a foreign language magnet elementary school and the possibilities for
growth it engendered for all participant
groups: elementary students, pre- and inservice teachers, administrators, and
teacher educators.
• Lynne Cameron recounts a collaborative
onsite action research program based in a
British secondary school and conducted by
university staff. The program investigated
the beliefs and classroom practices of
mainstream teachers in order to engage in
responsive in-service education and
address teacher concerns while increasing
student performance.
• Alan Seaman, Barry Sweeny, Pamela
Meadows, and Marilyn Sweeny describe a
collaborative effort among a group of educators designed to promote professional
growth for the teachers of an adult ESL
program in Illinois.
• Sandra H. Fradd, Okhee Lee, Pete
Cabrera, Vivian del Rio, Amelia Leth, Rita
Morin, Marisela Ceballos, Maria Santalla,
Lucille Cross, and Techeline Mathieu
worked together to promote repertoirebuilding among 4th-grade teachers of science to language learning youngsters in
The challenges of the future will be no less
than those of the past. We will cross back and
forth across the line of ignorance and insight
many times. With each crossing, we will
transform our students and ourselves and
experience the powerful possibilities inherent
in the learning experience.

Holt, J. (1969). The under-achieving
school. New York: Dell.
Holt, J. (1967). How children learn. New
York: Dell.
Autumn 1997


pp. I decided to read the literature on managing disparate learner groups and to talk to teachers in AMES and in community organisations and school education about strategies they used .. I also documented comments on their reactions to my classroom activities .. I decided on a strategy of individual consultation. I decided to focus on developing materials and activities at different levels and to observe the responses of the learners to these materials. Susan Hood. religious. once.. The term disparate is commonly used .. near hostility. I was uncertain how to manage the class and felt that my planning was very “hit and miss” . They came from 15 different countries and spoke 17 different languages. I observed that the students would not cooperate to undertake joint activities. and social factors. They were also starting to express exasperation. My concern was with the wide variation in the levels of spoken and written English .. When I allowed the students to take control. 26-30) Setting I have culled from McPherson’s report at some length because it illustrates some of the key issues and themes about the teaching of diverse student classes that emerged in the project.. learning needs. teaching and learning strategies. I suddenly realised how difficult it had been for them to maintain the veneer of courtesy and civility when I was introducing activities that demanded that they expose and discuss the differences they were attempting to ignore! (McPherson. how they were learning and how they could develop their skills. 1997a. I documented these observations and began to realize how much I tended to control 6 TESOL JOURNAL their learning by dispersing materials at appropriate levels. at this point I became concerned about another aspect of the class. through the National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (NCELTR).. I learned that the stu- dents were aware of deep ethnic. materials. The project was coordinated by myself and a fellow researcher.... political... As a result. Ages ranged from 22-58 with equal numbers of males and females. as I brought to the classroom lessons and activities I thought were interesting and relevant. but that they were not prepared to participate in . I spoke to each student about what they were learning.. Below is part of what she wrote about her action research: My group was diverse in all the ways that make Adult Migrant English Service classes so interesting to teach. and political differences because of their experiences of the part of the world they had just left . Teaching disparate learner groups emerged nationally as a priority research area for the AMEP in 1995.Valuing Diversity: Action Researching Disparate Learner Groups Anne Burns P am McPherson is a teacher from the Australian Adult Migrant 1 English Program (AMEP).. I began to see emerging patterns and to uncover the reasons for the rejected activities.. Student comments and reactions indicated that discussions that revolved around cultural or social difference were not acceptable .. These themes had to do as much with the diversity of learner characteristics. and resources inherent in disparate learner classrooms as with the role of collaborative action research in offering opportunities for professional growth in teaching these groups. She was recently involved in a national action research project that included 28 ESL teachers from four different states in Australia. On a class excursion. boredom..... they worked with them in different ways that they found personally effective. Most had come to Australia because their country of origin was now unsafe for them . and. However. I documented their comments and followed with activities designed to enhance their requested learning areas..... irritation. cultural.

personalities. and data as we visited each state. skills. Some teachers chose to involve their colleagues in gathering this data. and documented their observations. for example. These factors included: • level of previous education • experiences of formal and informal language learning • literacy experiences and abilities in first language • length of residence in Australia. such as writing or grammar? In each group. One of the first major themes to emerge from the data was that there was a mismatch between teachers’ and learners’ assumptions about disparate teachers in the AMEP to refer to the diversity of needs. one of the New South Wales teachers. experiences. the project brought out a rich complex of collective themes as well as individual findings. they did not label themselves as disparate. second. And just on the train I was chatting to them and they said that it didn’t worry them that other learners were slower or faster. desperate” teachers! When interviewed. social. they often liked having a wide range of language proficiencies in the class. described her surprise at this finding: I’ve been documenting how the students feel about [the fact that they are at such different levels] and how to manage that timewise. skills. the teachers tried out different approaches and teaching materials. We also reported regularly from group to group on emerging issues. and affective factors are an important consideration in any second lanAutumn 1997 7 . they saw differences in personality. which affected knowledge of cultural and social systems • religion • gender • age • physical disabilities. we’ll call you if we need you. immigration patterns. classroom exploration. learners gave a different picture. skills. Cultural. and third. almost all teachers had shifted from seeing the deficit concepts they had held at the beginning to seeing diverse groups as rich sources of different skills. Linda Ross. At the beginning of the project. A representation of the process that was adopted by each group during a 6month period appears on page 8 (see The Timeframe and Structure of the Project). local professional development staff provided support and coordination. First. In an early workshop. curriculum. In some instances. In order to maintain collaboration not only within each group but also from group to group within each state. and experiences as positive. funding arrangements. (Ross. learners gave a different picture. the teachers’ general consensus was that these groups were “problematic” and “difficult to teach”—some of the teachers had even joked that they were “disparate. reflection. They just wanted to get on with things and they said “Don’t worry about us. 1997). social. personal communication) ••••• When interviewed. teachers were ••••• At the beginning of the project. Between workshops. Their responses indicated the need to take into account many personal factors in addition to the students’ language proficiency levels. The areas for research that emerged from their initial discussions covered the following kinds of questions: • What cultural. The local coordinators were put in touch with each other and were in continual contact with us as the national coordinators. such as hearing or sight impairment or workplace injuries • recent unemployment and family relationship problems There were also features connected with learning expectations and experiences. One of the first tasks in each action research group was to document what the teachers saw as the characteristics of the diverse learner groups they were now teaching. And that happened to come up casually. action. and program delivery. teacher-researchers monitored activities though an action research cycle that involved refining the research issues. Each teacher conducted the research during a 6month period that was interspersed with a series of collaborative workshops and discussions. ••••• By the end of the project. such as • preferred learning pace and style • expectations about the course • cultural values and attitudes toward learning • goals and interests for language learning • confidence and motivation • contact with English outside the classroom Steps in the Research The participating teachers from each of the states formed themselves into four collaborative action research groups to investigate the general research theme from more specific perspectives. they often liked having a wide range of language proficiencies in the class.” I was very relieved when I heard this because I’d been feeling so guilty that I couldn’t get round to them all. they saw differences in personality. the teachers’ general consensus was that these groups were “problematic” and “difficult to teach”—some of the teachers had even joked that they were “disparate. 1996. 1997. problem posing and solving. and reflection and action in the classroom.and English-speaking backgrounds. they did not label themselves as disparate. because of changes in government policy. and resources. classrooms were no longer ESL only. Thus. However. second. Burns & Hood. or affective factors seem to affect my students’ learning? • What teaching strategies can I develop to cater for different needs and skills? • How can I encourage my students to develop independent learning strategies? • What are my students’ perceptions about being in a disparate learner group? • What classroom management and grouping arrangements will assist me to cater for my students’ needs? • How do classroom dynamics affect my students’ ability to learn? • What strategies will assist my students to develop specific skill areas. strategies. and experiences as positive. and third. observed their learners. Findings Because of the collaborative nature of the research. according to the concerns and interests they felt were most relevant to their own classrooms. desperate” teachers! •••••• increasingly confronted with more heterogeneous learner groups than they had ever encountered previously (see Burns. there was a constant movement back and forth between the sharing of ideas. and data interpretation (see Burns & Hood. data collection. but involved catering for students from both non-English. 1988). 1995. findings. First. and backgrounds that are well recognized as characterizing immigrant learner groups. because the day after we had [the first workshop] we went on an excursion to Sydney. Kemmis & McTaggart.

all of which made a difference to their enthusiasm for learning (Jackson. Most of the language activities were based on games. undertaking a language needs analysis was a part of their regular practice. (McPherson. 1993. these factors may have a greater than usual impact. therefore. who researched her beginning-level learners’ perceptions about improving their writing skills commented: This study has emphasised to me the importance of listening to the students to determine how they feel about learning and the strategies they use to learn. 48) McPherson’s classroom situation illustrates also how previous political and cultural experiences can interact negatively within the group. and interviews with their learners. resulted in more positive group dynamics and a classroom atmosphere that facilitated learning. (p. For example. but perceptible changes in students’ confidence. they found they gained greater insight into the kinds of teaching and learning strategies that would increase their learners’ motivation and help them to learn. However. 59) Her research. who were attending as part of a government labor market retraining arrangement in order to obtain unemployment benefits. as a result she was able to devise alternative classroom activities as she describes here: I eliminated group and pair-work from my repertoire. All language teaching was based on whole class work. it became apparent that it can be very easy to overlook or simplify the complexity of individual needs and the way that these needs change during the learning process.. She discovered that non-language-focused activities. The research also highlighted the importance of conducting a detailed and continuing analysis of learners’ needs. we discovered that in classrooms where there is great diversity. 1997b. Nonlanguage outcomes were to do not so much with improvements in language proficiency. and trauma • conflicts arising from ethnic and cultural differences When teachers investigated these political and cultural issues systematically through 8 TESOL JOURNAL regular observations. Lenn de Leon (1997).The Timeframe and Structure of the Project Event/Process Timeframe Purpose Workshop 1 1 day Introducing research context and model Discussing issues Focusing research and data collection techniques Research Approximately 3 weeks Reflecting Collecting and documenting data Clarifying focus Discussing with colleagues Workshop 2 Half day Reviewing focus for research and data collection methods Discussing early reflections Research Approximately 4-6 weeks Collecting data Reflecting and interpreting Intervening and collecting more data Discussing with colleagues Workshop 3 1 day Presenting interim report Discussing each other’s research Interpreting. problematizing findings Research Approximately 3 weeks Collecting additional data. but there were no competitive or cooperative activities . increased her learners’ competence and willingness to learn. as they worked within a learner-centred organizational curriculum. who worked closely with Linda Ross in New South Wales. torture. Meg Quinn (1997). found herself with a mixed literacy and numeracy class composed of both native and nonnative English speakers. 1994). The teachers began with the assumption that. Other teachers realized that they had to overcome the effects of previous very negative educational experiences as well as a lack of desire to be in class. discussions. Teachers identified the following areas as most strongly affecting their students’ learning: • negative motivation and attitudes from previous learning experiences • experiences of being made unemployed and remaining unemployed over a long period of time • medical and legal problems • problems with family relationships • political influences including experiences of war. The sessions became teacher-centred. and motivation. to confirm interpretations or identify other issues Workshop 4 Half day Planning final written report Report Writing Approximately 3 weeks Drafting final report Discussing with colleagues Workshop 5 Half-day seminar Presenting written reports Presenting short informal seminar on research guage learner group. To teach effectively in a disparate classroom may require identifying learning strategies and then incorporating that knowledge into the classroom activities. with individual contributions welcomed on a spontaneous and voluntary basis. Over a period of two or three weeks. I became aware of the lessening of tension in the class. such as completing out-of-class tasks chosen by themselves or teaching others a new skill such as playing a game they knew well.. Most teachers agreed by the end of the project that it was not enough to conduct a formal written needs survey at the beginning of the course. from Queensland. which focused primarily . p. self-esteem. She conducted her research through observing and documenting in a journal how and why learners were not interacting in her classroom. However.

The classroom activities she devised need to take this into account. 18) Increasingly. She commented: I don’t usually intrude into the students’ personal lives but these students saw [personal] issues as directly affecting their learning ability and wanted me to understand them . Two major dimensions emerged strongly from the project. a Queensland-based teacher. it had indicated common problem areas being experienced by the group as a whole. Sometimes. I had nothing to do with how this had eventuated . techniques. the students were prepared to take far more risks with their language learning. their family support structures in Australia. The course became one of the most interesting and challenging I have ever taught. and activities they thought would work in diverse classes. their age.. (p. conducted in-depth discussions with her New South Wales learners and developed detailed profiles of their lives both in and out of the classroom.. and I wondered if my years of grouping learners as I had thought appropriate may not have been in the best interests of the learners. This not only improved classroom relationships but also had a positive effect on language development as learners felt their efforts were valued by the group. 39) Discussion This research had two purposes. advised and supported me at all my “crisis points” and inspired me by their own dedication and integrity. establishing positive group dynamics took on new meanings with diverse classes. It caused them to ••••• Many teachers realized that they needed to abandon ideas of achieving neat.. and community participation were all instrumental in shaping their learning responses. to give teachers opportunities to reflect critically and systematically on their own classroom practices in order to take these practices in new directions. 59) Different strategies for classroom seating and grouping arrangements that would improve dynamics were also explored. Australia: National Centre for Autumn 1997 9 . For many of the teachers. Secondly. their objectives and the reasons for the kinds of activities they were doing— not only helped them articulate their own approaches to teaching. many of the teachers also found themselves becoming much more aware of the nature of their teaching and on what basis they selected teaching methods. Finally. This was too impersonal and did not take into account how learning needs are also affected by learners’ life situations and goals outside the classroom. Burns & S. when she let her learners choose their own groupings. (p. Many teachers realized that they needed to abandon ideas of achieving neat. in her words. In the first instance. the collaborative action research framework for the project became a catalyst for continuing their own professional growth. for example.. with skills in matching a repertoire of teaching techniques to the diverse needs of their learners. It aimed to develop teachers’ skills in meeting the learning needs of disparate learner groups and. In A. helped me bring into question all the teaching values I held and forced me to justify to myself and my students. Hood (Eds. homogeneous classroom subgroups and to treat the learner group more holistically. References Air.. and their goals for work.. similarly. their experiences of migration... the theoretical principles underlying my teaching practice. They became more relaxed about changing directions and problem solving their way through their teaching dilemmas and began to see this viewpoint as a necessary aspect of decision-making when teaching disparate groups. activities were developed (based on Hadfield. was. too. Marie Muldoon (1997). Teachers’ voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. Susanne Air (1997). data collection allowed me the opportunity to compare changes in my students’ writing with what I had been doing in the classroom and attempt to adjust my strategies in an appropriate manner . then. newly arrived in Queensland.. speaks for most of the teachers when she comments: Collaborative action research . homogeneous classroom subgroups and to treat the learner group more holistically. teachers increasingly viewed themselves as creative classroom decision makers. whose classroom situation illuminated some of the key issues related to teaching diverse groups at the beginning of this article. I became very aware that the students were not only from diverse backgrounds but [in some cases] were dealing with very stressful physical and emotional problems which directly affected their ability to learn and to interact positively with each other.... such as in Susan Shaw’s classroom in Western Australia. A profile of individual differences in two language learners. The first was that a noticeable shift took place from a deficit concept of diverse learner groups to one that saw them as creating exciting challenges and offering multiple resources for teaching and learning. There was a feeling of “openness” that I had not experienced before. Susan Shaw (1997) observed: There was something different about this group. but clarified the purpose of classroom learning for their learners. the diversity in the group actually created more scope for learning and therefore learners became more outspoken . (p. 30) Note 1The term migrant is used in Australia to refer to immigrants to the country who were born elsewhere. I would like to thank all the AMEP teachers who researched their classrooms as part of the project. (p.. They highlighted the importance of a high level of flexibility and suggested that it was not realistic to adopt a one-size-fits-all approach to teaching methods and approaches. Lucy Valeri (1997).. 2425). documented the learning progress of two beginning-level male students. Chris Pierson (1997).. 1992) that asked the learners to address groupness... stated: This .. to reflect on situations in which they had been members of a group and to discuss specifically what group membership meant.. a teacher from Victoria. Acknowledgment This research was a NCELTR Special Project funded by the Australian Commonwealth Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA).on learners’ language proficiency. ••••• see second language teaching and learning in a new light. at the same time.. “amazed” that..). I am deeply indebted to the members of the action research group who encouraged. (p. education. Sydney... Moreover . This was certainly food for thought. (1997). She noted that their previous life and language learning experiences. S. The data had. Secondly. Pam McPherson (1997). 140) Teachers suggested that explicitly discussing their teaching approach and the structure of the course with their learners— for example. it had indicated that the program being implemented needed to be modified . rather than a sign of individual weakness or indecision. performed two invaluable services .

Teachers’ voices: Exploring course design in a changing curriculum. (Eds.). Teachers’ voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. Hadfield. 108-114). Sydney. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research/NSW Adult Migrant English Service. A profile of group diversity. Valeri. Burns & S. Burns. 18-23). Shaw. Teachers voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups. TESOL Quarterly. Teachers’ voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. The action research planner. Sydney. Sydney. Sydney. & Hood. 26-30). & Hood. In A. Sydney.). 591-598. McPherson.. Hood (Eds. Muldoon. E. (1994). (1996). Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. Jackson. Burns & S. In A. (1997). Jackson. it’s OK now”: Perceptions of literacy learning.).). Sydney. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (1997). Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research and NSW Adult Migrant English Service. Teachers’ voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. 37-39). Kenya. Teachers' voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. (1993). (1997). Burns.. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. Social and cultural difference in the classroom. Strategies for non-language outcomes. P.). de Leon. Hood (Eds. J. In A. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. (1992). M.).. Finding common goals. Burns. (Eds). Group dynamics. (1997a). S. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.). Burns & S.English Language Teaching and Research. Kemmis. Teachers’ voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. Quinn. 5459). (1995). S. Burns & S. She has taught in Britain France. A. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research Anne Burns is senior lecturer and coordinator of professional development at the National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. S.). & McTaggart. 12. (1997). 5062. (1988).). M. . (1997b). “Ah writing . Action research: Exploring learner diversity. A. Burns & S. Teachers' voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. In A. Macquarie University. Prospect. L. In A. Hood (Eds. Hood (Eds. A. 4349). Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. (1997). 138-142). Burns & S. . Pierson. (1997). Sydney. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. She is editor of Prospect: A Journal of Australian TESOL. Classroom dynamics. C. In A. P. . Collaborative action research and curriculum change in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program. S. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. Australia: Deakin University Press. Sydney. Sydney. Sydney. Sydney. L. Sydney. Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. E. Hood (Eds. McPherson. (Eds. Hood (Eds. Teachers’ voices 2: Teaching disparate learner groups (pp. Burns & S. Hood (Eds. R. Non-language outcomes: Activities and resources. Deakin. and Mauritius and has worked for 15 years in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program. What do students think of group work? In A. (1997). Non-language outcomes in the language classroom: Curriculum guidelines. 30.


second language teacher education programs now promote the development of teaching expertise through a process of critical reflection in a context of collaboration (Cray & Currie. as well as the accompanying workshops and activities in the university-based teacher development program. We extended the use of this model to include the experiences gained by EFL teachers through a series of observations in U. 1996). the overcrowded classroom conditions in Egypt provide an easy excuse for teachers to dismiss the com- .EFL Teacher Development Through Critical Reflection Lía D. the teacher trainees themselves act as their own sources of information about what constitutes best practices for them. held on the campus of California State University. The CSULA Institute for Egyptian Teachers of English We developed the ideas we present in this article as part of an innovative second language teacher education project for EFL 12 TESOL JOURNAL teachers from Egypt. their teaching practices must be seen in relation to the larger society in which they live (Bartlett. either ESL or EFL. the institute faculty explained the emphasis on communication-based methods to the participants with reference to the typical Egyptian classroom. The institute was designed to focus on the kinds of issues that the typical EFL practitioner in Egypt faces on a daily basis. In the critical reflection model. as such. This article describes a series of principles that can be used to design programs of this type. the critical reflection sessions. In the first week of the institute. and converting grammar-translation literature lessons into content-based lessons that promote critical thinking skills. 1994). The result was that all three groups—the ESL and EFL teachers as well as the MA TESOL students—could benefit from the cross-cultural exchange. Kamhi-Stein and José L. It is difficult for teachers who themselves have learned English through the traditional approaches to suddenly turn their backs on familiar classroom methods in favor of newer ones.2 We acknowledged the good reasons the Egyptian EFL classrooms have been slow to change. EFL instruction in Egypt tends to follow the grammar-translation approach and relies heavily on drills and skills-based exercises. They examine their own teaching and beliefs and use them as a source for change (Richards & Lockhart. Through this process of critical reflection. where they observed and interacted with experienced teachers. the main source of information and feedback about classroom practices is the teacher trainer. A group of 25 Egyptian teachers of English who were teaching in elementary and secondary schools in Egypt participated in an 11-week collaborative program we designed to foster critical reflection both in a campus-based teacher education curriculum and in an observational component that paired the EFL teachers with experienced ESL teachers in a nearby public school system. and. dealt specifically with such issues as practice in (a) conducting small-group activities to minimize the negative effects of large class sizes. 1990). This approach is consistent with the CSULA program’s philosophy that teachers must be viewed as members of a community. In a transmission model of teacher education. Furthermore. Therefore. combined with reflection upon their own teaching practices back home. and (d) engaging in forms of inquiry designed to examine the teachers’ instructional practices and beliefs. The critical reflection model typically has focused on experiences gained by practicing teachers in the course of teaching actual classes in their own setting. (b) adapting grammar skills-based lessons into interactive activities that encourage communication. Los Angeles (CSULA) in the Spring of 1996. teachers become autonomous because they take control over and transform their teaching practices. and the societal factors that would prevent them from changing.1 Underlying this design was the premise that teacher education programs must provide trainees with opportunities to reflect critically upon their own teaching practices and beliefs in a context of collaboration with other teachers. Galván M oving away from models that focus on the transmission of information. ESL classrooms. The Egyptian teachers were immersed in ESL classrooms. with guidance from the university’s teacher trainers. The collaboration was designed to be multifaceted and multicultural. (c) describing the research and theoretical foundations of the newer approaches as preparation for dealing with the expected resistance of their Egyptian peers and supervisors upon their return home.S. They were also paired in an e-mail dialogue activity with students in the university’s MA TESOL program for the purpose of highlighting both the similarities and the differences between their respective milieus. and after which they engaged in critical reflection on their own teaching in Egypt.

