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Chapter 10 MAINTENANCE OF THE SHIP AND EQUIPMENT

Chapter 10

MAINTENANCE OF THE SHIP AND EQUIPMENT


Contents
10.1

Maintenance strategy..................................................................................................6

10.1.1.

Definitions ......................................................................................................................6

10.1.2.

Maintenance strategies ..............................................................................................6

10.1.2.1. Reactive maintenance.................................................................................................6


10.1.2.2. Preventive maintenance .............................................................................................7
10.1.2.3. Predictive maintenance ..............................................................................................7
10.1.2.4. Proactive maintenance ...............................................................................................7
10.1.3.

Main maintenance categories...................................................................................7

10.1.4.

Companys maintenance objectives.......................................................................8

10.2

Maintenance management.........................................................................................9

10.2.1.

General............................................................................................................................9

10.2.2.

Voyage repairs ..............................................................................................................9

10.2.2.1. Voyage repair specification.......................................................................................9


10.2.3.

Attendance and condition monitoring....................................................................9

10.2.4.

Dry-docking / Major refits ........................................................................................10

10.2.5.

Critical systems ..........................................................................................................10

10.2.6.

Stand-by equipment ..................................................................................................11

10.3

Planned maintenance schedule (PMS).................................................................12

10.3.1.

Introduction .................................................................................................................12

10.3.2.

Responsibilities ..........................................................................................................13

10.3.3.

Overview of PMS ........................................................................................................14

10.4

Maintenance of cargo holds and hatch covers..................................................15

10.4.1.

Cargo holds .................................................................................................................15

10.4.2.

Hatch covers and watertight openings ................................................................15

10.4.3.

Hatch cover maintenance ........................................................................................16

10.4.3.1. Maintenance of hatch covers and openings, closing, securing and sealing
systems.........................................................................................................................17
10.4.3.2. Inspection of hatch covers and hatch opening, closing, securing and
sealing systems..........................................................................................................17
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10.4.3.3. Records.........................................................................................................................18
10.5

Ballast system maintenance ...................................................................................18

10.5.1.

Pump strainers and mud boxes .............................................................................18

10.5.2.

Hydraulic valves .........................................................................................................18

10.5.3.

Manually operated valves ........................................................................................18

10.6

Implementation of Companys PMS......................................................................19

10.6.1.

General guidelines from the safety point of view..............................................20

10.6.2.

General guidelines from the technical point of view........................................21

10.7

Obsolete equipment ..................................................................................................23

10.8

Maintenance of Critical equipment........................................................................24

10.9

Engine department systems and equipment maintenance ............................25

10.9.1.

FO and DO systems...................................................................................................25

10.9.2.

FO transfer system ....................................................................................................25

10.9.3.

LO systems ..................................................................................................................25

10.9.3.1. Greasing and lubrication schedule .......................................................................26


10.9.3.2. Losses of LO ...............................................................................................................26
10.9.3.3. LO treatment................................................................................................................26
10.9.3.4. LO sampling and analysis .......................................................................................26
10.9.4.

Boiler and cooling water analysis program ........................................................27

10.10

Engine department maintenance guidelines ......................................................29

10.10.1.

General..........................................................................................................................29

10.10.2.

Main Engine .................................................................................................................29

10.10.2.1. M/E performance measurements ...........................................................................29


10.10.2.2. Cooling and shutting down after Finished with Engines (FWE) ...............29
10.10.2.3. Work in M/E crankcase .............................................................................................30
10.10.2.4. M/E inspections ..........................................................................................................31
10.10.2.5. Performance checks and overhauls .....................................................................31
10.10.2.6. Crankcase ....................................................................................................................32
10.10.2.7. Holding down bolts....................................................................................................32
10.10.2.8. Crankshaft deflections and wear down gauge readings .................................33
10.10.2.9. Lubricating oil filters .................................................................................................33
10.10.2.10.Governors and overspeed trips ............................................................................34
10.10.2.11.Pre-lubrication pumps .............................................................................................34
10.10.2.12.Torsional Vibration Dampers (TVD) .....................................................................34
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10.10.2.13.Oil mist detectors......................................................................................................34
10.10.2.14.Thrust block................................................................................................................34
10.10.2.15.Stern tube bearings ..................................................................................................34
10.10.2.16.Turbochargers ...........................................................................................................34
10.10.3.

Generators ...................................................................................................................35

10.10.3.1. Emergency Diesel Generator ..................................................................................36


10.10.4.

Main and Auxiliary machinery overspeed protection devices.......................37

10.10.5.

Condenser and heat exchanger maintenance....................................................37

10.10.6.

Cooling water systems (salt and fresh) ...............................................................37

10.10.6.1. Diesel Engine cooling water quality......................................................................38


10.10.6.2. Flooding of Engine department during maintenance ......................................38
10.10.7.

Hydraulic systems .....................................................................................................38

10.10.8.

Air conditioning ..........................................................................................................40

10.10.9.

Refrigerators................................................................................................................40

10.10.9.1. Refrigerant gas losses..............................................................................................40


10.10.10. LO coolers, purifiers, coalescers and strainers ................................................40
10.10.11. FO purifiers, blenders and other FO conditioners ............................................40
10.10.12. Rudder and propeller Inspection ...........................................................................41
10.10.13. Engine department overboard valves ..................................................................41
10.10.14. Idle machinery.............................................................................................................41
10.10.15. Evaporators .................................................................................................................42
10.10.16. Engine department pumps ......................................................................................42
10.10.16.1.Reciprocating pumps...............................................................................................42
10.10.16.2.Rotary pumps.............................................................................................................42
10.10.17. Oily Water Separator (OWS)....................................................................................42
10.11

Electrical and electronic equipment maintenance guidelines.......................44

10.11.1.

Repair of navigation and communication equipment ......................................45

10.11.2.

Megger Tests ...............................................................................................................45

10.11.3.

Emergency batteries condition inspection .........................................................45

10.12

Defects, failure and damage of hull, machinery and equipment...................47

10.12.1.

Introduction .................................................................................................................47

10.12.2.

Responsibility .............................................................................................................47

10.12.3.

Defects ..........................................................................................................................47

10.12.4.

Procedures for identifying and recording defects ............................................48

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10.12.5.

Monitoring of defects ................................................................................................48

10.13

Performance monitoring ..........................................................................................49

10.13.1.

General..........................................................................................................................49

10.13.2.

Responsibility .............................................................................................................49

10.13.3.

Monitoring of performance......................................................................................49

10.13.3.1. Main Engine .................................................................................................................49


10.13.3.2. Diesel generator .........................................................................................................49
10.13.3.3. Bunkers and lubricants ............................................................................................49
10.13.3.4. Reporting......................................................................................................................49
10.14

Maintenance of lifesaving appliances and fire fighting equipment..............50

10.14.1.

Servicing and maintenance of lifeboats, launching appliances and on-load


release gear .................................................................................................................50

10.15

Mooring and anchoring equipment maintenance .............................................51

10.15.1.

General windlass condition.....................................................................................51

10.15.2.

Windlass brake drum repair ....................................................................................51

10.15.3.

Windlass brake linkages ..........................................................................................51

10.15.4.

Windlass brake lining replacement.......................................................................51

10.15.5.

Mooring winch brake testing ..................................................................................51

10.16

Ropes and wires .........................................................................................................51

10.16.1.

Ropes and mooring line care..................................................................................51

10.16.2.

Wire maintenance ......................................................................................................51

10.16.3.

Life boat falls [ref. SOLAS/III/20.4, IMO Res. MSC 216(82), MSC.1206] .......51

10.17

Lifting gear and portable lifting appliances maintenance ..............................51

10.17.1.

Definitions ....................................................................................................................51

10.17.2.

Statutory inspections................................................................................................51

10.17.3.

Inspections, maintenance and testing by ship's personnel...........................51

10.17.4.

Portable Lifting Appliances (PLA) and Loose Gear (LG) ................................51

10.17.5.

Tagging / labelling......................................................................................................51

10.17.6.

Elevators.......................................................................................................................51

10.17.7.

Ladders and gangways ............................................................................................51

10.18

Statutory and Class surveys and certification...................................................51

10.18.1.

Statutory and Class Certificates renewal ............................................................51

10.18.2.

Annual and intermediate endorsements of Statutory and Class Certificates


.........................................................................................................................................51

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10.18.3.

Handling life saving, fire fighting and other equipment Certificates ...........51

10.18.4.

Handling Conditions of Class (CoC) .....................................................................51

10.19

Inventory.......................................................................................................................51

10.19.1.

Lub oil and Cylinder oil consumption and inventory .......................................51

10.19.2.

Diesel Engine spare parts stock ............................................................................51

10.20

Purchasing ...................................................................................................................51

10.21

Reporting to the Office .............................................................................................51

10.22

Companys monitoring activities and analysis of inspections results .......51

10.23

Relevant forms............................................................................................................51

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10.1

Maintenance strategy

10.1.1.

Definitions

- Calibration: A comparison of a measuring device with a known standard.


- Failure: The event, or inoperable state, in which any item or part of an item does not, or would,
not, performs as previously specified.
- Failure analysis: Subsequent to a failure, the logical systematic examination of an item, its
construction, application and documentation to identify the failure made and determine the
failure mechanism and its basic cause.
- Item: A non-specific term used to denote any product, including equipment, system, part,
subassembly, set, accessories, etc.
- Maintenance: All actions necessary for retaining an item in or restoring it to a specified
condition.
- Maintenance action: An element of a maintenance event, one or more tasks, i.e. fault isolation,
disassembly, repairing, reassembly, alignment, servicing, inspection, etc.
- Maintenance event: One or more maintenance actions required to effect corrective and/or
preventive and/or predictive maintenance.
- Maintenance corrective: All actions performed as a result of failure, to restore an item to a
specified condition. Corrective maintenance can include any or more of the following actions,
i.e. localization, isolation, disassembly, repairing or interchange, reassembly, alignment and
checkout.
- Maintenance preventive: All actions performed in an attempt to retain an item in specified
condition by providing systematic inspection, detection and prevention of incipient failures.
- Maintenance predictive: All actions performed in an attempt to retain an item in specified
condition by providing continuous measurements of specific items physical or performance
characteristics (i.e. wear, pressure, temperature, oil analysis, vibration, etc.) and predict the
expected condition at a future time, postulated on analysis of such measurements.
- Maintenance scheduled: (or planned maintenance). Preventive and predictive maintenance
performed at prescribed points in the items life.
- Maintenance unscheduled: Corrective maintenance required by items condition.
- Malfunction: See Failure.
- Operable: The state of being able to perform the intended function.
- Repair: See Maintenance Corrective.
- Repairable item: An item which can be restored to perform all of its required functions by
corrective maintenance.
10.1.2.

Maintenance strategies

A Maintenance Plan is developed in order to implement the Companys Maintenance Policy, and
incorporates a combination of maintenance strategies, in accordance with the aims of the
Maintenance policy. It is obvious that except for Reactive Maintenance, where only certain
monitoring functions may involve planning, the rest of the below mentioned maintenance strategies
require a system for planning, keeping historical records, and follow-up. Therefore, a Planned
Maintenance System (PMS) is mainly a tool for implementing preventive, predictive, or proactive
maintenance, or combination of the above. Maintenance strategies are as follows:
10.1.2.1. Reactive maintenance
It can also be called Run-to-Failure maintenance. This is the strategy where a system first breaks
down and then we fix it. With this kind of approach, the equipment controls us while we are trying
to control the breakdowns. Although this strategy is not generally acceptable for the PMS it may be

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suitable for certain sub-systems in conjunction with Repair By Replacement (RBR) method. In this
case the inventory control of replacement units forms part of the Plan.
10.1.2.2. Preventive maintenance
Here, we opt to prevent failure by using routine inspection as our tool and the compilation of a
history for our equipment. If done properly we get an overview of our fleets condition, hence a
powerful tool towards breakdown prevention by planned maintenance. Actions need to be taken
thereof, or we still remain in the reactive mode, only with a better-recorded history.
10.1.2.3. Predictive maintenance
The concept for this strategy is based on the fact that equipment usually give some warnings
preceding their failure. Predictive Maintenance is based on continuous measurements (such as of
wear, deflections, temperature, and contamination) and their trend analysis, such as finding
possible deviations from acceptable values.
The condition of equipment could be monitored using Condition Monitoring, Statistical Process
Control techniques, by monitoring equipment performance, or through the use of the Human
Senses. The terms Condition Based Maintenance, On-Condition based Maintenance and
Predictive Maintenance can be used interchangeably.
10.1.2.4. Proactive maintenance
This is the top of the range Maintenance strategy. It requires a full set of predictive maintenance
tools (or other words a full set of condition based maintenance tools) such as vibrations monitoring
etc. The goal is to completely eliminate Reactive Maintenance. It entails continuous monitoring of
critical and important equipment such as Main Engines aux engines, steering gears, etc. using
online sensors. By using advanced techniques we can perform root-cause analysis on any
equipment failures.
10.1.3.

Main maintenance categories

The Maintenance work to be carried out can be categorized in three levels which are applicable for
both planned and unplanned events:
Organizational.
Intermediate; and
Depot level.
The Organizational and Intermediate state levels are integral part of ships operation and
accomplish maintenance during the ships operating cycle.
The Organizational level maintenance is that maintenance which is the responsibility of and
performed by ships personnel, as assigned. This level is divided into the following subcategories:
A1: Inspection activities.
A2: Servicing i.e. operational checks, filter changes, oil levels etc.
A3: Easy maintenance/repairs, i.e. routine overhauls, etc.
The Intermediate level maintenance is that maintenance which is normally performed by
authorized shore-side repair teams with the aid of ship personnel. It normally includes repair or
replacement of damaged or unserviceable parts, components, or assemblies. This level is divided
into the following subcategories:
B1: Middle maintenance/repairs (support with repair teams onboard or workshops ashore).

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B2: Difficult maintenance/repairs (support with service engineer with or without repair team
support).
Depot level maintenance is that maintenance performed by industrial activities on material
requiring major overhaul or a complete rebuilding of parts, including modifications. This is normally
accomplished at shipyards during dry docking, or whenever a need arises.
A summary layout of maintenance/repairs categories is as follows:
Support level

Maintenance/
repairs categories

A1

Inspection

A2

Servicing

A3

Easy maintenance/repair

B1

Middle maintenance/repair

B2

Difficult Maintenance/repair

Depot maintenance/repair
Responsibilities Crew

Where:

2
c

X
X(1)

Crew (with or without


Crew with repair
repair teams) in Yard with crew
team or workshop
presence of service assistance.
assistance.
engineer.

p= Planned.
c= Corrective.
X(1) = Go to port capability (Crew may perform the job to enable vessel to reach the
nearest port where shore assistance can be provided).

Availability of material, funds and skilled manpower for ship support activities regarding
maintenance is under the responsibility of the Companys Technical department.
10.1.4.
a.
b.

Companys maintenance objectives

The Company has established procedures to ensure the vessels are maintained in
conformity with the provisions of the Management Agreement, relevant regulations and
where necessary, additional requirements as identified by the Company.
The Companys objective is to maintain all vessels in the most cost-effective manner and
consistent with Companys high maintenance standards.

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10.2

Maintenance management

10.2.1.

General

Companys general maintenance strategy and implementation are mentioned in paragraphs 10.1
and 10.3. Technical department and vessels maintenance management team (Master, C/O, C/E)
assumes responsibility as defined in SMSM Ch.3 and elsewhere in this manual.
10.2.2.

Voyage repairs

10.2.2.1.

Voyage repair specification

a)

The C/O and the C/E are reporting on a regular basis of all machinery/structural defects to
the Technical Department.

b)

Repair specifications may comprise of listed defects and anticipated requirements, and in
addition take into account:
- Non conformity reports.
- Accident/Incident reports.
- Superintendent Engineers attendance reports.
- Internal and External audit reports.
- Flag, PSC, P&I condition reports, etc.

c)

The repair specification prepared by the Superintendent Engineer, once approved by the
Technical Manager, can be used as tender documents for obtaining repair quotations and
can be amended in line with alterations to the repair work, time schedule and cost.

d)

When repairs are completed, the C/O and the C/E:


- Inspect, check and approve the completed work using the final specification as a guide.
- Sign/date the work list to signify satisfactory completion and approval of the work done.

Where repairs to hull, machinery or equipment, which affect or may affect Classification, are to be
carried out by a riding crew during a voyage they are to be planned in advance. A complete repair
procedure, including the extent of proposed repair and the need for surveyors attendance during
the voyage is to be agreed upon with the Classification.
The above is not intended to include maintenance and overhaul to hull, machinery and equipment
in accordance with manufacturers recommended procedures and established marine practice, and
which does not require the Class Societys approval; however, any repair as a result of such
maintenance and overhauls which affects or may affect Classification is to be noted in the Bridge
logbook and submitted to the attending Surveyor for determining further survey requirements.
10.2.3.

Attendance and condition monitoring

The C/E and the C/O are to ensure all shipboard maintenance work for hull and machinery are
carried out in a satisfactory manner. In order to inform the Company on vessels maintenance
works, the Master in cooperation with the C/E must compile a Sunday Review Report by the
end of every week. The report should mention only the maintenance items / works or rectification
of defects and should be forwarded to the Company.
Vessels Superintendent Engineer or a Companys representative attend the vessels at least four
(4) times per year to verify the actual condition of hull and machinery, and to ensure that shipboard
maintenance is followed as per Companys maintenance plan and instructions. The scope of the

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attendance should be defined well in advance and guidelines, approved by the Technical Manager,
should be timely issued (form OT01).
During the attendance the attending Superintendent draws up work lists for the attention of the
Master and C/E (form OT03). He also compiles an attendance report (form OT02), which he
promptly submits to the Technical Manager for further evaluation. The same report (form OT02) is
used by any other Companys representative attending the vessel and all applicable sections of the
form are properly filled-in. The Superintendent using all available data, regularly checks the
progress and effectiveness of the ships maintenance program.
10.2.4.

