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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL AND BIOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

LAB MANUAL
CLB 21103
PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

BACHELOR OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT 1
Control Valve Characteristic

SEMESTER
September 2014

EXPERIMENT 1
CONTROL VALVE CHARACTERISTICS

1.0 EXPERIMENTS PROCEDURE


1.1 Plant Start-up Procedures
1.
2.

Tanks T1 and T2 should be filled with water almost up to the level of their
overflow pipes.
Control valves FCVL, FCVE and FCVQ are all air-to-open (ATO).

3.

Open the instrument air supply to operate the control valve system
Check that the pressure is set in accordance to the pressure indicated at
the air pressure regulator (AS)
If there is any condensed water at the air regulator, purge it by opening its
bottom bleed valve.

4.

Turn ON the main power supply switch at the front cubicle.

5.

Closed the drain valves of tanks T1 and T2.

5.

The control valves can only be selectively operated ONE at a time from the flow
indicator controller, FIC.

1.2 Experiment 1 (Control Valve Running with Small Pump)

1.2.1 Linear Valve Operation


1.

Open the manual valves: BVS, MVS, MVL1 and MVL2.

2.

Fully close the following manual valves: MVB, MVE1, MVQ1, and BVL.

3.

Turn all the selector switches (SS1, SS2 and SS3) to position 1.

4.

Controller FIC must be in manual (M) mode with its MV=100%. Make sure the
chart drive of the recorder FDPZR is running. Otherwise, press its STOP
pushbutton for a few seconds with its front swing cover opened.

5.

Starts pump PS and verify its flow at the discharge of pipeline PLL into tank T2.
Fully close the pump by-pass manual valve BVS for maximum available flow
through the control valve FCVL and the pipeline PLL using the smaller pump PS.

6.

Refer to the Table AL and note the following readings at the recorder FDPZR and
the pressure gauge PS.

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

Channel 1 (USGPM)
Blue pointer/trace (flow rate)
Red pointer/trace
Green pointer/trace

7.

Change the MV = 80% and repeat the procedure to change the MV value.

8.

Stop the small pump, PS.

1.2.2 Equal Percentage (%) Valve Operation


1. Open the manual valves: BVS, MVS, MVE1 and MVE2.
2. Fully close the following manual valves: MVB, MVL1, MVQ1, and BVE.
3. Turn all the selector switches (SS1, SS2 and SS3) to position 2.
4. Controller FIC must be in manual (M) mode with its MV=100%. Make sure the
chart drive of the recorder FDPZR is running. Otherwise, press its STOP
pushbutton for a few seconds with its front swing cover opened.
5. Starts pump PS and verify its flow at the discharge of pipeline PLE into tank T2.
Fully close the pump by-pass manual valve BVS for maximum available flow
through the control valve FCVE and the pipeline PLE using the smaller pump PS.
6. Refer to the Table AE and note the following readings at the recorder FDPZR and
the pressure gauge PS.

Channel 1 (USGPM)
Blue pointer/trace (flow rate)
Red pointer/trace
Green pointer/trace

7. Change the MV = 80% and repeat the procedure to change the MV value.
8. Stop the small pump, PS.

1.2.3 Quick Opening Valve Operation


1. Open the manual valves: BVS, MVS, MVQ1 and MVQ2.
2. Fully close the following manual valves: MVB, MVL1, MVE1, and BVQ.
3.

Turn all the selector switches (SS1, SS2 and SS3) to position 3.

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

4. Controller FIC must be in manual (M) mode with its MV=100%. Make sure the
chart drive of the recorder FDPZR is running. Otherwise, press its STOP
pushbutton for a few seconds with its front swing cover opened.
5. Starts pump PS and verify its flow at the discharge of pipeline PLQ into tank T2.
Fully close the pump by-pass manual valve BVS for maximum available flow
through the control valve FCVQ and the pipeline PLQ using the smaller pump PS.
6. Refer to the Table AQ and note the following readings at the recorder FDPZR and
the pressure gauge PS.

