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LED Road Lighting

Design Manual
Danil Gooijer
Senior Manager, Outdoor Lighting
30 October 2014

Agenda

LED Trends, benefits, why wait?


Main issues with scaling up LED road projects
How to implement a road lighting project
Success stories

30 October 2014

LED:
Trends, Benefits, why wait?

30 October 2014

Urban population is
growing by about

44 million people
every year
Asia is home to more
than half of the worlds
megacities

By 2025, Asia will have


10, 2014
21 ofOctober
the worlds
37 megacities
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By 2030, the number of


people in Asia living in
urban areas is
projected to increase to

52.9 per cent


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In APACs total primary


energy to generate
electricity, more than
70% are from fossil
fuels

Asias share of the


global vehicle fleet is
expected to increase

to 46% by 2030
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2.8 billion people suffer the


health risks, paltry energy services,
and environmental damage due to
fossil fuels

The number of lung cancer patients


has increased by 60 percent in
the last ten years

Eleven of the worlds 20


most polluted cities are in Asia.
2014
October
10, 2014
5 30 October

combined with

The need for cities to


establish identity

The rise of the middle


class

Resource challenges
.

We live and operate in a fast changing world, where a number of global trends pose new
challenges to government, business and society, resulting in the need (and opportunities)
for new solutions and business models that address economic growth with
accompanying improvements in quality of life.
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Lighting accounts for more than

19% of the worlds total


electricity consumption.
With conventional technologies,
lighting comprises around 40% of
the local governments energy

bill
For road lighting, LED can save
up to 60% of energy.
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China 2014

All government installations


in Guangdong province
are LED in 2014
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The LED lighting revolution


Why wait?
There are many benefits when
you start exchanging now:

Efficient light sources will provide


immediate energy savings

Avoid that all in-efficient light sources


must be replaced at once

Light of a higher quality

A longer lifetime and reduced


maintenance

30 October 2014

18%

2012

55%

2015

45%

82%
Traditional lighting
LED lighting

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The benefits of LED solutions


LED lighting is clearly
the most efficient light
source for outdoor
lighting. Secondly it
also gives a lot of
advantages compared
to conventional light
sources.

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Big energy savings up to


85%
Good color rendering, making
it easier for users to orientate
themselves
Long life - up to 100,000 hrs
resulting in less maintenance
Uniform high quality white light

Easy to upgrade - the future


light source
A light source that can be
used on everything from
footpaths to motorways
Can be easily controlled
supporting dynamic effects to
deliver enhanced experiences

Good opportunities to dim


light when it is not needed

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Why act now the cost of waiting

US$ 6.7M
Forgone energy and
O&M savings by waiting
one year

US$ 3.6M
Potential capital savings
due to LED price decline
over five years

Based on a calculation of World Bank for a city in Latin America.

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12

Main Issues in LED


Scale-up

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Challenges for mass LED roll-out


1. Lack of political will

Energy savings are not tangible


Awareness & misconceptions
Ownership mismatch

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2. Financial viability

Access to funds for higher initial costs

3. Standard
specifications

Many new entrants


No global product standards

14

How can IFOs help


Industry and Development Banks can join forces to solve the issues:
Advocacy on setting practical spec
Advocacy to copy well working existing standards
Advocacy on proper policing of specs
Financing large scale programs
Final objective: increase penetration of a superior technology that is best for:
1. Environment -> reduced waste, no mercury, less CO2
2. Client -> lowest operational cost
3. Government -> highest energy savings
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Implementing a road
lighting project
Step 1 Define Objective
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The benefits of master planning


City Centre
The vibrant area of the city with
hospitality and office facilities. High
dense area with mixed traffic
demands.

Recreational
Areas where people come together to
enjoy socializing in the parks, sport
facilities and other community
facilities

Industry
Dedicated industry and business
areas with strict safety regulations
to ensure security of people and
buildings

Rural Areas
Less populated areas where people
and nature have a delicate balance

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Residential
Living areas of citizens, where
speed is below 50km/hr. Safety and
security play a major role.

