TERM PAPER OF MANGEMENT PRACTICE & ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR ON IMPECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON THE GROWTH OF ORGANIZATION

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Article 1: The impact of executive coaching and 360 feedbacks on leadership effectiveness
Abstract:
Does executive coaching really work? Does it help improve leadership effectiveness and productivity? This action research study answers these questions by tracking the progress of 281 executives participating in a six-month coaching and 360 feedback processes. The results suggest that the combination of multi-rater feedback and individual coaching do increase leadership effectiveness up to 60 per cent -- according to direct report and peer post-survey feedback. Implications of the results for future executive development programs are discussed, and specific recommendations are provided.

Article 2:

How can we make sense of leadership in the 21st century?
Abstract: Explores the development of thinking on leadership and places it in the context of the dominant discourses of the period in which studies were conducted. Argues that if a “sense making” paradigm is adopted. it becomes feasible to identify a model of leadership, which is relevant to the context of complexity and change facing organizations in the early twenty-first century. The model emerges when the measure of effectiveness is changed from organizational success to the impact of the leader on followers and on building of capability. The argument for such a shift is underpinned by the movement of dominant organizational logic from a Weber an rational/analytical one to a logic which acknowledges emotional considerations. Within the leadership arena it has been proposed that emotional intelligence is a major factor underpinning success. Presents data from recent research, which empirically demonstrates linkages between emotional intelligence and leadership. These findings are examined in conjunction with the “Emergent model”.

Article:3 The role of values in servant leadership

Abstract: This paper reviews the existing literature regarding values in leadership. It identifies issues relating to both personal values and organizational values. The literature indicates that values affect leader behavior, as well as organizational performance. The paper also provides an overview of servant leadership theory and extrapolates applications of the values in leadership literature to three aspects of servant leadership: trust; appreciation of others; and empowerment. Values constitute the foundation of servant leadership. Fundamentally, leader values may be the underlying factors that separate servant leaders from all other leadership types.

Article:4 Identifying key characteristics of technical project leadership Abstract:
This paper explores the nature and importance of leadership in technical projects. It argues that there is a need to develop a leadership model incorporating the distinguishing personality and occupational characteristics of technical professionals. It tested the applicability of Bass and Avolio’s transformational leadership model in an information systems project environment along with technical leadership scale derived from the technical leadership literature. The results indicated that a combination of transformational and technical leadership behaviors augments the effectiveness of transactional leadership leading to high project success. While recognizing that there is no one leadership style that is effective in all project situations, the study recommends an underlying yet flexible style characterized by organizational catalyst, intellectual stimulation, behavioral charisma, and contingent reward behaviors for enhanced leadership effectiveness.

Article:5 The impact of strategy, leadership and culture on organizational performance: a case study of an SME
This paper presents the main findings of a case study conducted in an SME manufacturing firm in the UK to determine the applicability of strategy, leadership and culture to overall corporate performance. The findings indicate that corporate strategy impacts positively on culture and organizational performance. Specifically, the findings indicate that enhanced effectiveness in communication and functional coordination are key drivers of the success of the strategy being pursued. The study also shows that leadership is a key factor in the implementation of strategic plans and a key link between the subsidiary and the holding company.

Article:6 The impact of leadership style on organizational growth

Abstract:
Leadership style is a variable that has received significant attention in the management literature. This study suggests that effective leadership style may not be dependent on whether an organization is for-profit or not-for-profit. The findings of this study indicate that even in a notfor-profit context, effective leadership is defined not only by task and people orientations but also the interaction between them. Therefore, in developing the psychological profile of effective not-for-profit leaders, as is the case in the for-profit sector, management researchers should explore both their task and people orientations.
Authentic Leadership: A Challenge and a Process

Article:7 Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the mlq literature
Abstract A meta-analysis of the transformational leadership literature using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was conducted to (a) integrate the diverse findings, (b) compute an average effect for different leadership scales, and (c) probe for certain moderators of the leadership style-effectiveness relationship. Transformational leadership scales of the MLQ were found to be reliable and significantly predicted work unit effectiveness across the set of studies examined. Moderator variables suggested by the literature, including level of the leader (high or low), organizational setting (public or private), and operationalization of the criterion measure (subordinate perceptions or organizational measures of effectiveness), were empirically tested and found to have differential impacts on correlations between leader style and effectiveness. The operationalization of the criterion variable emerged as a powerful moderator. Unanticipated findings for type of organization and level of the leader are explored regarding the frequency of transformational leader behavior and relationships with effectiveness.