Dry-docking / Major refits

Dry-docking and major refit specifications are compiled using the Companys dry-dock
specification, which is modified on the basis of any applicable:
-

Classification/Flag requirements.

Charterers requirements or relevant third parties inspection results.

Technical Superintendents reports and other requirements.

Masters / C/Es / C/Os defect reports.

Operational requirements and cargo commitments.

The specification which is a detailed description of the work required to be carried out, is prepared
by the Superintendent and approved by the Technical Manager. The completed specification is
submitted for tender to a number of shipyards (or repair sub-contractors) whenever practicable.
Returned quotes are compared with each other and with previous quotes. Thereafter, each yard is
contacted in turn for negotiations in order to obtain the most cost-effective quote. The final choice
of yard will be based upon quality, experience, productivity, price, location, timing / schedule, etc.
The Technical Manager will review the final quotes and select the Yard to be used. The selected
yard will then be asked by the Technical Manager to confirm in writing the booking date. The
specification forms part of the contract with the Yard, but it is worded in such a manner to permit
changes as dictated by prevailing circumstances. The attending Superintendent keeps in contact
with the Technical Manager and together they determine, in consultation with the Yard, what may
need adding or deleting from the original specification. Changes to the specification are agreed
between the attending Superintendent and Yard before the work is allowed to commence.
During the repair work, the attending Superintendent, the Master, C/E and Senior Officers, check
to verify that work carried out by the contractors meets the specification. Regular meetings take
place to ensure their activities are co-ordinated. Records of all inspections, tests and data, such as
clearance dimensions, working pressures, volumes, etc. will be recorded in the appropriate forms
and in the final report submitted by the Shipyard. Upon completion of the Dry-docking / major refit,
the Superintendent shall complete and submit to the Technical Manager the form OT04.
10.2.5.

Critical systems

The Company has established procedures (ref. section 10.8) to describe the reliability tests carried
out in vessels critical equipment /systems and stand-by arrangements.
The Master is responsible for ensuring that inspections and testing of critical systems and stand-by
arrangements is carried out according to Companys instructions, witnessing as required.

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The C/E / C/O are responsible for supervising and attending inspections and testing of critical
systems and stand-by arrangements in their areas of responsibility.
10.2.6.

Stand-by equipment

The following non-running equipment should be kept in an auto start condition, to allow quick
starting in cases of emergency. Furthermore, it is of great importance that operation of all stand-by
equipment on board the vessel are carried out on a rotation basis and prior to conducting critical
operations, and this should be verified in a systematic way. To this respect rotation to be done at
each vessel departure, and relevant entries to be made appropriately.
It is the duty of C/E to strictly follow the stand-by equipment policy. Stand-by equipment list is
(running, stand-by):
-

Steering gear pumps.

Boiler water circulation pumps.

M/E piston cooling pumps.

M/E fuel oil booster pumps.

M/E sea water cooling pumps.

M/E crosshead L.O. pumps.

D/Generators.

M/E lub oil pump.

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10.3

Planned maintenance schedule (PMS)

10.3.1.

Introduction

One of the main Companys tools for implementing its policies is a properly organized vessels
PMS. The PMS aids the vessels Senior Officers and the Technical department to plan, monitor
and document the vessels planned maintenance work. Through the PMS, the following main
parameters are observed:
-

Adherence to the set maintenance intervals for all shipboard equipment, taking into account
the manufacturers instructions, sound engineering practices as well as the Class and Flag
relevant requirements and Companys experience.

Work planning and allocation of necessary resources.

Safe execution of the maintenance work.

Procedures to be followed in order to identify, record, monitor, plan and rectify defects that
may happen, despite the implementation of the PMS.

Maintenance of critical equipment: Critical equipment include machinery systems, protective


devices and alarm systems, the failure of which can place the crew, the vessel and the
environment at immediate risk or even cause an accident.

Regular vessels inspections by the Senior Officers and shore personnel in order the Office to
monitor the condition of the vessel and verify the proper execution of the PMS.

FO, DO, LO and water quality analysis for selected equipment, as per makers instructions.

Handling obsolete equipment.

Planning and safe/efficient execution of dry-dock and shipyard repairs.

Organization and maintenance of the vessels drawings and equipment manuals filing system.

The purpose of this Chapter is to ensure that vessels are always maintained and certified in
accordance with the Class Society, Flag State and Companys requirements. Although the
reliability of ship structure and equipment depends on many factors, including design, construction,
initial commissioning, operating practices and maintenance, properly planned maintenance
procedures are essential for ships reliable operation and avoidance of unnecessary downtimes
and costly incidents. In this respect, this Chapter intends to provide general guidelines with regard
to the minimum requirements for planned maintenance of ships systems and equipment. The
purpose of the PMS is to plan and carry out maintenance works in a preventive and/or predictive
manner (ref. para.10.1. for details on maintenance strategies).
Maintenance includes open-up inspections, replacement or refurbishment of defective parts, and
operational tests of the inspected machinery and systems. The periodicity of maintenance is
dependent on the number of running hours and/or the time period specified in the Companys PMS
schedule. The established maintenance procedures and inspection programs intend to:
-

Ensure that maintenance and testing deadlines within the defined parameters are always met.

Ensure that the structural integrity of all managed vessels is maintained according to
Company, Class, Charterer and Flag Administration standards.

Provide timely support and ensure the availability of approved and/or fit for purpose spares
and materials, by maintaining an optimum spare parts stock.

Ensure that maintenance records are consistently kept both onboard and in the Head Office.

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-

Ensure that adequate human resources necessary to carry out maintenance works are
allocated, as required. When the Company considers it necessary, additional crew members,
maintenance riding teams or competent service engineers may be embarked.

Provide a defect reporting and close-out system which is monitored both on board and ashore.

Ensure monitoring of Class condition reports, which provide an overview of the status of all
Class related shipboard equipment and the timely correction of Condition of Class items.

Ensuring that the ships Superintendents monitor the vessels performance and condition and
follow up on all required maintenance, by regular review of the received documentation and
regular visits and inspections onboard.

Ensure that all vessels and equipment Certificates are available and remain valid, by
establishing a shore and shipboard system to monitor them.

Ensure that the effectiveness of the PMS is regularly monitored by shore management.

10.3.2.

Responsibilities

The Companys policy is to maintain the vessels seaworthy and cargo worthy at all times,
minimising the risk of breakdowns, in accordance with high safety, environmental and quality
standards. The maintenance shall be carried out in the most cost-effective manner but always in
accordance with the Company policies, Class, National / International regulations and industry
standards.
The Technical Manager is responsible to ensure that the PMS complies with the statutory, Class
and/or makers requirements, and for controlling and monitoring the implementation of the
schedule, assisted by the Superintendent Engineers. He is responsible for:
Ensuring the maintenance procedures are complied with by the shipboard and shore staff.
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Monitoring and ensuring that the shipboard inspections program is executed as planned by the
crew and Companys personnel. In case of any deficiencies reported during the inspections,
he initializes corrective actions and ensures they are duly closed out.

Assisting, when necessary, in arranging the necessary means and resources to carry out
repair work which cannot be dealt with by the shipboard personnel.

Supervising and approving the drydock / repair specification. He is also responsible for
contacting candidate shipyards and requesting quotations, based on the submitted
specification. Finally he is responsible for the assessment of the submitted quotations and
selection of the final contractor, in conjunction with the General Manager.

Participating in the implementation of the procedures for monitoring and evaluating the
performance of the PMS, through which identification of required improvements is effected.

The DPA is responsible for implementing formal procedures to continuously monitor and evaluate
the effectiveness of the maintenance and inspection system. He is also responsible for evaluating
non-conformities found during the inspections. Through these procedures, identification and
implementation of improvements to the maintenance and inspection system can be effected.
The Superintendent Engineers are responsible to the Technical Manager for:
Close monitoring the implementation of planned maintenance onboard their assigned vessels
and proper control of eventual deviations from PMS schedule.
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Enforcing proper record-keeping and timely reporting of the maintenance work by their
assigned vessels.

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Suggesting necessary adjustments and/or modifications of the PMS schedule.

Attendance, condition monitoring, and performance monitoring.

The Master is responsible for cooperating with, supporting and enforcing the implementation of
PMS by all departmental heads, reporting and suggesting appropriate corrective actions for any
defects and/or malfunctioning of equipment.
The Chief Engineer is responsible for:
Carrying out the maintenance work in accordance with the PMS.
-

Supervising the maintenance works, as appropriate.

Recording and reporting maintenance and repair facts according to the Companys guidelines
at specified intervals.

Identifying and suggesting any necessary adjustment or modification of the PMS, to reflect
current maintenance requirements.

Providing, whenever required, technical support to the other departments for implementation
of the PMS.

The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring the implementation of PMS for:
Bridge areas and systems.
-

Deck areas and systems.

Cargo holds.

Lifesaving and firefighting systems.

Lifting appliances and access equipment.

Cables, ropes and wires.

Ballast systems, except mechanical parts.

Safety equipment, except those specifically assigned to the C/E.

All ships Officers and the ship staff are responsible to comply with the requirements of the PMS
and to carry out safely and efficient repairs to hull, machinery and equipment.
10.3.3.

Overview of PMS

On board the Companys managed vessels the PMS covers critical and essential items, such as:
-

Safety, fire fighting and anti-pollution.

Navigational equipment.

Communication equipment.

Steering gear system .

Anchoring and mooring equipment.

Auxiliary machinery.

Pipelines and valves.

Bilge Separator systems.

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Critical alarms and remote controls.

Routine checks of critical equipment and systems identified in para. 10.4, and the maintenance
and inspections of Life Saving Appliances and Fire Fighting Equipment are considered and
handled as part of the PMS. Calibration of temperature and pressure gauges shall be conducted at
appropriate intervals and recorded in the form E26. This form shall be forwarded to the Office
annually.
Furthermore, in order to monitor/ensure the proper condition and operation of deck equipment and
tools, the form D47 is completed by the C/O, describing the quality and quantity of the equipment
and tools. This form is forwarded to the Office at quarterly intervals.
The condition of the tailshaft is checked by the Company during every dry-dock (form OT04).

10.4

Maintenance of cargo holds and hatch covers

10.4.1.

Cargo holds

All cargo holds should be maintained to the highest possible standard. Although it is the C/O's duty
to ensure that work is carried out in the cargo holds, whenever possible, to maintain and improve
their condition, it is the Master's responsibility to inspect the cargo holds on a regular basis, to
report their condition and record any defects to the Office. Normally cargo holds are inspected prior
to loading by the C/O but a thorough inspection must be carried out both by the Master and the
Companys Superintendents at least semi-annually. Details of inspection must be recorded in the
form D51. Attention is drawn to the need to check carefully for signs of any fractures, cracks or
corrosion in the plating or frames of the cargo holds. Reference is to be made to guides issued by
the Class Societies of where to look, and what to check for. Masters and Superintendents must be
aware of the contents of these guidelines and bring them to the notice of the ships staff.
Under no circumstances is any upgrading work to be carried out in a hold which contains cargo of
any type. Many claims have been made against Owners for cargo damage due to contamination
by rust, paint and grease, even though there appeared to be no damage at the time. In addition,
any paint applied prior to loading a cargo must be applied in ample time, to allow sufficient drying
and hardening periods before the commencement of loading.
Due regard must be given at all times to personal safety and PPE when carrying out cleaning,
maintenance and inspection work within the holds. During routine inspections of cargo holds,
special attention is to be given to safety aspects such as conditions of hold ladders, hand rails and
platforms. Attention must also be given to observation positions around the hatch coamings and
hold accesses, which are always to be kept in good condition and free from obstructions.
All ships carrying dangerous cargoes must have on board medical first-aid equipment, including
oxygen resuscitation equipment and antidotes for cargo carried, in compliance with the IMO
MFAG (Medical First Aid Guide) and WHOIMGS (International Medical Guide for Ships).
10.4.2.

Hatch covers and watertight openings

The following guidance applies to most types of hatch covers, and is to be used in conjunction with
maker's manuals. Since access to the underside of hatch covers is difficult, the crew should carry
out such maintenance to the best of their abilities. Any scale or flaking paint on the undersides will
inevitably end up on top of the cargo, especially during opening and closing operations.

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Sealing Rubbers: Sealing rubbers are to be inspected for damage, distortion, cracking and over
compression, which can result in deterioration of elasticity and poor sealing. At the points where
the rubber sections are joined, gaps may begin to appear. If this occurs, it is to be remedied as
soon as it is discovered. The rubbers must be smooth and free from rust particles and paint flakes,
possibly picked up from hatch coamings. If the rubbers have deteriorated due to age, the Office is
to be notified. Poor sealing can often be remedied by insertion of an extra rubber lining underneath
the main sealing rubber to increase the compression and provide a better seal.
Compression Bars: Compression bars must always be kept smooth, free from rust and paint and
any damages must be repaired immediately. The areas immediately surrounding the compression
bars are to be swept clean of any cargo residues after loading/discharging operations, to ensure
that no distortion of rubbers and retainer channels takes place when the hatch cover is closed.
Securing Dogs/cleats: Securing dogs/cleats must always be used while the vessel is at sea. They
must be well maintained and greased and are to be checked on a regular basis.
Drain Channels: Drain channels are normally inaccessible after the hatch cover has been closed,
and are therefore to be checked immediately after completion of loading/discharging. If any
obstructions are present, water will be permitted to build up and overflow into the cargo hold. The
channels must be swept clean of any cargo residues and are always to be free of rust, scale and
flaking paint. Loose items, such as these, will be washed into the coaming drains and causes
blockages which result in accumulation of water and eventual overflow into the cargo hold.
Coaming drains: The non-return drain facilities on the hatch coamings must always be kept clear.
They are most susceptible to blockage during loading/discharging operations and must be checked
and cleared after their completion. The condition of the non-return facility must be checked
frequently to ensure optimum operation and prevention of water ingress during heavy weather.
Hatch Sealing Tape: It is the Masters responsibility to maintain an adequate supply of hatch
sealing tape on board at all times. The use of hatch sealing tape such as Ramneck is approved by
the Company, if following remedial hatch sealing repairs and subsequent hose testing that leakage
is still experienced, or as an extra protection in the case of delicate and susceptible cargoes.
Opening/Closing Systems: The machinery and associated equipment required for the opening
and closing of hatch covers must be kept in order at all times, and any defects which cannot be
rectified immediately by ship's staff, must be notified to the Office immediately. Care must be taken
to avoid leakage of hydraulic fluid which would cause hazardous conditions on the vessel's deck
and possible injury. It has also been the cause of fines for pollution when such fluid has escaped
over the ship's side.
Watertight openings: There are various types of openings: coal vents, natural vents, forced draft
fan cowlings, cement feeder lids, inspection hatches, etc. All these types of openings involve some
kind of seal and securing devices, which must be checked on a regular basis. Securing dogs/bolts
must always be free and greased, ready for immediate use. Some openings, such as cement
feeder lids, which have not been brought back into use after a long period of time, may best be left
undisturbed, if reliably known to be fully watertight following a hose test. However, if the seal has
perished due to age, it must be renewed immediately. This also applies to hold access hatches.
10.4.3.

Hatch cover maintenance

The Company implements specific inspection and maintenance procedures for the Hatch Covers.

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10.4.3.1. Maintenance of hatch covers and openings, closing, securing and sealing systems
Hatch Covers maintenance is directed to:
-

Protecting exposed surfaces of plating and stiffeners of hatch covers and coamings, in order to
preserve overall structural strength.

Preserving the surface of trackways of rolling covers, and of compression bars and other steel
work bearing on seals or friction pads, noting that the surface smoothness and correct profile
are important for reducing wear rates on these components.

Maintaining hydraulic or mechanically powered opening, closing, securing or cleating systems,


in accordance with manufacturers recommendations.

Maintaining manual cleats in adjustment, with replacement when significant wastage, wear or
loss of adjustment is identified.

Replacing seals and other wear components as per makers recommendations, noting the
need to carry on board or obtain such spares of correct specification, and that seals are
designed for the particular degree of compression, hardness, chemical and wear resistance.

Keeping all hatch cover drains and their non-return valves, where fitted, in working order,
noting that any drains fitted to the inboard side of seal lines will have non-return valves for
prevention of water ingress to hold in the event of boarding seas.

At each operation of a hatch cover, the cover and, in particular, the bearing surfaces and
drainage channels shall be free of debris, and as clean as practicable.

Attention is drawn to the dangers of proceeding to sea without fully secured hatch covers.
During voyages, especially on loaded passages, cover securing devices and tightness of
cleating and securing arrangements shall be checked, especially in anticipation of, and
following periods of, severe weather. Hatch covers may only be opened on passage, when
necessary, during favourable sea and weather conditions.