Highway
Traffic routes with higher speeds
exceeding 80km/h which increase
the demand of light levels to secure
drivers safety
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Objectives of road lighting projects

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Reduction in peak load demand


Reduction in energy consumption
Municipality budget reduction
Achieve quick project payback
Better quality of light, more safety
Better city ambience
Lower CO2 emissions for Green City image
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Main drivers of Road lighting solutions


Municipalities are under increasing
pressure to reduce the impact that
lighting has on energy costs and the
environment without reducing light
quality or compromising the safety
on the roads.

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Environmental
Quality of light
Durable, Cost Saving

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Environmental
Energy saving

Energy saving light sources


Incorporate controls to reduce
consumption

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Light pollution

Control light distribution to focus on


primary target area
Dark sky policy

Light level adjustment

Dim light levels when appropriate


Constant light output

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Quality of Light
Glare

Obtrusive glare
Contrast reduction

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Light distribution

Uniformity
Less spill light, while maintaining
enough light on secondary area

White light

Color rendering increases ability to


react to sudden changes
Awareness of objects

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Durable, Cost Saving


Maintenance

Service
Easy to exchange
Cleaning

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Upgradeable

Standardizing to be future proof


Same design less energy

Product quality

System lifetime & failure rate


Heat management
Recyclability

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Main drivers of Urban lighting solutions


Cities want to build communities
where people get together and
socialize outside. By combining
different lighting solutions cities can
meet the needs of the residents
while establishing the city identity.

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Functional safety
Social safety
Social ambience
City branding

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Functional safety
Good color
rendering

Faster response in traffic situations


With white light your are allowed to
reduce light level

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Surrounding
ratio

Reduce tunnel effect


Reduction of accidents as secondary
area is also visible

Good light control

Reduce light waste and nuisance


Better homogeneity
Reduction of energy consumption

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Social safety
Vertical light

Light on people frontal area not only


ground
Hemi-spherical light distribution

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Good color
rendering

Recognition of people, which reduces


feeling of anxiety
Natural representation of application

Surrounding ratio

Also light on secondary area e.g.


garden/park
People feel more safe and secure

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Social ambiance
Good
homogeneity

Increase evening use of space


Solution mimics daylight situation as
much as possible

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Good color
rendering

Recognition of people, which reduces


feeling of anxiety
Natural representation of application

Design

Solution should fit application ambiance


Reduce clutter in the application

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City branding
Highlight areas of
interest

Increase attractiveness of area


Create spaces to improve liveability

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Light up city
icons

Improve city branding and image


Increase visitors and tourism

Dynamic
effects

Create an experience for the residents


and visitors
Adjust ambiances to match city needs

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Clear objectives leads to clarity in

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Financial viability & model


Project design
Product specifications
Evaluation plan

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Implementing a road
lighting project

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Step 2 Ensure Financial Viability


and Budget
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3-Step approach for ensuring financial viability


1. Characteristics

Initial energy & lighting audit


Sizeable

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2. Financial viability

Initial payback & cash-flow


calculations

3. Financing model

Choose right financing model

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Financial model TCO and Payback


RETROFIT of 100 KM ROAD, 5,000 LUMINAIRES
COSTS & SAVINGS OVER 10 YEAR LIFETIME

Conventional

LED

Savings

$000
Fi xture + Installation for LED system (est.)

Savings
%

--

$1,675

-$1,675

Energy Cos ts

$12,513

$4,784

$7,729

Ma i ntenance, parts replaced, repair, disposal

$1,329

$-

$1,329

Total Cost of Ownership

$13,842

$6,459

$7,383

53%

CO2 Emi s sion (Metric tons)

47,468

18,149

29,318

62%

Power Supply (KW) (Energy s pent)

1,700

650

1,050

62%

Simple Payback

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62%

2.1 years

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Implementing a Road
Lighting Project
Step 3 Create the Project Design
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Audit by experienced lighting solutions provider


1. Lighting audit

Traffic density
Light level
Current installation

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2. Energy audit

Confirm current energy usage

3. Create baseline

Have a current state baseline to


compare new installation with

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Solution design
1. Objectives