Channel 1 (USGPM)
Blue pointer/trace (flow rate)
Red pointer/trace
Green pointer/trace

7. Change the MV = 80% and repeat the procedure to change the MV value.
8. Stop the small pump, PS.

1.3 Experiment 2 (Control Valve Running with Big Pump)


1.3.1 Linear Valve Operation
1. Open the manual valves: BVB, MVB, MVL1 and MVL2.
2. Fully close the following manual valves: MVS, MVE1, MVQ1, and BVL.
3. Turn all the selector switches (SS1, SS2 and SS3) to position 1.
4. Controller FIC must be in manual (M) mode with its MV=100%. Make sure the
chart drive of the recorder FDPZR is running. Otherwise, press its STOP
pushbutton for a few seconds with its front swing cover opened.
5. Starts big pump, PB and verify its flow at the discharge of pipeline PLL into tank
T2. Fully close the pump by-pass manual valve BVB for maximum available flow
through the control valve FCVL and the pipeline PLL using the big pump PB.
6. Refer to the Table AL and note the following readings at the recorder FDPZR and
the pressure gauge PS.

Channel 1 (USGPM)
Blue pointer/trace (flow rate)
Red pointer/trace
Green pointer/trace

7. Change the MV = 80% and repeat the procedure to change the MV value.
8. Stop the big pump, PB.
Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

1.3.2 Equal Percentage (%) Valve Operation


1. Open the manual valves: BVB, MVB, MVE1 and MVE2.
2. Fully close the following manual valves: MVS, MVL1, MVQ1, and BVE.
3. Turn all the selector switches (SS1, SS2 and SS3) to position 2.
4. Controller FIC must be in manual (M) mode with its MV=100%. Make sure the
chart drive of the recorder FDPZR is running. Otherwise, press its STOP
pushbutton for a few seconds with its front swing cover opened.
5. Starts big pump, PB and verify its flow at the discharge of pipeline PLE into tank
T2. Fully close the pump by-pass manual valve BVB for maximum available flow
through the control valve FCVE and the pipeline PLE using the big pump PB.
6. Refer to the Table AE and note the following readings at the recorder FDPZR and
the pressure gauge PS.

Channel 1 (USGPM)
Blue pointer/trace (flow rate)
Red pointer/trace
Green pointer/trace

7. Change the MV = 80% and repeat the procedure to change the MV value.
8. Stop the big pump, PB.

1.3.3 Quick Opening Valve Operation


1. Open the manual valves: BVB, MVB, MVQ1 and MVQ2.
2. Fully close the following manual valves: MVS, MVL1, MVE1, and BVQ.
3. Turn all the selector switches (SS1, SS2 and SS3) to position 3.
4. Controller FIC must be in manual (M) mode with its MV=100%. Make sure the
chart drive of the recorder FDPZR is running. Otherwise, press its STOP
pushbutton for a few seconds with its front swing cover opened.
5. Starts big pump, PB and verify its flow at the discharge of pipeline PLQ into tank
T2. Fully close the pump by-pass manual valve BVB for maximum available flow
through the control valve FCVQ and the pipeline PLQ using the big pump PB.
6. Refer to the Table AQ and note the following readings at the recorder FDPZR and
the pressure gauge PS.

Channel 1 (USGPM)

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

Blue pointer/trace (flow rate)


Red pointer/trace
Green pointer/trace

7. Change the MV = 80% and repeat the procedure to change the MV value. Stop the
big pump, PB.

1.4 Shut-down Checklist


1. Switch FIC to manual (M) mode and set it to its default set point (SV), output
MV and PID valves.
2. Switch off all of the pumps. Press the recorder STOP pushbutton for a few
seconds to stop the chart drive. The recorder will display Record Stop.
3. Turn off the external air supply valve to the model plant. It is not necessary to
turn off the individual air regulator (marked IAS).
4. Turn all of the selector switches (SS1, SS2 and SS3) back to position 1.Switch off
the main power supply at the front cubicle.

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

0.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Comments:

100.0
80.0
60.0
50.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

1
Adjust FIC
manual
Output MV
%

RESULTS

Fmax(L)

Fmax(L)

USGPM

Channel 1
(BL)

Blue
pointer
or trace
%

2
3
Flowrate (F)

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

2.0

4
5
Valve Opening
(Z or m)
Channel 2
Red
(RD)
pointer
or trace
%
%

6
7
Valve Pressure Drop
(DPv)
Channel 3
Green
(GN)
pointer
or trace
psi
%
(Psig)

8
Pump
Discharge
Pressure PGS

TABLE AL: Pump PS with FCVL for Experiment 1

F
100%

Fmax (L)

DPv/PG
S

Cv/CVmax

9
10
11
Calculate the following ratio

Fmax(L)

Fmax(L)

USGPM

Channel 1
(BL)

Blue
pointer
or trace
%

2
3
Flowrate (F)