3 The participants used the Web site to post creative writing products. and curriculum and materials development faculty ensured that a direct connection was maintained across the modules. middle school. These lessons were based on units taken from the EFL textbooks that are currently used in Egypt. Other problems include a national testing program that requires that students pass discrete-point grammar tests of English to qualify for admission to the next educational tier. It is understandable. to identify specific instructional strategies that were applicable or adaptable to their own teaching situations. through peer teaching. the observations and discussions were centered around the structure of the ESL lesson. class papers.munication-based methods as impractical or inappropriate. art work. the EFL teachers reflected upon the types of seating arrangements that promoted or hindered student participation and language development. it is important for the teacher trainers to guide the trainees away from focusing on the observed teacher and instead concentrate on discussing any implications for their own teaching back home. The chart on page 14 describes how this was done. then. The reflective teaching module consisted of 8 hours of weekly observations of ESL instructors in elementary. that teachers would be reluctant to abandon their “teaching to the test” approaches and that they would want to hold on to the more familiar grammar-translation and drill-andskill methods. methodology. and issues in ESL/EFL. below). curriculum and materials development. all of the participants as well as the institute faculty were linked for e-mail directly from the Web site. or secondary school classrooms (according to their level assignment in Egypt). Finally. We created an interactive World Wide Web site specifically for the institute (see samples. methodology. the nature of the language learning activities. Four Principles for Conducting EFL Teacher Development Through Critical Reflection The following four principles can be used to design a university-based EFL teacher development program that incorporates the critical reflection model. 1994). Guide Participants to Reflect on the Connections Between the Observed Teaching and Their Own Classroom Practices The obvious focus of discussion in a typical critical reflection session is the classroom in which the teaching has occurred. The curriculum and materials development session was also hands-on and was always tied directly to the specific methods they had already practiced. the trainees should focus on their own needs. Weekly meetings of the reflective teaching. The critical element here is the connection between what they have seen and what they may adapt for use in Egypt or elsewhere. The methodology and the curriculum and materials development modules consisted of 4-hour weekly workshops designed to complement the critical reflection sessions. In the CSULA institute. When the participants are discussing what they have observed rather than what they have taught. For example. and culture capsules. the use of computer technology was emphasized. Autumn 1997 13 . the institute was designed to overlap with the regular MA TESOL program’s methods and materials development compo- nents. designed for use in the teachers’ own classrooms in Egypt. These sessions resulted in the development of numerous lesson plans. together with accompanying materials and props. In subsequent weeks. idioms learned. This offered the EFL teachers regular. For instance. The result was a rich mixture of ideas for lessons that benefited everyone who participated in the collaboration. the methodology workshop introduced the Egyptian EFL teachers. 1. The focus of the observations changed periodically. lesson plans. and to reflect upon factors that might impede change or possible solutions. to communicative teaching methods and techniques. Throughout the duration of the institute. the language used in the classroom. In addition. and their roles as teachers (Richards & Lockhart. rather than conduct evaluations of the Sample Web Pages observed lessons. followed by a 3-hour weekly debriefing and planning session led by a CSULA teacher trainer. weekly opportunities to observe and examine the ESL classroom practices they saw. we implemented this critical reflection approach in four modules— reflective teaching. In other words. at the beginning of the institute.

language used in the classroom.Implementation of Critical Reflection Model Through Four Complementary Modules Reflective Teaching 11 hours a week Methodology 4 hours a week Curriculum and Materials Development 4 hours a week Issues in ESL/EFL 2 hours a week Discussions focused on • observations of ESL instructors in public school classrooms and • reflection on participants’ teaching practices in Egypt Workshops focused on • reading and discussion of “best practices” taken from the recent literature (e. role of the teacher) Activities Participants worked in groups to • develop sample lesson plans to be used in teacher development workshops • practice methods developed through peer-teaching • develop strategies for peer coaching Activities Participants worked in groups according to the textbooks used in Egypt to • adapt their EFL textbooks to incorporate best practices identified in the literature • produce handouts and props to accompany their lessons Activities Participants engaged in group learning tasks designed to • model cooperative learning techniques • introduce communicative language teaching techniques into the FL classroom • assist them in designing teacher development workshops for their peers in Egypt Products Participants developed • written descriptions of best practices observed ESL classrooms • descriptions of obstacles to the implementation of these practices in Egypt and possible solutions to overcome them. scaffolding..g.g. including descriptions of specific teaching strategies and observation procedures. and • action plans. communication-based curriculum • rehearsed these workshops and presented them at a symposium held at the conclusion of the institute 14 TESOL JOURNAL . nature of language learning activities. Natural Approach. seating arrangement. Language Experience Approach. and follow-up activities Products Participants developed portfolios containing • sample lesson plans drawing on best practices taken from the literature • handouts and materials designed to help in implementation of sample lesson plans Products Participants developed portfolios containing • lesson plans based on their own textbooks • their own and others’ handouts and props Products Participants • developed model teacher development workshops on the rationale for an interactive. adapted each week by topic (e. and the affective filter Activities Participants worked individually to • complete structured observational assignments using a focused checklist. Directed Reading/Thinking Approach • modeling of these practices by institute faculty and invited presenters Workshops focused on • adapting grammar-based translation lessons from the textbooks used in EFL classrooms in Egypt into communicative-based activities Seminars focused on • reading and discussion in the theoretical foundations of second language acquisition. including such topics as: similarities/differences between first and second language acquisition and the notions of interlanguage. comprehensible input. Total Physical Response. structure of the lesson..

while others spent many hours in the computer labs. and traditional American folk songs. We designed this resource book to meet two basic objectives. redrafting. history. Third. 4. Although it was not always possible to make direct connections to the classrooms they had observed. and peer-editing. Members of the EgyptianAmerican community from the Greater Los Angeles area also were invited to participate in social events. we chose the classrooms carefully with this in mind. First. Finally. providing guidance. Integrate the Program Participants Into the Host School’s Community The communication-based philosophy was evident in the ESL classrooms the EFL teachers observed. the Egyptian EFL teachers were assigned to groups on the basis of the books they used in Egypt. private individuals from the Los Angeles area invited smaller groups of participants to their homes for dinners and other social events. they were given university identification cards and university accounts that allowed them to use all campus facilities. including brainstorming. and organizing other social events. Staff guided them in how to apply the ideas discussed in the different institute classes and adapt the lessons in their textbooks to make them communicative and student centered. Finally. The Egyptian teachers also participated in two workshops on the writing process that highlighted the rationale for the instructional model they were experiencing. 2. along with some concrete examples of how this approach can be implemented in the Egyptian setting in spite of such difficulties as large class sizes. Each of the Egyptian teachers was paired in an e-mail correspondence project with a student in the CSULA MA TESOL program. copies of which were made for all of the participants to take back to Egypt. and a representative of the Egyptian Consulate in San Francisco. The ESL creative writing class was a hands-on workshop in which the Egyptian teachers wrote poetry. clustering. stories. the school teachers whose classes were observed were invited to attend the social and educational events that were part of the institute. This was an integral part of our institute. Some of these graduate students assisted in the development.The issues in ESL/EFL module was a 2hour session that gave the Egyptian participants a chance to reflect on the theories underlying the implementation of a communicative approach in language teaching. and tradition. and on their life experiences back home.and post-institute proficiency test. Create Classroom Materials and Group Portfolio for Use Back Home An important feature of institutes of this type is to provide a mechanism for participants to take back with them new instructional materials that they can use in their own classrooms. However. offering friendship. and assembled them as a group portfolio. where they searched the Web. Their final product for this module was an oral presentation. For this reason. They were then asked to practice expressing these connections to the Egyptian settings. The institute staff collected all of these adaptations. This component consisted of three 2-hour weekly classes: an ESL creative writing class. and a computer-mediated communication (CMC) class. a structural grammar- Autumn 1997 15 . In addition. we created a language development component to help the participants improve their English language skills (their TOEFL scores upon their arrival in the United States had averaged 450) as well as to enrich their educational experience at CSULA. these students’ primary motivation was to gain some valuable experience. a special feature of the institute was the participation of a large number of students from the MA TESOL program. we recognized from the outset that we would have to do more than just provide opportunities for the Egyptian teachers to observe what we considered good teaching.4 This activity was designed to give the Egyptian teachers an opportunity to play the role of the “more capable other” (Tharp & Gallimore. The first was to make it possible for the trainees to carry back to Egypt the principles that undergird the communicative approach to language teaching. Second. administration. The instructor followed the writing process techniques. 35) by allowing them to share information about Egyptian culture and their own teaching practices in Egypt (Kamhi-Stein & Browne-del Mar. The chart on page 16 describes the range of activities that involved the use of computers. Demonstrate Communication-Based Teaching Through a Language Development Component 3. downloaded lesson plans that they could use in Egypt. we felt it was important to provide ample opportunity for contact between institute participants and students enrolled in the university. and scoring of a pre. rhythm. the Egyptian Tourist Office director. Many of the EFL teachers chose to meet with Writing Center tutors on a regular basis. We felt that if our teacher development program was to succeed we would have to follow our own advice. In most cases. including the University Writing Center and the various campus computer labs. and intonation in English as they learned idioms. Every workshop and institute module helped participants develop materials for EFL classrooms in Egypt. 1988. Indeed. This resulted in the pairing of graduate MA students with institute participants in the e-mail activity that served as the basis for the MA students’ research papers. and reflective essays drawing on their knowledge of Egyptian culture. and worked on their class projects. in which they described the rationale for communication-based teaching. drafting. The pronunciation and communication skills module presented a variety of classroom activities designed to improve the EFL In designing the institute. the Egyptian EFL teachers were encouraged by the instructor to draw from their observations in the class discussions in an attempt to connect the theory with the practice vis-à-vis a real classroom setting. 1997). responsible for answering questions. teachers’ stress. the TESOL program faculty were invited to create class assignments for their MA program courses that could be coordinated with the institute activities. The group portfolio contained examples of the best products of each of the modules. We accomplished this in several ways. contemporary popular songs. p. others designed and maintained the institute’s Web page or served as classroom teaching assistants. designed as an in-service workshop for their peers in Egypt. editing. Perhaps the best example of this was the curriculum and materials design module. In this module. and the Los Angeles-Giza Sister City Committee hosted the institute participants and staff at an afternoon symposium and dinner party attended by several Egyptian-American professors. An unexpected and welcomed by-product of their involvement was the development of a family atmosphere that came from the many hours spent together. along with products from each of the other workshops. the use of e-mail and the Web in the CMC class gave the EFL teachers opportunities for language and professional development. a pronunciation and communication skills class. especially because the institute classes and workshops were to be held in one of the main classroom facilities on campus. although the institute participants were not registered as university students. and two were cultural liaisons.

.. in many cases. we confirmed our assumption that critical reflection can be adapted to many settings and used even in situations where no teaching is being done by the participants. learning how to use the mouse and keyboard) • used computer labs on campus for word processing of class papers and lesson plans Promote professional development using the computer Participants • visited Web sites for language educators (e. However.g. immovable student desks. read and replied to a received e-mail message. given jointly by four EFL teachers. the sponsor of the institute. and a demonstration of five communicative lessons. It is easy in a TESOL program to develop a narrow perspective based on our exposure to ESL classrooms.S. First. White House and the Smithsonian Institute) and completed classroom tasks (e. AskERIC and Linguistic Funland TESL Page) and searched for and printed lesson plans and classroom ideas relevant to the Egyptian teaching situation • used search engines (e. A second objective for this book was that it should serve as a useful resource for the participants when they prepare to deliver workshops for their colleagues in their schools. sending an e-mail message to President Clinton and answering questions about the different Smithsonian museums) translation curriculum. By the end. the participants used the observations as a stimulus for reflecting upon their own teaching practices in Egypt. and the public school teachers whose classrooms were observed. By working with the Egyptians teachers to adapt classroom techniques for use in EFL classrooms.Implementation of Computer-Mediated Communication and Computer Skills Instruction in the CSULA Institute for Egyptian EFL Teachers Objective Technique Familiarize Egyptian teachers with e-mail and Web mechanics Participants • composed and sent e-mail messages. the U. it was easy to see the benefits of the interactions among the Egyptian participants. a culminating activity that called for them to integrate all of the skills they had learned in the course of the institute. We hope and expect that the videotape will serve as a useful resource for teacher development. and. Yahoo. 16 TESOL JOURNAL What We Learned From the Project From our perspectives as directors of the institute..S. each of which was presented by a team of four to five participants. and copies of the videotape were mailed to the EFL teachers upon their return to Egypt. along with the students in the MA TESOL program. The ESL teachers of the classrooms they had observed and their principals were invited.g. all three groups had developed a firsthand appreciation for the value of the central principle in our design of the institute—that professional development comes from reflection on practice and interactions with other professionals. and downloaded and printed messages • sent and received e-mail messages to and from faculty at CSULA and the University of Alexandria in Egypt • accessed the institute’s Web site and learned how to link to other sites Provide Egyptian teachers with computer skills training Participants • received a hands-on orientation to computers (e. even though these reflections were based on retrospection. During the last week of the institute.g.g. The institute taught us and the rest of the MA TESOL faculty that we need to be flexible when it comes to our notions of best practices. the institute can be credited with several other benefits as well. The symposium program included a brief lecture. In our case. The symposium was videotaped. Agency for International Development. we were forced to acknowledge that the differences between the ESL and EFL settings sometimes require us to adjust our assump- . as required by the U.g. This benefit is important because of its potential as a lifelong tool for continuing development. our MA TESOL faculty and students. the Egyptian EFL teachers participated in a halfday symposium. ALTAVISTA) to identify sites containing lesson plans relevant to the Egyptian teaching situation • sent messages to their e-mail partners reflecting upon their own L2 teaching and learning practices • discussed how they would integrate computers in their EFL classes • adapted e-mail and Web tasks to their EFL situation Promote L2 development using the computer Participants • were paired with MA TESOL students and participated in an intercultural e-mail project • visited Web sites that educate (e. in which they described the rationale for communicative EFL instruction in Egypt..

areas. 3. in turn. historical. Submissions relating to the first category might address the philosophical. The e-mail exchanges and interpersonal contacts gave many of our students their first experience interacting with EFL professionals. the EFL teachers were invited to make presentations about their country and backgrounds in several classrooms.. The group portfolio is a collection of these adaptations. all of which relate to learning contexts. CA 93710-6002 USA. there was constant communication between institute faculty to ensure that the products of any given methodology session would be used in the next curriculum and materials session as the basis for developing multiple adaptations designed to be applied to their own classroom setting back home. with institute faculty. one at a local high school and another in the CSULA student paper. geared specifically to the content of the textbooks currently in use in Egypt. Submissions relating to the third category would present quantitative or qualitative assessments of instructional or learning endeavors within language rights-based settings. infrastructure. a submission may relate to all three. this is precisely the most common seating arrangement in Egyptian public schools.. This was accomplished by implementing multiple techniques. whether for youths or adults: 1. career. Conclusions The model of teacher development described in this article provided EFL teachers with opportunities to reflect critically on their own teaching practices and beliefs in a context of collaboration. The MA TESOL students developed a more realistic view of the EFL setting than is normally possible in a TESOL program based in the United States. the Egyptian participants requested and were given two bulletin boards outside their classroom. and they were featured in two school newspaper stories. both ancient and modern. to develop ways of adapting their grammar-translation teaching materials to accommodate the communicative techniques they observed. also sought to maintain a constant connection between the observed lessons in the schools and the content of the various modules. and the wider community (e. In particular. of which the TESOL program is a part. public or private sector . Charter School of Education at CSULA. the participants worked closely with the teachers whose classrooms were observed. Our own MA TESOL program benefited immeasurably from the community building that resulted from the multidimensional interactions between our MA students and Egyptian participants. and perspectives. For instance. Suite 101. policies. state. personal and social identity. and pedagogical aspects associated with the need for language rights policies and practices. and local conferences. as well as the perceived or assessed consequences for teachers. the public school teachers. Many Tongues: Language Policies and the Rights of Learners Coeditors: Robert A. affluent or low income. DeVillar. Queries only to radevillar@ucdavis. university students at large. 1999. and social orientation).. individual and sociocultural development. Finally. Another strength of the institute was the layering of the many techniques we utilized to accomplish not only the goal of effective teacher development but also that of personal policies and practices being present or absent. DeVillar and Toshiko Sugino The Autumn 1999 special issue of TESOL Journal will focus on understanding the role of language rights in the education of students within multilingual settings. The institute resulted in a closer student-faculty relationship as evidenced by a number of follow-up collaborative projects. Ultimately. Barstow. thus. The deadline for submission is January 2. Yet. The practice of language rights in diverse learning settings: Standard or nonstandard (to include code switching). The assessment of language rights policies and practices The categories are for illustrative purposes and do not imply that the areas are mutually exclusive. For example. school.. through weekly meetings. including articles and several presentations at international. The rationale for language rights: Its perceived impact on the individual. This.. students. academic achievement. tips.g. Institute faculty had to concentrate on finding ways to accommodate this factor. our faculty and the EFL professionals. Fresno. Contributions are welcome in all departments: articles. teacher nowadays to be assigned a classroom with immovable desks in rows. The major purpose of this special issue is to raise the awareness of the language rights issue as a global phenomenon that effects the educational inputs (e.g. and with each other. or even other. led to conversations between the Egyptian teachers and passersby who noticed the bulletin board displays. private individuals. Autumn 1997 17 . and society 2.tions about teaching in the language classroom. For example. Many of these students have expressed an interest in job possibilities abroad.S. curriculum. it is unusual for a U. including • reading and discussing exemplary teaching practices • observing and reflecting upon the instruc- teacher preparation and attitudes. and society as a result of these tional practices of successful ESL teachers • adapting such practices to meet the communication language needs of Egyptian EFL students One of the strengths of our institute was that the collaboration was multidimensional. Send queries and material to: Robert A. 351 E. consulate staff).g. programs) and outcomes of students (e. which they used to showcase their country’s All submissions must conform to regular submission guidelines. Submissions relating to the second category would describe actual contexts where language rights policies and practices have been implemented and identify salient strategies that contributed to instructional effectiveness and student learning. developed a better understanding of the Egyptian teachers’ cultural backgrounds by taking part in many of the opportunities for cross-cultural exchange. the larger community in the TESOL Journal Special Issue One World. Contributions are particularly encouraged from the following topic areas. The institute faculty. Educational Research Center. University of California. reviews.

grammar drills and exercises have been de-emphasized. Although the main purpose of the institute was to promote the use of communicative teaching in Egyptian EFL classrooms. learning. 113-130. TESOL Quarterly. Los Angeles. In J. where she teaches courses in English for academic purposes. edu/academic/tesol/egypt/egypt. The participants used e-mail and the Web as tools to generate ideas and collect useful teaching resources. (1988). including classroom management skills that could be used in classrooms of 50 or more students. was key here.htm 4 This activity was part of an assignment given to the TESOL MA students in two of their MA courses. Dörnyei. Linking adult learners with the education of L2 teachers. it was clear to all who participated that the actual benefits derived went far beyond that goal. 141-152. C. Richards. . (1996). D. was to train the Egyptian teachers in communication-based methods. & Gallimore. J.growth.. Z. C. P. M. & Currie. 202-214). (1997). Second language teacher education (pp..calstatela. R. & Thurrell.S. L. He directed the EFL institute described here. through the use of yet another medium of communication. CAELL Journal. References Bartlett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. as specified by the USAID guidelines. TESOL Quarterly. though some researchers have noted in recent years that grammar ought not to be abandoned totally (Celce-Murcia. Celce-Murcia. Teacher development through reflective teaching. Nunan (Eds. & Lockhart. Direct approaches to L2 instruction: A turning point in communicative language teaching.. Egypt. Agency for International Development (USAID) through its Teacher Training Initiative (TTI) effort administered by the Binational Fulbright Commission in Cairo. R. and ESL/EFL methodology. and schooling in social context. 18 TESOL JOURNAL 2 For many years. centered on the use of the institute’s own Web page. (1994). and the use of computers in second language classrooms. in part. 1997). Authors Lia D. E. Kamhi-Stein is assistant professor in the TESOL program at California State University.). Tharp. At the same time. José L. Notes l This project was one of several EFL institutes hosted by U. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.S. 31. Los Angeles.. curriculum and materials design. 14-19. She was the academic coordinator of the EFL institute described in this article. Promoting EFL teacher develop- ment through e-mail instruction. C.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. & Thurrell.. (1990). & Browne-de1 Mar. G. Rousing minds to life: Teaching. S. Kamhi-Stein. (1997). by their own account. 3 The institute’s Web site can be accessed at the following URL: http://web. L. The main goal of the institute. Richards & D. and. they gained an appreciation for the importance of technology in education. He teaches courses in theories of second language acquisition. The technology component. Cray. Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. Galván is associate professor and the coordinator of the TESOL program at California State University. 30. 7. universities and funded by the U. Dörnyei. they improved their English skills. C. sociolinguistics.

two groups of preservice teachers (32) from the College of Education at WSU (juniors in their first semester of teacher education and seniors in the semester prior to their student teaching) 4. visioned. and have dropped out of secondary schools in record numbers (up to 80%). had learned how to share power. one such group began this journey when Wichita State University (WSU) and Wichita Public Schools (WPS). and a time line. including myself. Kansas. I was an obvious choice and was invited by our dean to participate in the project. The WPS district leadership had sensed an urgent need to provide effective instruction for the growing number of ESOL students who have been traditionally marginalized in many U. Due to the extensive time needed to acquire a second language. Our stated mission was to establish a professional development school that would foster a collaborative community of learners involving: • students at the school complex • staff at the school complex • university students • university faculty Less directly. and three university faculty members. planned. met regularly from October 1994 until May 1995. the balanced wheel metaphor). the community of learners also embraced representatives from social service agencies. formed a partnership. Now. PDS provided the perfect marriage of these respective goals. collaborative teams of public school staff and university faculty are now working to bring about profound changes as they attempt to invent new institutions that will capture culturally responsible pedagogy. were transformed from three discrete groups to one group who. and. studied other PDS models.S. the city law enforcement agency that had a substation on the premises. community businesses. specific plans. and raise academic and affective performance among students. these students have often underachieved academically. three participating faculty from the University As director of the TESOL programs. discovered each other’s perspectives. Across the United States. The team came to know each other well. Together they became stakeholders in a common destiny. Johnson (1996) likewise calls for the development of PDSs in relation to TESOL teacher education programs as a way for students to make sense of theory and become socialized into school culture. after 14 months. as a means to facilitate the simultaneous renewal of public schools and schools of education. schools. through a school governance body (Site Council). The primary goal that emerged was to create a bal- Autumn 1997 19 . WSU had been seeking to advance more concentrated school-based experiences for preservice teachers. symbols (e. The four quadrants of the wheel included 1. At the same time. 3 years later. parents.. in Wichita. more than 900 largely nonnativeEnglish-speaking elementary students enrolled at the chosen public school complex consisting of three neighboring schools 2. The PDS Goal: A Balanced Wheel A balanced wheel was chosen as the metaphor that could best represent the PDS concept. The WPS had a strategic 5-year school improvement plan calling for more engagement with higher education. inspire reflective practice. above all else. and a secondary program is being crafted. In the summer of 1994. a group of college deans. jockeyed for power. had a lot of fun.g. The group forged a comprehensive document. 26 participating faculty (renamed Clinical Faculty Associates or CFAs) representing teachers from all grade levels and all three schools with at least 3 years of teaching experience (including the only two ESOL teachers) 3. and neighborhood residents. Anderson T he Professional Development School (PDS) is a concept first suggested in 1986 by the Holmes Group. the urban school district in which the university resides. The initial planning team of 14 teachers and school administrators. elementary and middle school PDSs are in full operation.Professional Development Schools: A Balanced Wheel Makes It Better For Everyone Peggy J.