Right light conditions, standards

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2. Initial specification

Initial Product specifications


Small scale mock-up, pilot

3. Financing model

Choose right financing model

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Implementing a road
lighting project
Step 4 Project Implementation
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Project Implementation
Finalize the right product specs
Choose the right lighting partner
Ensure monitoring and evaluation

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Performance of LED solutions


Light components

Light engine

Luminaire

Controls

Typical system parameters


Lifetime (L80F10), up
to 100.000hrs
Ambient temperature

Typical parameters
Energy savings
(25 50%)
Maintenance savings
(0 50%)

+
Typical component
parameters
LED lifetime (L70B50),
up to 150.000hrs
Driver lifetime up to
100.000hrs
LED
efficacy
120-160
lm/W

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Typical engine parameters


Thermal loss (10 - 15%)
Optical loss (10 - 30%)
Driver loss (10 - 50%)

Engine
efficacy
65-130
lm/W

Luminaire
efficacy
50-115
lm/W

Additional
savings
Up to 50%

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10 rules to select LED solution


Application
performance
Luminous intensity distribution
Fulfilled light level requirement
Fulfilled glare level requirement

Quality of light
Correlated Colour Temperature
Colour Rendering Index
Chromaticity co-ordinate values

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Product
performance

LED Luminaire efficacy


Efficacy LED luminaire (W/m2)
Constant Light Output

LED luminaire maintenance factor


Maintained luminous flux
Light system lifetime / Upgradeability
Luminaire maintenance factor

Solution
performance

LEDs

Controls

LED control
gear

Electrical
connection

Mechanical
housing

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How to select the right lighting partner


Experience

Reliability

Ensure partner can fulfill warranty


promises

Be skeptical of all claims

Choose company with a long track


record in projects
Ensure the company will still be around
when warranty is needed check financial
stability.
Check the fine print, ask for system
warranty - total coverage on all the parts.
For example, warranty on just the
housing is not good enough.

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Ask for genuine test reports, data and


certifications. Ensure claims refer to
system performance and not just one of
the parts.
Examine disclaimers closely these
could hide vendors inability to produce
quality products consistently.

Reliability Checklist

>

Ask for companys industry and financial


history only work with reputable,
financially sound companies.

IEC 60598 Report (EN 60598-2-3)


LM 80 LED Test Report
LM 79 Fixture Test Reports
EMC Test Reports (EN 55015, EN 61547, EN
61000-3-2)
Photo-biological Safety Test Report (EN
62471)
Factory Certificates (ISO 14001, ISO 9001,
OHSAS 18001)
Certificates for Test Laboratory (IEC 17025)
EN 61347-1, -2-13 Test Report
EN 62384 Test Report
Salt Spray Test Report (min. 500 hours, natural
salt spray)
Vibration Test Report
Road Lighting Simulations based on given
configurations

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Case Studies

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Malaysia LED Road Lighting


Background
Ministry of Works
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3,000 light points
63.1 km of expressway

Challenge

Solution

High capital expenses coupled with


limited public funding hinders the
shift to LED-based street lighting

A self-financing solution based on


cost differential between current and
new lighting installation, i.e. pay
through savings

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China Solar LED Road Lighting


Background
Client: Nanyang Road Bureau
Nanyang, Henan Province, China
915 light points
14.4 km of road

Challenge

Benefits

Reduce energy consumption, create


green image

1.3 GWh of electricity saved


530 tons of CO2 emissions reduced

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China Solar LED Road Lighting


GREENFIELD SOLAR LED ROAD LIGHTING PROJECT of 14.4 KM ROAD, 915 LUMINAIRES
COSTS OVER 3 YEARS

HPSV

Solar LED

Savings

$ 688,635

$ 2,469,048

$ (1,780,413)

Energy Infrastructure Costs


(cables, transformer substations)

$ 1,564,444

$ 1,564,444

Total Initial Investment

$ 2,253,079

$ 2,469,048

$ (215,969)

