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GEOTECHNICAL

SPECIAL

PUBLICATION

NO.

229

Foundation Engineering
the

in

Face of Uncertainty

Honoring Fred H. Kulhawy

SPONSORED BY

The Geo-lnstitute of the American

Society

of Civil

Engineers

EDITED BY

James L. Withiam,

Ph.D., P.E.
Kok-Kwang Phoon, Ph.D., P.E.
Mohamad H. Hussein, P.E.

GEO-

ASCE
Published by the American Society of Civil Engineer

INSTITUTE

Contents

Preface

ix

Biography

xi

Awards and Honors with Citations


Theses and Dissertations

xv

xix

Supervised

Publications
Introduction

xxiii
to Selected

xlvii

Kulhawy Papers

Author List

li

Selected Papers Authored and Co-Authored


All

by

Fred H.

Kulhawy

reproduced with permission

Geomechanical Model for Rock Foundation Settlement


Fred H.

Kulhawy

From Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering

Division, ASCE, 104(GT2),

1978,211-227.
Limiting Tip and Side Resistance: Fact or Fallacy?
Fred H. Kulhawy
From Analysis and Design ofPile Foundations, ASCE, 1984, 80-98.
Ground Water Influences
F. H.

Kulhawy

From

on

Foundation Side Resistance

18

37

and J. F. Beech

Proceedings, 9th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and


Engineering (2), Dublin, 1987,707-710.

Foundation
The Soil-Rock
Fred H.

Boundary: What Is It and Where Is It?


Kulhawy, Charles H. Trautmann, and Thomas

41
D. O'Rourke

From Detection of and Construction at the Soil/Rock Interface

(GSP28),

ASCE, 1991, 1-15.


On the Evaluation of Static Soil

Properties
Kulhawy
From Stability and Performance of Slopes andEmbankments II(GSP3J),
ASCE, 1992, 95-115.

56

Fred H.

Casagrande's "Calculated Risk" to Reliability-Based Design


Engineering: The Sixth Arthur Casagrande Memorial Lecture
From

in Foundation
77

Fred H.

Kulhawy
From Civil Engineering Practice (Journal of the Boston Society
Engineers Section/ASCE), 11(2), 1996, 43-56.

of Civil

What Is Foundation Failure?


Fred H.

91

and Anwar

Kulhawy
Hirany
Proceedings, International Conference
Singapore, 1997, 35-41.
From

iii

on

Foundation Failures,

Characterization of Geotechnical

Kok-Kwang

98

Variability

Phoon and Fred H.

Kulhawy
36(4), 1999,612-624.

From Canadian Geotechnical Journal,


Evaluation of Geotechnical

Property Variability
Kok-Kwang Phoon and Fred H. Kulhawy
From Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 36(4), 1999,625-639.

Observations
Fred H.
From

on

Some

Shortcomings

in

Deep Foundation Analysis and Design

From

126

Kulhawy
Deep Foundations 2002 (GSP116), ASCE, 2002, 1-5.

On the Interpretation of Drilled Foundation Load Test Results


Anwar

Ill

131

and Fred H.

Hirany
Kulhawy
Deep Foundations 2002 (GSP 116), ASCE, 2002,1018-1028.

Observations on Geotechnical Reliability-Based Design Development


in North America

142

F. H.

Kulhawy and K. K. Phoon


From Foundation Design Codes and Soil Investigation in View of
International Harmonization and Performance Based Design, Balkema, 2002,
31-48.

Multiple Resistance Factor Design for Shallow Transmission Line


Structure Foundations

Kok-Kwang

160

Phoon, Fred H.

Kulhawy,

and Mircea D.

Grigoriu

From Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE,

129(9), 2003,807-818.
On the

Uplift Behaviour of Spread Foundations


Kulhawy, Harry E. Stewart, and Charles H. Trautmann
From Proceedings, International Symposium on Shallow Foundations (1),
Paris, 2003, 327-334.

172

Fred H.

On the Axial Behavior of Drilled Foundations


Fred H.
From

180

Kulhawy
GeoSupport2004: Drilled Shafts, Micropiling, Deep Mixing,

Remedial Methods, and Specialty Foundation Systems (GSP 124), ASCE,


2004, 34-51.
Issues in

Evaluating Capacity of Rock Socket Foundations


Kulhawy and W. A. Prakoso

198

F. H.

From

Proceedings,

16th Southeast Asian Geotechnical

Conference, Kuala

Lumpur, 2007, 51-61.

Uncertainty, Reliability,

and Foundation

Engineering: The 5th Peter

Lumb Lecture

209

Fred H.

Kulhawy
From Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, 17(3), 2010, 19-

24.

iv

Contributed Papers

Uncertainty and Risk


Screening

Geotechnical Risks

Gregory

215

Baecher and John T. Christian

Accounting for Certainty

225

Milton E. Harr

Engineering Geology:

Fundamental

Input

or

Random Variable?