Article: 8

Leadership and organizational learning's role on innovation and performance: Lessons from Spain
Abstract Leadership style has been traditionally emphasized as one of the most important individual influences on firm innovation. Scholars are now paying growing attention to the possibility that the collective capability of organizational learning plays a key role in determining innovation. We propose that leadership style, an individual feature, and organizational learning, a collective process, simultaneously and positively affect firm innovation. A structural equation model and data from 408 large firms in four sectors supported our hypotheses. Organizational learning had a stronger direct influence on innovation than CEO transformational leadership for our sample; however, leadership had a strong, significant influence on organizational learning, indirectly affecting firm innovation. Additionally, innovation positively and significantly influenced performance. Organizational learning also positively affected performance, but interestingly mainly through innovation. Keywords: Innovation; Organizational learning; Transformational leadership; Performance; Organizational capabilities

Title:9 The effect of leadership on values-based management
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of organization leaders, particularly top managers, in building support for and developing behaviors that are consistent with values-based management, by providing an empirical assessment of the effect of an organization's senior leadership on the values-based management process

Article:10

Leadership effects on organizational climate and financial performance: Local leadership effect in chain organizations
AbstractLeadership research to date has mainly focused on leaders' subjective effects. In this study, we examine the effect of different leadership styles on two financial measures of organizational performance and three measures of organizational climate in 50 supermarket stores of a large supermarket chain in the Netherlands. Our findings show a clear relationship of local leadership with the financial performance and organizational climate in the stores. The findings also show that the leadership styles have differential effects. Charismatic leadership and consideration have a substantial effect on climate and financial performance in the small stores, suggesting the relevance of personal leadership of the store manager in these small stores. Initiating structure leadership had no effect on financial results or organizational climate, either in the small stores or in the large stores. Based on these findings, we have formulated some avenues for further research.

Article: 11

Leadership as an Organizational Quality
Rodney T. Ogawa Steven T. Bossert Abstract- in this article, leadership is conceptualized as an organizational quality. Adopting a perspective on organizations offered by institutional theory, the authors offer a view of leadership that builds on the following points: Leadership flows through the networks of roles that comprise organizations. The medium of leadership and the currency of leadership lie in the personal resources of people. And, leadership shapes the systems that produce patterns of interaction and the meanings that other participants attach to organizational events.

Case Study –
Leadership Development Using Personality Assessments

This case study shows how Harrison Assessments combined with coaching can create dramatic shifts in behavior through increasing the subject's self-awareness and designing behavior and attitude changes that work with their personality and preferences. The Problem The coaching client, June (not her real name), was experiencing frustration in leading her team of 6 subordinates. She saw that they were not taking initiative. She felt all the responsibility for the quality of their work fell to her. Consequently she was taking on more organizational duties than she desired and she did not have time to focus on the bigger picture issues that her leadership role demanded. June knew that she had to let her subordinates take initiative for the tasks within their roles, but she was not able to effectively make this change. Every time she let go of her usual responsibility, the subordinates still did not step forward and the team's results suffered. The Root Cause One of the causes of June's frustration was that she was trying to stop doing something rather than doing something. When she stopped herself from solving her subordinate's problems, she had nothing else do to and felt she was merely holding back and not contributing. With her experience, she could see many problems arising and found it very difficult to hold back and leave it to the team. The solution was to find some way to be active but without taking responsibility for other's roles. The Insight June's coach suggested a new strategy of focusing her attention on positive actions that would contribute to the solution without taking responsibility away from the subordinates. Using the Harrison Traits and Definitions Report and the Paradox Report, June realized that she could use her strengths in 'enlisting cooperation' and 'forthright diplomacy' to move the team forward without taking over their roles. The Solution With this insight, June experienced an immediate shift in her attitude towards the team and her leadership role. Since the actions she chose to focus on were her preferred traits, the change was easy for her and enjoyable. Her team responded immediately to her requests for cooperation and her clear communication about their behaviors and results. By continuing to focus on her strengths, June was confident she could move her team to learn how to do their jobs, while still retaining control of the results. Conclusions • • It is more effective to focus on taking positive actions, rather than on stopping behaviors. People can more easily begin actions that rely on their preferred traits.