• The site already had the reputation of providing a positive learning environment for children.. 16 classroom teachers are now fully endorsed. gain a new appreciation for one another’s commitment. In a later phase. Total Physical Response. silent sustained reading. Most of the children at the school were enrolled in free or reduced lunch programs. • Key school leaders were in place who were known to be supportive of innovation and well respected by their staff. transitional ESOL) en ud St U y ni lt ve cu rs it Fa y ol ho Sc The Horace Mann Foreign Language Magnet School Complex. Thus far. The elementary school complex had 981 students at three neighboring school sites. Their office was set up at the school site. administrative interns from a WSU doctoral program were located at the site). whole language approach. German. Spanish and English Animated Alphabet [Stone.. That is. two co-coordinators were selected: one from the school complex and one from the university. “Will it make life better for everyone?” Could the PDS realize that lofty ambition? Could it combine the best of theory. trying out new software and reporting back) • multiple intelligences • innovative teaching strategies (e. in which individuals from very different backgrounds (e. meant that students could not easily work and be a part of PDS. The topics were brainstormed. • Connections with the university were already in place (e. some of the ideas that have been chosen as semester-long themes have included: • ESOL/bilingual teaching strategies (e. swallowing our pride at times.. former President Carter alongside a low income mother and a host of volunteers) bring their particular intelligences together. when WSU began its program. graphic organizers. research. Normally. and work along side each other to accomplish • behavior management • technology (e. deciding what kind of training was needed and who should receive it. The only endorsement program available prior to 1994. University faculty could not tout methodology that was not grounded in what worked in classrooms. PDS provided a strong motivation for all partners to find and implement innovative best practices. and longed that it would. information gap activities.. and Native Americans 1%. Approximately half of the students (478) qualified for ESOL services. Strategies in Math/Science. along with other required courses. Partnership accountability pushed everyone to make their instruction relevant. replicability would be more easily ensured. non-PDS WSU students spend 1-2 hours per week in a guided field experience in a school. European Americans 22%. was 3 hours away. Much of what was developed had to be created day by day and required energetic and committed leadership. Asians 4%.g. the decision to become a part of the PDS was costly for a number of the students and attested to their commitment to the process and to the profession. a series of semester-long study groups was constructed by all participants. African Americans represented 20% of that total. two-way bilingual. the hub of the PDS wheel. Thus. There was no hiding behind a PhD or lofty ideas. in Wichita.g. learn new skills. Japanese and Vietnamese. instructional conversations). WSU is an urban commuter campus where many students work full-time or part-time. 1995].and alcohol-affected students Time in Schools University students spend 3 hours each day on site. No new teacher is hired for this site without at least provisional ESOL endorsement (12 hours). The process of inventing new roles put everyone to the test. role-reversal) • strategies for drug. and carefully listening to and learning from each other. Hispanics 58%. Their responsibility was to maintain the vision of the initial planning team as well as steer the mighty new vehicle. hoped that it could. The rationale was that if PDS could achieve its goals in that complex and diverse environment. ESOL would take on equal status with other second languages offered at the school: Spanish. and PDS could perhaps provide that vehicle. I would describe this process as working in a similar way to that of Habitat for Humanity.g. & Potthoff. Socio-multicultural Education.g. A PDS classroom was set up in a portable building adjacent to one of the schools. so this was not surprising. how to best utilize the new computers that were just arriving. We felt education needed to move in new directions. We were reminded daily that school renewal was all about rolling up our sleeves.g. Klotek. only two teachers in the complex had ESOL endorsements. ts The PDS Site The Balanced Wheel Making it Better for Everyone cu lt y (Quintanilla. however. • As a foreign language magnet. cooperative learning. French. and close to all of the remaining teachers in the three PDS buildings (approximately 48) are moving along the path toward it. 1996) rs ve U ni r ne or it K y ’S Fa id K 20 TESOL JOURNAL classrooms in pairs. Instructional Strategies in Social Studies).. voted.. We believed that this setting could change the perception of English language learners as being a liability to that of being an asset to the school community.. • ESOL/bilingual program models (e. The remaining time is spent in clinical courses.g. Classroom teachers had to be able to defend their practices daily to the questioning preservice teachers. Classroom teachers (CFAs) and WSU faculty coteach the courses (e. As of 1997. The credibility of the courses is enhanced by the frequent presence of the classroom teachers. Second language and cultural issues immediately surfaced as a priority. and practice? We all wondered if it might. In order to grow together as a collaborative community of learners. the guiding principle for every decision would be. A commitment to the 13 hours of extra time in the PDS field component. Seventy to eighty percent of their onsite time is spent working in elementary .Study Groups anced wheel. The Exceptional Child. circulated. working together. and agreed upon. Growth and Development. Preservice teachers had to integrate their course content into their everyday practice as their instructors and mentors observed. language experience approach.g. was selected as the first site by the leadership of the WPS in conjunction with the Dean of the College of Education because • The student population was characteristic of anticipated future demographics.

On three occasions. The following quotes from journals and interviews exemplify the essence of how the PDS process provided growth opportunities for each of its partners: This hands-on environment gave me an advantage when it comes to being able to handle ESOL students here or anything that may come my way whenever I’m teaching. and discovering the synergy of a focused group. Other non-PDS principals have traditionally included something like their school improvement plan for this entry. accustomed now to being an equal partner. Classroom teachers had to produce portfolios for their annual evaluation. in each case. Teams of three to five classroom teachers. we all understood our vision was to build an enriched quality learning environment where everyone was a learner and the wheel stayed balanced. nearby district school administrator) Professional Growth Teams Another unique feature of the PDS design was the professional growth team. (Clark F.. • A classroom teacher prepared a large. preparing the portfolio is generally a solitary activity. as they had during the planning process. **** was taken aback by this suggestion from a 22-year old. content. rhetorically stated that she wanted to find a way to spend more time with individual students. Barriers and titles tumbled down through these kinds of experiences. the 30 individuals involved in the six professional growth teams met as a whole group. One university student wrote in her journal. & Kear.e.. 1996). Professional growth teams gave us a means of sharing this common activity. Preservice teachers. when asked. student-made photo essays. research articles based on a PDS action research project. still new to the process. Anderson. PDS has brought with it enthusiastic students and fresh ideas to my classroom. “I realize now that the cutting-edge ESOL techniques I’m learning at PDS will not be enough. As a participant. I wondered when the last time was that the principal had been mentored by a 22-year-old preservice teacher. classroom teacher) I get more help with my work now. Prior to the implementation of the PDS. I’m excited because we’re going to co-teach one of them next semester here at the complex. Some of the evidence that was developed to meet personal ESOL-related goals was often unique and different from typical non-PDS portfolio entries. Teachers not involved in the PDS might have been expected to include something like a unit or lesson plan for this entry. and just might work. receiving feedback. do all par- Autumn 1997 21 . Carroll. classroom teachers (CFAs). and much more. symbol-based behavior management chart that was designed to be readily accessible to low-level ESOL students. In each case.. we all experienced our vulnerability as we exposed our personal goals to each other. Everyone had come to appreciate the various assessment processes. We received immediate external as well as internal accountability— our team members might just be watching to see how we were achieving these goals. spoke up immediately. That’s the kind of teacher we want.. but could not think of how to accomplish this given her busy (i. We all sensed what was happening at that moment and it was an exhilarating experience that several wrote about in their journals.” The accountability across groups seemed to draw out the best from each of us. and university faculty had an exhibition and celebration of the evidence they had collected to demonstrate the accomplishment of their individual goals. Peers in the campus program have traditionally included a course paper in their portfolios for this entry. • A university faculty member included a revamped second language methods course to better model second language teaching strategies.. This was a valuable lesson we learned over and over again: If we could function as equal partners. (Maria G. and university students met regularly (i. easy-to-read. Exhibits included an ESOL teaching handbook. Though the principal **** I wondered when the last time was that the principal had been mentored by a 22-year-old preservice teacher. • A principal included a completed Title VII grant proposal to develop a two-way bilingual program.e. Several university students wrote about feeling responsible for their own professional growth now and in the future. Attivo. Guests were invited. a portfolio process was already in place for each of the groups... The principal. The preservice teacher. university faculty) These students will have three semesters of classroom experience under their belt before they even start their student teaching. I was profoundly moved during one of these meetings when an insightful university student was able to address seriously the need of a building principal—and be right on target. important) schedule. though. in teams of five) to share individual professional goals and decide upon evidence that would document their growth. Non-PDS faculty have traditionally included something like narrative course evaluations for this entry. two or three times each semester. reflection on goals and selection of evidence is generally done alone. university student) Besides the additional adult presence in the building. One of the University students in my class got the ESOL students really involved when she had the class make family albums. (Ann T. and asked her if she had thought of inviting students into her office from time to time to read to them for a few minutes. Everyone had explored and tried to ground the connections between theory and practice. university faculty. (Sharon L. Likewise. she eventually incorporated the idea as one of her goals. Mixing these three groups together in professional growth teams created a collaborative sharing that most had never experienced and also a new kind of mentoring across as well as within groups. display boards with lesson plans designed to address the needs of ESOL children. and preservice teachers submitted a portfolio for assessment at the end of each academic year (Potthoff. addressed her by her given name. As initiators of the PDS. (Bob S. ESOL elementary pupil) I have a new commitment to making my courses relevant at every step of the way. For example: • A university student included a summary and annotation of teacher-recommended ESOL materials based on interviews with a number of ESOL and classroom teachers. I’ll have to find some way to keep on top of what’s happen- ing in the field throughout my career as a teacher—because I want to stay in an ESOL school. Program Evaluation The bottom line in program evaluation for the Wichita PDS is. University faculty were accountable through a document and portfolio associated with the tenure and promotion review process. and refreshments were served.and language-focused assessment rubrics. The third whole-group meeting was scheduled at the end of the spring semester.a larger goal—to build a quality home for a deserving family. PDS would thrive.

this appears to be exceeding our greatest expectations. administrators. reflective journals (daily entries). members of the initial planning team have written and were awarded a Title VII Schoolwide Improvement Grant for the development of a two-way bilingual pro- 22 TESOL JOURNAL gram. in a way. The knowledge used to document the need for a bilingual program came as a direct result of a greater awareness of second language acquisition issues that the authors gained through their PDS-related experiences. and university faculty • daily access to university faculty . In fact. * * * * idea in other schools as their term of commitment ends.. A comparison of Kansas state-mandated Grade Four Math Assessment scores for 1994-1997 indicate a strong across-the-board improvement. portfolios. To my surprise. we have now come to realize that this is the nature of replication. • Teachers reported that the availability of more Spanish speakers among the university students eliminated the issue of not always being able to communicate with Spanish-speaking parents at conferences. Average percent correct scores indicated approximately 10-point gains from the district standard score in 1995-1996 and additional 20-30 point gains in the 1996-1997 scores (Willon. Preservice teachers were able to see in-service teachers alive with passion and enthusiasm for their work. move to the next grade level) with their classes as a way of maximizing the momentum they have seen.ticipants answer and do results show. So far. necessary. district benchmark assessments. PDS-experienced classroom teachers have been in high demand by other schools. I teach a number of these courses on the university campus and found the ongoing presence of these seasoned classroom teachers in class challenging to me and enriching for the other students. Preliminary results are encouraging. and other school districts. purposively selected interviews. While we were surprised and saddened by the losses of key leadership. teachers reported that students were taking on a greater role in presenting their work to their parents. Children received: • more exposure to second language teaching techniques due to the enhanced ESOL training (linguistic and cultural awareness as well as specific instructional strategies) • daily interaction with more adults who had an investment in their success • a greater variety of assessments in which to demonstrate their knowledge and intelligences • computer literacy education resulting from grants secured by school leadership • opportunities to learn a second language in an environment where second language learning was the norm University preservice teachers received: • support and collaboration gained from participation in a cohort group (2 years) • in-depth exposure to day-to-day school culture • exposure to educational issues and solutions through study groups and professional growth teams • time out for reflection and opportunities for structured goal setting • opportunities to practice leadership skills in a safe community of learners • regular mentoring from experienced classroom teachers. • A number of teachers have asked to “loop” (i. and many have moved on to help replicate the * * * * I suspect this alone was as motivating an experience for them as it was for me. ongoing evaluation. A few of the other positive reports from teachers follow. my course evaluations were among the highest I had ever received. Anecdotal reports support affective improvement as well with fewer disciplinary and truancy problems. were able to learn about PDS through the class discussions and contributions of the classroom teachers. Teachers attribute these immediate results to the new emphasis on hands-on math implemented from the inspiration of the university math/science faculty member who team taught Math/Science Methods with a classroom teacher at the PDS site. I also moved from traditional testing in several classes to testing core knowledge areas through the multiple intelligences (Anderson. Also. other university students in the classes. jigsaws. Job offers have been too tempting to resist. the majority of them opted for this opportunity to begin course work toward their ESOL or bilingual endorsement. Another unexpected outcome was that classroom teachers received a stipend or WSU tuition remission for each semester that one or more university students were placed in their classrooms. use of multiple intelli- gences) with my PDS peers. but most agree multiple assessments are necessary to truly evaluate the overall success of the students’ linguistic improvement. I will never go back. a training ground for teachers who can learn. 1997). case studies.. For example. More than 90% of those who completed the 2-year program are currently employed. Full analysis is underway and will be reported at a later date. focus groups. grow. it felt hypocritical not to do the same there. Teachers reported they have felt more control in this process than ever before. of course. Decisions like this are now initiated from the bottom up.e. and artifacts. Growth Experiences In summary.g. Unanticipated Outcomes During the 2 years since the inception of the PDS. reflective activities. The PDS has become. thematic approach in 1994. job placement statistics. These data are currently being compiled for analysis. I suspect this alone was as motivating an experience for them as it was for me. and go forth and help others do the same. I had felt compelled to model the methodology and assessment practices I was proposing (e. The premise of the grant was drawn from the literature supporting learning to read in first language prior to second language learning. It would have been difficult for them to have written this a year earlier because the authors were much less familiar with the language learning process and instructional approaches for ESOL students. The PDS experience served as the catalyst for me to complete the restructuring of my TESOL methods course from one divided by skill areas in 1993 to one built around guiding principles leading to an integrated. satisfaction surveys. privately managed public schools. University PDS students have also been in demand. cooperative groups. the first ever in the WPS. 1997). “It has been better for me”? Formal qualitative and quantitative assessments are. When I faced some of those same individuals in my classes. So I began to change across the board. while I was at the PDS site. annual standardized tests. This is being done through time logs. the following have been identified by participants as some of the key opportunities accruing as a direct result of the PDS experience. • As a result of the portfolio process. The grant began in 1996 and is expected to inject new technological as well as human resources into the PDS. Standardized data on language gains so far suggest ESOL students remain below the district average when compared to their native-English-speaking peers. especially traditional students.

g. University faculty are faced with having to be sure they teach what really makes sense. we sometimes operate our classrooms on impressions. financial commitments) of the school district and university. Christisen (Chair). These impressions can be false or skewed when we do not have a mirror to hold them up against. Orlando. including the broad-based responsibilities (e. Goals and objectives must be mutually derived in an environment where everyone’s views are valued. professional growth teams and action research • professional growth through coteaching university courses and mentoring preservice teachers • daily access to WSU faculty • opportunities to observe and use a number of ESOL teaching strategies concomitant with learning the theories behind them • the opportunity to create a new vision for education and participate in making it happen University faculty received: • the opportunity to structure research in a PDS venue • the opportunity to get back into the classroom and demonstrate lessons with real children and thereby have the opportunity to test new teaching and learning principles as well as become attuned anew to the teachers’ world exposure to the issues facing schools and teachers every day exposure to the current strengths within local schools development of long-lasting relationships with school personnel motivation to reinvent their university courses the opportunity to create a new vision for education and participate in making it happen Keys to an Effective PDS As the first year concluded. Multiple intelligences. P. Conclusion As educators. Time will tell. . Has the PDS been better for everyone’? I think so.. and preservice teachers are faced with integrating course work into practical field experiences every day. Florida. without a doubt. In M. the PDS team agreed that there were at least four keys to making a PDS effective: 1. 3. Equality among partners must be achieved. 4. teachers are faced with having to account for why they do what they do. Seminar conducted at the 31st Annual TESOL Convention. 2.• an opportunity to learn course concepts embedded in everyday experience • a market advantage through experience with ESOL students and a PDS in an urban school the opportunity to create a new vision for education and participate in making it happen Clinical Faculty Associates received: • a shared accountability as well as responsibility for all students • structured time out for reflection • exposure to educational issues and solutions through study groups. Tomorrow’s teachers: A report of the Holmes group. School-based issues must be the focus. Holmes Group (1986). March). References Anderson. Midterm/final assessment. PDS provides that kind of mirror for all participants. (1997. East Lansing. Has the PDS been better for me? Yes. Roles and responsibilities must be forged by consensus. MI: Holmes Group.

J.. coordinates and teaches in the TESOL Program. C. 30. in Orlando. Attivo. Stone Creations. May). P. (1995). Kansas 67214 USA). 1243 N. & Potthoff. (1996.Johnson. La Vera.. E. Winter). and using the multiple intelligences in teacher education. PDS Partners. (Available from Horace Mann Elementary School. D. She served as Associate Chair for the 1997 TESOL Convention. CA: J. Klotek. The balanced wheel. Quintanilla. T.. Anderson. TESOL Quarterly. Willon. (1996. (1997. Florida. Stone. J. Anderson. Market. Wichita. Winter). 18. Striving for integration: A portfolio content analysis.. (1996. M. K. Action in Teacher Education. & Kear. Horace Mann Elementary: Grade Four Kansas Math Assessment Trend [graph].. learning to teach. D. Author Peggy J. Carroll.. 1-5. Potthoff. Animated alphabet. Spring). D. B. 48-58. 765-771. assistant professor at Wichita State University. The role of theory in L2 teacher education. . Her research centers on ESL program evaluation.

discussion.A Critical Examination of Classroom Practices to Foster Teacher Growth and Increase Student Learning Lynne J. and has contributed to the development of an empirically based understanding of classroom language use in the particular context of EAL (Cameron. The nature of the project continued to evolve as teachers interacted with university staff in an ongoing process of observation. with many of the children coming from Muslim families originally from India Autumn 1997 25 . although partial. I will present examples of these shifts in under- standing to identify issues for in-service development with mainstream teachers of EAL learners. Moon. mostly directed at those in the early stages of English language development. Grades 8-12) located in a once-prosperous industrial town in the north of England that now has high unemployment and a range of associated socioeconomic problems. receive very little support. This partnership model of language support can work very effectively. some older pupils still need support to meet the demands of secondary classrooms. about 70% of whom had English as their second or additional language. but again this has been two-way: The data collected as part of the project. The specialized expertise of language support staff is used in working with mainstream teachers in the planning and delivery of lessons. many of whom have not received initial or in-service teacher education relating to language development issues. which correspond to U. The project involved staff from a School of Education in a British university who worked with mainstream subject teachers in a local secondary school for 2 years. with little or no access to withdrawal (pull-out) English classes. & Bygate. but financial cuts and demographic changes in inner cities have combined to produce some schools with large numbers of EAL pupils who. Cameron R O elated to the theme of this special issue. 1996). Government funding for in-service programs during the past 2 years has gone some way toward addressing this gap in mainstream teacher education. The School Context The teacher development project took place in a secondary school (Years 7-11. It is also becoming clear that language development policy and planning may have underestimated the length of time that EAL pupils need to be supported. There were about 650 pupils in the school at the time of the project.S. I will describe a language development project in a British secondary school that had as its central aim raising the achievement levels of learners for whom English is a second or additional language 1 (EAL). As an in-service project. investigating classroom practice and developing effective teaching strategies. The main first languages were Gujarati and Punjabi. The outcomes of the project include changes in teachers’ practices and understandings. pupils learning EAL in British schools have been placed in mainstream classrooms. across a group of schools. in practice. target-setting. After kindergarten and elementary schooling in English. it was unusual in that it started as a request from a school to a university and in that it offered a high ratio of university staff to teachers (1:2). The onus for lan- guage development is then placed on mainstream teachers. and evaluation. in areas with few EAL pupils. and in providing individualized support for pupils. is very rich. The Context of the Language Development Project The British National Context Since the mid 1980s. Support for EAL pupils is provided by specialized language support staff working within a school or.