232

R. Keaton

Jeffrey
Ground

Uncertainty Implications in

Method

to

Underground

Works:

the

Application of the Observational

Comparative Examples

254

Joao Bile Serra and Luis Miranda

Geotechnical Uncertainties

and

Reliability-Based Design

271

Tien H. Wu

Characterization of Soil Parameters

Hydrologic Properties

Craig
Variability
on

of Final Cover Soils

H. Benson and

of Soil

Tayfun

283

Gurdal

Properties and Reliability of Empirical Equations

Soil Settlement Predictions


Omer

298

Bilgin and Eman Mansour

Second-Moment Characterization of Undrained Shear

from Different Test Procedures

Strengths
308

Jianye Ching, Kok-Kwang Phoon,

and

Wen-Ting

Lee

Soil Modulus Correlations

321

J. Michael Duncan and Andrew

Bursey

Multivariate Model for Soil Parameters Based

Kok-Kwang

Phoon and

Wetting Effect on

CBR

on

Johnson Distributions

337

Jianye Ching

Properties of Compacted Fine-Grained Residual Soils

354

Widjojo A. Prakoso
Bayesian Characterization of Transformation Uncertainty for Strength
and Stiffness of Sands

368

Marco Uzielli and Paul W.

Mayne
Spatial Variability

A
on

Simple Method

to Assess the

the Performance of
Yusuke

Honjo and

Effects of Soil Spatial Variability

Shallow Foundation

385

Yu Otake

Assessing Soil Correlation

Distances and Fractal Behavior

405

Mark B. Jaksa

Evaluation of Common Interpolation Algorithms for Site Characterization


David Lacey, Burt Look, and David Williams

421

Scale of Fluctuation of Geotechnical Parameters Estimated From CPTu


and Laboratory Test Data
Site

434

Onyejekwe and Louis Ge

Distinguishing between Data Uncertainty and Natural Variability in Virtual


Geotechnical Databases

J. David Rogers and Jae-Won

444

Chung
Reliability Analysis

Reliability of Suction Caissons for Deep Water Floating Facilities

Clukey,

Edward C.

Robert B. Gilbert, Knut H. Andersen, and Rune

456

Dahlberg

Reliability-Based Design of Laterally Loaded Piles Considering Soil


Spatial Variability
Haijian Fan and Robert Liang

475

Reliability

487

On

497

Assessment of Diaphragm Wall Deflections in Soft Clays


Anthony T. C. Goh, Feng Xuan, and Wengang Zhang

Capacity of Pile Foundations


Mircea Grigoriu

Model Errors in
Masahiro

Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Foundations


Shirato, Tetsuya Kohno, and Shoichi Nakatani

Reliability Analysis of Long Multi-Segment Earth Slopes

505

520

Erik Vanmarcke and Yuki Otsubo

Updating Uncertain Soil Parameters by Maximum Likelihood Method


for Predicting Maximum Ground and Wall Movements in Braced Excavations
Lei Wang, Zhe Luo, and C. Hsein Juang
Analysis of Hydraulic Hysteresis in Multi-Layer Unsaturated
Boundary Conditions
Chao Yang, Daichao Sheng, and John P. Carter

530

Stochastic

Soil Covers under Random Flux

542

Reliability-Based Design
Estimation of Resistance Factors for Reliability-Based Design of Shallow
Foundations in Cohesionless Soils under Earthquake Loading

555

Sami O. Akbas and Erhan Tekin

System Reliability-Based Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for External


Seismic

Stability

of Reinforced Soil Walls

570

B. Munwar Basha and G. L. Sivakumar Babu


LRFD Calibration of Metallic Reinforced Soil Walls

Richard J. Bathurst, Tony M. Allen, Yoshihisa Miyata,


Effects of Spatial

Reliability-Based Design
Variability
Zijun Cao, Jingmei Wang, and Yu Wang

An

on

585
and

Bingquan Huang

of Drilled Shafts

602

Assess LRFD- from Load Test and Borehole Data


Footprint of a Drilled Shaft
Harald Klammler, Michael McVay, Michael Faraone, and David Horhota

617

Approach

to

in and outside the

vi

Calibration of LRFD-Based Resistance Factors for Soil Nail Pullout

633

Carlos A. Lazarte

Composite Tolerable Settlement and Horizontal Displacement Criteria


for Reliability-Based Design of Foundations
Limin Zhang and Agnes M. Y. Ng

645

Case Histories

Integration

of

Design and Risk Management in Large, Soft Ground

NATM Tunnels
Sherif W.

and

661
Alfred

Agaiby,
Sayed M. Ahmed

Instrumented Pile Load

Schulter,

Ulrich

Testing Program

Horny,

for

Olav Dollmann,

Coal-Fired Power Plant

680

Jose L. M. Clemente and Michael R. Lewis


Foundation

Geometry and

for

Stadium

Sports

H. Turan

Capacity and

Durguno

Load

Testing Reduces Uncertainty


695

lu

Load Movement of

CFA Pile: A Prediction Event

707

Bengt H. Fellenius
Foundation

Design for High-Rise Tower in Karstic Ground


Harry
Small, and Helen Chow
G. Poulos, John C.

vii

720