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LITERATURE SURVEY

1)"VANET Connectivity Analysis" Mohamed Kafsi , Panos Papadimitratos , Olivier


Dousse, Tansu Alpcan, Jean-Pierre Hubaux
In this paper, author provided

a thorough analysis of the connectivity of such

networks by the results of percolation theory. RSU, Road side units are implemented to
facilitate the vehicle connectivity. By this concept a valuable framework to assess the
feasibility and performance of future applications relying on vehicular connectivity in urban
scenarios. Clustering has the drawback of increasing the distance between equipped vehicles
and its fluctuations. Thus, the largest cluster size remains low. RSUs do not significantly
improve connectivity in all scenarios. This shows that connectivity cannot be taken for
granted.
2)"A Stable Routing Protocol to Support Intelligent Transportation Systems Services in
VANET Networks"---->Tarik Taleb, Ehssan Sakhaee, Abbas Jamalipour.
In this paper, author provided the use of information on vehicles movement
information like position; direction, speed, and digital mapping of roads to predict a possible
link-breakage event prior to its occurrence. Vehicles are grouped according to their velocity
vectors. By using this concept it also reduces the overall traffic in highly mobile VANET
networks.
3) "Measuring the Performance of IEEE 802.11p Using ns-2 Simulator for Vehicular
Networks"---->Todd Murray, Tammy Murray, Michael Cojocari, and Huirong Fu,
Member of IEEE.
The objective of this research project is to measure the performance of the WAVE,
Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment protocol at the MAC layer, using the ns-2
simulator. Specifically, the simulations measure aggregate throughput, average delay, and
packet loss metrics.

4)"Toward an Effective Risk-Conscious and Collaborative Vehicular Collision


Avoidance System"---->Todd Murray, Tammy Murray, Michael Cojocari, and Huirong
Fu, Member of IEEE.

In this paper author introduced cooperative collision avoidance scheme for intelligent
transport systems. Presenting a cluster based organization of the target vehicles which define
the movement of the vehicles, namely the directional bearing and relative velocity of each
vehicle, as well as inter vehicular distance. According to the order of each vehicle in its
corresponding cluster, an emergency level is associated with the vehicle that signifies the risk
of encountering a potential emergency scenario. The relationship between the transmission
ranges of the vehicles in a given cluster and the size of that cluster needs further investigation
as if it is not clearly presented in this paper.
5) "Vehicle infrastructure integration system using vision sensors to prevent accidents
in traffic flow"---->K. Fujimura K. Toshihiro K. Shunsuke
In this paper author described the development of a vision sensor for detecting shock
waves which is one of the main factors of accidents in highway traffic flow. Moreover,
realization of a vehicle infrastructure integration system for providing arrival information of
such propagation to drivers is proposed. The major contributions of this research are
development of vehicle tracking and detection of shock wave in saturated traffic. Tolerance
of prediction time error is an important factor in determining the prediction success rate. In
this study tolerance is not evaluated.
6) "An Infrastructure-less Framework for Preventing Rear-End Collisions by Vehicular
Sensor Networks"---->Lien-Wu Chen, Yu-Hao Peng, and Yu-Chee Tseng.
In this paper author tried to apply such VSNs to preventing rear-end collisions that
are common accidents due to sharp stops. it consists of a distributed warning protocol and a
location-based back off scheme .A warning group is a set of vehicles that drive along the
same lane and every pair of adjacent cars is within a certain distance. Only single-hop
transmissions are needed to join and leave a group, thus keeping the group maintenance
overhead low. In addition, too many vehicles may be warned unnecessarily, causing high
message overheads
7) "Study of connectivity in vehicular ad hoc networks"---->Saleh Yousefi Eitan
Altman Rachid El-Azouzi
In this paper author considered connectivity in ad-hoc network formed between
vehicles that move in the same direction on a typical highway. Sees cars passing it separated

by times with exponentially distributed duration. This study able to describe the effects of
various systems parameters, Here connectivity deals with only fixed maner
8) "Data Dissemination Techniques in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network"---->Dharmendra
Sutariya Dr. S. N. Pradhan
In this paper author considered Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have newly
emerged as an effective tool for improving road safety through the dissemination of warning
messages among the vehicles in the network about potential obstacles on the road ahead. By
this safe and efficient transportation system can be achieved. Data dissemination is not
considered in fast moving vehicles.
9)"IEEE 802.11p modeling in NS-2"---->Balkrishna Sharma Gukhool Soumaya
Cherkaoui
In this paper author intends to give an objective view of the performance of
applications destined for

Intelligent Transport Systems. Dedicated Short Range

Communications and Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, which is defines Data


transfer and Architecture of communication. By this concept shown P802.11p gives an
effective communication medium for vehicular networks. The model has been conceived to
work in a homogeneous wireless environment, but could not work with other technologies.
10)"Inter-vehicle communication and cooperative systems: local dynamic safety
information distributed among the infrastructure and the vehicles as "virtual sensors"
to enhance road safety". ---->Balkrishna Sharma Gukhool Soumaya Cherkaoui
In this paper author developed driver assistance systems based on autonomous sensor
technologies that are able to perceive the traffic situation surrounding the vehicle and, in case
of danger, to properly warn the drivers. By this concept improving road safety by avoiding a
number of accidents, or at least by reducing their effects. Driver assistance systems are
operable cannot go beyond the operative range of sensor.
11) A. Benslimane, T. Taleb, and R. Sivaraj, Dynamic clustering-based adaptive
mobile gateway management in integrated VANET3G heterogeneous wireless
networks,
In this paper, author started to explore the integration of 3G and VANET. The
vehicles are dynamically clustered according to different metrics. A minimum number of

cluster heads are selected which serve as the gateway between a VANET and the 3G. A
gateway has two radio interfaces: 3G and IEEE 802.11p. The authors assumed that the
VANET has good network connectivity. But author does not solve the problem how to make
the full potential use of the limited 3G budget.