After the teacher had explained a task. or convinced of. The University of Leeds team bid for the consultancy and won a contract to work. and knowledge as applied in the construction of classroom events. however. the pupils would begin working. to a large degree. there was an approximate gender balance. mathematics. home economics. As part of the project. a clear purpose for listening. and each was observed and recorded at work in the classroom by a member of the university team. The teacher and university staff member then decided on new teaching strategies to support specific aspects of language learning. a more complex view was developed of what was happening in the classrooms. initially over three terms. interviews with pupils were carried out. Three examples follow of teachers’ personal views about classroom problems common to several participating teachers. and thus were not able to carry out the activities effectively. but on perceived problems in learners’ patterns of interaction or skills. working with six additional teachers. It would not have been easy for a sec- . a girl who was deaf. However. through a combination of input seminars and one-toone work in classrooms. particularly in science and home economics lessons. text books. I recount how we moved from observing the difficulties to developing strategies for resolving them. Classes also contain children with various other special needs. which was the lowest mathematics class in Year 7 and had only 16 pupils. taking into account the teachers’ perceptions of problems. These children have generally been well educated and have learned English as a foreign language. as revealed in comments at briefing meetings with university staff at the beginning of the project. with responsibility for staff development. Learners’ attitudes to classroom events. approached several local universities with a plan for a Whole School Language Development Project that would address pupils’ underachievement in public examinations at age 16. None of the teachers was bilingual. from English. their parents or grandparents having come to Britain to work in the woollen industry. and then I list key principles for teaching and learning that have emerged from the project. only to return several minutes later asking what they should do. analyzed. skills. and drama. with a group of five teachers from across the curriculum. One class. and validated their interpretations through sharing the analyses with the teachers. Such underachievement was thought by the school to be largely language related. enhanced or constrained by teachers’ attitudes. and two (non-EAL) pupils with behavioral problems who created a great deal of noise and disturbance. The In-Service Teacher Development Project The project worked with both of Richards’ (1996) “two dimensions of teacher knowledge” (p. the university 26 TESOL JOURNAL team was invited to continue for a second year. 282): personal views or theories. the major focus was on the teacher’s role and how this might affect the language development of learners. information technology. The teachers chose one of their classes to work with. The EAL pupils were mostly British-born. and included a head of department and a head of year (with pastoral responsibility for all children across one year group). Many pupils return to India or Pakistan for visits during their school career. and contributed a further dimension to our understanding of classroom interaction. She recou nted graphically how difficult she fo und it to ask a question and wait longer than she usually did for an answer: “The sweat was pouring off me!” or Pakistan. not on their own behavior. and behavior of other pupils. Teachers’ personal views. • They did not automatically create a purpose for themselves. • The teacher talk did not always make clear when instructions were coming or help learners distinguish instructions from other input. contribute to this construction process. At the end of the project’s first year. Teachers’ statements about the problems they perceived in their classrooms were documented the initial observations of teachers by the university staff. and discussed with teachers. Because they were common to many classrooms. in the belief that learners’ educational opportunities are. This group included two heads of departments. learners did not seem to listen carefully to instructions for classroom activities. resulting in a need to analyze classroom interaction as collaboratively developed. Teachers’ knowledge of second language development and of English language in use was addressed through university-based seminars that took place at the beginning and end of each term. In this process. Classroom Observations • Learners were not always provided with. I shall concentrate on the classroom action side of the project. recordings were transcribed.2 The university staff interpreted the classroom observations and recordings. and their roles in them. and a range of levels of English. The teachers were mainstream subject specialists in art. and have been educated through English from kindergarten level. In this article. and science. included a girl newly arrived from Pakistan. history. belong to a local community with a strong linguistic and cultural identity. The town also has a community of recently arrived refugees from Bosnia. For example. in the light of current understandings of language development. Sites of Action for Teacher Development Listening to Instructions Teachers’ Views Teachers reported that. with the locus of responsibility being shifted away from learners and back to the teacher as the holder of classroom power and as the central actor in the classroom. Mainstream teachers may therefore find in their classes learners with diverse educational and linguistic backgrounds. several of whom attended the school. design technology. Their English language development differs considerably from that of the local children in pace and nature. instructions were embedded in ongoing talk that switched topics to deal with pupils’ questions and comments about homework. demonstrating how teacher behavior and learner behavior interact in the joint construction of observable outcomes. The deputy head teacher of the school. often appeared to center.The art teacher in the first group of teachers adopted this strategy. these issues became “sites of action” for the project. in one mathematics lesson I observed. and subject knowledge.

. such as instructions. in classroom discourse For example. • There should be expectations on both sides about the importance of instructions: that teachers give instructions when and because they matter. Pupils seemed to have come to expect this back-up provision of information. explicit through gradually increasing use of metalanguage. after one modeled by the teacher. Strategies for Classroom Action Based on knowledge of the second language acquisition process. for example: The topic of today’s lesson is . through demonstration or visual and graphical support • check learners’ understanding of instructions before moving on in a range of ways. • support understanding of instructions. including instructions and topic information. • If a learner were struggling to find or construct an answer. pupils instructed each other in pairs on the use of a simple word processing program. what are we actually showing? What do we actually mean?” • Teachers often accepted single word responses as adequate. • Learners. 1995). • build preparation time and rehearsal into questioning on some tasks For example. the teacher would often move on to another pupil rather than wait. in her talk and to make sure that all pupils were paying attention at key points. in the science class. in a range of ways. in a Year 10 information technology (IT) class. teachers tried to • offer conscious and explicit positioning of key information. for example. From the research in second language acquisition. and had pupils sort them into order as part of comprehension checking before they went into groups to carry out the experiment. and production can itself lead to development in accuracy (Lightbown & Spada. • make the status of key information. She recounted graphically how difficult she found it to ask a question and wait longer than she usually did for an answer: “The sweat was pouring off me!” Even such apparently simple changes in behavior are not easy to achieve. • If single word responses were expanded by the teacher in feedback. Principles We Drew From Our Onsite Work • Instructions are part of the joint undertaking of learners and teachers that is classroom learning. a science teacher asked Year 8 pupils. This gave pupils the chance to use instructional language themselves. through having pupils tell each other the procedure they are to work through and then completing an outline of the activity in a flow chart before starting practical work As an example. such as instructions. teachers should give pupils time (and a reason) to discuss answers in Autumn 1997 27 . repeated the instructions or broke them down into more helpful stages. “If we have a food chain or food web. Producing a response in L2 requires lexical retrieval and syntactic planning that may need time. Supporting action from teachers may thus be required to help learners move beyond singleword answers and arrive at more extended L2 output. in cooperation with teachers. the teacher used written instructions for an experiment.. with little to attract or hold attention of children of the video generation. the teacher. including many children with low levels of literacy. • plan the transfer of instructional language from reception to production. teachers tried to • increase wait time after asking questions The art teacher in the first group of teachers adopted this strategy. naturally enough. bilingual pupils acquiring EAL are faced with different processing demands from those of English L1 pupils. 1994. • Instructions were sometimes presented in difficult.ond language user to separate what was important in the talk from what was peripheral. and many L2 learners can only get such practice and feedback in the classroom. and thus downgraded the importance of the first issuing of instructions. • give learners ways of asking for clarification if they do not understand The Process of Teacher Development in the Project Teachers’ comments on language issues and problems Classroom observations and analyses of transcripts Strategies for classroom action Principles of teaching and learning English as an additional language Strategies for Classroom Action After observations and discussions. being rooted deeply in our views of how we talk in social groups. we know that when responding to questions. the mathematics teacher set up clear and explicit classroom rules for talk to avoid being interrupted by pupils’ demands at times when she was giving key information. Skilled production in L2 requires practice in producing L2.. so that pupils can themselves use instructional language For instance. the learner seldom reproduced that expanded answer. For example. • highlight the delivery of such information with visual aids and graphics Simple board drawings or diagrams held the attention of pupils to the teacher and her information. cannot be assumed in L2. Answering Questions With Single Words Teacher Views Teachers of subjects across the curriculum reported that learners tended to answer their questions with single words or silence. that learners should expect to know when instructions are being given and expect to understand instructions adequately before moving into a task. context-reduced language. • Instructions were sometimes entirely verbal. seemed to have developed coping strategies that involved paying attention only in certain circumstances. • Some teacher questions were very difficult to answer without time to think. Here are the instructions for your task. When the pupils expressed confusion. The skills to produce an expanded response. Swain. for example. She made efforts to isolate key information. Classroom Observations • Very often teacher questions were answered with single words or silence.

a teacher devised a worksheet on parts of the sewing machine. and often L1 pupils too. or most. For continuing language development. • Questions and responses are potentially important sites of language development. and support learners’ attempts to do so. of course. . • Teachers often simplified the vocabulary used in their talk and their worksheets. and developing second language competence. do not have the technical words they need for a range of curriculum subjects. • be explicit about what is wanted. The word protractor was clearly explained to pupils as used for measuring angles. • When new words were encountered in classroom discourse. and planned. thing. and beyond which it becomes easier to learn words of the sort needed in secondary education— superordinates. • Learners had developed strategies to cope with these gaps. Classroom Observations • There were gaps in everyday and technical vocabulary (although empirical research is still needed to explore the extent of these gaps).pairs. needle. In a sewing lesson. and. using a near word. such everyday processes are talke d about in the L1 in pupils’ homes. van. EAL pupils need to use English. There is clear evidence that there is a vocabulary learning threshold at about 2. Strategies We Recommended for Classroom Action • Insist on searching for the most appropriate word for particular meanings. He thought about the key technical terms while planning a lesson and made sure to use them several times. in writing. pupils made use of the vocabulary they heard in other pupils’ demonstrations.. and continue to learn words. In a drama lesson with Year 9 pupils involving the construction of short sketches. for minibus. • Lack of vocabulary in the L2 does not necessarily imply lack of understanding or lack of experience. hyponyms. and praised them when they did this. This was an excellent opportunity for extended talk. sometimes simplifying too much. in English lessons. but no pupil actually used the word protractor in that lesson. and corrective feedback. ignorance of appropriate word). for example. everyday vocabulary: The home economics 28 TESOL JOURNAL teacher reported how many children did not know words such as bake or grill because.000 words (Nation. of course. perhaps in preparation or rehearsal time. in the majority of secondary classrooms. work on vocabulary across the curriculum. and make sure teacher talk includes modeling of extended responses The IT teacher explained to his Year 10 class that he wanted them to guess if they did not know an answer. one of the major opportunities for pupil talk is in responding to teacher questions. • Learners and teachers should understand clearly the usefulness of different types of questions for checking. and they could have practiced speaking with the support of the written text before the actual presentation. a talk they were to present to the class on how they spend their leisure time. and so on.g. teachers often aimed for understanding but did not push language development forward into production. • Include short but frequent activities in subject classrooms to practice recall and production of words and meanings. but the task could have been adjusted so that teacher and pupils could also have worked on the accuracy of the English at the preparation stage. • Provide opportunities and strategies to find out the meaning of new words. although the manifestations in the classroom may be similar (e. 1990). The design technology teacher was very skillful in use of correct terms when explaining and demonstrating. before giving answers in front of the whole class. Principles Established • Teachers and learners should expect the use of the most appropriate word. and increasing specificity to express shades of meaning. In addition. or a general word. This was important for pupils who otherwise might not risk the embarrassment of giving a wrong answer publicly. and teachers seldom have the Lack of Necessary Vocabulary Teacher Views EAL learners often have surprising gaps in their Some of our teachers reported that EAL learners. such everyday processes are talked about in the L1 in pupils’ homes. for example. Year 10 pupils prepared. of the words they encounter. at which most nontechnical texts can be read. • Teachers need to take account of the fact that the learning of new words requires multiple exposure in meaningful contexts. • Provide meaningful. practice at using the words in purposeful tasks. Principles We Drew From Our Experience in These Classrooms • There should be joint expectation of participation in lessons: Teachers ask questions and provide conditions that enable pupil response. EAL learners often have surprising gaps in their everyday vocabulary: The home economics teacher reported how many children did not know words such as bake or grill because. Neither teachers nor learners can be blamed for this: Classroom interaction is complex. supported input that extends receptive vocabulary. • Offer explicit. made sure that she used the terms in her demonstration. Model the uses of language that will help learners ask for clarification from teacher or peers. Implications and Summary Learners’ problems reported by teachers often appeared in practice to be generated or added to by the classroom practices of teachers themselves. the written form being used to support oral output For example. on the structure and meaning of English words. in a process of joint construction. • Learners should expect to understand all. pupils try to answer teacher questions. Again EAL development differs from L1 in the development of vocabulary. for specific item. and had the pupils use them in explanation. learning subject content. • alter task structure in order to generate opportunities for extended utterances and different types of questions • give feedback on form as well as meaning. • Include activities that draw attention to key words.

and learners themselves. and educational backgrounds of pupils. and are required. England. J. Teaching Skills for Language Development Regular classroom skills such as checking understanding and questioning techniques may have different requirements and parameters when they are used in the context of additional/second language development. and of the range of levels of comprehension and use of English of pupils in the classes they teach. Teacher development must therefore be concerned with adjusting mainstream teachers’ skills for these purposes and contexts. parents. the university staff became more aware of the complexity of second language development in the mainstream and its relation to teachers’ use of language. teachers and pupils often did not expect homework to be completed. 2 The initial agreement between school and university included permission for anonymous use of data for research and writing. and for learning. language development. In particular. and if such discussion is informed by knowledge about language development and the nature of English. Language development in the mainstream: How do teachers and pupils use language? Language and Education. we hope also to have identified ways in which classroom action and interaction may be developed by teachers in order to maximize opportunities for the language development of EAL learners. Notes 1In England. in the light of increased sensitivity about how language is used in classrooms for interaction. References Cameron. and a major issue in this project was.Classroom interaction is complex. Analysing pupils’ talk on classroom tasks. and teachers seldom have the opportunity to stand back and analyze it critically. opportunity to stand back and analyze it critically. for example through increased understanding of crosscultural pragmatics. and learning (Cameron. Paper presented at the Conference of the National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum (NALDIC). of feedback on language form • detailed knowledge of the language. in November 1995 in England. Interpreting this complexity has required the development of new ways of analyzing interaction that operate with the contextual dimensions of classroom tasks and focus on language in use in order to trace the subtle links between language use. the expectations held about the potential and abilities of some groups of bilingual pupils. but. Cameron. literacy. J. and a key aim of inservice development should be to deepen and refocus those personal theories. Paper presented at the Conference of the National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum (NALDIC).. sometimes expressed in personal views and often apparently manifested in expectations about learner performance and potential. Autumn 1997 29 . we suspected. 1996). teachers need to understand the complexity present in student behavior. L. including • the importance of setting appropriate linguistic demands so that learners have the chance. Relevant knowledge and skills are summarized briefly below. to make full use of their English and thus to build up their language skills • structuring tasks that combine such demands with support for understanding and production. M. I acknowledge the contributions of colleagues Jayne Moon and Martin Bygate to the development of ideas expressed in this article. 1995) shows that increasing teacher and learner expectations of participation and learning outcomes can lead to higher levels of achievement—there is a need for unwavering optimism. we have been privileged to have been able to develop them in this project with the opportunity to test out our inferences and assumptions with practicing teachers. for the transmission of information. Moon. (1996). and that are sufficient but do not reduce demands too much • the nature of the move from receptive to productive language skills • the role of modeling of new language. The teachers in this project highlighted the chance to do exactly this as one of its most useful aspects. As always. Attitudes can be made manifest in expectations. Through this collaborative process of coming to understand classroom practices. they are underpinned by teachers’ attitudes. as university staff. Acknowledgments This article is a revised version of Developing English Language Skills in the Mainstream: Issues From a Teacher Development Project. pupils would come to school without appropriate pens and pencils. Attitudes and Expectations The teacher comments I used as starting points in the previous section reflect to some extent personal views. teachers and pupils for this permission. Increased Knowledge and Skills of University Staff In the processes of observation and analysis of classroom activity. This project experience suggests that inservice education may generate change in classroom practices more effectively if teachers are given opportunities and tools to examine their practices critically . November). University of Staffordshire. 10. & Bygate. It was not only teachers who seemed to hold rather low expectations of learners’ performance and participation levels. 221-236. Work on successful schools (Maden. (1996. teachers need an understanding of the processes of second language development and of the specific needs of pupils. Knowledge About Language Development In order to contribute to learners’ language development in mainstream classrooms. For example. The teachers in this project highlighted the chance to do exactly this as one of its most useful aspects.. Aston University. The collaboration between higher education and the school in the teacher development project I have described has worked toward increasing understanding of classroom action and interaction. of practice. the term English as an additional language is increasingly preferred to English as a second language. Much work remains to be done on analytic tools. L. and for their enthusiastic participation in the project. it was also the wider school. I am grateful to the school.

Swain. She has worked with teachers of English as a first. TESOL Quarterly. Cook & B. & Spada. (Ed.). Three functions of output in second language learning. and foreign language on preand in-service courses. Success against the odds-Effective schools in disadvantaged areas. second. Maden. Principle and practice i n a p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c s . (1996). N. London: Routledge Nation. Lightbown.. (1990). . Focus on form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching: Effects on second language learning. C. Her research interests include the development of English language skills of bilingual pupils.Development in the Curriculum (NALDIC). in England. and metaphor in educational discourse. Teaching and learning vocabulary.). Cameron is a lecturer and head of undergraduate courses in the School of Education. M. (1994). Author Lynne J. J. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (1995). 30. P. (1995). Teachers’ maxims in language teaching. 281-296. Richards. New York: Heinle & Heinle. University of Staffordshire. Seidlhofer (Eds. England. University of Leeds. 429-448. P. M. In G. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 12.

conduct research related to their own classes and practice. and makes a difference in the quality of teaching. while others have little education. How the Program Works The professional development program we devised has three fundamental characteristics. 505-512). and a teacher educator. Funded by a grant. The importance of professional development programs in adult ESL has been emphasized by Crandall (1993). economic levels. and by encouraging these teachers to target specific areas for reflection and improvement. with their harried schedules. we have created a professional mentoring program that is practical. Although she loves the mix of students in her classes. grow professionally beyond attending the occasional in-service presentation or conference? Is it realistic to expect adult ESL teachers to take time to write in journals about their teaching. and to engage in discussions about what they do in the classroom? We think that the answer to these questions is yes—if teachers are given specific expectations and support for professional development by the agencies and institutions that have hired them. With the realities faced by adult ESL teachers in mind. she wonders about the isolation she feels as a parttime ESL instructor. First. Teachers with varying degrees of experience may participate in the mentoring program as shown in the sidebar on page 32. Although Crandall is describing agencies that are linked to teacher education schools. Reflection. 512). Some of these students have earned professional degrees. we think these principles can also be applied to individual adult ESL programs. Our goal was to promote professional growth by connecting experienced teachers with each other and with newer teachers. During the course of her day. this mentoring approach was created by a team consisting of an administrator. and reflect upon and share their experiences with one another” (p. In addition. She sees her fellow teachers at faculty meetings and sometimes chats with another teacher over a cup of coffee during a class break. Carol must shift between a life skills and literacy curriculum in her morning classes to a more specialized workplace curriculum in the afternoons. involves a short time commitment. it deals primarily with the Autumn 1997 31 . to have other teachers observe their classrooms. and Marilyn Sweeny A teacher in an adult ESL program. Crandall describes an exciting culture of professional growth in adult ESL programs where beginning teachers “would have opportunities to learn from their experiences” and other teachers “could serve as mentors. Pamela Meadows. Carol. We have attempted to put Crandall’s approach into practice by creating a mentoring program for adult ESL teachers in a particular context—classes offered through World Relief Refugee Services in Wheaton.Collaboration. Their varied learning styles. Illinois. who advocates an approach that combines the “mentoring model” with the “applied science” and “reflective practice models” (pp. Barry Sweeny. How can ESL teachers such as Carol. two teachers. and Professional Growth: A Mentoring Program for Adult ESL Teachers Alan Seaman. Carol encounters students from an array of language backgrounds— from Spanish to Bosnian to Gujarati—who range in age from teenagers to senior citizens. and motivations for learning English add to the complexity of the classroom. completes her morning classes at 11:30 and eats lunch before heading off to a local factory to teach workplace ESL students in the afternoon. The remarkable diversity of students in adult ESL classrooms highlights the need for teachers who are growing professionally all the time and experimenting with a wide range of techniques and skills to pursue professional development so that they can meet the needs of these learners. a suburb of Chicago—with the hope that the program might be helpful to educators in other contexts. a mentoring specialist.