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

0.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Comments:

100.0
80.0
60.0
50.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

1
Adjust FIC
manual
Output MV
%

4
5
Valve Opening
(Z or m)
Channel 2
Red
(RD)
pointer
or trace
%
%

6
7
Valve Pressure Drop
(DPv)
Channel 3
Green
(GN)
pointer
or trace
psi
%
(Psig)

8
Pump
Discharge
Pressure
PGS

TABLE AE: Pump PS with FCVE for Experiment 1

DPv/PGS

Cv/CVmax

10
11
Calculate the following ratio

Fmax(L)

Fmax(L)

USGPM

Channel 1
(BL)

Blue
pointer
or trace
%

2
3
Flowrate (F)

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

0.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
80.0
100.0

100.0
80.0
60.0
50.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

1
Adjust FIC
manual
Output MV
%

4
5
Valve Opening
(Z or m)
Channel 2
Red
(RD)
pointer
or trace
%
%

Comments:

6
7
Valve Pressure Drop
(DPv)
Channel 3
Green
(GN)
pointer
or trace
psi
%
(Psig)

8
Pump
Discharge
Pressure PGS

TABLE AQ: Pump PS with FCVQ for Experiment 1

DPv/PGS

Cv/CVmax

10
11
Calculate the following ratio

Fmax(L)

Fmax(L)

USGPM

Channel 1
(BL)

Blue
pointer
or trace
%

2
3
Flowrate (F)

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

0.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Comments:

100.0
80.0
60.0
50.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

1
Adjust FIC
manual
Output MV
%

4
5
Valve Opening
(Z or m)
Channel 2
Red
(RD)
pointer
or trace
%
%

6
7
Valve Pressure Drop
(DPv)
Channel 3
Green
(GN)
pointer
or trace
psi
%
(Psig)

8
Pump
Discharge
Pressure PGB

TABLE BL: Pump PB with FCVL for Experiment 2

DPv/PGS

Cv/CVmax

10
11
Calculate the following ratio

Fmax(L)

Fmax(L)

USGPM

Channel 1
(BL)

Blue
pointer
or trace
%

2
3
Flowrate (F)

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

0.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Comments:

100.0
80.0
60.0
50.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

1
Adjust FIC
manual
Output MV
%

4
5
Valve Opening
(Z or m)
Channel 2
Red
(RD)
pointer
or trace
%
%

6
7
Valve Pressure Drop
(DPv)
Channel 3
Green
(GN)
pointer
or trace
psi
%
(Psig)

8
Pump
Discharge
Pressure PGB

TABLE BE: Pump PB with FCVE for Experiment 2

DPv/PGS

Cv/CVmax

10
11
Calculate the following ratio

Fmax(L)

Fmax(L)

USGPM

Channel 1
(BL)

Blue
pointer
or trace
%

2
3
Flowrate (F)

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics

0.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Comments:

100.0
80.0
60.0
50.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

1
Adjust FIC
manual
Output MV
%

4
5
Valve Opening
(Z or m)
Channel 2
Red
(RD)
pointer
or trace
%
%

6
7
Valve Pressure Drop
(DPv)
Channel 3
Green
(GN)
pointer
or trace
psi
%
(Psig)

8
Pump
Discharge
Pressure
PGB

TABLE BQ: Pump PB with FCVQ for Experiment 2

DPv/PGS

Cv/CVmax

10
11
Calculate the following ratio

3.0 CALCULATION
Cv = F

SG
DPv

Where

F
=
SG =
DPv =

C v (max) = F max

Flowrate in USGPM
Liquid Specific Gravity water SG at 60 F is 1.0)
Pressure drop across the control valve in psi
SG (liquid)
DPv (min)

4.0 QUESTIONS
1. What is control valve Cv?
2. What is control valve rangebility?
3. How is the control valve characteristics normally illustrated graphically?
4. What is the effect of (DPv)/(DPs) on the inherent control valve characteristics?
5. Compare the characteristic curves of FCVL, FCVE and FCVQ obtained in Experiment
1 with those in Experiment 2. Is the deviation from the inherent characteristics more
serious in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1? Please comment on the DPv and DPs
in each case.
6. Why is it important to know the control valve characteristics? Which is important
finally in an operating control loop, the installed or inherent valve characteristic?

5.0 REFERENCE
1. Experiment Manual WCV911, QDR Marketing Sdn. Bhd.

Experiment 1: Control Valve Characteristics