Energy Costs

$ 624,046

$ 624,046

Maintenance, Parts replaced, Repair

$ 35,619

$ 35,619

Total Operational Costs over 3 years

$ 659,665

$ 659,665

Total Cost of Ownership over 3 years

$ 2,912,744

$ 2,469,048

$ 443,696

Luminaire + Installation Costs

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Community light centers in Africa

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The LED lighting revolution


Why wait?
There are many benefits when
you start exchanging now:

Efficient light sources will provide


immediate energy savings

Avoid that all in-efficient light sources


must be replaced at once

Light of a higher quality

A longer lifetime and reduced


maintenance

30 October 2014

Lighting market development

LED luminaires and control systems

LED lamps and modules


Conventional luminaires

Conventional lamps and drivers

2011

2015

2020

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Forcing us to think differently

Integrating in Energy
Eco-systems

Leading EE lighting
Solutions
Offering Lighting
Products

Analog / Lamps
Stand-alone / Dumb
Products / Replacement sales

Digital / LEDs
Connected / Smart
Systems & Services / Larger-scale projects

National & Local government facilitation & support


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The benefits of master planning


Cities want to create an identity,
branding themselves as unique,
beautiful and secure places. Master
planning helps cities to balance the
identity of a city, increase citizens
liveability without increasing energy
consumption.

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Maintain and establish


city identity
Create beautiful and
inspiring city ambiance
Plan city investments
and manage assets
Increase commercial
attraction

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City of Hoogeveen

Before Masterplan
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City of Hoogeveen

After Masterplan
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The Smart City


Sustainability
Governments are enacting
legislation to cut energy
consumption, increase resource
efficiency and reduce
environmental impact.

Residential
area
Urban
Functional

Traffic
routes

Urban
Inspiration

Liveability

City
center

People want to feel safe and


comfortable on the street;
lighting can enhance that
experience in urban
environments

Smart Lighting

Functional

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Architectural

By integrating lighting controls


into the system, it is possible
reach energy savings of up to
50%.
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Typical activities for financing


1. Select road installation
a.
b.
c.

Agree on approach with stakeholders


Sizeable
Energy & lighting audit

2. Project viability
a.
b.

Detailed lighting + energy saving + payback calculation


Validate & measure energy saving with actual demo

3. Financing
a.

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Financing of up-front cost

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Step 3: Financing model


Supplier/
Contractor
Client

Bank
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Lock-box
account
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The building blocks of LED solutions


LED solutions are built up by 3 groups of components

Price & Performance

Optical components
Perceived to deliver the same or better light effect as the original light source (beam shape,
intensity, colour point, colour rendering), and equal or better light quality variation between
lamps

Heat
management

Electrical components
Need to be 100% compatible with the electrical input power characteristics and 100% compatible
with installed accessories (dimmers, transformers), while causing no non-compliances

Mechanical and thermal components


Mechanical compatibility (shape, size) into an existing installation and thermal compatibility into
existing applications

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Lifetime

Design

Optical
component

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Controls
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Why 100% light if no one is there

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Main drivers of lighting controls solutions


Municipalities want to provide safety and
security for their citizens in the most energy
saving and cost effective way. Lighting
controls can provide the solution to
optimize maintenance and manage the
light levels according to the cities needs.

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Safety
Energy saving

Maintenance

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The advantage of controls


Safety

Right level at right time


Adjusting light levels during critical
situations
Light levels based on peoples
presence

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Energy saving

Dimming based on activities


Reduce over-lighting
Energy metering

Maintenance

Real time system information


System operation reports
Planning of maintenance activities

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The benefits of controls


Traditional lighting operations

Intelligent lighting operations

Physical failure inspection

Remote monitoring

Paper based mapping & archiving

Smart asset management

Undifferentiated lighting levels

Smart dimming & scene setting

Estimation based metering

Intelligent energy metering & billing

Today

30 October 2014

Tomorrow
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Controls solutions
Lightpoint
Control

Group
Management

Lightpoint
management

Interactive
Control

Autonomous control
of light level at light point

Centrally monitoring & control a


group of light points

Centrally montoring &


controlling of individual light
points

Senses activities and adjusts


the light level accordingly

Time Based
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Presence based
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City with different areas