Meng. we chose to use Richards and Lockhart’s (1994) Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms as the basis for journaling and discussion. and classroom climate (see sidebar on page 33). discussion with peers. These elements include features of everyday teaching such as the patterns of interaction in the classroom. Teachers can choose specific areas to focus upon from 26 categories organized into four dimensions: planning. not the 32 TESOL JOURNAL mentor. Certainly. Carol is conscious of the importance of questioning patterns in her classroom—an .. Carol begins the process by completing a 20-minute self-assessment that allows her to identify areas of her teaching that she would like to improve. and the mentoring partner comments on her own approaches to questioning. her role is simply to provide the protege with the information she collected. I wondered how well I was doing in this area in my current classes. Carol meets with her mentor— another experienced teacher who works in a classroom near hers in the mornings. Either way. Or she may teach for several more months before continuing the process with a different category. Maria. and assessment of student progress. the ways in which students are grouped. Instead of presenting teaching techniques or specific methods such as Total Physical Response.* we offered our teachers a structured approach that includes clear definitions for each category. In this final session. I’m used to teaching 10-12 students and giving each student at least some attention during the class period. It’s such a challenge to call on students equally when we’re discussing an issue or they’re reporting on a group task. I find that I’m focusing on several students who are fairly aggressive communicators and have strong personalities . Carol sets some goals for her teaching. the beginning and ending of a lesson. taskoriented people. To see how this mentoring program works. Carol shares her reflections on her patterns of interaction in the classroom. Now I seem to average 20 or so. In this entry. From this point on in the process. identifying procedures she wants to use. by responding to the questions and concerns of the protege. this program emphasizes several practices increasingly identified as important to professional development: reflective journaling.Mentoring Strategies for Differing Experience Levels Hiring Program Director provides orientation to program Mentor provides orientation to the site and curriculum Building a mentoring relationship Mentoring using the ESL instructional program including mentor coaching A possible peer coaching relationship A beginning-level ESL teacher with no previous experience A new ESL teacher with previous experience An experienced ESL teacher dynamics of classroom instruction—the practices used by teachers in planning and implementing lessons. and a variety of forms to use for observation. Carol continues reflecting on her classroom practices by reading several pages from the Richards and Lockhart book and completing a more indepth journal entry that is guided by a series of questions in the mentoring guidebook. and as a questioner who prompts reflection on teaching. and classroom observation. this program concentrates on the basic elements of language teaching that are important regardless of the context or approach. and Shigeo stand out as involved. data collection. The mentor then asks open-ended questions to prompt Carol’s comparison of the observed patterns with her intentions for the lesson. who seem to blend into the background? . management. interaction. like Arturo. When I saw the “Questioning Patterns” category. After completing her journal reflections. In a guidebook entitled Effective Practices in Teaching English as a Second Language. Are they drawing my attention away from the “phantom” students. and the two teachers schedule a time when Carol’s class will be observed. she ponders how the diverse students in her classroom influence the ways in which she asks questions: I was intrigued by the categories of students described in this section of the book. the mentor serves as a resource.. She reads the description of effective teaching practices in this category and responds to several questions by writing a preliminary journal entry that begins with general reflections on her classes: I have larger classes this year than in the past. The person who does the analysis is the one who learns the most. A week later. To provide material for the teachers to think about. Carol’s mentor observes her class for 25 minutes and completes an observation form (also available in the mentor guidebook) with descriptive data (see sample. let’s walk through the process with Carol. and analysis. to control and direct the process of professional development. In addition.. As they talk for 30 minutes after class. Rather than dictating what her partner will do. Carol follows the action plan outlined in the mentoring guidebook. Several days later. page 34). questions to guide reflection and discussion. it is important that the mentor not be evaluative. I’m blessed with plenty of “taskoriented” and “social” students in my classes. For categories not covered in the Richards and Lockhart book. We feel strongly that it is important for individual teachers to be responsible for generating their own insights and understanding. the adult ESL teacher described earlier. we wrote a series of short articles on current ideas in the field of language teaching. the mentoring partner will collect the particular data on interaction patterns that Carol has requested. The third characteristic of this program is a commitment to allow the protégé.. The two teachers meet again for 20 minutes to discuss the observation data and answer a final set of questions. she selects the category: patterns of interaction. Luis. During the observation. she may wish to continue to focus on the category of interaction patterns with an additional observation. Based on the self-assessment. Where will Carol go from here? If the observed patterns and her intentions do not align.

we feel that the mentoring coordinator plays a crucial role when this type of program is being introduced for the first time within an organization. our teachers are busy. The planning dimension • articulating objectives: teaching toward proficiency • selecting appropriate activities • contextualizing new structures and vocabulary • sequencing activities within a lesson • recycling: Sequencing activities between lessons • beginning and ending class • using textbooks and other instructional materials • creating autonomous language learners 2. we wanted to encourage new forms of collaboration and openness to feedback among the ESL faculty. experienced teachers who have only seen observation as an evaluative tool must be encouraged to shift their focus away from the mind set of “let’s fix what’s wrong. and model the observation process. Hence.* Our 6-hour mentor coaching session is led by experienced adult ESL teachers and focuses on the roles and tasks of a mentor and the nature of the mentor/protege relationship. teacher-toteacher support becomes a normal expectation along with other expectations such as attendance at faculty meetings and assessment of student progress. Participation in a mentoring program can be added to the contract given to teachers. or evaluative. By matching experienced teachers in peer coaching relationships. The value of this approach to professional development can be destroyed if the mentor is overbearing. Our veteran teachers also needed to be given a clear rationale for participating in this type of program. and a willingness to learn from one another. This is never a simple transition. 1994). The management dimension • flexibility–the ability to adapt lessons • consistency in dealing with student problems • seating patterns and teacher position • the pacing of the lesson • assessment of student language use 4. and the participating teachers need to feel a sense of ownership in the program. we have struggled with the paradox of trying to implement. Adapting a proven K-12 mentor education program (Sweeny. The interactive dimension • question types • questioning patterns • wait time • response to student interaction • feedback to errors fashion. At the outset. the amount of time devoted to this process must be realistic. depending on the desires of the teachers and program administrators. But during any given period. and it can be dis- The Four Dimensions of ESL Classroom Instruction 1. new teachers in adult ESL programs do want to grow. The value of practices such as critical reflection on one’s teaching and observation by peers must be communicated clearly. we developed a set of materials in a handbook entitled Mentoring for ESL Teachers. These valuable professional habits need not be lost during the stresses of the first year of teaching if programs expect and support teacher development. and observation of ESL classrooms on videotape. We have learned Autumn 1997 33 . however. the mentoring partners gain a practical sense of how they should communicate through the observation forms and discussion sessions. Experienced teachers who have been isolated and have followed the same schedule for years may view this type of program as “one more thing I have to do” until they experience its positive benefits. she has begun to develop a valuable professional habit: She continues to reflect about her teaching in her journal once or twice a week. Practical Considerations for Implementing a Mentoring Program As we have begun to implement the mentoring program with a group of adult ESL teachers. answer questions. We dealt with these practical issues by designating one of the ESL teachers as the mentoring coordinator—the person within the agency who is responsible for regularly • instruction and transitions • group and pair work 3. this progressive. Their relationship must be characterized by confidentiality. If the mentoring process is woven into the fabric of the agency or institution. mutual respect. Similarly. The Importance of Mentor Coaching The process described in the previous section involves sensitivity and skill on the mentor’s part. participating teachers need to understand that the program involves a fairly limited amount of time—perhaps a total of 2 hours spread over several weeks for any one category. the mentoring process can extend over part of a year or even several years. judgmental. First. particularly those who have just graduated from teacher education programs where they have become familiar with mentoring and reflective journaling from teaching practicums and internships. Because of these issues. teacher-centered program. Even more importantly. discussion. Through a process that involves role playing.” They must learn to see mentoring or peer coaching as the norm for all teachers. The mentor must work to create a safe and supportive context for growth in which both persons feel willing to experiment and risk making mistakes. in a top-down contacting each teacher in order to advise. insensitive. we feel that it is very important that the mentors participate in a coaching session that focuses on the dynamics of interpersonal communication. In our experience. Even though a teacher will not need to improve in all 26 categories. Based on our experience. we have become aware of a number of practical issues.awareness critical to long-term improvement. They also develop a shared vocabulary about classroom instruction—a set of terms and concepts that is held in common. What We Have Learned The process of constructing a professional development program for adult ESL teachers has taught us a great deal. The classroom climate dimension • atmosphere conducive to learning • teacher voice and language (verbal and nonverbal) • level of student interest • energy level • understanding of cultural factors • learner-centered orientation cussed in some detail during new teacher orientation. rather than viewing it as simply what happens when corrective action needs to take place. We think that this type of mentoring education is critical to the success of any professional development program that involves some form of mentoring. Implementing a mentoring program with newly hired teachers is generally easier. Professional growth and peer collaboration are often important to inexperienced instructors.

draw a diagram of the seating arrangement of the classroom. As one teacher recently commented in a note.Sample Observation Form 2B Questioning Patterns Carol M. During a 20. creating what we hope is a user-friendly approach. Crandall. And we have seen the value of careful preparation and training in interpersonal communication for 34 TESOL JOURNAL Acknowledgments The mentoring program described in this article was funded under a grant by the Illinois NETWORK of Literacy/Adult Resources. Suite A. (1994). Division of Adult Education and Literacy. (1994). He has written several books and has made numerous presentations on mentoring in education. Authors M M *Effective Practices in Teaching English as a Second Language and Mentoring for ESL Teachers may be ordered. under the provisions of the Adult Education Act as amended by the National Literacy Act of 1991. Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. Implementing a professional development program with a group of teachers in an agency is a complex process. Sweeny. 27. IL: Resources for Staff and Organizational Development. Promoting the growth of beginning teachers: A mentor training manual. Pamela Meadows works as an adult ESL instructor in addition to serving as assistant to the director for the education program of World Relief Refugee Services. C. (1993). & Lockhart. “At first I had a lot of reservations about participating in this. Marilyn Sweeny serves as the ESL director for World Relief Refugee Services. I have an increased awareness of the importance of actively thinking about my teaching. but the program has helped me see past some Alan Seaman is assistant professor of TESL in the Graduate School at Wheaton College. we tried to eliminate unnecessary educational jargon and unrealistic activities. Richards. in Illinois. Most of all. _______________________ Teacher Paul 30-minute period that involves interaction between the teacher and the whole class. but now I’m gaining a sense of confidence which outweighs the anxiety. B. Illinois 60187 USA (Tel 630. in Illinois. World Relief Refugee Services. NETWORK funding is administered through the U. in Illinois. References M x •oo F blind spots in my teaching. TESOL Quarterly. 497-516. It has been difficult to open up my classroom to a colleague. Barry Sweeny is the staff development specialist with the Kane County Regional Office of Education. but one that is well worth the effort. By field testing the program as we developed it. New York: Cambridge University Press. Record this information onto the seating chart using the following symbols: o = teacher asking the student a question interaction with the teacher (the student asks a question or • = student-initiated makes a comment) x = student-to-student interaction 9 male students 8 female students Teacher ooo F M o M o•ooxo oo•o F F F M ox • •o•o•oo• •xx M x o•xx o M xooxx F M o F • •o• F that teachers want a program that is systematic but easy to understand and use.” any teacher who wishes to serve as a mentor. which provides instruction for adult and workplace ESL students in Illinois. in the United States.462-7566).. Department of Education. where he teaches a variety of courses and supervises practicum internships. Wheaton. J. J. Professionalism and professionalization of adult ESL literacy. Wheaton. 1028 College Avenue. ______________________ Note 810 Hillside _____________________________________ Classroom Location Time Mentor 9:30-10:00 _______________ June 22 _______________________ Date FOCUS: Recording the patterns of interaction with the students In the area below.S. at cost. . record the number of times each student is called upon and the nature of the interaction. by contacting Pamela Meadows at Education Program.

1996. Marisela Ceballos. and organizing information (Tough. Lee. NRC. America will provide all students in the country with what should be their educational birthright: access to competent. Maria Santalla. describing. pictorial sequence cards. Using hands-on activities. & Sutman. caring. By the 4th grade. These context-embedded experiences can encourage the development of scientific ways of thinking. and Techeline Mathieu . by the year 2006. and communicating out- comes (AAAS. Lucille Cross. Amelia Leth. science instruction offers experiences through which students can learn to predict. 1993. 1989. such activities can also build on students’ prior knowledge and cultural understanding. 1993. We have focused on Hispanic and Haitian teachers in 4th-grade classrooms in which most students had been exited from ESOL programs but were continuing to develop academic language proficiency in English. 1995. Okhee Lee. To contribute to this process. 1996). 1996). and tables. While fostering new ways of thinking and communicating in science. they may not easily engage in inquiry as proposed by science reform documents (AAAS. Garcma. graphs. yet little is known about the process of science instruction in classrooms of K-12 students learning English as a new language. the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future [NCTAF] (1996) suggested two areas of reform: • what teachers know and can do • what they must learn to do No subject area is in greater need of teacher enhancement than science. 1996). record. students can demonstrate their understanding of science in a variety of ways that do not depend on English proficiency (Fradd & Lee. including drawings. reasoning. It is particularly important for students learning English. proposing explanations. Although seldom associated with science instruction. 1993. valuing. In order to meet increasing instructional demands. in combination with simple writing activities. Rita Morin. and demonstrating understanding (Lemke. When students are still developing their ability to communicate effectively in questioning. 5) The United States is engaged in a process of educational reform. Lee & Fradd. and many elementary teachers lack the knowledge to teach science effectively. 1986). language and culture can play a key role in science instruction. 1990). Pete Cabrera. 4th-grade students are expected to engage in inquiry by making observations. National Research Council [NRC]. National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. observe. Fradd. p.. In science. and report outcomes. oral classroom discourse typically takes on the characteristics of the expository language of textbooks (Ruddell & Ruddell. and qualified teachers. interpreting evidence. 1994).School-University Partnerships to Promote Science With Students Learning English Sandra H. This article describes the teaching-learning process that occurred as two university professors and eight 4th-grade teachers worked together to promote science instruction by building on the teachers’ insights about their students’ languages and cultures. Vivian del Rio. Fradd.. 1995). By using multiple representational formats. Many also lack the understanding to instruct students learning English (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS]. constructing and organizing ideas. Autumn 1997 35 . teachers must develop the necessary expertise to offer high quality learning opportunities in caring and supportive environments. The Importance of Effective Science Instruction for All Students Fourth grade is a critical instructional period for all students.

Instruction for the second year of the project included two science units: 8 lessons on changes in states of matter and 16 lessons on weather. The other two had a predominance of middle-class families. page 37). and many required more than 2 hours to complete. NRC. The sample contained mostly newly arrived students learning English. two groups who have typically not achieved well in science (U. Although the majority were no longer in ESOL programs. & de la Torre-Spencer. Insights generated by understanding how teachers and students who share the same language and culture interact in science instruction can be used to foster effective science instruction with diverse groups of teachers and students. and one teacher of students with learning disabilities participated. For students with limited exposure to science. from gifted to learning disabled and communicatively disordered. the focus has been on Hispanic and Haitian students. teachers moved back and forth between English and the students’ home language. English language proficiency. in addition to taking into account learning differences in terms of students’ languages and cultures. Many different ability levels and special instructional needs were accommodated through hands-on activities to promote active engagement. the content was organized so that each lesson provided background knowledge for the next. in introducing the use of the thermometer with Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. For students with little English proficiency. the sample included a significant portion of students enrolled in exceptional education programs. For example. and more than 250 students. translating and restating ideas in different ways. the rhythm. and science learning. for many students. Consistent with the recent science reform. we have been promoting literacy development. teachers and university researchers in a large urban South Florida school district have been learning how to provide effective science instruction. two researchers. Cultural congruence has also been referred to as a dance in which everyone who shares the same language and culture knows the music. Although the project includes some monolingual English-speaking students. During the introductory portion of the lesson. Discussion of the activities often required additional class periods to ensure that students comprehended the concepts through the activities. Cultural congruence refers to interpersonal interactions that encourage positive affect and understanding when people share the same language and culture (Au & Kawakami. All but one of the eight classroom teachers shared the languages and cultures of their students (Spanish or Haitian Creole) as well as English. Because the schools used an inclusion model. Instruction with these units began in September and was com- pleted in February. rather than a reality.S. Each lesson required at least one hour of instructional time. a 3-year effort (1995-1998) with National Science Foundation support. Diverse Group of Students and Teachers The Promise Project has been engaged in its second-year activities with 11 teachers. and habits of mind (AAAS.” 36 TESOL JOURNAL . 1993. “big ideas. access to meaningful science instruction has remained an illusive promise. Although there are variations and degrees of effectiveness. having teachers who understand how to build on their prior experiences can be an important strength for encouraging engagement and achievement. Throughout the discussion of the activities.g. Through the Promise Project. 1996). Acosta. 1992). teachers focused on sense-making and understanding. 1989) has been a focus of science reform for nearly a decade. Adaptations were made for the various groups of students. two ESOL teachers. Teachers also used terms and phrases with which the students were familiar. The Context for Our SchoolUniversity Partnership Although “science for all Americans” (AAAS.” (e.Using the teachers’ manuals developed by the project as instructional guides. While integrating mathematics and language arts together with science and language learning. 1996). 1989. Tailored Workshops to Integrate Language and Culture in Science Lessons Before starting each of the two units. Eight 4th-grade classroom teachers. 1994). teachers frequently defined and contextualized vocabulary. the teachers were encouraged to teach in ways that promoted cultural congruence. 1992). Most lessons began with an introductory scaffolding and concluded with a summary. the hands-on activities and demonstrations emphasized key science concepts and big ideas (see sidebar. most continued to need instructional modifications and support in English in order to participate in the 4th-grade curriculum.. inquiry. In order to fulfill the promise of science for all. systems and patterns of change in the water cycle and weather phenomena). Customized Instructional Units The instructional materials Fradd and Lee developed were designed to meet state and district curriculum frameworks and 4th-grade science objectives. cultural congruence has been found to promote students’ effective engagement in instruction (Trueba & Wright. Two of the schools were located in urban areas characterized by low socioeconomic levels and limited access to educational resources. the units emphasized scientific understanding. teachers participated in a full-day workshop focusing on science content and activities. though some were born in the United States. Moving from the more concrete to the more abstract. stressing the importance of precise communication. and the steps (Carrasco. with two systems for measuring and comm unicating. the teachers often referred to the bilingual thermometers as being “bilingual like we are. Commission on Civil Rights.

they can identify similarities between the water cycle formed by: (a) boiling water. students can observe whether the water droplets come from water that leaks through the outside top of the cup or from water vapor that condenses from inside the cup. outside. The water droplets become bigger and finally fall to the bottom of the cup. condensation. They should be able to use the verbs. condensation. condensation. such as a glass lid. Follow-up discussion and activity After the students have observed the water cycle in the cup. In previous lessons the students have learned about the components of the water cycle: evaporation. They may also answer the following questions: How are the simulations of the water cycle and the natural water cycle similar? ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ different? ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Autumn 1997 37 . 1. However.Sample Lesson on Changes of States of Matter and the Water Cycle Lesson goal and objectives Goal: Enable students to comprehend “big ideas” in science For Science Objective 1: Objective 2: Objective 3: Observe the development of the water cycle in simulation activities Identify the components of the water cycle process Recognize similarities and differences between simulations and the natural water cycle For Language Objective 1: Enable students to recognize similarities and differences in words evaporate.) Lesson activity Students can work in small groups to observe the process of the water cycle inside two clear sealed cups. and precipitation. on the sides. condenses into smaller droplets of water on the sides and top of the upper cup. and (b) the water in the cups. such as inside. and precipitation. such as in a hot pot. like rain. condense. they realize that condensation is occurring inside the cup. the cup is enclosed with another cup. hot water in the bottom cup evaporates into water vapor and rises to the top. and precipitation as they are used as verbs and nouns Accurately use these words in discussing the water cycle Objective 2: Background information Instructional tips This is a culminating lesson for the Changes of States of Matter unit. 2. This understanding is important in developing the concept of a cycle. in contact with the cold surface of the upper cup. (Many students think the drops come from the melted ice seeping through the top. and precipitate and the nouns. be sure that the top cup is immediately placed on the bottom cup so that the water vapor remains inside the two cups. when the ice and ice water are colored and the droplets in the top of the cup are clear. The water vapor. evaporation. When students are aware of the relationship between heating and evaporation and between cooling and condensation. They may also need assistance with positional words. When placing the hot water in the bottom cup. They should be encouraged to notice the changes that occur as hot water is placed in the bottom cup. at the bottom. First. for example. they can compare similarities and differences between the two simulations of the water cycle and the one that occurs in nature. how water evaporates into water vapor when it is heated. evaporate. and ice is placed on top of the two sealed cups. They have observed changes in the states of matter. and precipitate and evaporation. on top of. If the ice above the cup is made of colored water. and how the water vapor condenses back to a liquid when it touches something cold. not from water outside the cup. condense.

Even though I didn’t want them to notice. and the more effectively the students responded. I am becoming aware of how culture influences communication styles. they also enabled their students to recognize important aspects of science learning. the teachers confirmed. only those at this school. As teachers became more familiar with science content. And it’s natural for my students too. such as long division. I realize that my way of teaching left little opportunity to focus on students’ understanding. or to be flexible in guiding and enabling them to enjoy and understand science. they learned others while sharing and collaborating within the project. I would have stopped participating in the Project. they can identify patterns and relationships in many other events. At the conclusion of the two units. Classroom Observations and Teacher Interviews The researchers visited the classrooms throughout the instructional process to document how teachers and students engaged in science instruction and how teachers promoted students’ understanding. the students could tell that I didn’t know too much about science. Now. they had not heard of the notion of cultural congruence and never actively considered the ways that culture could influence science instruction. Now. often after science lessons. When they became aware of cultural similarities and differences between themselves and their students. to gather the teachers’ insights into the instructional process. and I still do. Teachers’ Insights: Science Instruction In reflecting on what they could do and what they hoped to be able to do. discussed key science concepts and big ideas. were frank and open about their limitations and their need to learn more: Teacher 1: I used to hate science. Now. the teachers were interviewed to determine how they had changed and to identify aspects of the instructional process that were particularly important to them. and shared teaching strategies and adaptations to be used with their students. the teachers were encouraged to teach in ways that promoted cultural congruence. Now that they understand the water cycle and the weather system. both individually and as a group. recognizing specific shared understandings with their students was central to the students’ willingness to participate and to learn. that they did not feel adequately prepared to teach science. Some.The teachers engaged in the science activities they would be using with their students. I move my hands a lot. they recognized that shared languages and cultures were important strengths to be used during instruction. they began to interject their own insights about effective science instruction for their students. a teacher described how his increased understanding of big ideas in science helped his students generalize their newly acquired knowledge to other subject areas: Once students see and understand a process as a system and a cycle. But now I know I can learn it. I see that happening with my students. I can teach it. I realize that I need to adapt the way I interact to meet the situation. phrases. and they appreciate the effort that I make to help them learn. I used to write out exactly what I would say to the students and then I would memorize it to make sure that I had everything right. one teacher said: I really hadn’t thought about the way I teach as being different from the way that other people teach. Teacher 3: Without the support you have provided. During these sessions. These formal and informal interactions were useful for obtaining teachers’ insights. After they had become comfortable with the researchers. I realize that by moving my hands and being very dramatic. most of the teachers expressed. I gesture and I get close to the students. To their surprise. I am more aware of ways people from different cultures communicate. Learning about the systems that occur in nature makes learning in other areas. In reflecting on cultural similarities. Teacher 2: The students see me learning science along with them. They can enumerate the steps in the process and feel comfortable working with it. such as the three teachers quoted below. the development of cultural congruence and the use of students’ native language were discussed. The researchers also engaged in informal interviews and conversations with teachers. the teachers fo und that the more they comm unicated with students in Spanish or Creole. I can enjoy it. Using the teachers’ manuals developed by the project as instructional guides. even though it seems to help me communicate with my students. In the following example. I can be distracting for some people. for encouraging them to reflect on their own instruction. Initially they were reluctant to use students’ home languages. I’ve never worked with any other group of students. I’ve noticed that is a natural way for me. and full discourse. Teachers’ Insights: Culture and Language in Science Instruction For many teachers. Culture The teachers told us that prior to their participation in the project. teachers identified important ways that they had changed. including terms. Throughout the instructional pro- cess. they have noticed that long division is also a cycle and a system. 38 TESOL JOURNAL . and for identifying changes in the ways they made science meaningful for their students. I get very dramatic. at one time or another. when I am in a group. And more importantly. Before I knew you. easier. I realize that when I want to make a point. the more they were able to make instruction meaningful and relevant. that they were already aware of some effective ways to meet their students’ instructional needs. As teachers gained an understanding of effective science instruction. Two interesting insights were the teachers’ desire for more concrete knowledge of science and their realization of the importance of building linguistic and cultural links into their science lessons.