10.4.3.2. Inspection of hatch covers and hatch opening, closing, securing and sealing systems
It is Companys policy to test all hatch seals prior to loading cargo. This must be followed by hose
testing of all the holds, to ensure that all the seals are effective and that no water is entering the
holds. Any defects must be rectified immediately and certainly before commencement of loading or
inspection by Charterers or shore personnel. Any assistance required to carry out this task must be
notified immediately to the Company.
a. Statutory Surveys
Statutory Surveys of hatch covers and their coamings are carried out by the Class Society as
part of the annual surveys, and in accordance with the requirements for the Enhanced
Surveys. However, the continued safe operation is dependent to the regular programme of
inspections (weekly and monthly) to confirm the state of hatch covers in between surveys.
b. Weekly inspections
Once per week during voyages (weather permitting) an external examination of the closed
hatch covers should be performed, particularly to the condition of hatch covers located to the
forward 25% of the ships length, where sea loads are normally greater.
c. Monthly inspections
Following items shall be inspected when the hatch covers are opened or are otherwise
accessible on each voyage cycle, but need not be inspected more frequently than once per
month:
- hatch cover panels, including side plates, and stiffener attachments of opened covers for
visible corrosion, cracks or deformation;
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- sealing arrangements of perimeter and cross joints (gaskets, flexible seals on combination
carriers, gasket lips, compression bars, drainage channels and non-return valves) for
condition and permanent deformation;
- clamping devices, retaining bars and cleating for wastage, adjustment, and condition of
rubber components;
- closed cover locating devices for distortion and attachment;
- chain or wire rope pulleys;
- guides;
- guide rails and track wheels;
- stoppers;
- wires, chains, tensioners and gypsies;
- hydraulic system, electrical safety devices and interlocks; and
- end and inter-panel hinges, pins and stools, where fitted.
As part of this inspection, the coamings and their plating, stiffeners and brackets shall be
checked at each hatchway for visible corrosion, cracks and deformation, especially of the
coaming tops and corners, adjacent deck plating and brackets.
10.4.3.3. Records
The C/O, under the supervision of the Master, and assisted by the C/E when required, is
responsible for the maintenance of the hatch covers. The following forms should be completed
weekly, monthly and when maintenance and component replacement is carried out:
D43 Hatch covers maintenance (Side Rolling type covers).
D44 Hatch covers maintenance (Folding type covers).

10.5

Ballast system maintenance

The internal visual examination of ballast lines by ship's staff crawling the lines is strictly prohibited.
10.5.1.

Pump strainers and mud boxes

Ballast and stripping pump strainers and mud boxes must be opened and cleaned at frequent
intervals, as necessary. The frequency will depend upon the trade in which the ship is engaged.
Where mud box covers are secured by means of circumference banding devices, the 2nd Engineer
must verify that the cover is properly secured after it has been closed.
10.5.2.

Hydraulic valves

Hydraulically operated valves must be examined at least once every 12 months, to ensure that the
locking pins are free and operating. Where hydraulic valves are situated in tanks or other normally
inaccessible spaces, they must be examined during the tank inspections. Hydraulic power packs
that supply pressure to the valve actuating system must be inspected at the makers specified
intervals. Valve tightness must be inspected annually.
10.5.3.

Manually operated valves

The stems of all ballast valves must be kept lubricated and glands properly packed and adjusted.
At least once during each ballast voyage or monthly, whichever is less, the C/O must ensure that
all valves which were not used in handling ballast during the voyage, are operated to ascertain that
they are in order. Valves must never be unnecessarily jammed closed with a spanner. If leaks or
improper seating are discovered, the valves should be repaired at the first opportunity.
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10.6

Implementation of Companys PMS

Maintenance planning is formulated by the vessels Senior Officers and the Superintendent, in
consultation with the Technical Manager, on the basis of the following parameters:
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Running or service hours intervals (form E13), established by the maker or based on the
Companys experience. The above service intervals are followed for the M/E and D/G sets,
E/R auxiliary, deck, cargo, bridge and electronic equipment, as well as for critical equipment,
alarms and systems, the failure of which can place the vessel at risk, or lead to an accident.

Planned maintenance reports (form E12).

Inputs from the vessels Senior Officers regarding the vessels condition.

Vessels periodically submitted maintenance monitoring forms and inspection reports.

Superintendents inspection reports and work lists.

The criticality of machinery or system.

The manufacturers instructions.

The professional experience of Companys personnel.

The experience gained from the implementation of the PMS.

Technical abilities of the crew members, ships own means, shipboard repair equipment and
tools and the ships trading schedule.

The requirements of National and International rules and regulations, Classification rules, as
well as good shipping industry standards and practices.

Defect list database and corrective actions schedule.

Material availability.

Labor availability.

Operation demands.

Based on the above, a 1-year planned maintenance schedule is formulated every December by
the vessels Superintendent for the next year, taking into account the previous PMS records, the
Class CMS survey schedule, actual machinery running hours, any recommendations imposed and
the current outstanding defect list. The Superintendent is in contact with the vessels management
team in order to ensure accuracy of all data reported in the PMS schedule.
Each maintenance work is carried out as per makers or Companys job card, but in case of conflict
between maker and Companys recommendations, makers have preference.
The vessels Superintendent is responsible to monitor the planned and corrective maintenance,
and to take appropriate actions to support timely the vessel with labor and material, according to
the planned and corrective maintenance schedule.
Maintenance records should be kept at the Office, clearly demonstrating the following:
-

History of inspections/overhauling for each particular machinery or equipment.

Intervals between inspections.

Work descriptions and dates carried out.

Measurements, findings and corrective actions taken.


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Labor and material used.


Cross-checks of records (onboard/office) every June (see Form E12 cover page).

10.6.1.

General guidelines from the safety point of view

Work must be conducted by competent personnel under the supervision of the C/E or C/O.

The SMS work permit system procedures must be properly followed.

Involved personnel must wear appropriate PPE.

Fire fighting equipment, emergency escape routes and watertight doors should never be
obstructed or blocked by dismantled components.

Escape routes shall be well marked with distinctive fluorescent arrows and yellow lines. For
any doors required to remain locked for special reasons i.e. pilferage, it is essential that the
pertaining keys be in the possession of a responsible person and hung on the inside of the
door in glass fronted box or similar.

Moving parts of machinery shall be provided with permanent guards that shall not be removed
except only if the subject machinery is stopped and isolated.

All valves, pipes and fittings shall be adequately supported or clamped to avoid excessive
vibration and/or possible fracture.

All items such as steam pipes, exhaust pipes and fittings, which because of their location and
operating temperature present a hazard, shall be properly lagged or shielded.

The source of any oil leak shall be located as soon as possible and the leak stopped.

Bilge shall be kept clear of rubbish and foreign substances and waste oil shall not be allowed to
accumulate in the bilge or on tank tops.

A competent person shall carry out any FO and LO transfer, and adequate precautions shall be
taken to avoid overflow.

Special attention shall be given to preventing leakage into machinery spaces of exhaust gases
from engines, boilers, etc.

Adequate lighting and ventilation shall be maintained to ensure a safe and comfortable
atmosphere, with special attention given to the working areas and control rooms.

Unless it is authorised to operate in UMS, the E/R shall be manned by persons adequate for
the duties required and supervised by a competent person.

Special care shall be taken to ensure that the drainage is clear and pressure has been relieved
in any pipe, container, chamber or system before it is opened/maintained, with attention given
to the effective securing of the necessary stop valves.

All stores, spares and tools shall be properly stowed and adequate arrangements shall be
made to secure each item against heavy weather.

No alarm system should be isolated without the permission of the C/E.

When lifting weighs, the lifting device shall be handled by a competent person who shall ensure
that the SWL is not exceeded and the weight being lifted is properly secured.

When working alone, a person shall arrange to communicate at regular and frequent intervals
with other persons in the machinery spaces or on the bridge.

No maintenance work or repair which might affect the supply of water to the fire main or
sprinkler system should be started without the prior permission of the Master and C/E.
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Only intrinsically safe flashlights should be used for illuminating spaces where oil or oil vapour
is present (crankcase, interior of tank, etc.). Vapour should be dispersed by ventilation before
work is done.

Care is to be exercised when starting machinery by hand instead of power, like lifeboat engines
or the emergency fire pump.

Extreme caution must be exercised before attempting any repair to the main sea water lines
and associated systems that may affect the vessels seaworthiness.

The E/R should be kept as clean as possible.

Fire fighting equipment must be deployed in the form of portable fire extinguishers and/or fire
hoses, if hot work is required.

Personnel must be protected from machinery moving parts, either by retreating from the
location (as in the case of engine crankshaft deflection measurements) or by refitting protective
guards (as in the case of pump and motor couplings).

All piping, mechanical and electrical power connections must be isolated prior to work
commencement and relevant DO NOT OPERATE tags posted at the control positions.

Partially dismantled piping must be supported to avoid deformations, movement and fractures.

Heated items must be adequately insulated to avoid personnel injury.

Avoid exhaust gases from boilers and engines leaking in the E/R.

Any LO, FO, DO transfer must be carried out by competent personnel, with particular attention
of avoiding tank overflow.

Disposal of chemical substances to be carried out following the manufacturers instructions.

Avoid testing boilers and engines in ports where smoke is prohibited.

Any accumulation of waste oil shall be removed as soon as possible, as per MARPOL Annex I.

Oil leak collection cans must be emptied regularly. Oil spills on plates and machinery are to be
wiped up straight away.

All lagging and insulation is to be maintained in a clean, dry and complete condition. When
appropriate, lagging is to be protected by sheet metal sheathing. In the event that any lagging
becomes impregnated with oil or other flammable material, the affected portion is to be replaced
without delay.
The Company will advise the Master and the C/E of any location where asbestos is known or
believed to be present on their ship, in order that a formal record of such locations is compiled and
regular condition reporting system is established. Should the Master or the C/E suspect from their
inspections of the vessel, its building or repair specifications or drawings that asbestos materials
have been used, they must immediately notify the Company giving full details. Similarly should any
deterioration of suspected asbestos insulation occurs naturally with ageing or through damage, the
Company must be notified immediately. The removal or disturbance of asbestos-containing
materials which are in sound condition should be avoided, as far as possible, and not without prior
consultation with the Company (ref. COSWP and SMSM Chapter 7.10).
10.6.2.

General guidelines from the technical point of view

Prior to commencing a maintenance task on any piece or plant or machinery, other than routine
tasks normally undertaken while the machinery is in motion (e.g. lubrication), the responsible
Engine Officer shall ensure that the machine has been isolated from its power supply by removing
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the fuses from the starter and isolating the main breaker so that it cannot restart inadvertently.
Appropriate cautionary notices shall be attached to the isolating device. The responsible Engine
Officer shall also ensure that temperatures and pressures in the machine and associate pipe work
have been reduced to safe levels prior to commencement of the work.
-

Ensure correct spares are used during assembly, especially in the case of standard items like
bolts, nuts, seals, bearings, etc.

During all phases, take and record all the necessary measurements.

Observe the clearances and tightening torques mentioned in the instructions.

Use LO, grease and cleaning agents appropriate for the equipment.

During assembly observe that no metallic particles, rags and other garbage are accidentally left
in the equipment, particularly in lubricating holes, on bearing and shaft surfaces, etc.

When the assembly is completed, carry out operation tests as per makers instructions and
normal practices.

Any machine that can be started remotely, either manually or automatically, shall be clearly
marked. It is important to ensure that machinery capable of being remotely or automatically
started has been positively isolated prior to commencement of maintenance. This is of
importance with regard to main and auxiliary engines starting, turning gear arrangements, etc.
where inadvertent operation of controls may cause an accident.

With the first indication of breakdown or any other defect of the machinery or boilers, the
OOEW is to take the necessary action to prevent further damage and to inform the C/E.

Prior to commencing any M/E repairs, the C/E shall inform the Master. The C/E shall also
inform the Master of the expected time for finishing the repair work.

Tests of the M/E should never take place in congested or restricted waters.

The OOEW should cooperate with any Engine Officer in charge of maintenance work during
the watch to ensure the following:
i) Isolating and bypassing machinery to be worked on.
ii) Adjusting the remaining plant to function adequately and safely during the maintenance
period.
iii) Recording, in the Engine logbook or other document, the equipment worked on.
iv) Testing & putting in service, where necessary, the repaired machinery/equipment.

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10.7

Obsolete equipment

Machinery or equipment that has been withdrawn from service or is unsuitable for service must be
kept segregated from satisfactory equipment, whenever possible. All machinery or equipment, and
parts thereof, that is deemed to be unfit for service or continued service and which is not
immediately disposed of, must be clearly identified by means of Obsolete Equipment tags.
Machinery and equipment must be withdrawn from service and tagged accordingly if:
-

it does not meet the requirements for which it has been procured;

it has failed in service and is to be landed for disposal; and

it has been withdrawn from service pending an overhaul, repair or service by ship's staff or
outside contractor.

Obsolete equipment tags are to be attached to the subject equipment by secure means that
requires a physical act to remove e.g. locking ties or staples. The entries on the tags should be
made using ink that is not easily erased i.e. will not wash off in rain or spray. The tags can be
reused, providing that subsequent entries are clearly legible.
The tag must be removed prior to the defective/unsuitable equipment being disposed of, or landed
for repair or where the item is subsequently repaired, so that it is ready for service. Withdrawn
equipment tags can only be removed with the permission of the Master, C/E, C/O or the 2/E, who
must be satisfied that removal of the withdrawn equipment status is justified.

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10.8

Maintenance of Critical equipment

10.8.1
The Company has adopted specific testing and maintenance procedures for equipment and
systems onboard identified as critical, in order to ensure their functional reliability. Critical
equipment are all shipboard equipment, protective devices and alarm/shutdown systems, which
upon failure may place the crew, the vessel and the environment at risk, or even worse lead
directly to an accident. All critical equipment, systems and alarms are tested on a regular basis,
and a record of such testing is maintained on board. The purpose of the procedure is to ensure
that an effective control process is in place to deal with the increased risks, which may result from
the failure, disarming or deactivation of critical alarms, controls and shutdown systems.
The Company has identified in each vessels PMS the following equipment as critical:
1. Fire Alarms
2. E/R Bilge Alarms
3. Lifeboats (L/B) and L/B launching appliances
4. Cargo Hold Water Ingress Alarm System
5. Dewatering System
6. Radar/ARPA
7. Navigation lights and panel
8. Telegraph
9. Gyro Compass
10. Magnetic Compass
11. Windlass
12. Emergency Batteries for GMDSS
13. E/R trips & alarms (M/E, D/G, Boiler)
14. Emergency Generator /Batteries
15. Oily Water Separator (OWS)
16. Steering Gear
17. Emergency Air Compressor
18. Emergency Fire Pump
19. EPIRB
Operating procedures, parameters and personnel training requirements are included in each
equipment manual. The latter are kept in the ECR, the Bridge or the vessels library. The C/O and
the C/E shall ensure above information is easily accessible to personnel involved with the
operation and maintenance of this equipment. When any item from the above list requires a spare,
the relevant requisition / order (form E31) should be handled as a priority.
No critical systems, alarms, control or shut down may be by-passed, inhibited or taken out of
service without the authority of the Master and/or the C/E. Persons that are responsible for the
operation, maintenance and repair of critical equipment and systems, as well as the calibration and
adjustment of alarms and other parameters of the same, must be properly qualified, and
trained/experienced in their use. The Master or the C/E is responsible for ensuring that their
competency is sufficient to carry out the task. If there is any doubt as to their ability and
competence to carry out a particular task successfully on critical equipment or systems, then the
Office must be notified for guidance as to how to proceed.
- Responsibility for the correct maintenance lies with the C/E and the C/O.

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When any alarm or protective device is found to be defective, it must be repaired or renewed
as soon as possible. If for any reason it cannot be put back into order, immediately steps must
be taken to ensure that the system affected will be adequately monitored.
Adequate records of maintenance work and initial and final alarm and trip settings must be
maintained. Functional condition of alarms and shut down systems is a matter of constant
concern for the Company and the various external inspection bodies (PSC inspections, etc.).

Maintenance of the critical equipment is considered a priority over any other shipboard equipment.
To this effect the C/O and the C/E are urged:
- To always keep onboard a minimum safe level of spares and tools for such equipment.
- To ensure all required manufacturers maintenance manuals are readily available.
- To ensure that the engine Officers are familiar with the manuals and the relevant SMS
maintenance procedures.
Routine inspections and testing of the critical equipment shall be carried out as per PMS (form
E12), Appendix III and form D41, and appropriate records to be maintained.

10.9

Engine department systems and equipment maintenance

10.9.1.

FO and DO systems

Every effort must be made by the engineering staff to keep FO and DO losses to a minimum. FO
and DO tanks fitted with high and low suctions shall rely on the use of the low suction only. The
exception being in the event of an emergency or if large quantities of water are present. Regular
checks for the presence of water must be carried out on each E/R watch. Any water found must be
drained off immediately. On no account must be the FO and DO tanks remote quick closing suction
valves be locked or obstructed from closing. All FO and DO transferring, purifying and filtering
equipment must be maintained to ensure maximum efficiency.
10.9.2.

FO transfer system

All necessary precautions must be taken to prevent water contamination of FO. Prior to receiving
or transferring bunkers, the appropriate tanks of the bunkering vessel/shore facility must be
checked to ascertain that they do not contain any water. Bunker vents must be inspected annually,
to ensure that flame arrester screens are in proper condition and that check valves or vent flaps
are operating properly, to exclude sea water.
10.9.3.

LO systems

Quantities of LO remaining onboard must be recorded in the Engine logbook daily. In the event of
LO becoming contaminated, the Company must be notified immediately. It is the C/Es
responsibility to ensure that after receiving LO in bulk, the operation is correctly entered into the
ORB Part I.
When receiving LO in bulk, pollution prevention precautions similar to those used during bunkering
must be followed. All LO transferring, purifying and filtering equipment must be maintained to
ensure maximum efficiency.