City Centre
Lightpoint
Management

Recreational
Group Management

Industry
Lightpoint Control

Residential
Interactive control

Rural Areas
Lightpoint Control

Highway
Group Management

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Controls hardware solutions

Lightpoint
Control

Group
Management

Lightpoint
management
Management

DynaDimmer

AmpLight

StarSense

LumiMotion

Dynadimmer is a flexible, preprogrammed dimming solution


integrated in the LED driver

Amplight is a telemangement
system which enables remote
control and monitoring of a group
of light points via a web-based
platform; CityTouch.

StarSense Wireless is a
telemangement system which
enables remote control and
monitoring of individual light points
via a web-based platform;
CityTouch.

Lumimotion is a system which


uses an optical sensor to detect
movement and accordingly dim
the light.

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Interactive
Control

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Controls software solution

Management
software
CityTouch
CityTouch is web-based platform
which enables the operators to
manage and control the street lights
of an entire city. Platform is the
interface to AmpLight and StarSense.

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Take your city to the next level


Upgrade to an intelligent lighting

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Solar Road & Street


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Main drivers for solar lighting solutions


Professional solar powered off-grid
lighting solutions are a cost-effective
way to bring high-quality lighting to
places where currently there is no
(reliable) source of light.

Environmental
Quality of light
Durability

Solar lighting improve safety for people by providing reliable


lighting at places where it was previously impossible

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Solar how does it work ?


When sun shines during the day,
solar panels collects and converts solar energy into
electric energy and stores in the battery.
During the night battery is discharged releasing
electrical energy to power the LED luminaires hence lighting the road.

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Solar Lighting
A reliable solar LED lighting system consists of
well-designed LED luminaire (with LED chips,
optics, heat management, housing and driver),
photovoltaic panel, battery, charge controller,
connectors and embedded software.
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

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Solar Lighting
Good solar lighting means a lot
Solar powered off-grid lighting requires no energy from the
grid. Its a 100% energy saving lighting solution.
Good solar lighting = Safety
Both outdoor and indoor lighting based on solar power enable
the socio-economy development and improve poor peoples
welfare without a huge and time-consuming investment on grid
facilities and infrastructure
The solar powered lighting facility enables evening time
education. And provides more time for reading and study for
children and adults

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Solar Lighting
Good solar lighting means a lot
The new lighting facility immediately extends waking and
working hours in the evening. Social interactions may
increase, as may the sense of security due to lighting. Longer
daylight hours may alter the time use pattern of both men and
women.
Solar powered lighting facility enables people to have more
outdoor activities, e.g. sports, after nightfall.
With a higher-capacity Solar Indoor Lighting Unit, the surplus
electricity for running a TV may provide scope for
entertainment as well as information which may be of value.

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Maintenance of LED luminaires


+
LED component

Light engine

Lumen Maintenance Factor


Lumen depreciation LED
Lumen decrease during use, to
the time of replacement in %

Lx
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Luminaire

Failure Fraction
Failure LED and Driver
Light engine in % to the time of
replacement that have failed or
give less light than expected

Fy

Total system

Luminaire Maintenance Factor


Luminaire depreciation
Pollution of the environment
(dust and dirt) and ageing of
luminaire in %

LMF

Maintenance-Factor
System depreciation
MF = Lx * Fy * LMF to the time
of replacement

MF
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Distinguishing the good from the bad


A robust reliable lighting
system consists of welldesigned LED chips, optics,
heat management, housing
and driver.

The whole is greater


than the sum of its
parts

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Performance
Make the right comparison

Upgradability
Solution
Be future proof, use upgradeable design
performance

Always measure system performance,


not that of the light source

Products need to enable absorption of


changes in fast moving LED technology

Compare light on the road surface


using metrics such as Watts per square
meter

Look for Luminaires where each part can


be easily switched, while Luminaire stays
on the pole.

Avoid Lumen per watt comparisons

Flexibility to adopt LED today and still


keep pace with innovation

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