Frequently teachers talked about special events or specific experiences that the students had at home. For example. coldest and warm. with two systems for measuring and communicating. the more they were able to make instruction meaningful and relevant. We realize that many of the experiences that other teachers take for granted. When a newspaper reporter came to observe science instruction and write an article about the project. what does he see?— in Spanish. in a lesson on evaporation. one with cold water and the other with tap water.” The teacher said. all of the teachers. up-down. Teachers’ growth occurred as they learned more about science and how to make instruction meaningful for students with little exposure to formal science instruction. She observed that the teachers often acted as parents for the students. he looks at himself in the mirror and blows his breath on the mirror. For example. What All of Us Learned The school-university partnership involved teacher professional development to promote literacy development. For example. students learned to make comparisons with activities using cold. over-under. warmer. To their surprise. “vapor. in introducing the use of the thermometer with Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. as if to say. Teachers and researchers gained insights through the process.” Language associations were also used to enhance clarification and comprehension. and warmest. “When your father is shaving in the morning. They are used to being told what to do. I know how to help them focus and follow directions. these students have not had. and the more effectively the students responded. I realized that they really did not understand what they were doing. “It’s OK. When teachers have not received the necessary preparation. they tended to look at and to touch the students when the students did well.When teachers acknowledged students’ responses. phrases. Language Teachers used students’ language experiences in science instruction in different ways. One teacher described her effort as follows: At the beginning of the year. when teachers acknowledged students’ responses. I could see that the students learned better when we did things as a whole group. I had been taught to set up groups like that to promote cooperation and inquiry. students generally responded with enthusiasm and excitement. In addition. but I can see a big difference in the way the students pay attention and respond. a teacher made associations among related words: above-below. For example. and full discourse. the teachers found that the more they communicated with students in Spanish or Creole. we know more or less what they have been exposed to.” The reporter also observed students’ enthusiastic responses to teachers when the teachers used key science terms in Hispanic or Haitian Creole before explaining the terms in English. As teachers began to consider ways to enhance science instruction. NRC.” The students enthusiastically responded.” When students missed answers. in discussion on temperature changes. and top-bottom. It is evident that teachers require a level of subject-matter expertise to be able to provide effective instruction. Although they had been doing it informally. including terms. They also need encouragement in recognizing their own strengths as well as Autumn 1997 39 . vapor in Spanish is vapor. even when these examples related to simple. Recognizing the students’ difficulty in following the directions. they recognized that they had many valuable insights about their students’ prior experiences and knew effective ways to organize instruction.” Another said: Because we share our students’ experiences. 1996) and recommendations by the NCTAF (1996). When the teachers invited student ideas. “I am with you. as if to say. “I am with you. Think about it. English language proficiency. You are doing it. Such development requires commitment and environments where teachers can talk about what they know and what they have yet to learn without penalty. The students were asked to describe what they saw above and below the water line of each cup. but also in long-term changes as students became more attentive and focused on instruction. One way was to use the home language to communicate key science concepts. They also realized that the languages students brought to school were valuable in promoting engagement and understanding. When students worked in little groups. Changes in students’ responses could be observed not just in immediate reactions. they must be provided with opportunities to develop on-the-job knowledge. I know that some people would frown on the way I’ve moved from small group to whole group instruction. I know that I must help them learn to work independently. they tended to look at and to touch the students when the students did well. except those with students at the lowest levels of English proficiency. a science activity for condensation involved observing the differences on the outside of two cups. teachers tended to touch the students in ways that said. As the year progressed. they developed an awareness of their own strengths in identifying and addressing students’ needs. they decided to experiment with their students’ home languages. We realize that we have to make adjustments in order to meet their needs. she too noted the role of culture and language (Santiago. this exercise helped students accurately comprehend the position words while conducting the science activity. 1993. a teacher asked a question in class. upper-lower. were reluctant to use any language but English. the teachers often referred to the bilingual thermometers as being “bilingual like we are. In a science methods class. 1996). I had all the students working in small groups doing their science activities. 1989. daily activities.” These ways of teaching and organizing occurred across classrooms and schools. Some teachers incorporated their understanding of cultural congruence to promote science learning with their students. You are doing it. They didn’t seem to know how to pay attention and didn’t follow along. and science learning. By offering alternative words with similar meanings and associating them with specific locations on the cups. even though they were aware that such practices might be inconsistent with mainstream approaches. we’ll try again. Teachers also used terms and phrases with which the students were familiar. vapor is the key word for e -vapor-ation in English. “Exactly. colder. Initially. Similarly. This effort is consistent with current science education reform (AAAS. water vapor in English. but it is also important for them to be successful at what they are doing and motivated to keep on learning.

261-278. F. Hayman (Eds. The researchers gained important insights about how to enhance science instruction. Dade County Public Schools. 391-441). (1995). O. & Fradd. NH: Heinemann. Cross-cultural literacy: Ethnographies of communication in multiethnic classrooms (pp.. S. Fradd. E. Florida. 299-338). 19. Dade County Public Schools. National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. M. in Dade County Public Schools. R. and confirmed each other’s understandings.). In R.. TESOL. Science for all Americans. lesson engagement. What matters most: Teaching for America’s future. L.. DC: Author. B2. December 19).S. Authors Sandra H. J. K. (1996). Talking science: Language. (1989). S. & de la Torre-Spencer. and values. (1996). as well as areas for further understanding and improvement. Florida. Tough. In M. in the United States. Florida. Science for all: A promise or a pipe dream? The Bilingual Research Journal. Florida. Culture shock: Don’t be shy about science study shows kids. R. Carrasco. P. 19) (pp. Benchmarks for science literacy. DC: Author. Review of research in education (vol.). Acosta. DC: National Academy Press. 83-104). (1986). Fradd. Dade County Public Schools. as they raised questions. 32. In L. Miami. R. H. & Wright. 651-671. The Miami Herald. Coral Gables. U. They became aware of their strengths in supporting teachers’ growth. DE: International Reading Association. 1). 80. and TEFL programs at the University of Miami. Vivian del Rio. (1993). B1. challenged each other’s assumptions. R. S. 51-98). H. E. Ruddell. Language acquisition and the literacy process. Sardvia-Shore & S. (1992). Ruddell. Commission on Civil Rights. J. J. (1994). NY: State University of New York Press. Science knowledge and cognitive strategy use among culturally and linguistically diverse students. As teachers built on what they knew to do well. R. Literacy skills in science performance among culturally and linguistically diverse students. X.) (pp. Language use. Ruddell. Equal educational opportunity project series (vol. NJ: Ablex. King. & W. & Kawakami. Language. In M. C. Singer (Eds.. National science education standards. 5-24). (1995). Lee. 797-816. The teachers and the researchers together have contributed to making the promise of science for all a reality. Lee.). National Research Council. Newark. S. Santiago. B. Arvizu (Eds. DC: American Educational Research Association. and participation structures: A microethnographic analysis of two language arts lessons in a bilingual first-grade classroom. Teaching diverse populations: Formulating a knowledge base (pp. F. Au. Miami. O. Washington. & H. Pete Cabrera. (1996. Okhee Lee is associate professor and program coordinator of the science education programs at the University of Miami. They observed many ways that teachers promoted students’ language development while simultaneously enhancing science learning. Washington. Hollins. (1992). Washington. Portsmouth. B. (1993). Talk two: Children using English as a second language in primary schools. The relationship between the researchers and the teachers was reciprocal. C. Florida. T. Darling-Hammond (Ed. DC: Author.).. Cross-cultural literacy: Ethnographies of communication in multiethnic classrooms (pp. (1996). Garcma.). Lucille Cross is a 4th-grade teacher at West Lab Elementary School. G. learning. Saravia-Shore & S. Norwood. Coral Gables. In E. H. Science Education. (1994). H. New York: Author.. is professor and program coordinator in the bilingual. The researchers gained insights for promoting language and science learning. to build their knowledge. New York: Garland. they learned more about science. Both teachers and researchers recognized that science instruction cannot be separated from issues of language and culture. Fradd. New York: Garland. Washington. (1996). Miami. . Ameliu Leth. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. A. pp. T.. Arvizu (Eds. Association for American the Advancement of Science. & Sutman. Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed. J. References American for Association the Advancement of Science. Washington. (1990). Trueba. On ethnographic studies and multicultural education. Florida. Lemke.. & Ruddell. E. & Lee.. Marisela Ceballos and Maria Santalla are 4th-grade teachers at Everglades Elementary School. and Rita Morin are 4th-grade teachers at Kensington Park Elementary School. Cultural congruence in instruction. Techeline Mathieu is a 4th-grade teacher at Toussaint L’Ouverture Elementary School. culture. Albany. L. O. Miami. and education.

is a process in which two (or more) teachers meet regularly for problem solving using planning. and creative thinking for the development of a specific skill (Joyce & Showers.” a type of developmental collaboration. observation. technical. When peers engage in such technical. Peer coaching. Collegial coaching focuses on the refinement of teaching practices. peers may focus on assessment practices and help each other ensure a match between these and their instructional practices. For instance. collegial. too. and thus both may profit from some measure of systematic coaching. 1980). so the classroom for this issue is the learning environment in which teachers are immersed as learners. These tips target pre. Technical coaching asks peers to focus on helping each other transfer a new skill to their teaching. 2. Types of Peer Coaching Peer coaching (PC) can be carried out in three ways according to the needs of the teachers. Peers work on skills already present in their teaching repertoire with which they believe they may need help and feedback. and challenge coaching. reducing the sense of isolation that teachers tend to feel • objective. nonevaluative feedback as the new teaching skill is practiced • continual emphasis on the application of the teaching skill that keeps the peers focused • analysis of students’ responses to the teacher’s implementation • adaptation of the new skill to the needs of particular groups of students • support during early attempts to use the new skill Teachers in established programs or teacher educators hoping to enhance the level of developmental cooperation in their training Autumn 1997 41 . a type of developmental collaboration.and in-service teacher educators as well as teachers interested in self-development. Glatthorn (1987) suggests collaborative professional development as a cover term for strategies that bring teachers together to work in peer-oriented systems.” Fabiola Ehlers-Zavala and Jeffrey P. It is likely that the actual process of PC will include a combination of technical. Bakken help teachers adapt a widely used technique to the special needs of students with learning disabilities. 1. they can begin to discover how they can best represent subject matter in suitable and captivating ways and think about content from the learner’s perspective. Through “Peer Conversations for Teacher Development. The Benefits of Peer Coaching PC has evolved out of the need to offer • companionship. objective discussion.” Doris Páez and Laurie McCarty move teachers outside their own circle and offer advice on “How to Use Cultural Brokers in Educational Settings. For example. Peers work together to discuss the content and procedural knowledge needed in order to make these activities work in their classrooms. a teacher may find it difficult to devise her own information gap activities or be unable to elicit second language output from her students.TiPS from the CLASSROOM Teachers are learners. Ruth Weinstein-McShane reminds us of the value of “Collegial Sharing Through Poster Sessions.” Yvonne De Gaetano advocates another means of promoting openness and growth among colleagues. Challenge coaching resolves a problematic situation in instruction and begins with the identification of a persistent problem.” In “The Role of Picture Books. Teresa Benedetti suggests “Enhancing Teaching and Teacher Education With Peer Coaching. 3. Enhancing Teaching and Teacher Education With Peer Coaching Teresa Benedetti Veteran and novice teachers alike may benefit from fruitful collaboration and nonjudgmental feedback. feedback.

peer group conversations are free flowing and open ended. The idea of peer group conversations has grown out of the techniques used in focus groups. and audiotapes. 5. They are conducted precisely to determine the participants’ opinions and feelings as well as their knowledge. Joyce. For the teachers. This is especially important when teachers are trying to understand and try out approaches new to them. the reluctance of some supervisors to reflect with student teachers on teaching matters. References Glatthorn. such as whole language. Mello. Massachusetts. B. 1987). the group member provides feedback on how she applied the advice the group generated. Peer centered coaching: Teachers helping teachers to improve classroom performance. An adaptation of focus groups. and in-depth multicultural education. given the opportunity. Idaho Springs. (1980). and high supervisor:student teacher ratios. Videotaping may aid teachers who become overwhelmed by the amount of activity during observations. which include • a preobservation conference. one with whom they believe they will work well. setting the focus for the observation • the classroom observation • the postobservation conference debriefing period Student teachers will need more guidance with this process than seasoned teachers. In addition. It improves traditional and obligatory means of teacher supervision. which are conducted for data gathering research. Educational Leadership. CO: Associates for Human Development. Peer Conversations for Teacher Development Yvonne De Gaetano Teaching can be a lonely profession in which opportunities for communicating what goes on in classrooms are often not available. teachers generally welcome the chance to reflect upon and talk about their classroom experiences. • The nominator of the topic will tell what she thinks will work best in her situation. B. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. Educational Leadership. Because PC is based on classroom observation.g. As they discuss teaching. and attitudes regarding the topic . Suggest that your colleagues or teachers in training choose a peer that they trust. make sure that everyone is familiar with and able to engage in the processes for clinical supervision. (1987). Procedure 1. which suffer from cooperating teachers untrained for supervision. • Group members ask clarification questions. 2. constructivism.TiPS CLASSROOM programs may want to consider setting up a peer coaching system along the lines proposed in the next section. Remind everyone to prepare for PC by collecting materials that will aid observation and feedback processes: notebooks/log books. 3. L. Harvard Educational Review.. Currently. Consider organizing weekly seminars for peer coaching. Peer group conversation can offer that opportunity. suggest that the class with the scheduling conflict be videotaped so that peers can view the lesson together later. the groups offer a 42 TESOL JOURNAL chance to talk about their practices in an atmosphere of guided facilitation in which they are free to express themselves. ask cooperating teachers to cover one another’s classes while their colleagues observe other peers. 45. Supervisors can help them focus by suggesting that they complete the statements: In my lesson I plan to complete_____. ED 274 648) Shulman. 379385. 1-21. Peer group conversations comprise a gathering of people with similar characteristics (e. • During the next meeting. in the United States. Improving inservice training: The messages of research. skills. Chicopee. & Showers. combining classes and observing each others’ application of skills may work effectively also. with a special interest in teacher education. 57. 31-35. The purpose of peer group conversations for teachers is to support their own and their colleagues’ growth and development. If both teach the same content to the similar classes. Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Cooperative professional development: Peer-centered options for teacher growth. PC enhances teachers’ understanding of teaching—and learning. (1984). teachers) who come together with a moderator to discuss issues relevant to them. The potential of PC lies in the effectiveness of bringing professionals together to discuss the art and science of teaching. (1987). peers share pedagogical content knowledge and ways to represent content in order to make it comprehensible to others (Shulman. Despite this. Author Teresa Benedetti is a doctoral candidate in foreign and second language education at The Ohio State University. as Mello (1984) outlines: • Peers nominate topics for discussion. she is an adjunct instructor of Spanish and Supervisor of MEd students involved in foreign and second language teaching internships at Elms College. 37. 4. I would like my peer to focus and provide feedback on my use of______.. A. • The facilitator leads discussion as members share their experiences or brainstorm new ideas. video-. Because the success of PC on the preservice level depends upon the understanding and support of cooperating teachers. L. the peer group conversations strategy is a way to support teachers in their ongoing development. If scheduling conflicts occur.

Author Yvonne De Gaetano is associate professor in the department of Curriculum and Teaching and coordinator of the Bilingual Extension for the Masters Elementary Program at Hunter College. A stable group of participants: Successful peer group conversations are those in which a sense of trust has developed.. In summary. one in which the participants are free to say what they really think about a specific topic or issue. such as in faculty lounges and department offices. but some site possibilities may be offices of corporations that support education. There is no goal to reach consensus or agreement. or an instructor. Content-rich. such as the format displayed at TESOL conventions. They are worth the extra time and work when they contain so much potential for collegial sharing. and participants speak openly and honestly about their practice. Especially when reflecting global issues. and conventions. Posters can be used for general staff and teacher development and as an aid to experienced teachers in mentoring new colleagues by sharing tried and true activities. Chairs should be arranged in a circle or around a small table so that everyone can see and hear each other. available rooms in community-based organizations. Suggestions I would like to share a few tips for creating more visually interesting displays on content-based language instruction with examples from a poster session I presented at the 1997 TESOL Convention in Orlando. Florida.. these meetings put everything back into perspective. Collegial Sharing Through Poster Sessions Ruth Weinstein-McShane Poster sessions for collegial sharing can be used in and for a variety of contexts and purposes. A skillful moderator will gauge when it is time to stop and will summarize what has been talked about. The moderator can be a staff hand. or someone’s home. posters benefit from a focus on unusual content. which is an effective format when the information to be conveyed is linear and highly organized. and teachers do not need to prepare anything to participate in the groups. Because our lives reflect personal and professional interests and pursuits. methods. City University of New York. Posters. however. Well-prepared. This kind of poster can display various activities as well as the skills and intelligences used in acquisition of the target language. Length of sessions: Peer group conversations need be no longer than 2 1/2 hours. If the sessions degenerate into complaint sessions. Although not always possible. The Necessary Features Peer group conversation groups have the following characteristics. they will eagerly participate in peer group conversations if the meetings are structured so that their interests and needs are met. teacher trainer. Although teachers are often pressed for time. multi-intelligence approaches to learning activities in and out of the classroom lend themselves to large posters. They can serve as attractive visual mnemonics and inspiration. open-ended questions: Initially. A variety of sites: Often schools or district offices are not conducive for the openness needed for good peer group conversations. This works well as a record of student accomplishments in particular school courses and can be inspirational for other teachers.” Autumn 1997 43 . As teachers have said after peer group conversations: Today we became inspired—we got ideas from each other. the moderator needs to bring the discussions back to the point being explored. A group member may also begin by posing a problem or issue she may be facing in the classroom. She makes every effort to establish a permissive atmosphere. A moderator: The moderator should have group facilitation skills. inspirational tools for teacher development and possibly the impetus for more collaborative work on materials and textbook preparation. Posters are frequently designed as flow charts for teacher instruction. cultural know-how. Small size: It is important to keep the group size to a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 10 people to encourage participants to share opinions. Other formats include captioned summaries of classroom activities with photos of students. the college classroom. You always feel like you are alone. and possibly illustrations. peer group conversations enable a small group of teachers to talk about their classroom practices in a safe and supportive atmosphere. conferences. The group should choose how often they want to meet. copies of their written work. It is a time for them to share their successes and failures and for them to get ideas from one another. for example • What are some problems you have found when you are using the whole language approach (or multicultural perspectives)? How did you deal with these? • What has been your experience in working with cooperative groups? • What are some of the ways you have found to help quiet students speak up in class? The questions come from the stated interests of the group. and techniques. should be more than a larger surface for the written word or a focal point for a group or passing audience. the moderator prepares two or three open-ended questions that will spark conversation. and at in-service days. this is especially important for those people who find it hard to speak up in large group settings. it is helpful if meetings are followed up with classroom visits by members of the group or by the moderator. The teachers themselves provide many of the answers to the questions they are seeking as they articulate them with one another. and the content in which language and culture are embedded. such as the environment. but . There should be some kind of refreshments available if possible so that everyone is comfortable and at ease. holistic. posters can become memorable. It is therefore important that the group participants remain the same. called “Outdoor Recreation and Forest Ecology.