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10.9.3.1. Greasing and lubrication schedule
lubrication/greasing schedule and record covering all machinery and equipment, must be
maintained on board. Companys instructions regarding the types of grease and oil to be used, and
manufacturer's instructions regarding frequency and quantity of lubricant must be complied with.
The C/E is responsible to establish a list of machinery requiring periodic lubrication. The
Superintendent is responsible for agreeing the specs and grades of oil for this list of machinery
with the LO supplier. A copy of the LO schedule (as well as MSDS) shall be made available
onboard and in the Office.
Some grades of oil may be taken and stored in drums on board at safe locations agreed with the
Master and lashed safely for bad weather conditions.
Bunkering of LO shall be handled with care due to the risk of pollution. Since the auto-ignition
temperature of LO is much lower than fuels, utmost safety precautions must be taken.
Regular inventory of LO shall be kept under the responsibility of the C/E, separating broached and
unbroached oils. These shall be recorded in a LO soundings book, and corrected for trim/list
similar to the FO soundings book.
The C/E is responsible for placing orders for all LO and greases for a period of time and/or the
forthcoming voyage, as applicable. The calculations for the LO consumption and next voyage
requirements should be done by a senior Engineer and checked by the C/E.
Each requirement for LO must be done by a requisition form specifying the grades, quantities and
whether in bulk or in drums. The Company requires the vessel to maintain one complete spare
running charge of M/E Crankcase oil as unbroached spare for any emergency at any time.
10.9.3.2. Losses of LO
All possible preventative action must be taken, to ensure that LO losses are kept to a minimum.
There are to be no discrepancies between the quantity of lubricants on board, and the totals
entered in the E/R Logbook. Accurate entries must always be recorded, and any indication of
abnormal losses or consumptions advised immediately to the Office.
Regular and vigilant tours of the E/R by OOEW or duty engineers are essential to check for leaks.
LO coolers using SW or FW as the cooling medium must be also periodically checked for leakage.
10.9.3.3. LO treatment
Contamination of LO can lead to severe damage and corrosion of machinery components, and it is
essential that the instructions and recommendations of the supplier are followed, and that
purification and filtration equipment is maintained to the highest standards. Care must be exercised
in the purification of LO, particularly in respect of the temperature.
10.9.3.4. LO sampling and analysis
The quality of LO of some vessels equipment must be regularly monitored. When taking large
quantities of LO, a sample should be taken from the original containers before it is introduced into
the system. When sampling oil in service, the sampling cock and pipe must be flushed through
before filling the sampling container. The sample container must always be washed out with the oil
being sampled. To this effect, the Company has established the following LO analysis program:
-

Main engine crankcase oil must be sampled and analyzed every 3 months.

Generator engine oil must also be sampled and analyzed every 3 months.

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Stern tube oil sampling and analysis frequency is set to 6 months.

Steering gear oil sampling and analysis frequency is set to 6 months.

Windlass, Mooring winch and Hatch cover hydraulic system is set to 12 months.

Deck crane hydraulic system frequency set to 12 months.

Emergency generator sump oil frequency set to 12 months.

It is essential that the sample drawn is representative of the oil circulating in the system. The
sampling points for each system should be located in accordance with the instructions provided
with the LO sampling kit. Each sampling point should be conspicuously identified and used
exclusively for the test program. Standard LO sampling points must be established and marked for
each machinery item, according to the following guidelines:
-

Sampling points should be selected according to the manufacturers manuals.

Samples should not be taken from stagnant lines. If this cannot be avoided, sufficient draining
of the line at the sampling point must be effected to ensure representative sampling. This is
especially applicable in the case of stern tube oil sampling points.

The samples must be drawn from a point on the discharge side of any LO pump, as near to the
point of entry to the engine as practical and with the oil circulating. Cold oil samples should not
be taken.

The sampling point may be before or after the LO filter or cooler. The position of this sampling
point must be noted on the sample bottle and the same point should be used for any future
sampling.

Samples must not be taken from the purifiers or coalescer suction or discharges.

The Company has arranged for standard LO analysis by a recognized laboratory. Preparation and
dispatch of the samples must be carried out according to the laboratory procedure. Each of the
samples must be sealed in the special bottles provided and a label with the vessels name, the
machinery item and the LO data must be posted on the bottle. The bottles are sent to the
laboratory via the local agent. The C/E must ensure that there is an adequate supply of sample
bottles and labels at all times.
Upon receipt of the analysis report in the Office, the Superintendent must review the results. In
case a problem is found he must send the analysis to the vessel with relevant corrective action
guidance. record of all LO analysis reports must be maintained onboard and ashore.
10.9.4.

Boiler and cooling water analysis program

Boiler water, as well as M/E and D/G cooling water must be tested every week and treated as per
maker's recommendations and chemical suppliers instructions. The results should be recorded on
the chemical supplier form in triplicate, 1st copy of which should be forwarded to the chemical
supplier for analysis at the end of each month. The 2nd copy must be forwarded to the Technical
department for follow up of analysis results. The 3rd copy must be kept in the ships files.
Upon receipt of the corresponding analysis report, the Superintendent must keep a copy in his file
and send the original report onboard. In case the analysis results show deterioration of the water
quality, the results must be passed onboard to the C/E for subsequent corrective actions.
Corrective action by the C/E mainly includes modification of the chemicals dosage and boiler blow
downs, according to instructions by the chemicals supplier and the Superintendent.

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If raw water is used as boiler feed in cases of extreme necessity, the boiler water must be tested
once per day or more often, if considered necessary.

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10.10

Engine department maintenance guidelines

The purpose of this procedure is to maintain all vessels machinery and equipment in operational
condition according to sound engineering practices, and to ensure their proper functionality by
periodical inspection and testing. Responsible for the implementation of this procedure is the C/E.
Maker's instructions regarding operation, wear measurement, periodic maintenance and overhaul
should be used for guidance. Records must contain details of maintenance carried out, faults
found, remedial action taken and spares used.
Prior to commencing a maintenance task on any piece of plant or machinery, other than routine
tasks normally undertaken while the machinery is in motion, the responsible Engineer is to ensure
that the machine has been isolated from its power supply and cannot be inadvertently restarted.
Appropriate cautionary notices are to be attached to the isolating device. The responsible Engineer
must also ensure that temperatures and pressures in the machine and associated pipe work have
been reduced to safe levels prior to commencement of work. Notices are to be placed at the
appropriate stop valves, local actuators and circuit breakers.
A Senior Officer must ensure that ships and/or shore staff onboard are appropriately fore-warned
about the works. Adequate supervision must be arranged according to the criticality.
10.10.1.

General

Maintenance, repair or inspection work on the M/E or ancillary machinery, which would:
-

result in the ship being immobilised whilst at anchor, at a port or during cargo operations, is
prohibited without the permission of the Master;

result in the ship being unable to manoeuvre at short notice, is prohibited whilst the ship is
handling cargo; and

impair the ships manoeuvrability whilst under way is prohibited without the C/E permission.

Should such maintenance, repair or inspection be unavoidable, then every effort should be made
to minimise the immobilisation time. Routine maintenance or inspections must be planned to avoid
any unnecessary delay to the ship's arrival, berthing or departure from a port.
When necessary, permission by the Port Authorities should be requested prior to proceeding to the
conduct of the work. The recommendations of the makers must be used for guidance regarding the
periodic inspection, overhaul and clearance measurements of diesel engines.
10.10.2.

Main Engine

10.10.2.1. M/E performance measurements


Main engine temperature and pressures should be taken bi-monthly. A day preferably during laden
passage with calm sea condition and wind less than 3 Beaufort scale should be selected for taking
the measurements. Measurements shall be recorded in the form E33. Engine performance
measurements should include pressure indicator diagrams. Indicator diagrams and associated
indicated pressure and indicated and brake horsepower calculations should be recorded in form
E15.
10.10.2.2. Cooling and shutting down after Finished with Engines (FWE)
As a general rule, subject to maintenance requirements following FWE and providing the engines
will not be required in less than 36 hours, the M/E is to be systematically and gradually shut down,

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according to the manufacturer's instructions. It is essential that the cooling systems are only shut
down once the residual heat in piston crowns, etc. has been dissipated.
-

In the case of oil cooled pistons this is to be a minimum of 4 hours.

In the case of water-cooled pistons this may be reduced to 1 hours.

The Jacket Water cooling system is to be shut down after a minimum period of 4 hours.

Cooling systems temperatures are to be gradually reduced before circulation is stopped, to avoid
thermal shocking of the plant.
As a general rule, a crankcase examination and hammer test should be carried out as soon as is
practical following the shut down of the M/E. Post signs stating following:

Do not start, man working inside the engine.


When work is performed on M/E and/or turning gear, the following precautions shall be observed:
-

Turning gear fuses shall be removed and fuse box door locked or circuit breakers opened.

A DO NOT OPERATE tag shall be attached to the door.

Turning gear shall not be operated:


-

Except as directed by the C/E.

By personnel inside engine, without standby personnel outside engine.

Since crankcase is considered an enclosed space, follow the relevant SMS requirements.
10.10.2.3. Work in M/E crankcase
- Do not perform hot work inside or around an open crankcase without a Hot Work Permit.
-

Use only intrinsically safe lighting.

Whenever a person is in the crankcase, have another person posted outside, capable to
respond in case of an emergency relevant with work at hand.

Clear communication is necessary between turning gear operator and others involved.

It may be necessary to have another person stand in an area to monitor moving parts and
signal to turning gear operator, if required. No additional work should be in progress on engine
or in other areas, where turning of engine might be consequential.

When performing work which requires periodic turning of engine (such as taking crank deflection
measurements), ensure that no one is in a position where movement of engine parts could result in
injury, even in the event that turning gear controls fail to shut off turning motor. In such an event,
operator of turning motor must be able to:
-

Reach motor controller.

Promptly disconnect panel.

Disconnect turning motor.

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Where one person may be inside (such as to take measurements), that person shall position
himself in a safe location, while turning gear is in operation. When working inside crankcase:
-

Take frequent brakes and drink sufficient quantities of fluids to avoid heat exhaustion.

ALCOHOL IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN.

Measure toxic vapours periodically, to assure that atmosphere remains suitable for work
without respiratory protection.

Provide adequate ventilation.

10.10.2.4. M/E inspections


- Wear all PPE, such as safety shoes with non-slip soles, long sleeves/pants, helmet, eye
protection, proper gloves, hearing protection, respiratory protection, etc.
-

Before disconnecting any pipe or fitting ensure that the system is shut down and pressure has
been relieved.

Ensure that parts removed for overhaul and spare parts are ready for use, well secured and out
of the way, as much as possible.

Clean up any oil, fuel, water, grease, etc. immediately, as cleanliness is most important around
work area. To avoid tracking oil to other areas of E/R, maintain adequate supply of wiping rags
and cleaning supplies at working site.

10.10.2.5. Performance checks and overhauls


Three of the factors used in checking the performance of an internal combustion engine are the
maximum firing pressure, the mean indicated pressure and the exhaust gas temperatures.
After making engine adjustments in port, performance measurements must be taken once the
engines have settled down under steady working conditions after "full away" has been given. The
mean indicated pressures, maximum pressures and exhaust gas temperature must then be
adjusted so that they each have very nearly the same value for each cylinder.
Performance measurements must also be taken during the voyage as the circumstances present
themselves and as indicated by the Companys policy. Indicators cards shall be attached to the
M/E performance report, form E33. If at any time there is doubt about the working or combustion of
any of the cylinders, then indicator cards should be taken in an endeavour to find the causes of the
trouble.
The governor, which should be set to act within the limits prescribed, must not be altered to permit
the engines to run at a higher rate of revolutions.
The cylinder valves i.e. fuel, air starting, relief, air inlet and exhaust valves, must be changed and
overhauled at regular periods. The period of time that each valve is kept in operation will be
dependant on the valve use and the engine rating, according to makers instructions and
experience. In the case of air inlet valves, the period between overhauls should be such that there
is no danger of the valve housing seizing in the cylinder head. After overhauling fuel valves, they
must be carefully pressure tested to see that the seats, glands, connections, etc. are tight and that
"weeping" does not occur.
Whilst under pressure test, the valve must be operated to ensure that atomization is good, the
valve must then remain tight after checking atomization.

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10.10.2.6. Crankcase
Crankcase inspections must be carried out, at, or within the maker running hours. In the case of
air starting systems, the main air starting line is to be drained and completely vented. Before a
crankcase inspection is carried out, the turning gear must be engaged, indicator cocks or other
cylinder pressure relief devices opened and the air or other starting arrangements isolated.
In the case of smaller medium speed engines and high speed engines without turning gear, the
starting arrangements must be isolated and the cylinder pressure relief devices opened. In any
case the following checks are to be carried out:
-

Sump drain grids for blockage, metal or other impurities.

If appropriate to the engine type, a LO pressure test is to be carried out.

The adequacy of the flow of oil from the bearings, its direction and pattern are to be carefully
observed and compared with the manufacturers instructions. This test can provide positive
indications towards locating faulty bearings.

Take feeler clearances according to manufacturers instructions.

As appropriate to the engine type and to built-up crankshafts, the proof marks should be
examined for correct alignment and the Office must be informed if there is any doubt.

The running gear such as the crankshaft, main bearings, bottom end bearings, top end bearings,
guides etc. must be examined as every opportunity occurs, preferably as soon as the crankcase is
safe to enter, after the "finished with engines" order is given. In carrying out this examination,
attention must be given to the locking arrangements and tightness of all nuts, LO pipes, piston
cooling pipes and glands, if fitted, oil drainage arrangements, drainage lines, etc. A sharp look out
must also be kept for any sign of white metal flakes or splinters, as these are often evident if any
bearings have "wiped" or tended to "run". Attention must also be given to crankshaft coupling bolts.
The welding of main bearing girders must be examined for signs of cracking.
The chains and/or gearing driving the camshaft must also be examined. The chains must be kept
at the proper tension. The crankcase doors are always replaced between overhauling periods to
ensure that as little moisture as possible condenses in the crankcase. Care should be exercised to
see that ventilators are not directed into the crankcase for the same reason.
Crankcase pressure release doors, which are fitted to each M/E crankcase, should be inspected
periodically and the diaphragm, where fitted, renewed if damaged.
The following instructions regarding the prevention of explosions and fires in crankcases are to be
prominently displayed on the engine and all Engine Officers are to be familiar with them:
NOTICE: EARLY DETECTION OF OVERHEATING AND PROMPT SLOWING DOWN OR
STOPPING OF THE ENGINE, AS CIRCUMSTANCES PERMIT, WILL PREVENT THE
OCCURRENCE OF CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE TO FIRE OR EXPLOSION.
CRANKCASE DOORS OR INSPECTION DOORS SHOULD NOT BE OPENED AND THE
ENGINE NOT RESTARTED UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN.
10.10.2.7. Holding down bolts
The tightness of holding down bolts, particularly of main and auxiliary engines, must be checked
and the chocks should also be tested to ascertain that no movement or fretting has taken place.
Precautions to be exercised when checking holding down bolts with resilient pads that the

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alignment is not distorted. It is also necessary to check these parts if the vessel has been in heavy
weather.
10.10.2.8. Crankshaft deflections and wear down gauge readings
In order to prevent crankshaft failure and breakdowns, it is essential to maintain the main bearings
of an engine in true alignment. The alignment must be checked as per makers instructions, with
the main bearing bridge gauge and the crankweb deflection gauge. In taking these measurements
(form E17), care must be taken to see that the journal is bedding on its bearing. The thickness of
the lower half main bearing shells must also be measured/recorded, if the reduction in thickness of
individual bearing shells is not uniform then the differences will be a true record of misalignment.
A chart is provided by the engine manufacturers which gives the various tolerances which may be
allowed. The clock gauge readings taken should be checked against this chart to ascertain that
alignment is within satisfactory limits.
10.10.2.9. Lubricating oil filters
Lubricating oil filters can be found both on the suction and discharge sides of the LO pump and
their maintenance is important to the life expectancy of the crankshaft and its bearings. The LO
filter is the final barrier preventing particulate matter (solid impurities) from reaching the engine
bearings. If the particulate size is greater than the hydrodynamic film thickness (i.e. 0.002 to 0.007
mm) then mechanical damage will occur to the bearing shell wearing surfaces and the journal and
crankpin surfaces of the crankshaft. Failure to maintain an adequate flow of clean LO will lead to
bearing failure and possible severe damage to the crankshaft.
The long, small diameter filter candles should be cleaned according to makers instructions. Under
no circumstances must dirty cleaning fluid be allowed to flow into the open clean side of the filter
candle, as it is almost impossible to get dirt out again either by blowing or flushing. Such
dirt/impurities, however, will almost certainly find its way directly into the engine once the filter
element is back in service. Therefore, when hand-cleaning, the filter candles must stand upright in
the cleaning tank (not lying on the bottom) and the fluid level in the cleaning tank must be low
enough to ensure no fluid flows into the clean side of the candles. Actual cleaning is done by
blowing the filter candles with compressed air cleaning gun from the inside of the filter. The
cleaning tank must only be used for cleaning filter candles and for no other cleaning work.
On many vessels, the actual cleaning work is usually left to people who do not always realise the
importance of proper cleaning, servicing and assembly of LO filters. It is therefore important that
the C/E ensures total quality control on this service works. If no quality control is carried out, the
filters may actually cause damage to the engine which they are meant to protect. The cleaning
procedures are to be monitored and verified and any substandard cleaning immediately corrected.
Proper assembly and checking that the clean and dirty side of the filter elements are positively
sealed against each other (o-ring, gaskets, etc. in good order) is essential. Study of the filter
makers instructions is essential for anybody entrusted with cleaning, servicing and quality control.
-

After cleaning, the cleanliness and condition are to be carefully checked and any elements
replaced should the filter-mesh be damaged.

Throw-away filter cartridges made from cellulose or similar material must never be cleaned and
reused. These filters must be discarded when dirty and new cartridges fitted.

The use of LO filter by-pass valves is for emergency operation only and must never be opened
during routine starting or running conditions.

Care must be taken during refitting of filtering cartridges to ensure that gasket, compression
springs, etc. are in position and in good condition, to avoid any oil bypassing the filtering mesh.