Different preferred traits can be used in different situations to get the desired results. Therefore it is possible to customize behavioral solutions for different personalities, based on their personal preferences, as identified by Harrison Assessments

Introduction of Leadership:
Leadership is the ability to persuade others to work specified goals. It is also viewed as a process of influencing the subordinates so that they contribute enthusiastically to the attainment of organizational objectives. It is the leader who clarifies the objectives of the group he is leading and creates the sustain enthusiasm among them for achieving organizational objectives. We define leadership as the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of a vision or set of goals. The source of this influence may be formal such as that provided by the procession of managerial rank in an organization .because management position come with some degree of formally designated authority, a person may assume a leadership role simply because of the position he or she holds in the organization. Leadership has been defined in many different ways, but most definitions share the assumption that it involves an influence process concerned with facilitating the performance of a collective task. Otherwise, the definitions differ in many respects, such as who exerts the influence, the intended beneficiary of the influence, the manner in which the influence is exerted, and the outcome of the influence attempt. Some theorists have advocated the leading and managing should be treated as separate roles or processes, but the proposed definitions do not resolve important questions about the scope of each process and how they are interrelated. There is no “correct” definition; it is only a matter of how useful it is increasing our understanding of effective leadership.

Purpose of study Leadership:

The purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate the transformational and transactional leadership styles among building professionals in the construction industry. This is part of a large-scale research project undertaken by the writers. Bass's transformational leadership theory reported in 1985 was employed and tested in a sample of 510 professional employees from a cross section of qualified building professionals selected from four countries. The main objectives of the study are (1) to examine the extent of leaders who are perceived to use transformational and transactional leadership styles; (2) to identify which of the two leadership styles is best able to predict outcomes of "leader effectiveness," "extra effort by employees," and "employees" satisfaction with the leaders; and (3) to offer insight into the management theory for building professionals in business organizations. Results of the study suggest that all five of the

transformational factors and three of the transactional factors are significantly correlated with leadership outcomes of leader effectiveness, extra effort by employees, and employees satisfaction. The results further supported that transformational leadership could augment transactional leadership in producing greater amounts of performance and satisfaction.

Leadership Effectiveness:
Most researchers evaluate leadership effectiveness in terms of the consequences of the leader’s actions for followers and other organization stakeholders, but the choice of outcome variables has differed considerably from researcher to researcher. Criteria differ in many important respects, including how immediate they are and whether they have subjective or objective measures. Criteria that are negatively correlated are especially troublesome because of the complex trade-offs among them. When evaluating leadership effectiveness, multiple criteria should be considered to deal with these complexities and the different preferences of various stakeholders.

Effect of leadership on the organization:

The managing of an organization and leadership method has a huge effect on the working atmosphere and the employees' inspiration. The progress of a finest leadership style and executive skills that is the most proper to an organization is vital, having a key effect on its life duration. A Manager's leadership style contributes frankly to the subordinates' incentive and work fulfillment, and the work growth in the organization. There are two types of leadership styles, one that is task-oriented and the other that is employee-oriented. A manager with a taskoriented style will have work results as his major concerns; and therefore, he will enlarge rigid policy that would lead the subordinates into working their errands to reach his preferred results. On the other hand, the manager with an employee-oriented behavior will be troubled with the employees' condition. This manager's objective is to improve the employees' confidence and influence them on working jointly to help him in management and on ways to resolve problems. There are three main types of leadership styles that shape all kinds of leaders. The three types are the repressive, self-governing, and free-reign styles of leadership. The repressive style of leadership would be measured the most task-oriented type, in which the manager carry out all the management process without any consultations from subordinates. The self-governing leadership style is more of a participative type of leadership. It is a two-way message leadership, in which employees are allowed to add in the decision-making; however, the manager makes the final conclusion. The handing over of power in this style of leadership is less federal and more decentralized than in the repressive style. Employees feel more elastic, since they are allowed to alter in the methods of accomplishing the errands and to donate in the decision-making. This

changes the working situation; making it an atmosphere with a lot of panel working. The freereign style of leadership is the most relaxed style, in which the employees have the complete liberty by having the exactly of making the final management. When assigned tasks, they finish them using their preferred method, making the final decision.

EIGHT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:

1. “Great Man” Theories: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great Man” was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. 2. Trait Theories: Similar in some ways to “Great Man” theories, trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. 3. Contingency Theories: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation. 4. Situational Theories: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decisionmaking.