Guided Walk Through Woods. learning objectives and styles. Author Ruth Weinstein-McShane taught ESL in Japan for one year and EFL as a graduate teaching assistant in an MA in TESL program. Try to use keys or symbols other than arrows or numbers. I displayed activities using a collection of field guides with the yellow cover of Trees of Arkansas and the green cover of Buffalo River Hiking Trails. subject areas.” This request (authorship unknown) is frequently seen on signs at state and national parks and nature preserves throughout the United States. A picture of a large buck and a graphic representation of the distance between tracks linked the visual to a vocabulary list and examples of word problems. The colors reflected those in photographs of hiking and camping activities and offered a color-coded organization tool for the poster. and process skills through verbs of locomotion. other illustrated print materials. or Arboretum. I used black deer tracks on a white background. I focused my lesson on the unusual negative structure and vocabulary and used the jazz chant and photographs as the tools of instruction. Parks. left). more natural approach. One need not be an artist to create posters that convey teaching ideas and activities in exciting colors and formats. One resource available to teachers to facilitate this process is that of cultural brokering. For example. especially when recording a group of successful teaching activities or nonlinear components of a teaching unit. time required. and math. Cultural brokers can provide one or more of the following services • mediation • advocacy • interpretation and translation • educational consulting Why Teachers Might Want a Cultural Broker Teachers for whom the following state- . newspapers. I also indicated levels. use originals or photocopies arranged in colorful collages with the tasks or language goals captioned in a variety of printed fonts. critical thinking.” I drew stick figures and cartoon trees to convey the procedure each pair of students would follow on location after a class session on adjectival suffixes and vocabulary describing tree bark (see illustration. An activity I displayed on my poster was “Know Your Tree: A Blindfolded. Using student and teacher work may spur others to emulate your example of collegial sharing. measurement. and cultural or physical considerations. espe- 44 TESOL JOURNAL cially if they themselves lack the background knowledge or experience with a particular language or culture. educators need to play a more active role in engaging students and their families in the educational process.TiPS CLASSROOM Ways to Organize Your Poster Poster session instructions for the TESOL convention suggest a very structured approach organized in the manner of a flow chart. How to Use Cultural Brokers in Educational Settings Doris Páez and Laurie McCarty As the number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds increases. “Take Nothing But Photographs. she also works as an adult literacy tutor. and realia are attractive. in guiding the viewer from one section of my own poster to the next. This style is sometimes necessary. I hope these suggestions will encourage teachers to use poster sessions as tools for furthering teacher growth. The tracks also highlighted another section of the poster on using Total Physical Response to teach vocabulary. pamphlets. A freelance writer and textile artist living in rural Arkansas. Know Your Tree: A Guided Walk Ways to Represent Ideas and Whole Activities I used photographs and a black and white graphic of boot and sneaker treads to illustrate the chorus of a jazz chant I wrote on the theme. suggestions for adaptation. Techniques for Displaying Your Resources Visually If textbook covers. but sessions on content-based language instruction may merit a looser. Leave Nothing But Footprints.

religious groups. Authors Doris Páez is assistant professor in the Special Education/Communication Disorders (SPED/CD) Department at New Mexico State University. The university student meets with the teacher and provides background information about schooling. • I am seeking an outside opinion of my curriculum and teaching strategies. translation of instructional materials. • I would like to create and implement culturally relevant instruction. and I am unfamiliar with his language and culture. the teacher must interview and train the broker regarding classroom and school or district policies and procedures. culturally sensitive instructional practices. The teacher learns that there are two university students who recently arrived from Bosnia are currently enrolled. and school-community partnerships. The teacher makes contact with one of the students and informs him of her need for a cultural broker. he gives the teacher an understanding of his own experiences as a new resident of the United States. and New Mexico. research. limited.g. state or local agencies (e. and conflicts of interests. • My students represent various cultures and languages. parental/family involvement in schooling. and ethnic communities in the neighborhood. The focus of her academic training and research has been in the instruction of culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional education students.. and suggestions for instruction.g. Autumn 1997 45 . Laurie McCarty is assistant professor in the Exceptional Education Department at Buffalo State University in New York. in the United States. and writing [a particular language/dialect] (i. teachers should ask such questions as • How can you assist me in providing appropriate educational experiences and opportunities for these students? • What specific information about _______ can you give me? • How many different services (e. More importantly. The teacher determines that cultural brokers are necessary for the school to be able to • understand the student’s educational history and possible life experiences • explore differences and similarities between the local school district and the school in Bosnia • communicate with family members • translate instructional materials and school documents • develop appropriate instructional strategies and materials The teacher contacts several local agencies and the international student association at the local university. cultural brokers can assist school personnel with student conferences. parent conferences. interpreter. parent/family conferences. developmental expectations. families. and relationship to the student and her family. the teacher must ask herself • What are the educational needs (e. conversational. cultural brokers can support teachers and educational professionals in their work with students and families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. advocate) can you perform? • How proficient are you in speaking.. and thus contribute measurably to teachers’ continuing professional development.g.. • I want to establish a positive working relationship with the parents and families of my students. Red Cross. mediator. reading. developmental. experience (general and education-specific). • My colleagues and I need information to help us work with the students. • I have a student in my classroom from a cultural background different from mine who is having difficulties. Her current responsibilities include teaching undergraduate special education teacher training courses and graduate-level courses in bilingual special education and diagnostics. proficient)? When identified and used appropriately. academic. When interviewing a prospective cultural broker. social.g. military. The focus of her academic training. consulates) • school personnel who reside in the area or have ties to the culture Using Cultural Brokers After identifying prospective cultural brokers.. for assessment of nonnative English speakers. support. emotional) of the student(s) for whom I need a cultural broker? • Will I need the broker on an ongoing basis to provide information. national. She has extensive experience teaching in the field of bilingual education and special education in Massachusetts. In classrooms Using a Cultural Broker: An Example A student from Bosnia recently enrolled in a public school district in the southwest United States. where numerous cultures and languages are represented.. cognitive. in the United States. and other services over a long period of time? • Do I need an interpreter (e. Teachers should seek recommendations for potential cultural brokers from • students and families • community members and international. the teacher should consider the potential cultural broker’s background (personal and professional). Functions the Cultural Broker Might Serve Before seeking out a cultural broker. Puerto Rico.ments are true may need a broker. role in the community.e. There are no members of the school district staff or faculty who have knowledge or experience with this particular cultural group. university international student associations. and practice has been offering assessment and intervention services for culturally and linguistically diverse students and their families. culturally uncomfortable situations. letters to parents)? Ways to Find the Right Broker In order to guard against potential biases. Specifically. • I have a new student from a cultural background different from mine. the educator may need to use more than one cultural broker.

Giles. Carle. the teacher. pancakes. The lorax. New York: Puffin. 1992. interests. depending on the students’ backgrounds (ages. language levels.. ask students to infer what the colors may mean to show how the art contributes to the line of the story. 3. For instance. Once you are finished reading the picture book. Cherry. Pancakes. As you read the book • Show the pictures and use body movements and facial expressions to enhance the drama of the experience. we mean “a story book. The armadillo from Amarillo. McCloskey. Follow-up Activities Picture books are only a window into having fun with language for both students and teachers. right. 2). p. New York: Crown. New York: Scholastic. .e. John. CA: Harcourt Brace. in which both the pictures and the text work interdependently to tell a story” (Bishop & Hickman. (1971). • Maintain eye contact with your students.1 For example. for example. Students with reading disabilities have difficulty with analytical tasks such as decoding. funny. (1989). familiarity to enhance their linguistic competence and sense of cultural self-identity. (1995). but the illustrations in picture books appeal to global learning styles and support the meaning that is communicated by the text. bring in different books that portray different foods eaten by their ethnic communities or others and discuss. and exciting moments. San Diego. and pay attention to nonverbal responses to ensure that they comprehend the storyline. Their use with diverse learners with disabilities is crucial. Oh. Barbara. Also it gives you. and developmental needs. (1989). Seuss’s The Lorax and John Giles’s The First Forest are useful books with which to carry out this sort of activity because the art is clearly intertwined with the story line. (1995). Scieska. Seuss. the opportunity to teach them what is appropriate in the second or foreign language with regard to nonverbal behavior. The inclusion of picture books. go back to some of the illustrations: If they are colored. Colors and shapes will evoke different feelings and will connect to the story line. their own. This will engage students and allow them to understand the language and share emotional. Dr. This kind of activity can be very exciting not only for those who narrate them but also for those who listen to them. The first forest. • Read the book from beginning to end without interruptions except on an as-needed basis. Picture books: • offer learners authentic literature • offer learners cultural insights into the second culture. (1994). effectively chosen to suit the learners’ ages. for a list of books we have found effective) Procedure 1. New York: Simon & Schuster. Among the problems these learners need to overcome is their difficulty in attending to the illustrations and written text. When you are ready to read in class. Carle. fostering development of sociolinguistic competence • enhance the learners’ linguistic competence by promoting the acquisition of new vocabulary and grammar • constitute excellent sources to promote an aesthetic response to literature by means of appealing to their affect and imagery processes • furnish ground to build upon and with which to develop other communicative activities fostering communicative compe- 46 TESOL JOURNAL tence (see sidebar. New York: Random House. Robert. Depending on the relationship between the text and the pictures. interests. Faith. Desert giant. (1991). 2. New York: Little. (1992). Bakken In developing the language and literacy skills of diverse students with disabilities. Dr. Eric. Stevens Point. By pointing at the illustrations. signs used to greet or say goodbye). Aunt Harriet’s underground railroad in the sky. Have students point at images portrayed in the book with which they may have some Useful Picture Books Bash. Ringgold. Giles. Eric. They can • provide the context for the story • direct students’ attention to what is important in the story line • appeal to the formation of enhanced imagery during and after reading • enhance affective responses to the text • increase students’ attention to relevant information • guide cognitive processes during comprehension By picture books. Brown. make sure that you position yourself such that students can see the pictures—hold the book to your side. a fiction book with a dual narrative. If you are teaching a unit on nutrition to students of diverse backgrounds. you can begin follow-up activities.TiPS CLASSROOM The Role of Picture Books Fabiola Ehlers-Zavala and Jeffrey P. (1992). so instruction is needed to guide students on the interpretation of both the verbal text and nonverbal images in a picture book. Walter the baker. Students are fascinated by similarities and differences in paralinguistic communication (i. New York: The Trumpet Club. pictures can have several functions. Jon. needs). Read the book to yourself before you read it to your class because prereading allows you to decide if the story is enjoyable and the level is appropriate. Illustrations can convey information on nonverbal communication used by the members of a particular cultural group. Lynne. WI: Worzalla. Time of wonder. The frog prince. students can tell you how they feel when they look at the bright colors. picture books constitute a holistic way to confront this educational challenge. offers many advantages. and that of their peers. WI: Worzalla. Stevens Point. John. how I wish I could read.

His area of research is reading comprehension of students with disabilities.In conclusion.). (1992). & Hickman. where reading plays a major role. Finally. In S. Teachers have to help students develop their communicative competence in the second language. Benedict & L. in the reading comprehension of ESL/EFL readers. Boston: Bulfinch. Note 1 For a discussion of how pictures work. R. such as affect and imagery. they offer learners sensory experiences that stimulate the workings of the brain in its entirety as both linguistic and nonlinguistic systems are at work during reading comprehension. high school. . Her area of research is the influence of nonlinguistic factors. picture books offer an excellent means to develop the language and literacy skills of diverse students with disabilities. S. NH: Heinemann. L References Bishop.. but they must also guide them in the development of learning strategies that will help them cope with their own learning difficulties in the academic world. in the United States. Bang. in the United States. specifically. J. (1991). At the same time. Bakken is assistant professor in the Department of Specialized Educational Development at Illinois State University. Carlisle (Eds. text structure and imagery in reading. Jeffrey P. Beyond words: Picture books for older readers and writers (pp. l-10). Picture this. Four or fourteen or forty: Picture books are for everyone. Not only do they enhance the linguistic aspects of language and literacy development but also they provide learners with sociocultural instruction about both the second and first language. Portsmouth. see M. and college levels in Chile. She has also taught EFL classes at the elementary. Authors Fabiola Ehlers-Zavala is a doctoral candidate and instructor in the Department of English at Illinois State University (ISU). they constitute excellent sources to promote independent reading experiences because the nonverbal elements work closely with the verbal cues provided in the stories. He teaches various courses on teaching methods and educational assessment.

their families. Pp. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. 212. perused my own shelves. backtracking later on to acquire more formal career preparation. Some spoke variations of African American Vernacular English. Cambridge. We learn much about their cultures from our students. we used our peers. I interviewed other professionals. helped my peers and myself to develop as teachers. and historical experiences of language learners and challenged my prejudices and presuppositions about other groups and lands.. The habit of looking to teachers’ accounts of their work stuck with me. 191. Pp. 360. and scoured libraries to develop the resource list of classics for teacher self-development included in the sidebar on page 50. our students. during the past three decades. New York: Doubleday. New York: Little. x + 309.). I found myself teaching in a center-city elementary school with a multigrade. These follow.. Pp. My Place Sally Morgan. and we educated ourselves as best we could for the teaching tasks at hand. experience preceded education. Pp. in chronological order. 1969. White Teacher Vivian Paley. Having acquired an undergraduate degree in philosophy in 1969 (with all the teaching preparation that such a major entails . x + 110. and philosophical viewpoints and questions to ask to gain perspective about the nature of good teaching. 1989. 1983. Children of War Roger Rosenblatt. and Dreams Kenneth Koch. . and others spoke a Western New York so-called “standard” variety of English. It is the nature of our profession that we work with individuals with very different backgrounds from our own. 1963. and I found that I have often sought out such voices of experience to explore other classrooms that I could never visit to foster my own development as a teacher. and colleagues from other backgrounds. and whatever helpful books we could find. xvi + 140. Two kinds of books became essential texts for me in surviving a situation that presented so many demands and so much that was new. Biographical/autobiographical works by and about individuals from my students’ cultures shed light on the linguistic. New York: Simon & Schuster. Wishes. Bangladesh. I recently set out to revisit some of the “classics” that have. I wanted to explore the merits of these texts in retrospect: How did they help over the long haul? And in prospect: How might they benefit the selfdevelopment of practitioners who more recently entered the profession? The results took two forms: First. Pp. I then selected and reviewed seven volumes that I felt had powerful import. Other teachers’ published writings about their experiences provided me with hope and inspiration to continue in the often frustrating teaching profession. 1987. multicultural mix of children. 48 TESOL JOURNAL Thirty Years of Becoming a Teacher: A Reader’s Rainbow Mary Lou McCloskey The second type of source was biographical or autobiographical writings that offered vicarious cross-cultural experiences and cultural insights. New York: Vintage Books. 1979. Pp. Teacher Sylvia Ashton-Warner. the seats of our pants. MA: Harvard University Press. Brown. We found ourselves in teaching situations for which we were less than ideally prepared. In our self-development. Garden City. pedagogical strategies and possibilities to help me survive the days in the classroom. Pp. New York: Random House. some were immigrants from India. Lies. 1970. some came from Spanish-speaking PuertoRican backgrounds. 289. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Maya Angelou. The House on Mango Street Sandra Cisneros. They helped me develop as a reflective “kidwatcher/listener” and as a teacher committed to conducting a classroom in ways that respected learners as individuals and as participants in their unique cultures. social. but reading is uniquely valuable for placing us in new worlds.R EVIEWS For perhaps too many of us in the TESOL profession. or Japan.

had to cope with an influx. and shortcomings are challenged. Paley. in turn. challenges readers to be honest with themselves in questioning the ways they address (or avoid) issues of race and culture in the classroom.”) to make no sense whatsoever to young Maori children struggling with linguistic and cultural transition. Coming from both the language experience and “look-say” traditions. are family feuds. are from similar or identical groups: All the wars. And how she tells it is totally involving. as a Time Magazine journalist. and universal truths revealed through a uniquely black aesthetic. and members of the black community of tiny Stamps. True. Ashton-Warner developed an empowering method that gave young students previously unable to acquire literacy successfully purpose and access to learning. She describes her home from the age of 13. discussing class events with peer teachers. In all of these locations. caring. The combination of his delight and wonder in playing with words and the imagination and freedom of expression he evoked from young writers brought poetry and learning to life in those schools. Beyond being a teacher. Arkansas are the essence of her story. • Bernadette was a young Catholic girl in Belfast. filled with vivid images and indelible characters. as well as family members. She offers a sequence of vignettes that cover more than 5 years of teaching during which her all-white class gradually becomes a truly multicultural. “Why was it Claire who so often influenced me to look at ordinary activities in new ways? For me the answer was clear: Teaching children with different cultural and language experiences kept pushing me toward the growing edge” (p. multilingual one. yet some striking similarities in the strength and hope children revealed. 118). about what they were thinking and feeling. about their dreams for the future. Israel. In growing to meet those challenges. Koch. During these years. or with Spanish structure and English words • questions to ask a snow person. The very towns in which Angelou lived became characters with virtues and vices of their own.” Yet the vibrancy with which she lived her childhood and the strength and love she received from the individuals around her: her brother. and a place • poems containing only lies • poems with English structure and Spanish words.Sylvia Ashton-Warner (Teacher. (p. The first 50 pages of Wishes. In addition. playwright and English professor. black and white. and Vietnam. They were also forced to live with skin-deep guilt brought on by the treatment of their former Nisei schoolmates” (p. She found traditional school readers (“John. teachers and other professionals who worked with the children. Vivian Paley’s ‘s reflection about a WestIndian 5-year-old in her kindergarten class conveys succinctly the nature of the investigation in White Teacher (1979). the medium of poetry. 1963) taught infant (5-year-old) classes of mostly Maori children in New Zealand for 30 years. Ashton-Warner used children’s organic language to write texts for her students based on stories and traditions from their cultures. words like: ghost. Roger Rosenblatt. (Maori war dance) kiss. skeleton. Kenneth Koch. of love. Lies.1969) is a story of power and triumph over troubles. she encouraged students to write about their most vital experiences and then to share their writing with one another. understanding. the children. she relates firsthand experiences and consequences of the poverty. and writing that centered around words each child found essential to his or her life: key words of fear. a blackboard. Rosenblatt interviewed children who had known nothing but war in their lives. San Francisco. Native San Franciscans. racism. who wrote: People think I’m so and so But I am not so and so People think I’m this But I am that. and their teachers came up with simple but evocative poetic structures such as these: • a class poem for which each student wrote a line and every line began with “I wish” and mentioned a color. to help teachers understand. to reveal changes over time. She gives teachers evidence of the drama of everyday classroom life. In the late 1960s. a comic book character. or a flower The remaining 250 pages of the book are filled with inspirational. Angelou’s story is a gift to teachers of multicultural classes and of learners of English: keys to discovering the grace and energy of language. 249) The book offers teachers successful experiences for making poetry real and relevant to young learners and quality student models of poetry written as a result of these experiences. Ashton-Warner was also a novelist and artist who crafted a gripping classroom narrative. Through observations of her students and of being their teacher. multiracial. it confirms the importance of our respect for the language. Bernadette rejected the hatred of her brothers: “I don’t like what the IRA Autumn 1997 49 . Paley learns a great deal about helping children of all backgrounds appreciate themselves. remember and be able to recreate and share those significant little details of words and actions by children and teachers—details that are everything in a classroom. her grandmother. Lebanon. Maya Angelou’s autobiography of her childhood and teen years (I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. and often touching poems by young writers like Margarita Cuadrado. at the beginning of World War II: “Pride and Prejudice stalked in tandem the beautiful hills. not of awed respectful tourists but of raucous. Vivian Baxter. Her insight was that reading should be motivated by the deepest yearnings for meaning in the human heart. The stories in Children of War (1983) showed wide diversity in children’s responses to the war around them. Annie Henderson. 212). the depth of feeling in the hearts of young learners. She constantly questions and checks herself: contemplating her own Jewish heritage and upbringing and how it affects how she sees her students. He was sponsored first by the Academy of American Poets. the “enemies. dignity in the midst of oppression. she devised a unique system of organic vocabulary. and listening thoroughly to individual students and parents. possessive of the city. abandonment by her parents and violence from a family “friend. exuberant. blind spots. come. mummy. later by the Teachers and Writers’ Collaborative. look! See the boats. traveled to the war zones of the world to Belfast. unsophisticated provincials. and for the amazing potential of young learners. He asked these children. Bailey. her mother. Paley exemplifies a patient. Following each vignette are her reflections on the thoughts and the development of the individuals in her class and of herself as a teacher. essentially. Though her sister had recently been killed by a British plastic bullet in her head. Cambodia. reading. a New York City poet.” Rosenblatt observes. and the centrality of the understanding of culture to the learning of language. Paley’s own prejudices. and Dreams (1970) include Koch’s narrative on how he arrived on his inspirational ideas for teaching poetry and encouraging poets. haka. a needle. reflective and ever-developing teacher. touch. Perhaps her most ringing message is the value of a teacher’s journal: to provide reflection and perspective. zany. of luminous dignity arising from difficulties. was a visiting poet and teacher of poetry in New York City elementary schools. Mrs.