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Indications of pressure drops and alarms must be maintained operational and must be tested
according to makers recommendations.

10.10.2.10.
Governors and overspeed trips
Attention is drawn to the testing of overspeed trip and protection devices. The condition of the
linkage coupling the engines fuel pump actuating levers and the governor is also to be regularly
examined. The governor cannot compensate for either seized fulcrum pins or excessive
clearances.
10.10.2.11.
Pre-lubrication pumps
They provide an essential part of the lubrication system on many types of engine, in particular
Auxiliary Engines with engine driven LO pumps. They provide a supply of oil to the bearings prior
to start up and limit the length of time that boundary lubrication exists, and shorten the time when
hydrodynamic lubrication commences.
10.10.2.12.
Torsional Vibration Dampers (TVD)
It is essential that the units which use Silicone have taken at the recommended intervals. Some
units have a limited lifespan and the Office must be informed when the change out running hours
are approaching the limit.
10.10.2.13.
Oil mist detectors
All alarms from oil mist detectors are to be treated as an emergency situation and the engine
stopped. False alarms must be reported to the Office immediately. The oil mist detector shall be
tested for correct operation frequently.
10.10.2.14.
Thrust block
The clearances between the thrust pads and the thrust collar must be checked as per makers
instructions unless instructed otherwise by the Office. The condition of the thrust collar surfaces
must also be noted. The oil pressure alarms must also be kept in good order.
10.10.2.15.
Stern tube bearings
The oil in the propeller stern tube bearings must be kept in good condition and the cooling water
connections kept in good working order. If any of these bearings tend to overheat, a note to this
effect should be made in the Engine logbook.
10.10.2.16.
Turbochargers
Great care must be exercised in the operation and maintenance of turbochargers. It is essential to
avoid the build up of fuel, cylinder or LO in the exhaust trunking before the turbocharger, as it may
result in combustion in the exhaust manifold. Under these conditions the increase in quantity of
exhaust gas available to the turbocharger can result in disastrous overspeeding. The conditions
leading to this phenomenon are generally to be found following long periods of slow steaming.
Overhauls: In the case of turbochargers using ball bearings, the overhaul period is generally
controlled by the manufacturers recommendations regarding the change out of these bearings.
Please ensure that the correct recommended and authorised bearings are used. At each overhaul,
the following procedures are to be checked by the C/E:
- Cleaning and inspection of all parts, as appropriate.
-

Bearings change (ball bearing type).

LO pump change (ball bearing type).

Balancing of the Rotor assembly.

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Checking of the intake grid integrity.

Examination for erosion and crack detection of the nozzle ring.

Ultrasonic testing of the casings, particularly at cooling water inlet if any.

Checking and re-securing of the silencer felt, as required.

Cleaning of the air filter elements.

Examination of the bearing resilient housing.

Measuring and recording of the impeller, bearings, thrust, seal clearances, as appropriate to
the type of turbocharger.

Change of oil charge.

Surging turbocharger cleaning: Cleaning of the turbocharger while the M/E is running must be in
accordance with makers instructions. The washing process of the compressor side can result in
deposits building up on the scavenge air cooler lines, and must therefore be followed if possible by
cleaning of the air cooler. If this is not possible, then cleaning of the compressor side of the
turbocharger must not be carried out whilst the M/E is running.
10.10.3.

Generators

The generating plant must be maintained to the highest standards as per makers instructions. The
protective alarms and trips must be regularly tested, when possible, and the results recorded in the
form E27. The D/G must be inspected/overhauled as per PMS(E12). The emergency generator
engine and alternator must be inspected annually.
Switchboards and distribution boards must be checked on a regular basis for cleanliness and
ensure that all protective devices are fully operational.
During manoeuvring, entering and leaving port or transiting areas of restricted navigation, at least 2
generators/alternators must be running in parallel. Defects that do not allow at least 2 generators to
run in parallel must be reported to the Company. Any accidental over speed, overheating, blackout
or major failure must be also reported.
Makers instructions with regard to maintenance, overhaul and critical components such as
connecting rods, bottom end bolts, shell bearings, pistons, etc. should be followed. All
maintenance, overhauls and repairs must be fully and accurately recorded.
The instructions given for main machinery are also applicable to auxiliary engines, generally the
routine inspections must be carried out at much more frequent periods. The crankcase inspection
is most important and must be carried out after a machine is shut down following a long run.
The LO in the engine system must be treated with the same care as the oil in the M/E system, but
with auxiliary engines there is usually more risk of fuel contamination.
Oil cleaning arrangement i.e. filters or similar equipment must be kept in use the whole time the
engine is working. If for any reason this equipment is not kept in use, a note must be made in the
E/R logbook that the equipment was not used and the reason given for not using it.
The minimum number of auxiliary engines should be run to maintain the electrical requirements.
The C/O should be consulted regarding the deck requirements in port. The reduction in the number
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of auxiliary engines will not only result in fuel saving but primarily in reduction in auxiliary
maintenance and will allow better engine performance. It must be stressed that in emergency
situations, the possibility of a blackout must not delay the decision to shut down machinery. When
the vessel is in confined waters, the above should not apply, as enough auxiliary engines should
be run to provide an ample supply of power to cope with any such emergency.
When not being maintained, all non-running engines should be kept in STAND BY condition to
allow quick starting in cases of need. Regular checks should be made by an Engineer Officer to
ensure that the cylinders of these engines are clear of water or fuel. Diesel engines should be
barred over once a day.
Serious damage may be caused by water leaking from defective turbo-blower casings into the
cylinders via the exhaust manifolds. Water accumulation may also occur from leaking cylinder
heads or cylinder liners. Fuel may also accumulate from leaking fuel combustion equipment.
Drain cocks in exhaust and inlet manifolds are to remain open, when machines are at rest and
should be regularly tested and proved clear of blockages, especially prior to stopping machines.
Each type of engine is designed to operate at specified limits as per manufacturer's instructions.
Exhaust temperatures are the best guide to cylinder output. It is important to maintain a near equal
power output from each cylinder and this should be checked frequently (form E12) by taking peak
pressures and by balancing individual cylinder loads, or cylinder banks in "V" type engines.
Records of D/G temperatures and pressures must be kept in the diesel generator performance
report (form E16).
10.10.3.1. Emergency Diesel Generator
The emergency D/G must be tested each week (form D41 weekly routines) and, where possible,
be run under load at least 3-monthly, (form D41 quarterly routines). The test run should be of not
less than 30 minutes, and the load should be as near to the capacity of the generator, to ensure
that normal running temperature and pressures are achieved. Navigation equipment at the
emergency switchboard must be isolated during the test. Before the black out, an assessment
should be made of the effect on the gyro compasses, computers and other sensitive equipment.
Provision of uninterruptible power supplies may be considered necessary in view of the potential
consequences of an unplanned black out.
The prime mover is to be started by a simulated power failure (and on alternate weeks by other
optional methods available).
Suitable frost precautions must be taken with water cooled engines. On air-cooled engines the air
path is to be maintained unrestricted, with venting arrangements clear of obstruction and free to
operate.
Any faults or defects in the emergency generator/alternator, its prime mover and associated
equipment, must be rectified and immediately reported to the Office.
Where automatic starting arrangements are fitted, opening the inter-connector feeder breaker at
the main switchboard may simulate the loss of the main source of power. Alternatively, if an interconnector is not installed, the supply to the emergency generator "auto-start" controller may be
switched off from the main source of electrical power. Where automatic starting arrangements are
not fitted, the emergency generator must be manually started. If an inter-connector is fitted, then
this may need to be switched off to permit the emergency generator to take load.

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Steps are to be taken to ensure that the emergency generator prime mover can be satisfactorily
started by all means fitted for this purpose, i.e. manual starting and any cold starting arrangements.
Inspections of vessels by the Port State Control authorities may include a test of the emergency
sources of power, and check of the crew's familiarity with their related duties.
10.10.4.

Main and Auxiliary machinery overspeed protection devices

It is imperative that machinery safety devices are maintained in working order, and that they are
tested at regular intervals according to the makers instructions. The shutdown systems fitted to
each machine are to be tested at intervals not exceeding 3 months. The Engineer Officers carrying
out the trip tests are to consult the makers manual to ensure that they are fully conversant with the
operation of the shutdowns, in particular the overspeed device and the method of testing it. Should
there be any doubt about how to test the device he must contact the Office.
The operation of protection systems must also be checked after any maintenance is carried out on
the machinery, which could in any way affect the operation of the shut downs or associated
equipment. In such cases the engine must only be started under controlled conditions where it can
be shut down immediately should a protection device, such as the overspeed shutdown, fails.
Remote control and automation failures have been known to occur, especially in pneumatically
operated systems. This can be due to insufficient maintenance or lack of overhaul being carried
out on pilot or solenoid valves.
Problems are also caused by poor quality control air. The dehydrators must be maintained in good
condition. Operation of air cleaning systems must be monitored as part of watch keepers checks.
They must in addition note any quantity of oil or water drained or exhausted from any components
of control systems and the source of such contamination must also be traced. Any failure of the air
purification system which cannot be repaired immediately is to be reported to the Office at once.
An entry for pneumatic valves or devices inspection and overhaul is included in the PMS. Function
checks are normally sufficient to ensure sound operation, but ALL critical valves (i.e. valves which
control main and auxiliary systems and whose failure could have serious impact on the vessels
safe operation) must be opened for inspection and overhaul at least once every 3 years or earlier,
if so stipulated by the makers.
When a vessel enters management, testing and confirming the operation of all engine protection
devices is to be carried out at the earliest practical opportunity.
10.10.5.

Condenser and heat exchanger maintenance

The salt water sides of condensers and other heat exchangers must be kept as clean as possible.
Condensers and heat exchangers must be cleaned when the temperature rise across the
condenser/exchanger exceeds the maker's recommendations. Each time the inspection plates are
removed, the division plate must be inspected. The cathodic protectors should be cleaned and
renewed when necessary. record must be kept of all plugged/blocked tubes.
10.10.6.

Cooling water systems (salt and fresh)

Every effort must be made to minimise the loss of cooling water from all machinery. Cooling water
treatment suppliers instructions must be followed to ensure the correct concentration of chemicals

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are maintained. Regular monitoring of the cooling water condition must be maintained under C/Es
responsibility.
Engine cooling water analysis measurements should be sent to the Company office every month.
Shore supplied water should not be used until suitable tests for salinity being carried out and
content proves to be acceptable, unless an emergency situation develops and dictates otherwise.
In the event of sea water leakage developing, extreme caution must be exercised before
attempting any repair. Any unnecessary risk must be avoided when carrying out repairs to the main
sea water lines and associated systems.
10.10.6.1. Diesel Engine cooling water quality
An alkaline condition must always be maintained in the FW cooling system. Where a proprietary
brand of water treatment is used, the suppliers recommendations regarding dosage and tests
must be followed and routinely reported to the Office and the suppliers. During diesel engine
overhauls, internal cooling surfaces are to be examined and any build up of material, which would
adversely affect proper heat transfer or flow of cooling water, recorded. In vessels fitted with
cooling water drain tanks for use during engine overhauls, these tanks are to be kept clean and
ready for use.
10.10.6.2. Flooding of Engine department during maintenance
Incidents have occurred whereby main SW systems undergoing maintenance have been
inadvertently operated, resulting in the flooding of the Engine department. It is the responsibility of
the C/E to issue standing instructions to all Engine department staff regarding the impending
maintenance of any system or machinery, and also, that the said systems or machinery must not
be operated until confirmation is received from the C/E that the maintenance is satisfactorily
completed, and it is safe to operate. The isolation of any SW pipework system for the purpose of
maintenance to machinery or repair to the pipeline must be supervised by the C/E or the 2nd
Engineer.
10.10.7.

Hydraulic systems

Any oil leaks must be repaired at the first opportunity, as per makers instructions. Prior to
carrying out any maintenance on a hydraulic oil system, the accumulators must be isolated and
the system pressure released.

To avoid contamination of the systems, the correct grade of oil for each system must be used.

It is essential that operating oil (hydraulic fluid) contained within hydraulic systems is
maintained in a clean condition. Failure to do so will result in poor operating performance,
component failure and increased maintenance.

Dirt is the worst enemy of any hydraulic system and not only the oil but the total environment in
which the system is sited must be kept spotlessly clean. Hydraulic station rooms are not be
used as storage areas for other items which are not associated with the plant.

Oil samples are to be sent for analysis every 3 months. When in operation, the hydraulic plant is
to be regularly checked for external leakage, contamination, damage, noise level, instrument level,
temperature, oil levels, accumulator pressure (nitrogen only to be used) and short cycling of
system pressure pumps on valve operating systems.
Disposable filter elements are to be changed as specified by the manufacturer. Should any debris
be found in the filter or filter chamber, the Office is to be notified. The contaminated filter is to be
placed (sealed) in a clean plastic bag ready for analysis of the debris. The C/E must investigate the
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plant in order to locate the source of the contamination. Reusable filters must be opened and
cleaned as per the manufacturers instructions.
The ideal operating temperature for hydraulic oil is 50oC but temperatures may be between 60C 80C. It must be taken into account that the higher the operating temperature, the more quickly the
oil ages. If overheating occurs, it is essential that the reason be found and eliminated.
Should hydraulic oil be drained from the system for maintenance or repair purposes, then upon
completion the system is to be bled of any trapped air.
Bleed the system at the load lines as far as possible, and if possible at the highest points. Switch
the directional control valves several times between their possible positions. Check reservoir tank
oil levels after bleeding.

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10.10.8.

Air conditioning

Drains and scuppers on heat exchangers and plummer boxes must always be clear. The C/E has
to verify that the air is correctly distributed, but no modifications are allowed unless specifically
approved by the Office. Accommodation doors must be closed at all times, while air conditioning is
in operation.
10.10.9.

Refrigerators

Temperatures in all refrigerated spaces should be maintained within the proper ranges. Any
abnormal temperature must be investigated immediately and restored to normal. Refrigerator
personnel alarms must be tested at monthly intervals.
All makers recommendations have to be carried out regularly. The test of all cut outs i.e. HP, LP,
LO, HT have to be carried out at annual interval.
-

Machinery under C/Es responsibility may include domestic ref. plant, cargo ref. plants, air
conditioning plants and ventilation and heating plants.

Filter separators and driers should be regularly cleaned in order to have always the circuit
moisture, dirty and oil free.

When shutting down a plant, all refrigerant gas must be pumped in the liquid receiver or
condenser.

Temperatures of domestic refrigerated rooms have to be corrected daily by the 2nd Engineer.

10.10.9.1. Refrigerant gas losses


It is important that gas losses are minimised in systems since they are both expensive and a
danger to health. The system is therefore to be kept in an absolutely gas-tight condition. Before
carrying out repairs, the refrigerant should be pumped down to the liquid receiver or the condenser.
The remaining gas should be vented off and the area well ventilated. According to Annex VI of
MARPOL, gas dumping to atmosphere must be avoided at all costs.
Certain refrigerant gases (e.g. R-12) presently in use will be phased out (no longer supplied). The
replacement gas may require new or substantially modified refrigeration compressors.
10.10.10. LO coolers, purifiers, coalescers and strainers
LO coolers, coalescers and strainers must be operated and maintained in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations. sufficient supply of spare parts shall be always kept on board.
Records of inspection/overhaul of the above equipment are kept in the form E12.
10.10.11. FO purifiers, blenders and other FO conditioners
Filters do not address the problem of water contamination or the large scale removal of solids,
which centrifugal purification does deal with. Centrifugal purification on a long term basis is as
important as filtration is on a short term basis. Centrifugal purification operating on a bypass
system from the main LO system under engine operating conditions will control contamination from
both sources.
When the engine is not in use, batch purification of the entire LO charge can be carried out. The oil
is pumped to the vessels renovating tank and then fed by gravity through the centrifugal
purification process which can remove the contamination from both sources.
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Centrifugal purifiers must be operated as per makers instructions, with emphasis on the correct
sizing of gravity discs (or dam rings), sludging cycles and spot checks that purifier rotational speed
is correct.
Of utmost importance is the fuel treatment. Fuel must be homogenous and free of water and
abrasive particles that may damage the parts of the circuit. The purifier gravity disc must be
checked and changed when required, and the purifiers must be opened and checked (in particular
when self cleaning type) at regular intervals according to makers instructions.
When dismantling purifiers for cleaning, care must be taken in handling the various parts so that
they are not damaged and the balance lost. If a machine is in the least way out of balance, trouble
will be experienced with the bowl spindle bearings. Similarly, the cleaning must be properly carried
out, as again indifferent cleaning results in loss of bowl balance. The purifier should be examined
for corrosion or pitting on any part of the bowl, cover and plates.
The various pumps must be kept in good order and valves kept tight. All glands and joints must
also be kept tight, so that leakage and spillage is kept to a minimum.
Purifiers must not be operated with any sight glass open, because this allows inflammable gases to
escape into the engine room, creating a fire hazard.
Operation of the FO purifiers must be influenced by the results of any analysis carried out on the
fuel. When centrifuging poor quality fuel (as defined by the fuel analysis report), operation of the
purifiers must be closely monitored to avoid contamination of the FO service tank(s). Full
consultation with the Technical department is required, should the FO analysis show that the fuel
to be purified is outside the operating parameters of the onboard fuel treatment plant.
An adequate supply of spares to maintain this equipment must be always maintained on board.
Inspection date records of fuel conditioning equipment are kept in the form E12.