Kaufman. Howard. Le Ly. how her heritage was revealed Further Reading Anaya. R. (1989). (1979). 50 TESOL JOURNAL Griffin. I don’t support them because I know what death is like” (p. Works like Rosenblatt’s help teachers of children of war to comprehend the devastating experiences their students have had. • At 15. Richard. Berkeley. New York: Random House. Ellison. NJ: Prentice Hall. James. (1961). Godine. Schools without failure. De Angulo. Donald. a young Khmer who had lost his father to a firing squad and his mother to starvation during the Pol Pot regime. Teaching as a subversive activity. Routman. (1995). Mandela. “will you go back to Cambodia one day and fight the Khmer Rouge?” “No. Black like me. (1994). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. (1965). Spirit of survival. (1988). NH: Heinemann. Lewis. Long walk to freedom: The autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Delpit. Like shooting people. Gardner. (1953). Nancie. Exeter. Kuzwayo. Boston: Little. London: Verso. Ralph. John. Englewood Cliffs. (1972). . Indian tales. Kozol. Daphne. (1986). Gail. Kozol.R EVIEWS are doin’. Portsmouth. When heaven and earth changed places. Ways with words: Language. Cry. McCracken. New York: New Press.” replied Ty Kim Seng. My Place (1987) is an autobiographical chorus in four vibrant voices. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Moffett. Rosenblatt also found. New York: Harper & Row. Brown. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1986). New York: Cambridge University Press. and was already speaking internationally in support of the PLO. The art of teaching writing. Woman warrior. NH: Heinemann. (1983). Gallimore. Elen. Herbert. Hayslip. Morgan first tells the story of her own childhood. (1969). (1979). Savage inequalities: Children in America’s schools. Graves. trying to live their everyday lives with the gentleness and playfulness and grace of the young. New York: Scribner. New York: Basic Books. In the middle: Writing. Jonathan. Rosenblatt spoke to Ty Kim Seng. NH: Heinemann. Johannesburg: Raven Press. & Weingartner. Maxine Hong. “So. Brown. Portsmouth. and teachers must remember. Heath. To me. she set out to learn all she could of the family and cultural history that had been hidden from her. Postman. (1980). Kidder. Sally Morgan was born in Western Australia in 1951 only 7 years after the Australian aborigines were first allowed by the government of European settlers and conquerors to become “Australian citizens. Rigoberta. Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. Mindstorms: Children. 135). From the moment of this discovery. (1981) Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodriguez. • In a Thai refugee camp. (1967). The foundations of literacy. 36 children. I. R.” asks Rosenblatt. as a Palestinian in Lebanon. (1961). an autobiography. Oscar. his life goal was to be a doctor: He saw himself first not as one who harms. (1968). New York: New American Library. New York: Crown Publishing. (1976).. Holdaway. The children of Sanchez: Autobiography of a Mexican family. Mother tongue to English: The young child in a multicultural school. Glasser. Among schoolchildren. New York: Vintage Books. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ultima. & Tharpe. Transitions: From literature to literacy. Teaching the universe of discourse. Regie. NH: Boynton/Cook. (1983). L. (1993). Death at an early age. New York: Basic Books. Up the down staircase. the beloved country: A story of comfort in desolation. (1969). Lucy McCormick.” To protect themselves and their children from the prejudice and discrimination that faced aborigines at the time. Writing: Teachers and children at work. NH: Heinemann. life. Yet. New York: Hill & Wang. that they are just children. (1985). revenge means that I must make the most of my life” (p. but as a healer. Rousing minds to life: Teaching. San Rafael. Donald. Neil. Charles. Calkins. Bel. Kohl. (1952). 32). Jonathan. (1948). learning. (1970). Rudolfo. Papert. Holt. “That is not what I mean by revenge. Shirley Brice. Boston: D. Yet. (1989). Paton. What do I do Monday? New York: Delta. (1991). William. Invisible man. Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian woman in Guatemala. Robert A. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.R. (1988). New York: Morrow. John Howard. Exeter. She knew nothing of her own aborigine ancestry until the age of 15. Ahmed had led several PLO youth groups. New York: Delacorte Press. (1987). CA: Leswing Press. (1984). Call me woman. Children of war are forever affected by the violence and hate they have experienced— their tragedies made great demands on their strength and resiliency. Rodriguez. Seymour. Bless me. reading and learning with adolescents. New York: Vintage Books. was being trained as a guerilla fighter. Jaime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Alan. Kingston. Atwell. Tracy. New York: Doubleday. Nelson. (1967). and work in communities and classrooms. Portsmouth. Reading is only the tiger’s tail. Morgan’s family had buried and forgotten their ancestry and hidden their personal stories. Menchu. CA: TQS Publications. computers and powerful ideas. Sheehy. and schooling in social context. (1972). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Gladys is caught in the powerful web of story making and agrees to reveal her own history. As well as being the autobiography of a family. world varieties of languages. Hornberger. Sandra Lee McKay and Nancy Hornberger offer an overview of these issues. to tell his tale. each detailing a specific topic in sociolinguistics and written by an individual(s) who has done extensive research on that topic. based on different levels of macroand microlinguistic and social analysis. the pain of not speaking English. The contributors focus on issues relevant to language teachers. “Language and Society. It is important for language teachers to have an understanding of the diversity of language because attitudes toward language varieties may affect Autumn 1997 51 . tells the story of the coming of age of Esperanza. these little vignettes create a very personal history with a community of rich characters. Pp. pidgins and creoles. it reveals the fierce independence of a young writer committed to leaving Mango Street so she can come back—through telling her stories. One strength of the book is that it examines the relevance of sociolinguistics to language teaching beyond its function as a component of communicative competence. Autobiographies of three other family members follow. The book challenges beliefs about such topics as world Englishes. The 14 chapters are arranged in cultures. and the misery of not feeling at home when you are home. focusing in particular on the relationship her amazing and difficult life. Because aborigine mothers of the time were not considered fit to raise white or mixed-race children. is finally convinced to tell the story of Sociolinguistic knowledge is more than saying the right thing at the right time: It encompasses issues such as language variety within languages due to gender. and the story of the restoration provided by the rediscovery of one’s roots and of pride in one’s heritage.” is the final section of the book (aside from Hornberger’s concluding chapter) and considers social analysis at the microlevel and linguistic analysis at the macrolevel. Author Mary Lou McCloskey. and literacy. being of two Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching Sandra Lee McKay and Nancy H. In Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. Triumphantly. in the United States. all compiled by Morgan from extensive taped interviews. Eds. is director of curriculum and teacher development for Educo. a finely wrought little poem disguised as prose only by its arrangement on the page. When Morgan read Arthur’s story aloud to her mother. who was Boolyah man. she traveled back to the villages of aborigine relatives to recognize and rediscover their roots. Part 2. a sensitive young chicana who lives with her family on Chicago’s Mango Street (The House on Mango Street. 1989).” includes a discussion of World Englishes by Braj B. Sandra Cisneros. Rickford). read together. Morgan’s grandmother. former second vice president of TESOL. language and gender. This introductory book differs from prior publications on sociolinguistics in that it specifically addresses preand in-service language teachers and teachers of linguistically diverse and multicultural classes. Kachru and Cecil L. a history of racism and white supremacy in Australia.” takes a microview of social and linguistic analysis and discusses different types of sociolinguistic analysis. holding a position of wisdom and power in the aborigine community. the always silent and secretive Nan. social. The book reveals truths about growing up. Jette Gjaldbaek Hansen between language acquisition and the social context of language learning. works with ESOL and EFL programs on teacher development and curriculum projects and develops integrated English language materials for teachers and students. and race differences. Georgia. and an annotated bibliography of suggestions for further reading. and African American English Vernacular. and each chapter concludes with implications for the language classroom.” focuses on such areas of sociolinguistics as regional and social variation (John R. “Language and Interaction. Yet. She tells how. Topics in this part include Andrew Cohen’s discussion of speech acts and Sandra McKay’s discussion of literacy and literacies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. She first persuades her great uncle Arthur. Part 1. “Language and Culture. Part 3. and language and gender (Rebecca Freeman and Bonnie McElhinny). The book comprises 14 chapters. xii + 484. “Language and Variation. the wonders of becoming a woman. with family members. Each of the 45 tiny chapters in the book is a story unto itself. the daughter of a Mexican father and a Mexican American mother. the agony of losing and leaving one’s homeland. My Place is also a biography of aborigine people. 1996. She teaches at Georgia State University and in area school districts. As a fitting and rich conclusion to the autobiography. and a discussion of language planning and policy by Terrence Wiley.and her subsequent education and research into her past. Nelson. Gladys was taken from her mother and raised far away in an orphanage. the torturous self-awareness of adolescence. four parts. Part 4. It includes papers by Frederick Erickson called “Ethnographic Microanalysis” and “Interactional Sociolinguistics” by Deborah Schriffin. regional. in Atlanta.

illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches. and regional and social Different approaches can be taken to preparing students to teach English to speakers of other languages. (The trainer’s handbook neither describes the lesson preparation nor contains the self-evaluation of the teacher’s workbook. allowing the course to be used by trainers with little experience or preparation. “Presenting Vocabulary. “The study of sociolinguistics . training sessions involve three types of activities: demonstrations. p. provides material for about 4 hours of training. according to Doff. discussions. interactional sociolinguistics. each of which focuses on a different area of methodology and. has always been grounded in eliminating disadvantage” (Freeman & McElhinny. Each unit contains five or six activities (in the final one. Timothy Micek trainer’s handbook gives detailed. xxvii + 206.. With less explicit ones (teacher education or development). but also to effect change in attitudes toward diversity. It can be used for in-service or preservice training or as a refresher course and is aimed primarily at the secondary level. follow a set curriculum.R EVIEWS what language variety is taught. Teach English is designed particularly for teachers who teach in large classes with few resources. and have little time to prepare lessons. However. For the most part. Another strength of the book is that most of the chapters of the book are accessible and relevant to language teachers as they focus on issues that teachers may encounter in their own classrooms. as a reference guide to topics and research issues in sociolinguistics. ix + 286. Eds. 1988.” for example. and the ethnography of communication unless they have a thorough background in sociolinguistic research. The teacher’s workbook is for use by the student teachers and contains the activities— discussion. 1993. Alexandria. a trainer’s handbook and a teacher’s workbook. Teach English and New Ways in Teacher Education.. Most units are devoted primarily to teaching or class management skills. Two texts. Teach English contains 24 units. Readers might find it difficult to distinguish between ethnographic microanalysis. At the beginning of Unit 1. are nonnative speakers of English. 1). the chapters in Part 3 of the book and the first chapter of Part 4 may not be as helpful in an introductory book as they focus on the theoretical and methodological aspects of several methods of sociolinguistic research. in the United States. and as a source of research ideas for those interested in conducting their own language teaching and sociolinguistic research projects. they offer their students opportunities to discover effective teaching principles and practices on their own. Pp. Teach English is a teacher training course designed to develop “practical skills in teaching English as a foreign language” (Handbook. The course is designed to be used by a trainer working with as many as 30 student teachers and has two components. Insightful and thought- Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers Adrian Doff. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. She has taught German and English in Japan and is currently teaching ESL in The Spoken English Program at OSU. in which these teachers provoking. student teachers apply techniques from the training to their own teaching) and ends with a self-evaluation. Pp. this book can be used as a classroom text in language education and sociolinguistic classes. Nonetheless. VA: TESOL. The 52 TESOL JOURNAL dialects. Trainers may consult the Further Reading section at the end of each unit for resources with which to explore topics in greater depth. including language and skills development. Author Jette Gjaldbaek Hansen is a doctoral student in foreign and second language education at The Ohio State University (OSU). step-bystep instructions for each training session. With more explicit approaches (often referred to as teacher training). intercultural communication. These units are self-contained and can be used independently of each other.) The workbook also contains four texts that explain the theory behind the methodology and ends with summaries of each unit. The purpose of the book is therefore not only to help educators understand diversity. Lesson Preparation. 218). this is an important book for language educators as its discussion of issues involving the relationship between social context and language acquisition is directed toward their needs. practice and simple workshop tasks—that make up the practical part of the course. student teachers discuss ways of presenting new words and the teacher trainer demonstrates two ways of . such as African American Vernacular English. so trainers will need both components of the course. use of aids and materials. (Trainer’s Handbook and Teacher’s Workbook) New Ways in Teacher Education Donald Freeman with Steve Cornwell. reflect on their teaching after the training session. Preparation and evaluation skills are the focus of two units each. teachers tell their students what and how to teach. and pair/group work. As two of the authors state. p. and classroom interaction. but they overlap to a certain extent.

Alvino Fantini’s YOGA (Your Objectives. step-by-step procedures for duplicating the activity. directions. create the text for the course. Those who prepare ESOL teachers will want to consider both texts. student teachers also discuss how best to present other words. they have shown little imagination. although Doff claims that the course reflects the shift from the teacher. in the United States. some of the material is presented so methodically and thoroughly that it risks boring the class. corresponding with such students. computer programs.. and procedure. NWTE allows student teachers to discover a variety of effective TESOL principles and practices but. who does most of the demonstrations. Many of the activities seek to empower teachers-in-training by having them play an active role in their training. presenting structures. Other activities address general pedagogical issues. the present. and correcting errors. a rationale for the activity.doing so. approach. design syllabi. curriculum guides. An Invitation to Reviewers We welcome your reviews of recently published ESOL textbooks. derived from approximately 50 teaching evaluation forms used at various educational levels. Teach English provides teacher trainers and student teachers alike with an entire course of explicit. South Australia 5001 Autumn 1997 53 . and orchestrates pair and group work. I suggest that students be given appropriate models. “Practising Structures”). covering key areas. It gave me more than enough material with which to structure my course. and caveats and options for performing or adapting the activity. the training sessions revolve very much around the trainer. and videos. when I have had students practice teaching in class. and evaluate themselves and others. Having undergraduates evaluate their teaching is especially problematic. After I had taught a unit or two. Every activity has the following four parts: a narrative of the activity in the learner-centered classroom. including grammatical terminology. Some activities include handouts. Like the approaches they take. and criteria for teaching. or creativity. may leave inexperienced teachers underprepared to face the challenges of the field. and changing their personal appearance. Most activities begin with a brief overview and end with references and suggestions for additional reading. working in pairs or groups. point in teaching career of the student teachers. As a beginning preparer of ESOL student teachers. First. productive methodologies for teaching ESOL but few opportunities for student teachers to practice their teaching before they go into the classroom. Send your submissions to: Jill Burton School of Education University of South Australia Underdale Campus GPO Box 2471 Adelaide. and comparing inductive with deductive learning. New Ways in Teacher Education (NWTE) is intended to offer teacher trainers an alternative to the knowledge transmission model of teacher preparation. I found some of it made explicit for the first time. Several activities address issues that arise in language teaching training. and some it new and essential to productive language teaching (e. location—or setting—of the class. used alone. they select their own readings. I was less excited. Ohio. I found it a godsend initially. practice. design. I have mixed feelings about this text. Although little of the material was entirely new to me. Later in the unit. For example. and related courses. For example. initiative. articulate and address problems. undergraduate students often do not: They lack the necessary theoretical or practical background. Other activities in NWTE rely less on student teachers’ abilities for their success. The book begins with a user’s guide in which the activities are indexed according to the amount of time they require to complete. means of learning to teach.g. He teaches ESL. and underlying purpose of the activity. Second. and produce sequence suggested in Unit 6. teacher questions. such as presenting vocabulary. Speaking from both experience and observation. and the relationship between lesson plans and discipline problems. I found myself not only worn out from leading these sessions but regretting that my class had practiced so little teaching in them. According to Freeman. humanities. then. balancing input with reflection. Although practicing teachers and graduate students tend to benefit from this approach. taking risks and cooperating. and increasing teachers’ autonomy. and Assessment) form. however. Guidelines. TESOL. including class discussions. lead discussions. NWTE consists of 46 activities arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names. Author Timothy Micek is assistant professor in the Division of Languages at Ohio Dominican College in Columbus. In order for some of these “new ways” to be successful. When the class was asked to evaluate the lesson. this alternative emphasizes exploring and experimenting. Other contributors help student teachers experience the cultural and linguistic adjustments ESL students undergo by placing restrictions on their speech. These criteria are always clear from the subheadings but not always from the headings. some of them have simply read aloud pages they have photocopied from a textbook and corrected exercises they have had the class do. using existing knowledge to gain more. is noteworthy among these. Teach English and New Ways in Teacher Education both have strengths and weaknesses. they rated it highly and offered no criticism. I would say that the success of this approach depends on the audience. leads all the discussions (concluding them by pointing out any major points that have been missed).

Excessive reliance upon part-time faculty exploits the individuals so employed and tends to degrade educational standards. Many meetings have been held with the Division Director.. anyway) is not increasing at anywhere near the same rate. however. in fact. If there is anything to be gained 54 TESOL JOURNAL from what many people felt they could not say publicly.We have a Faculty Affairs Committee to address teachers’ needs and problems. the National Adjunct Faculty Guild (NAFG). no more than 60% of full-time). it can support a given number of full-time faculty (i. among others. poorly educated in their first language. Administrators wrote that the realities of being compassionate to parttime employees while. August). TESOL leadership. but on the other hand. at the same time. Organizations that have policy statements against excessive reliance on part-time faculty include.. But parttime hiring should not take place as a costsavings measure and certain conditions should be corrected: limits on how much a part-time faculty may work (e. perhaps. . culturally isolated in the United States). I also think most people would agree that many parttimers are in a vulnerable position that is not in keeping with the sort of professional standards we would all like in the field. non-benefits-eligible positions. the AAUP. The responses were wide ranging. Demetry The American University.g. Available: http://www. For the most part. they treat ESL courses as just another part of the college. and a request for some paid holidays. but the number of positions (in the United States.html. Dear Mr. Even in the most stable programs. Jack Longmate English Department Olympic College Bremerton. National Educational Association (NEA).e. TESOL. Len Fox asked TESOL Journal readers for their views about supporting part-time ESL practitioners.S.apc. Administrators and part-time workers alike requested the anonymity or privacy— which certainly indicates the politicized nature of the topic. According to the American Association of University Professors (AAUP)(1997). Reference American Association of University Professors.time faculty are lack of medical care insurance. it would be myopic to treat the part-time issue as an ESL problem. benefits. However. Cairo Egypt Dear Mr. even without attribution. there will likely continue to be part-time only. The most important concerns that have been raised so far regarding the status of part. trying to protect the bottom line were difficult indeed. 43% of all faculty in higher education are parttime.. such as when enrollment fluctuations make full-time hiring unreasonable. and administrators do not want to find themselves in the position of not being able to make budget if their enrollment drops unexpectedly. and there has been a lot of paper work for more than a year without any good result except for giving vent to the pressure inside each one of us.e. commonplace throughout institutions of higher education. Part-time employees seemed to fear either losing their current positions or any opportunity for future full-time employment with their current institution if they went on the record. those who work full time and also have benefits). Saleh A. of Fox and TJ Readers: I work as a part-time teacher at the American University in Cairo (Center for Adult and Continuing Education). the situation is not a simple one and will likely never be resolved. If a given program is old enough to have a certain amount of stability and if that program has a healthy enough enrollment. for example. The following responses were received with permission to print. Fox and TJ Readers: Part-time faculty employment is not limited to ESL. (1997. which seem to be the biggest culprits. or inadequate work space or administrative support. Washington USA Dear Mr. On the one hand. Fox and TJ Readers: Surely almost everyone is sympathetic to the plight of part-timers in ESOL. as well as. Some part-time employment may be necessary.igc. in conjunction with its new TESOL Part-Timers’ Caucus should join forces with the rest of the educational establishment to move toward redressing this issue within public institutions. Modern Language Association (MLA). and many stipulated anonymity. It happens because enrollment is unpredictable. the decision-makers do not seem to consider the special nature of either the type of course (i. greater lines of communication must be opened between those who employ teachers and those who work part time. Others responded with the caveat that we not print any of their remarks. Most intensive English programs in the United States are self-supporting and entirely dependent on enrollment to pay for salaries. the need for an endof-service award. and is. Name Withheld by Request USA Dear Mr. community colleges toward ESL programs. Fox and TJ Readers: My concerns about part-time ESL teachers center around the attitudes of U. and operating expenses. language) or the population that enrolls (adult. What complicates the situation even more is the fact that more and more universities are turning out graduates with TESL degrees. pay that is not prorata with full-time. this is not because administrators wish to exploit teachers. For this reason. it is that.Ask ? the TJ Editor’s Note: In the Spring 1997 issue. the desire for access to the Internet (part-timers have access only to email). Part-time and non-tenure-track faculty.

(U. In fact. (410) 374-3117 Fax.. as a refugee. $6 for shipping outside the U. I would like to know whether readers think discriminatory job descriptions should be published and if so.S. as a part-time teacher. a --Jennifer No evaluation or desk copies.S. came to the U. relationships. ESOL teacher Over 200 reproducible pages! ear TJ Readers: I have been looking for jobs outside the United States. This is a reproducible book for only $19. but need we capitulate to them? Should we “allow” discrimination to be advertised in the United States? Is this contradictory to what U. Name Withheld by Request USA “Stimulates creative thinking and provides teachers with ways to incorporate life skills in their teaching. by extension. ESL-certified teachers who only teach in Spanish and are teaching adults for the first time. MD 21074 USA Tel. (410) 374-3569 E-mail: raimonda@atscom. in my program.O. but despite having a legitimate grievance. In fact. " -. are only in need of supplemental income. and some employment bulletins print ads in which countries state restrictions on age and gender in the job description. there is often no opportunity to enter the department office to get mail. They prefer to hire teachers who will not give them any trouble. Arizona USA Many topics of vital importance to immigrants and refugees. careers.S. The author. I am sure that the issue it raises is universal for all part-time teachers.95 plus $2 for shipping within the U. while the ESL parttimer usually has no office space. money. announcements. we have several retired elementary school. I recently had a serious problem with scheduling an observation and review. dollars). and speaks on the importance of teaching living strategies to ESOL students. Coordinator of Adult Literacy Services Carroll County Public Schools “Some extremely valuable insights and explanations of cultural differences. Send to: Melodija Books P.Amy Southwick. and the truly caring part-time teacher loses. no materials (other than limited access to a copy machine). law permits? What is appropriate? Robert Bejleri Arizona State University Tempe. For each additional book. Based on expert advice in areas of education. writes an advice column for newcomers. for example limiting access to photocopying or denying support from other campus services (because they are closed when the part-time teacher and students arrive for night classes).. reproducible sections provide valuable guidelines for success. what (personal) benefit could come from insisting on change? Unemployment? It seems that the system always wins. Box 669 Hampstead. Her work has been applauded with a Governor’s Citation from the State of Maryland.g. One possibility is to create an ombudsperson and to insist on accountability from the people who are supposed to be supporting and mentoring the ESL part-time faculty. To order this book. add $1 for shipping.This misguided attitude manifests itself in the push for high enrollments for all courses—which is detrimental to any language course and any serious teacher who wants to offer effective attention to students. health. Raimonda Mikatavage. if a part-timer arrives for a night class. send $19. icy. Strong leadership is needed to send a (paid) representative for ESL part-time teachers to faculty and district meetings.95! Autumn 1997 55 .. or even grade/roll sheets. but for a part-time teacher. the part-time students). Administrators at my institution refuse to recognize the importance of ESL or even that it is a legitimate profession. Although my situation is site-specific. The whole system is geared to not giving the parttime teacher any input or voice (and therefore.S.. Change comes slowly. and no support. I had no one to whom I could go to affect some kind of change in pol-. Satisfaction in the Land of Opportunity teaches the personal and professional strategies necessary for successful adjustment to life in America. with or without censorship? with disclaimers?). The limitations imposed on a part-time faculty member also demonstrate misdirected policy. I know that we cannot change the practices that occur in other countries. The so-called coordinators are compensated for doing nothing but paper work to keep the bureaucracy humming.. how? (e. and are not really concerned with education and learning.S.