10.10.12. Rudder and propeller Inspection


Whenever safe and possible, the C/E must inspect the visible portions of the rudder and propeller
when the ship is in light condition.
10.10.13. Engine department overboard valves
All overboard valves in the Engine department must be operated through their full travel at least
once every month.
The main emergency bilge suction valve must be opened for inspection and overhauled, as
necessary, during major repair periods.
10.10.14. Idle machinery
Idle machinery must be turned over at least once a week and inspected for defects. Electric motors
should be heated to maintain insulation resistance where Megger readings indicate a deterioration
of the insulation.

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10.10.15. Evaporators
The working density of evaporators should not be allowed to rise above the makers
recommendation. Feed water regulators and brine ejection equipment must be kept in order. When
the evaporator is in use, it must be treated with the selected scale retarding chemical. The
treatment is to be continuous rather than in "slug" form and is to conform to the suppliers dosage
rates.
Evaporators must be maintained to the highest standard and utilized to their maximum efficiency.
The distilled water quality must be accurately monitored at all times, salinometers must be fully
maintained and calibrated. The evaporator output must be accurately monitored and recorded in
the Engine logbook daily. Chemical cleaning must be carried out every month.
10.10.16. Engine department pumps
10.10.16.1. Reciprocating pumps
The stroke of reciprocating pumps must be adjusted so that it is a maximum, as this then reduces
"ridging" in the steam cylinders and pump barrels. Suction and delivery valves must be kept in
good condition by regular attention.
10.10.16.2. Rotary pumps
Centrifugal and other types of rotary pumps usually depend on the maintenance of fine clearances
for their successful operation. Attention must be given to see that the correct clearances are
maintained, it must also be remembered that fine clearances are often destroyed through fitting
joints of too thick material. The glands of rotary pumps are also important, in many cases the gland
is arranged on the suction side of the pump and sealing connections are fitted.
Pumps overhaul records shall be kept in the form E12.
After overhaul of rotary pumps, it is essential that the shaft alignment between the prime mover
and the pumps is maintained, failure to maintain this alignment leads to gland trouble and
excessive wear on shafts, this is of particular importance to pumps fitted with gland seals.
10.10.17. Oily Water Separator (OWS)
It is essential that OWS is operated and maintained correctly and strictly in accordance with
International regulations and makers instructions. An operation manual for the OWS must be
onboard. Crew members involved in the use of the OWS must be familiar with its contents. They
must also practice with the unit in order to become fully conversant in its use and be able to
demonstrate their ability and knowledge of its operation.
Annual operational tests and checks of the OWS and associated equipment must be carried out in
accordance with the PMS and also no later than 24 hours before arrival in port, where possible.
Such tests must be recorded in the Engine logbook and in the Oil Record Book.
Any defects discovered with the OWS and associated equipment must be reported to the
Company and rectified without delay. If the vessel is about to enter a port knowing that the OWS is
defective, the fact must be reported in the pre-arrival notices via agents according to local
regulations.
All entries entered into the ORB must be up-to-date, accurate, truthful and in full compliance with
MARPOL requirements.

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Any flanges located at or near the OWS equipment and overboard discharge valves not used as a
matter of course must be blanked off. These may exist as original or modified construction.
Flanges should be removed from any flexible hoses maintained on board, in order to avoid creating
wrongful suspicion of an illegal by-pass of the OWS equipment.

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10.11

Electrical and electronic equipment maintenance guidelines

Work on electrical systems and equipment is considered a specialised work and must be
undertaken only by qualified personnel from the ships staff or a shore contractor.
Work on electrical equipment in an area where an explosive atmosphere may be present requires
special precautions and permit from the Master. He shall ensure that qualified persons are doing
the work, in compliance with regulations in force and with adequate safety precautions in place.
The Master shall ensure that the personnel are supervised and all measures are taken to avoid
any accidents or injuries from such work.
The installation of unauthorised electrical equipment, temporary wiring and portable equipment is
prohibited. Advice from Class and the Company must be sought for changing any configurations.
It is of vital importance for the safe execution of the work on electrical equipment and fittings to
comply with all regulations and recommendations in force. The materials used shall conform to the
regulations and certification provided, where applicable.
The Electrician is responsible for the safe operation of the electrical installation, the control
systems and the electronic equipment onboard, including bridge equipment. He is following the
PMS for the installation under his responsibility, including keeping the relevant records, drafting the
monthly repair work list (reporting) and maintaining the electrical spare parts supplies, inventory
and drawings. He is responsible for the maintenance of all electrical motors onboard and their
documentation. The list of the major motors must be always updated, and the type/number of their
bearings documented. In case that some of the bearings require greasing, this should be carried
out according to the makers instructions and the periodic greasing procedure must be recorded.
A major requirement of the jobs undertaken is the safety precautions taken during the various
repair/maintenance works. A brief outline of the safety precautions is repeated here:
-

Goggles and protective clothing to be worn at all times.

Fuse pullers must be always used.

Electrical tools used, including instruments must be properly isolated and in good condition.

Working area must be free from live adjacent equipment as much as possible.

Insulating type approved mats must be always used (min 15000V, AC).

No metal articles must be worn (watches, etc).

Special care to be taken when working with batteries (PPE, ventilation, possibility of dangerous
gases emission).

The operational checks of the following equipment (and the operational value recording, if
applicable) must be carried out on a daily basis:
-

ICCP system (where fitted).

Intermediate shaft earthing device.

Marine growth system (where fitted)

A weekly maintenance routine to be followed, which should include:


-

Cleaning including wiping the ventilation opening with a dry cloth.

Tightening of screws in all parts of the equipment.


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-

Keeping units free from dirt, dust and splash as possible.

Inspect the corrosion of printed circuit boards, rust on the wires of components and their
soldering. Clean splashes and salts on the printed circuit boards, rust on wires of components.

Inspect the cable connections between units, wiring connections between each block inside the
unit.

Special attention to be given to the radar scanners (wipe off the radiator dust gently with soft
cloth soaked in water or alcohol without using chemical cleaners, lubricate scanner rotary
driving section, keep waveguide flanges painted).

High Voltage Systems (i.e. Voltages exceeding 100 volts): All maintenance and testing of high
voltage equipment must be carried out only by qualified staff strictly in accordance with the
Companys regulations and the Companys procedures for safe work performance (SMSM
Ch.7.9.5).
Circuit Breakers: Main Circuit Breakers are to be clearly labelled to ensure that the Engine
department staff do not inadvertently trip or try to close an incorrect circuit breaker.
10.11.1.

Repair of navigation and communication equipment

When a fault occurs on any of the navigation and communication equipment not covered by the
shore based maintenance contract and which cannot be readily rectified by ship staff, an approved
repair subcontractor should be contacted for assistance. Initially they will attempt to diagnose the
fault and ascertain if repair by shipboard personnel is feasible. If this is the case, they will provide
the necessary instructions and advice to ensure that the repair is carried out satisfactorily. If such
repair proves to be non-viable, they will arrange for a service visit to be made to the ship and will
ensure that the attending serviceman always has the required spares.
10.11.2.

Megger Tests

The electrical insulation is an extremely important parameter regarding the maintenance of


electrical equipment. The excessively humid and corrosive ambient conditions and temperature
extremes occurring during the life cycle of shipboard electric motors, generators and other circuits
adversely affect the insulating varnice, the windings and other power component wiring.
Low insulation values need to be timely identified to avoid damage to equipment and accidents
caused by leakage currents. Therefore the need arises for frequent insulation resistance or Megger
tests. Megger tests must be carried out at least quarterly, covering the complete set of motors and
other equipment requiring testing within this interval. The Company provides the form E25 for
recording test results i.e. insulation values between current bearing components and the ground.
The tests must be carried out using an approved and calibrated Megger tester, by the Electrician or
the C/E. Before testing, it must be ensured that the test is appropriate for each component
involved, since the procedure involves applying high voltage to the test component.
10.11.3.

Emergency batteries condition inspection

Large marine battery applications are provided by the following types:


-

Non Sealed - Lead Acid

Sealed - Alkaline e.g. Nickel Cadmium or Nyffe cells.

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The use/storage of the two different types in the same system/room is not permitted. The makers
instructions are to be carefully adhered to.
Each vessel is equipped with emergency batteries sets, used to provide power to critical and
communication equipment, when the main source of power fails. The following emergency battery
sets are installed onboard ships:
-

For GMDSS equipment.

For ECR alarm monitoring system.

For emergency lighting and other similar emergency loads, whenever no emergency generator
is available onboard.

For emergency generator starting, if such machinery is available onboard.

Usually all above battery sets comprise a number of leadacid batteries connected in parallel and
in series to provide the required voltage and supply current. Emergency batteries are charged by
purpose installed battery chargers.
Each battery in each set and the battery chargers must be inspected at least weekly by the C/E or
the Electrician to ensure good condition and correct operation. Battery condition must be recorded
in the form E28.
The following battery parameters should be checked:
-

Battery open circuit voltage.

Battery electrolyte density (if of the open type).

The following battery charger parameters should be checked:


- Charger power supply available and correct voltage value.
- Charger voltage and current output are correct (check by local and independent indicators).
Regarding the GMDSS equipment, the following additional checks should be carried out:
-

The audible alarm is activated.

The audible alarm stops when the verification button is pushed down.

The MAIN equipment is under voltage.

The SECONDARY equipment acquires voltage.

When the SECONDARY equipment is going to be activated, the MAIN equipment stops to
operate.

During the aforementioned tests the A-meter indicates the discharge current.

After the completion of tests, the main power supply must be re-established on the console.
Confirmation that all units are under voltage shall be made.

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10.12

Defects, failure and damage of hull, machinery and equipment

10.12.1.

Introduction

This procedure intends to provide general guidance on handling defects, mal-functions and damage
of systems and equipment and should be considered along with para. 10.3.
10.12.2.

Responsibility

The Master and the C/E are jointly responsible to determine the necessity, extend and degree of
urgency of repairs in response to defects, failures and/or damages of machinery and equipment
onboard the ship. They shall be furthermore responsible to report to the Company defects with
precise description, and proposed corrective actions to restore.
10.12.3.

Defects

The PMS is established to minimize the occurrence of steel structure deterioration and equipment
breakdowns and defects. However, such defects may happen and the Company has established
procedures for their categorization, recording, monitoring and effective rectification. A defect may
also be called failure, breakdown, damage or malfunction and is a fault in the structure,
fittings, machinery or equipment of the vessel. Recording, reporting and the timely correction of
defects is an essential element of safety and environmental protection and good management.
This procedure should NOT be followed when defects are minor or considered normal wear and
tear and can be rectified on board without assistance from the Office. In such cases the Technical
Superintendent must be notified through the Sunday Review Report.
Defects are divided in 3 categories depending on their severity and the urgency of rectification.
-

Defects which must be rectified immediately, since they are directly affecting the operation of
the vessel. Such defects are notified to the Office using the Defect Report (form E30).

Defects which can be entered in the PMS. These include defects which do not need urgent
maintenance, but can be taken care by the crew during normal ship operation. Thus
permanent repair can be scheduled in the PMS. Such defects are also notified to the Office
using the Defect Report (form E30).

Defects which require extensive resources and time to be rectified and/or the vessels
stoppage and they do not need immediate correction. Rectification of these is usually
scheduled for the next major repair period.

The defect reporting system is based on a requirement to positively report every defect which
exists on a ship. Management will assume that if, in respect of any piece of equipment or structure,
no defect is reported then no defect exists. The defect reporting system thus becomes the prime
tool for the assessment of a ship's operating capability.
Whenever a damage occurs affecting or putting at risk the vessel, the crew or the environment, as
a result of inadequate conformance to the SMS, the relevant procedures of SMSM Chapter 9 must
be followed and documentation for non-conformity, etc. must be prepared.
The Superintendent is to inform all relevant parties and arrange spare parts and/or specialist
contractors services. He shall also ensure that the vessel is kept informed of details relating to the
arrival of specialist contractors, surveyors and/or delivery/uplift of spare parts, etc. The Master/C/E
is to monitor the progress of the corrective actions, keeping the Superintendent informed.
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10.12.4.

Procedures for identifying and recording defects

Identification of defects is mainly carried out through the following procedures:


-

The continuous inspection of the vessel by the crew during everyday work onboard.

The continuous monitoring of the maintenance reports submitted to the Office.

The established Senior Officers and Superintendents inspections.

Accidents and incidents.

Classification Societys surveys.

Internal and external audits.

Third party inspections, Flag State/P&I/PSC inspections, etc.

Superintendents are responsible for keeping the Companys Management advised of all defects
and particularly of those that cannot be readily corrected by ship and Company own resources.
Management is then responsible for reviewing the situation to establish what further action may be
necessary to correct, or minimize the impact of that defect. Any significant defect/repair on the hull
or on the machinery monitored by the ships Class should also be reported to the Class.
10.12.5.

Monitoring of defects

Defects are recorded in a specific database monitored by the Technical department. List of all
pending defects are distributed to all Superintendent engineers and Technical Manager for their
perusal and actions. The vessels Superintendent shall take whatever action is necessary to
correct the situation, as soon as possible.
For each defect a unique identification system shall apply. All history files (msgs, reports, etc)
related to the case should be characterized accordingly, in order for each case all history data to
be available in a systematic way.
In case there is a lack of resources (e.g. spares, specialists, tools) the Superintendent must be
immediately notified for further action. When required, the repair is surveyed and approved by a
Class or a Flag State surveyor, as appropriate.
Defects that need immediate repair take priority in the work planning. The Company recognizing
the above and that unscheduled repair work may conflict with planned work, cargo and other
vessel operations, has established unscheduled work planning meetings. If during the meeting it is
identified that significant risks will be caused by execution of the work, despite other works
rescheduling, the unscheduled work should be communicated to the Superintendent. The
Superintendent shall assess the relevant risk and advise the ship accordingly.
Each defect considered as rectified and relevant case as closed only after receiving a written
report by the Master, the C/E or the Superintendent Engineer. Reoccurring problems for all vessels
of the fleet should be brought to the attention of the Technical Manager, Operation Manager, DPA
and Managing Director for their perusal and actions.

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10.13

Performance monitoring

10.13.1.

General

This section provides general guidance on vessels performance monitoring.


10.13.2.

Responsibility

The Superintendent Engineers are responsible of the performance monitoring.


10.13.3.

Monitoring of performance

10.13.3.1. Main Engine


Monitoring the vessels noon/arrival/departure reports are sent by the vessels and follow-up the
Main Engine indicator cards (Form E15). In case of correction action needed, this is normally
handled by the vessels Superintendent.
10.13.3.2. Diesel generator
Follow-up the auxiliary engine performance by evaluating the performance reports sent by the
vessels. Records of D/G temperatures and pressures must be kept in the diesel generator
performance report (form E16).
10.13.3.3. Bunkers and lubricants
Monitor the daily consumption of bunker and main lubricants, analyzing the data provided by the
vessels at their noon/arrival/departure routine reports. In case of over-consumption, cause analysis
is prepared in coordination with the vessels Superintendent engineer, who gives instructions to the
vessel to restore. Quality of fuel, diesel oil and lubricants is verified through sampling and analysis
by contracting laboratories. In case of out of specification deviations, actions are taken by
Technical department.
10.13.3.4. Reporting
Poor performance conditions is brought to the attention of the Technical Manager and Operation
Manager for their perusal and actions.

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10.14

Maintenance of lifesaving appliances and fire fighting equipment

The safety equipment fall under the following broad categories regarding their maintenance:
-

Equipment requiring no shipboard maintenance (i.e. fire extinguishers, replaceable hydrostatic


release units). This category of equipment is either replaced at the end of their useful life or
serviced by approved workshops at regular intervals. Although practically no maintenance is
carried out by shipboard personnel, it is the C/O and the Safety Officers responsibility to
monitor the condition of the equipment, and inform the Company whenever unscheduled
service or replacement is required.

Equipment requiring minor regular maintenance by shipboard personnel. Under this category
are included items like the lifeboats and davits (which require mainly regular greasing and
working of the mechanisms, starting the engine, etc.), liferafts, etc. Regular extensive
maintenance of this equipment is carried out again by approved workshops.

The responsibility of the C/O and the Safety Officer in these cases is to carry out only the
maintenance which is permitted by the manufacturers for shipboard personnel. He is responsible
for the implementation and monitoring of the PMS of the ships safety and fire-fighting equipment at
scheduled intervals, and the results are recorded in the Safety maintenance logbook (form D41).
The testing of smoke detectors may be done by the Electrician or the C/O or the 2nd Officer, by use
of smoke or special sprays sold for this purpose. The testing of heat detectors may be done by
applying heat, but with care to avoid damaging the detector and the nearby ceiling material. These
tests should cover the complete system and also logged in the form D41a. A selected number of
fire detectors must be tested weekly and all detectors must be tested at least once every month.
10.14.1.

Servicing and maintenance of lifeboats, launching appliances and on-load


release gear

Any inspection and maintenance of lifeboat equipment must be carried out according to the
manufacturers instructions. A full set of maintenance manuals must be available onboard for the
lifeboat and the associated launching appliances (davits, brakes, etc.). Weekly and monthly
inspections and routine maintenance may be conducted by the shipboard personnel under the
direct supervision of a Senior Officer, as per the makers instructions. All other inspections,
servicing and repairs should be conducted by the makers representative or a person appropriately
trained and certified by the maker for the work to be done (service engineer). The Master or the
Technical Superintendent must ensure that the reports/attestation handed over by the service
engineer are properly filled in and signed.
The setting and maintenance of the release gear must be carried out, keeping in mind that it is a
critical system regarding the safety of the lifeboat and the personnel in it. No maintenance must be
permitted while the lifeboat is suspended from the hooks. Adequate alternative securing of the
lifeboat to the davit, like setting hanging off pennants, must precede the maintenance operation.
The maintenance must only be carried out by the service engineer and it includes:
Dismantling of the hook release units.
Examination of vital parts with regard to defects and cracks.
Examination with regard to tolerances and design requirements.
Adjustment of release gear after assembly.
Upon completion, the Companys representative must ensure that the system is restored to
working order and to immediately operable condition.

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10.15

Mooring and anchoring equipment maintenance

The PMS covers all mooring equipment and includes the description and method for each
maintenance task, the spares inventory and the replenishment of used parts. The PMS contains
procedures for the regular maintenance and routine condition monitoring of the mooring
equipment.
The upkeep of the deck machinery is a joint responsibility of the deck and engine departments.
The engine department is responsible for the winches when they are regarded in every sense as
engines, and the deck department is charged with their care as deck fittings including painting,
protection from effect of weather, corrosion, etc.
With enclosed type winches, the gears and internal parts must be regularly inspected and
lubricated. The condition of the oil in enclosed winches must be regularly checked, and any water
which may find its way into the crankcase must be drained off prior starting. At sea, clutches and
similar gear should be moved at regular periods to prevent the parts seizing. Bright parts of the
machinery must be protected against rust. Protection guards and cover must be kept in good
condition and properly positioned, so that there is no danger to personnel. Brakes, drums and
braking mechanism must be corrosion free.
Winches must be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the PMS, all work carried
out to windlass and winches must be recorded and detailed spare parts lists must be maintained.
Before and after cargo operations, they must be inspected and greased. During continuous long
operations, they must be checked daily and greased.
Where the power source of a winch or windlass is a single hydraulic motor, alternative supplies
should be made available such as a spare motor or cross connection.
10.15.1.

General windlass condition

High priority is to be given to maintenance and inspection of the windlass components:


Greasing points: grease renewal/refill every voyage, before anchoring, after heavy weather.
Windlass couplings, linkages, gears, gears lub oil condition and level.
Gears and cable lifters protective covers, spurling pipe lips structural condition.
Windlass brake adjustment, lining and bands condition.
Windlass supporting base structural members.
Condition of spill tray around windlass.
Hydraulic windlass system oil must be tested every 12 months and renewed if required. Hydraulic
power packs for windlasses must be inspected/overhauled as per makers instructions. The C/O
must inspect the bitter end securing arrangements in the chain locker at intervals not exceeding 12
months. Additionally the following is also to be regularly checked (at least during each dry-dock):
Cleanliness and water tightness of the chain lockers and their inspection openings.
Condition of chain locker bilge system.
Anchor securing arrangements: Chain stoppers, secondary securing, bitter end condition.
Chain construction: Shackles, Links, D Shackles and their pins.

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10.15.2.

Windlass brake drum repair

When brake drums have their original diameter reduced by more than 8mm, a repair specification
must be raised to install a stainless steel band (min. thickness 5mm) on the drum. This band must
be welded on both edges and plug welded in at least 4 locations, and then must be machined true.
10.15.3.

Windlass brake linkages

All brake linkages must be inspected at least once per year to ensure that they remain intact and
without excessive clearances. Attention should be paid to those areas of linkages which are
inaccessible beneath bedplates, cable lifters, etc. All hinges and linkages must be maintained in a
well-lubricated condition to minimise friction on moving parts, thereby ensuring maximum brake
surface contact.
10.15.4.

Windlass brake lining replacement

Brake linings and the brake control system must be visually monitored on a regular basis.
Appropriate adjustments must be made, as required, to the incremental adjusting device in order to
ensure that the brake is fully applied, well before the brake control mechanism reaches the end of
its travel. If after testing the brake, OCIMF Mooring Equipment Guidelines are not met, attempts
should be made to rectify the situation by:
Checking all linkages to make sure they remain sound.
Descaling the brake drum.
Adjusting any incremental device (e.g. triangular plate, bottlescrew, etc.) which is fitted.
If there is no improvement, the brake lining must be replaced. Brakes linings must be also replaced
if ever oil or grease contaminates them. Windlass brake linings must be opened and
inspected/replaced at least during each major repair period. When brake linings are renewed:
the brake band and drum must be descaled to remove any frictional wastes, rust and scale;
the drum must then be ground smooth to maximise the effective contact area between brake
lining and drum (failure to establish a smooth surface will result in grinding or cutting of the
brake lining, thereby reducing the efficiency of the brake); and
any incremental adjusting device fitted must be returned to a position which ensures that full
braking power can be applied.
Ships must always carry enough brake lining material and bolts to renew both windlass brake
bands. Stocks must be replenished immediately as they are used. Only non-asbestos type brake
linings are to be used and these must be ordered via the Company.
10.15.5.

Mooring winch brake testing

Winch brakes must be tested and adjusted during every major repair period or after excessive
loading have been experienced. The winch brake test procedure must be carried out by an
external competent workshop. Each time the test is carried out, the adjustment must be marked on
the special indicator provided on the winch. By following the indicator, the operator will ensure the
brake is not over-tightened. Winch drum brakes should be adjusted at 60% of the used rope
minimum breaking load (MBL), so that if the adjustment value is exceeded, the drum will be
slipping on the brake, instead of the rope breaking.
Special attention should be given to the rendering values of mooring-winch brakes, in order to
reduce the risk of injury from overstressed moorings. The Master must maintain test Certificates
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when test is performed by external workshop. Results of the winch brake test can also be recorded
on the form D48.

10.16

Ropes and wires

10.16.1.

Ropes and mooring line care

Records should be maintained to indicate the inspection and replacement dates of wires, ropes
and tails. Certificates for ropes and wires should be annotated with dates and the specific winches
to which they are fitted and/or end for ended. Spares levels should reflect the trading area, since
intensive trading patterns may require more frequent inspection or change-out of tails. As the major
cause of premature rope failure is surface abrasion, certain visual inspections should be carried
out at regular intervals by the C/O during the rope's service life.
Inspect the outer cover of the rope for abrasion damage. Should the damage appear
excessive, trace the cause and attempt to overcome the problem by modification of the
equipment or method of use by fitting a rope protection sleeve at the critical point.
Test the rope flexibility to see if there are any areas of firmness or stiffening. This may be
caused by extreme overload. If limited to one section, the damaged area may be cut out and
respliced or the rope should be rejected.
Look for evidence of surface fusion or melting of the ropes outer braid, i.e. yarns welded
together. This indicates excessive surging probably under high loads.
If eight or more adjacent strands have been cut or braided to less than 30% of their original
size, the rope should be replaced.
If the core of the rope becomes visible through damage to the outer sheath, the rope should
be replaced.
Check the condition of the eye splices. Ensure the cover is in good condition and that there
has been no significant splice movement. If in doubt, cut off and resplice.
If damage or wear is localised, it can be cut out and the rope spliced.
rope must not be used if there are more than two splices between the eyes.
All mooring fittings (bollards, chocks) must be marked by weld bead with their SWL to prevent
excessive loading. In case of damage to such fittings, their use should be avoided until
permanent repair is effected.
The condition of the synthetic mooring ropes should be inspected by the C/O at least every 6
months. The inspector must run through the length of the rope, checking external condition,
as well as internal by slightly opening the strands. Particulars to be checked are as follows:
i. Abrasion internal and external and extensive cuts, caused by rough drum surfaces and
improper handling.
ii. Presence of dirt and grit, which will lead to cuts and abrasion.
iii. Impregnation of liquid chemicals which leads to material decomposition.
iv. Presence of hockles in twisted ropes.
v. Ultraviolet damage, observed as a discoloration and/or brittle character of the rope yarns.
vi. Fusion of rope material caused by heat.
To protect the mooring ropes against these defects the following precautions should be taken:
Ropes should be stored on drums and protected by dirt, oil, chemicals and their vapours, heat
and sunlight.

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-

Excessive build up or loss of turns should be avoided. To achieve this, the ropes should be
turned end to end on the drums every 6 months.
Anti-chafing leather jackets should be used where chafing is expected.
Winch drums, chocks and fairleads must be smooth and free of rust and paint when using fibre
ropes to avoid abrasion. Roller leads should be kept lubricated and freely moving.
Avoid dragging ropes over ground and rough surfaces.

Documentation of the rope inspection is effected by filling the sheet Statement of mooring
arrangements & condition of ropes in the form D 45 Wires and ropes inspection log. There must
be a valid test Certificate on board for each mooring line and tail. Mooring ropes should be
renewed at intervals not exceeding 5 years from the date of first use. The date that each mooring
rope is first used should be recorded on the test Certificate and in the sheet Statement of mooring
arrangements & condition of ropes in the form D 45.
10.16.2.

Wire maintenance

Mooring wire stowed on winches should, wherever practical, be protected by a plastic cove.
Vessels exempt from this requirement on voyages less than 48 hours in duration. Mooring wires
should be kept greased/lubricated. The majority of wear and tear to wires is likely to occur at the
working end. Wires should thus be end for ended during shipyard repair periods. In the event of
damage close to the end, provided that the original length of the wire is not reduced by more than
10%, the end of the wire should be cropped off and a new eye spliced into the wire. Wires must be
inspected by the C/O at intervals not exceeding 6 months and recorded in the form D 45.
The wire diameter should be checked. If a decrease in wire diameter of 12% or greater is
measured, the wire should be replaced. Reasons for the decrease could be core deterioration,
internal wear and wire failure or internal corrosion.
The wires of the outer layer should be inspected for wear and breaks. If in any length of more
than 8 diameters, the number of broken strands exceeds 10% of the visible strands, the wire
should be replaced.
Wires should be checked for abrasion. If the wires show a considerable loss in metallic area,
the wire should be removed from service.
The wire should be removed from service and replaced if corrosion has penetrated below the
surface of the wire.
Mooring wires should be renewed at intervals not exceeding 10 years from the date of fitting.

10.16.3.

Life boat falls [ref. SOLAS/III/20.4, IMO Res. MSC 216(82), MSC.1206]

Falls used in launching shall be inspected periodically with special regard for areas passing
through sheaves, and renewed when necessary due to deterioration or at intervals of not more
than 5 years, whichever is the earlier. With ref. to MSC 1206 [Measures to prevent accidents with
lifeboats], there is no requirement to turn over the lifeboats falls every 30 months.

10.17

Lifting gear and portable lifting appliances maintenance

10.17.1.

Definitions

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Portable Lifting Appliance (PLA) means all portable cargo-handling appliances for suspending,
raising or lowering loads or moving them from one position to another while suspended or
supported.
Loose Gear (LG) means any gear by means of which a load can be attached to a PLA, but which
does not form an integral part of the appliance or load. Loose gear includes Hooks, Blocks, Chains,
Shackles, Swivels, Rings and similar items not permanently attached to the lifting appliance. Lifting
beams, spreaders, frames and similar items of equipment, which are not an integral part of the
lifting appliance are also considered as loose gear.
Competent Person means the C/O when reference is made to a PLA listed in the deck
department PLA inventory, whilst it means the C/E when reference is made to a PLA listed in the
Engine department PLA inventory. They should have sufficient knowledge and experience to
understand the lifting equipment design and its function, and to perform examinations and tests.
Thorough Examination means a detailed visual examination by the Competent Person,
supplemented if necessary by other suitable means or measures, in order to arrive at a reliable
conclusion as to the safety of the appliance or item of loose gear examined.
Cooperation between engine and deck department is required for the good operation of such
equipment. In general, engineers are responsible for the good working of the machinery, while
deck staff has to take care of the protection against corrosion, the condition of the cranes, etc. The
C/O is responsible for the maintenance of all running gear. The C/E is responsible for the
maintenance of all winches, cranes, motors, chain blocks, etc., which should be laid out as per the
original rigging plan.
All derricks, cranes and chain blocks must be clearly marked with their Safe Working Load (SWL)
and, where appropriate, the operating angle. All lifting slings, strops, running wires, lifting wires,
hooks and shackles must be clearly marked with their SWL, and have a proper Certificate that
gives the SWL or the minimum breaking load to which the item has been tested. The SWL is not to
be exceeded in service.
-

The SWL of a running lifting wire must be 8 times higher than the force induced to this wire by
the SWL of the lifting appliance.

The SWL of a standing rigging wire rope must be 5 times higher than the force induced to this
wire by the SWL of the lifting appliance.

The SWL of a single sling must be 20% of its breaking load, as stated on the relevant
certificate.

Swivel lifting hooks should always be used in order to prevent rotational damage to lifting wires.
The angle of separation between any two legs of a lifting sling, or any two strops used in concert,
must not exceed 30 degrees. Rope slings and strops should not be used for lifting purposes.
When necessary, it is permissible to manually splice a running wire, provided such a splice has
been inspected by the C/O prior to use.
10.17.2.

Statutory inspections

Close attention is to be paid to statutory survey and testing requirements and no lifting equipment
subject to certification requirements is to be used, unless a valid Certificate is available. There
must be valid Certificates in respect of all lifting gear, including running and standing wires, lifting
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wires, slings and strops, nets, slings, hooks, blocks and shackles.
When reviewing survey status on cargo lifting gear, attention must be paid to the local government
regulations of the vessel's destination; many countries require the cranes to have been tested
during a certain time limit prior to arrival at their ports. If an inspection by the Port Authorities is
required, the Master must inform the Company in ample time to arrange this. These inspections
often require the issuance of a special Certificate on behalf of the authorities involved. This must
be confirmed before hand, to ensure that the correct paper work is prepared well in advance.
All statutory inspections, tests and surveys of cargo handling equipment must be entered in the
Cargo Gear Book, and duly stamped and signed by the attending surveyor. These surveys are to
include all permanently attached hooks, swivels, etc. It is the responsibility of the C/O, under the
supervision of the Master, to ensure that all the permanently attached equipment is always in
accordance with that stated on the test Certificates, and they are to be clearly marked as such. The
file of lifting plant and lifting gear Certificates, together with the Cargo Gear Book, shall be
maintained up to date, with all Certificates valid and ready for inspection.
Normally the quadrennial thorough examination will be carried out at the dry-docking, prior to the
expiry date of the quadrennial period or after any major repair. The following is a guide to what will
be involved:
-

A visual examination of the crane cargo gear and its associated structure, wires, etc. for signs
of fracture, wear, etc.

A load test of the gear, usually using static weights. The test weight will be SWL plus 25% for
cranes less than 20 metric tonnes SWL. For cranes with SWL between 20 and 50 metric
tonnes the test weight shall be the SWL plus 5 metric tonnes. Cranes with SWL greater than 50
metric tonnes will be subject to weight test of SWL plus 10%.

Where hooks, swivels, chains, etc. have been re-stamped, it must be ensured that:
1. Where a new test number is used, a new Certificate bearing the new number is issued.
2. Where the existing marks are used, they must be re-stamped and the numbers verified.
On completion of the examination, the Cargo Gear Book must be properly endorsed on the page
reserved for quadrennial surveys, and the marks on the relative crane cargo gear matches the
Certificates. This will always be countersigned and stamped by the Class surveyor who attended
the examination. It is the C/O responsibility to ensure that these requirements are met.
10.17.3.

Inspections, maintenance and testing by ship's personnel

In addition to the statutory inspections/tests and surveys, the cargo gear is subject to at least
annual inspections by the C/O (for wires, shackles, hooks, swivels, ponder balls, etc.) and the C/E
(for the lifting machinery and plant). This examination should include all component parts, including
blocks, sheaves, runner wires, topping lift wires, guy ropes/wires, etc. The numbers on all
shackles, hooks, chains, etc. should be cleaned up and made legible. Any faults found must be
rectified and defective parts replaced.
Derrick and crane winches fitted with open or enclosed friction brake systems must be inspected
by the C/E at intervals not exceeding 1 year. Such inspections should include the opening of the
brake housing plug, where fitted, to ensure no oil leakage. The oil pressure should be monitored
and the brake operation should be checked when in use.
A frequent check of cranes oil levels, filters and internal search for leakages must be carried out.
Checks to jibs, bases, attachments, wires, blocks, sheaves and Engine department crane wires
have to be also carried out by the C/O and the C/E at least once per month Notwithstanding this,
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checks must be made immediately before the cranes are put into operation and at least on a daily
basis during operation.
All running wires, ropes and topping lifts (with the exception of Engine department crane wires)
must be renewed at intervals not exceeding 10 years from the date of fitting or recertified for use
thereafter. Engine department crane wires and brakes must be tested prior to each major repair
period and replaced upon sailing from the shipyard. Wires must be also replaced if there are any
signs of wear or deformation, i.e. kinking or flattening, excessive corrosion, or if in any length of 10
diameters the number of visible broken wires exceeds more than 10% of the total wires. Wires and
brakes must be tested prior to each major repair period (i.e. every 2.5 years).
10.17.4.

Portable Lifting Appliances (PLA) and Loose Gear (LG)

PLA and LG should be kept in good order by systematic preventative maintenance following
manufacturers instruction. This should include the regular inspection by the Competent Person, to
assess whether the PLA and LG are safe for continued use. These inspections are separate from
and additional to those required under the following provisions. The intervals between such
inspections will depend on the character and use of PLA and LG.
Before being placed in service, all new PLA and LG should be thoroughly inspected and tested by
the Competent Person.
No PLA and LG should be used unless it has been thoroughly examined:
- and tested by the Competent Person within the preceding 5 years
-

by the Competent Person at least once in every 12 month period;

by the Competent Person following a test;

by the Competent Person after any repair or alteration which may affect their strength.

Suitable training of personnel associated with lifting activities is considered essential to support
these activities, and to optimize the safe use of lifting equipment. Records of appropriate training
should be kept readily available onboard.
10.17.5.

Tagging / labelling

The maximum SWL should be marked in a conspicuous place in a legible and durable manner,
e.g. by incision or stamping. All PLA and LG must have stamped on, or attached to it, a permanent
identification mark through which it can be identified throughout its life span, to enable it to be
readily related to its appropriate test Certificate.
10.17.6.

Elevators

Ship's elevators must be examined and overhauled on an annual basis. Certificate of test must
be posted inside the elevator.
Elevator wires are usually of special construction and are sized to fit the sheaves. In order to avoid
damage to sheaves and/or wire, care must be paid to ensure that the correct wire, as per the
elevator plan/instructions, is ordered. There must be a valid Certificate of test for all elevator wires,
which must be renewed approximately every 5 years, preferably during a major repair period.
10.17.7.

Ladders and gangways

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This section provides details of the Companys requirements relating to the maintenance and
testing of accommodation/pilot and portable (rope/step/Jacob) ladders and gangways.
At 5-yearly intervals, the accommodation ladders must be load tested with a load of 75 kg per step,
plus 203.5 kg/m2 on the platform. The test must be carried out with the ladder fully rigged and
suspended outboard in the horizontal position, and a test Certificate must be obtained.
The ladders must be removed from the platform and a full examination of both ladder and platform
structure, supports, swivels and ladder supports carried out. This examination must include an
internal examination at the working end, at half length and close to the securing point on the drum.
The falls must be renewed, if within a length of 10 diameters there are more than 10 broken
strands, or if there are signs of corrosion, kinking or excessive wear. Attention should be paid to
any signs of galvanic corrosion. Any plugs or joints between dissimilar metals should be renewed
with neoprene or other similar material.
Accommodation ladder falls must be renewed every 5 years. Falls must be turned end to end
every 2.5 years, but kept well lubricated at all times. There must be a valid test Certificate on board
for the fall wires. In addition to the fall wires, the bridle wires must also be renewed every 5 years.
Such wires must not be over painted and should be examined at the same time as the falls. Bridle
chains and shackles must be examined frequently and replaced at any signs of excessive wear.
Whenever an accommodation ladder is first turned out, the C/O must satisfy himself that all
sheaves are turning and that all the ladder support equipment is in good order.
Accommodation ladder brake lubricants must be changed as per maker's recommendations. They
must be visually examined by the C/E every 12 months or whenever excessive strain has been
placed on the ladder. Brakes must be overhauled at least once every 2.5 years, preferably during
major repair periods, as per manufacturer's recommendations.
If an accommodation ladder or gangway is damaged and subsequently repaired, it must not be
returned to service until it has been load tested and has also undergone a deflection test. The
ladder or gangway must be placed on a horizontal surface simply supported at each end. taut
wire should be secured at each end, running parallel to and above the centreline of the unit. The
initial midpoint deflection of the unit below the wire should be recorded. An accommodation ladder
and gangway must then be loaded with 75 kg per step. The increase in deflection must not exceed
length/75 for aluminium units or length/100 for steel units.
All portable ladders must have a unique identifying number clearly marked on the ladder. Portable
ladders and gangways should be inspected by the C/O every 3 months and prior to their use.
Checks should be made for items such as:
-

Manufacturer's markings are properly visible (as far as practicable).

Stiles that are split, cracked, painted, warped.

Rungs that are missing, cracked, loose or able to spin.

Wedges and tie rods are in place and functioning correctly.

Ladder is free of twists, distortion, and uneven footing.

Rungs, cleats and steps are parallel and uniformly spaced.

The rope ladders must be stored in clean dry areas away from direct sunlight. Side ropes must be
inspected regularly. All ladders must be kept free of oil, grease and other slipping hazards.

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Ladders should be placed on a firm, stable and level not slippery surface and each stile should be
equally supported. The ladder should be secured properly to prevent movement. If this is not
possible, then the ladder must be supported by another person or securely lashed to a structure at
same or higher level, whilst it is being used. Portable ladders must be set at an angle of 45
degrees. If the ladder is used as a means of access to another higher level, the top of the ladder
should extend above the level of stepping off point by at least 5 ladder rungs or 1 m.
-

Footwear used whilst using the ladder must be in good condition, clean from mud or grease.

Metal or metal reinforced ladders must not be used near electric cables.

Ensure there is only one person on the ladder at a time.

Do not over reach from the ladder.

Face the ladder whilst ascending or descending.

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10.18

Statutory and Class surveys and certification

It is a legal requirement that the vessels Certification and the Classification records are maintained
in an updated condition. Failure to comply with certification requirement may result in a heavy fine,
arrest or a penalty and loss of insurance. Responsibility for maintaining updated vessels
Certification is shared between the Master and the Office staff.
The Technical Superintendent, under the supervision of Technical Manager, arranges for surveys
to be carried out within the defined survey window and before each Certificates expiration. He also
files all correspondence with the surveying Authority, and informs the Master of survey
arrangements made and their schedules. Ships trading pattern must be taken into consideration,
so that renewal of Certificates is not too far advanced or delayed.
The Technical Manager is responsible for ensuring that all vessels Certificates remain valid at all
times, by monitoring their due dates and being aware of the survey windows.
To monitor the Certificates and survey status, the Company has developed the form D40 Surveys
- Certificates Status. Additionally, copies of all Certificates, survey reports and notices of survey
status are kept by the Technical department. Every 3 months the Superintendent compares the
received or downloaded survey status with the form D40, and updates the latter as necessary.
Thereafter he must send a copy to the vessel.
The Master and the C/E are responsible for ensuring that all Certificates are current and valid for
their vessel and arranging through the Company for the appropriate surveys to be carried out. The
Company must be kept advised of all survey intentions and results. They are responsible for
maintaining an orderly Certificates folder, in which the vessels original Certificates are filed, and
for maintaining the Certificates file index up to date. Attached supplements (e.g. Safety Equipment
Record, etc.) must be kept with the corresponding Certificates.
Upon receipt of a Certificate onboard, the Master and the C/E are responsible for checking the
information contained therein for their correctness and accuracy. Any discrepancies should be
reported immediately to the vessels Superintendent.
Moreover, every 3 months the Master and the C/E must also review the Certificates file, the form
D40 and the survey status report and any due item must be identified well in advance, in order to
plan the survey in a suitable location.
10.18.1.

Statutory and Class Certificates renewal

Normally such renewals are taking place every 5 years, after the successful completion of the
special survey. During the special survey, one or more Technical Superintendents attend onboard
and escort the Surveyor(s) during their shipboard visits. In the absence of a Technical
Superintendent, the Master will arrange for a Senior Officer to be in attendance with the surveyor.
Upon completion of the surveys, the Surveyor will issue short term/interim statutory and Class
Certificates. The Technical Superintendent and the Master must verify that all information printed
on the Certificates is correct and valid.
Further to the above, the form D40 must be updated and filed onboard. The Technical
Superintendent ensures also that all newly issued Certificates are photocopied and their copies, as
well as the updated form D40 are delivered to the Office.
The Technical Superintendent upon his return to the Office liaises with the Class responsible Office
to ensure that they shall issue the permanent Certificates in time. These will be received to the
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Office, reviewed by the Technical Superintendent for validity and correctness of the data printed on
them, photocopied and the originals sent onboard. Copies are also kept in the Office files.
Moreover the form D40 is updated accordingly and a copy sent onboard.
Upon receipt of the permanent Certificates onboard, the Master enters them in the shipboard
Certificates file, confirms the receipt to the Technical Superintendent and returns the interim
Certificates to the Office.
10.18.2.

Annual and intermediate endorsements of Statutory and Class Certificates

When these surveys have been completed, the Master will ensure prior to the Surveyors departure
that all relevant Certificates are correctly endorsed. The Certificates file is correctly set up by the
Master, and copies of the endorsements are forwarded to the Office. Upon receipt of these copies
the Technical Superintendent updates his Certificates file as well as the form D40 and sends a
copy of the latter back onboard.
10.18.3.

Handling life saving, fire fighting and other equipment Certificates

The Technical Superintendent during his reviews of the form D40 must follow up the status of all
equipment Certificates, taking into account the Class and Flag requirements. He must arrange
surveys and service of the equipment well in advance of the expiry dates, taking into account the
vessels schedule and availability of approved service workshops at the planned ports of call.
When servicing equipment onboard, the Master must assign the Safety Officer to attend the
service procedure and ensure that the job is done properly. When service is carried out ashore, the
Master should also assign an Officer to attend at the service workshop premises, if possible.
Upon receipt of the serviced equipment, the Master must ensure that all documentation verifying
the service is also received and filed onboard. Copies are to be sent to the Office, whereupon the
Technical Superintendent will update the form D40 and the Office files. A copy of the updated form
D40 must be also sent to the vessel.
10.18.4.

Handling Conditions of Class (CoC)

All CoC items should be dealt with as soon as is practicably possible, as these are of great
concern to potential Charterers. Therefore it is of paramount importance that any CoC are rectified
before the due dates. Whenever CoC are imposed by surveyors, the Office is to be informed
immediately on the nature of the defect and the necessary means and time to rectify it.
Rectification of the defect will be arranged by the Master and the vessels Superintendent. Upon
completion of required work, the Class is to be informed and a surveyor visit arranged onboard to
erase the Condition of Class.

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10.19

Inventory

For both deck and engine departments there are available major spare parts inventory lists,
including the optimum quantity of spare parts that should be available onboard, based on
manufacturers manuals and critical equipment evaluation (form E14). Inventories are conducted at
appropriate intervals and inventory reports are forwarded to the Company as follows:
-

Form D49 Stores inventory form every six (6) months.

Form E29 Spare parts inventory form every six (6) months.

Form E14 Major spare parts onboard every four (4) months.

The Master and the C/E, depending on the department, must update the spare parts inventory
(form E29) each time spares are consumed or received onboard. Additionally, they must carry out
inspections of all spare parts every month, comparing the quantities of spares available against the
inventory status. Any lack of essential spares is to be reported immediately to the Company.
10.19.1.

Lub oil and Cylinder oil consumption and inventory

The LO and cylinder oil consumption and specific consumption must be recorded monthly. Every
effort shall be made to minimize LO losses. Nevertheless such losses when occurred shall also be
recorded in the monthly LO report. Besides the consumptions, the ROB of the LO and cylinder oil
must also be reported monthly.
10.19.2.

Diesel Engine spare parts stock

The following M/E and D/G major spare parts must be maintained made-up and ready for
immediate installation in the event of a breakdown:
-

cylinder liner (not necessarily a new one) in good condition;

piston assembly complete with skirt, rod, telescopics and piston rod stuffing box, pressure
tested with a new set of rings ready to fit;

cylinder cover complete with air start valves, relief valves, fuel valves and, where applicable,
inlet and exhaust valves;

exhaust valve assemblies ready to fit to cylinder cover;

at least one cylinder set of fuel valves, tested and ready to fit.

The Companys Technical Department must be advised whenever any of the above items are
used, and every effort must be made to replace them as soon as possible.

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10.20

Purchasing

Stores and spares are to be requested on specific requisition forms as follows:


-

Form D52 Requisition for stores

Form E31 Requisition for spare parts

Requisitions for provisions (no specific form exists) apart from the type and quantity of each item
required, the following should be indicated:
-

the time period for which the provisions are requested

the existing inventory of each requested item on the date of the requisition

On receipt of a requisition, the following should be effected:


-

A requisition file shall be opened.

An invitation tender shall be dispatched to suppliers.

An order shall be placed for the most advantageous offer.

A list of the items to be delivered onboard shall be sent to the vessel for follow up.

Requisitions are made by the Master, the C/O and the C/E to the Company, taking into account the
stock levels, the maintenance work schedule and possible need for repairs. To speed up the
process, requisitions may be sent by fax/email, especially in cases of emergency.
When preparing requisitions the Master, the C/O and the C/E must provide concise information of
the items required. This can be achieved in the following ways:
-

Provide the equipment type, serial number and part number of spares, fully complying with
manufacturers instructions.

Provide codes of spares, tools, stores, consumables, etc. according to IMPA catalogues or to
manufacturer/supplier ordering system.

In case documentation is not available onboard, identification of data on the equipment labels
or marked on spare parts, identification of material in conjunction with detailed description and
sketches with dimensions, etc. can facilitate ordering.

The Superintendent, under the guidance of the Technical Manager, must assess and when
appropriate approve the requisitions, taking into account the following parameters:
-

The criticality of the equipment and the urgency of the requested spares.

The stock onboard as can be verified from the inventory.

Delivery time, schedule and cost.

When a decision has been taken, the Purchasing Manager must inform the vessel in writing about
the items approved for delivery, and provide information on delivery schedule and any delivery
details. The Purchasing Manager and the concerned department onboard must have
documentation to verify that requisitions have been totally or partially complied with and what
requisitions are still pending.
Spare parts and stores are checked on receipt by ship staff for condition, suitability and quantity. In
case important items were not delivered or did not comply with the requisition specification, the
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Superintendent must be informed immediately to take necessary corrective action. The Office must
be informed by returning requisition forms E31 and D52 with missing or returned items marked. If
everything is in order upon delivery of items onboard, the Master or the C/E, depending on the
nature of items delivered, must confirm the fact by resending the forms E31 and D52 signed and
stamped, so that the requisition can be closed out.

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10.21

Reporting to the Office

The Companys specific requirements of SMS documentation are described in the form OS08
Forms register and follow up.
In order for the Company to promptly monitor certain significant works carried out onboard, a
weekly Sunday review report has been established. In this respect, each vessel shall report to
the Company on a weekly basis, the progress of maintenance done on items regarding
PMS/inspection report deficiencies/breakdown/Superintendents work lists during the week, as
follows:
1.

DECK DEPARTMENT
1A. Form D42 HULL PLANNED MAINTENANCE WORKS
Just mention the item number
1B. Form OT03 SUPERINTENDENTS WORK LIST
Just mention the item number
1C. DEFICIENCIES (DECK DEPT. RELATED) FROM PSC, FLAG, RIGHTSHIP
INSPECTIONS AND AUDITS.
Mention the type of inspection (e.g. PSC, FLAG, INTERNAL AUDIT, RIGHTSHIP)
followed by its respective report date and the relevant item numbers (not descriptions)
that have been worked on during the past week.
(Example:PSC 31MAR 2008 items: 3,8 in progress 14,17)
1D. OTHER SIGNIFICANT WORKS (INCLUDING FITTER'S WORKS AND REPAIRS ON
ITEMS OF THE SAFETY MAINTENANCE LOGBOOK- Form D41)

2.

ENGINE DEPARTMENT
2A. Form E12 ENGINE PLANNED MAINTENANCE WORKS
Just mention the item number
2B. Form OT03 SUPERINTENDENTS WORK LIST
Just mention the item number
2C. DEFICIENCIES (ENGINE DEPT. RELATED). FROM PSC, FLAG, RIGHTSHIP
INSPECTIONS AND AUDITS.
Mention the type of inspection (e.g. PSC, FLAG, INTERNAL AUDIT, RIGHTASHIP)
followed by its respective date and the relevant item numbers (not descriptions) that
have been worked on during the past week.
(Example: RIGHTSHIP 31MAR 2008 items: 1,5,12)
2D. OTHER SIGNIFICANT WORKS (INCLUDING ELECTRICAL WORKS)

Note: The Sunday review report should be brief, clear and concise (in telegraphic manner).
Routine works or procedures (e.g. deck cleaning, bunkering, watchkeeping etc.) should not be
mentioned.
In case NO work was done for one or more of the above categories, insert the word "NIL".

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10.22

Companys monitoring activities and analysis of inspections results

The monitoring of the effectiveness of the maintenance system is carried out by the Technical
Department, by reviewing all forms/reports received at the Office from inspections/audits carried
out by the crew, Companys representatives and third parties. After reviewing each report, the
reviewer acknowledges review of same by signing the form (if in hard copy) or otherwise marking it
(if in electronic format). If the reports indicate any deficiencies or non-conformities, the
Superintendent initiates the appropriate corrective action. If immediate corrective action is
necessary, he contacts the Master to activate an effective response.
The results of all vessels inspections are analysed to identify trends and common problems,
reviewed by the Top Management and discussed during the annual Management Review
Committee meetings to identify potential weaknesses in the SMS. Improvements to the SMS are
fed into the Companys continuous improvement process. As part of this process the results of
ships inspections are regularly compared with those from third parties. Whenever are consistent
anomalies, appropriate steps are to be taken to review and improve inspection process.

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10.23

Relevant forms

D40

Surveys and certificate status list

D41

Safety maintenance logbook

D41a

Fire detectors inspection log

D42

Hull planned inspection and maintenance

D43

Hatch covers maintenance side rolling type hatch covers weekly/monthly

D44

Hatch covers maintenance folding type hatch covers weekly/monthly

D45

Wires and ropes inspection log

D46

Cranes maintenance checklist

D47

Deck maintenance tools

D48

Winch brake test report

D49

Stores inventory form

D50

Enclosed spaces inspection report.

D51

Cargo holds inspection report.

D52

Requisition for stores

E12

Machinery planned inspection and maintenance

E13

Running hours report

E14

Major spare parts onboard

E15

M/E indicator cards

E16

D/G performance report

E17

Crankshaft deflections

E18

M/E bearing inspection

E19

Cylinder condition report

E20

Turbocharger overhauling report (ABB type)

E21

Turbocharger overhauling report (MAN type)

E22

D/G piston overhauling report

E23

D/G connect rod report

E24

Planned maintenance for auxiliary machinery and equipment

E25

Megger test report

E26

Temperature and pressure gauge calibration report

E27

Alarms and trips report

E28

Emergency Batteries Log

E29

Spare parts inventory form

E30

Defect report

E31

Requisition for spare parts


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E32

Goods landed form

OT01

Guidelines for superintendent engineers (scope of attendance)

OT02

Ships attendance / evaluation report

OT03

Work list handed by Port Captain / Superintendent Engineer

OT04

Dry docking report

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