5. Behavioral Theories:

Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. 6. Participative Theories: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. 7. Management Theories: Management theories (also known as “Transactional theories”) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. 8. Relationship Theories: Relationship theories (also known as “Transformational theories”) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. These leaders often have high ethical and moral standards.

Different type of leadership:
When developing your leadership skills, one must soon confront an important practical question, "What leadership styles work best for me and my organization?" To answer this question, it's best to understand that there are many from which to choose and as part of your leadership development effort; you should consider developing as many leadership styles as possible. Three type of Leadership: One dimension of has to do with control and one's perception of how much control one should give to people. The laissez faire style implies low control, the autocratic style high control and the participative lies somewhere in between.

The Laissez Faire Leadership Style: Researchers founds that children under delegative (laissez-fair) leadership were the least productive of all three groups. The children in this group also made more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation, and were unable to work independently. Delegative leaders offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members. While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise, it often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation. The style is largely a "hands off" view that tends to minimize the amount of direction and face time required. Works well if you have highly trained and highly motivated direct reports. The Autocratic Leadership Style: The autocratic style has its advocates, but it is falling out of favor in many countries. Some people have argued that the style is popular with today's CEO's, who have much in common with feudal lords in Medieval Europe. The Participative Leadership Style: It's hard to order and demand someone to be creative, perform as a team, solve complex problems, improve quality, and provide outstanding customer service. The style presents a happy medium between over controlling (micromanaging) and not being engaged and tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper. Lewin’s study found that participative (democratic) leadership is generally the most effective leadership style. Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members. In Lewin’s study, children in this group were less productive than the members of the authoritarian group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality. Participative leaders encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative. Situational Leadership: Situational Leadership. In the 1950s, management theorists from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan published a series of studies to determine whether leaders should be more tasks or relationship (people) oriented. The importance of the research cannot be overestimated since leaders tend to have a dominant style; a leadership style they use in a wide variety of situations. Surprisingly, the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led. The Emergent Leadership Style: Contrary to the belief of many, groups do not automatically accept a new "boss" as leader. We see a number of ineffective managers who didn't know the behaviors to use when one taking over a new group. The Transactional Leadership Style:

The approach emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo; almost in opposition to the goals of the transformational leadership. It's considered to be a "by the book" approach in which the person works within the rules. As such, it's commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations. The Transformational Leadership Style: The primary focus of this leadership style is to make change happen in: • • • • Our Self, Others, Groups, and Organizations

Charisma is a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership. While extremely powerful, it is extremely hard to teach. Visionary Leadership, The leadership style focuses on how the leader defines the future for followers and moves them toward it. Strategic Leadership: This is practiced by the military services such as the US Army, US Air Force, and many large corporations. It stresses the competitive nature of running an organization and being able to out fox and out wit the competition. Team Leadership: A few years ago, a large corporation decided that supervisors were no longer needed and those in charges were suddenly made "team leaders." Today, companies have gotten smarter about teams, but it still takes leadership to transition a group into a team. Facilitative Leadership : This is a special style that anyone who runs a meeting can employ. Rather than being directive, one uses a number of indirect communication patterns to help the group reach consensus. Leadership Influence Styles: Here one looks at the behaviors associated how one exercises influence. For example, does the person mostly punish? Do they know how to reward? Cross-Cultural Leadership: Cross cultural leadership in today's business world can be challenging at times, with the many cultural gaps that are present. It can be difficult to communicate with another culture, let alone properly lead. The core of cross cultural leadership depends not only on understanding other cultures and traditions, but also how to adapt your leadership role to these cultures. At The Gain Group, we train our global leaders on how to overcome cultural obstacles through the use of our executive coach programs, and leadership development. Not all individuals can adapt to the leadership styles expected in a different culture; whether that culture is organizational or national. Coaching: A great coach is definitely leaders who also possess a unique gift--the ability to teach and train.

Level 5 Leadership: This term was coined by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great: Why Some Company’s Make the Leap and Other Don’t. As Collins says in his book, "We were surprised, shocked really, to discover the types of leadership required for turning a good company into a great one." What he seems to have found is what The Economist calls "The Cult of the Faceless Boss?" Servant Leadership: Some leaders have put the needs of their followers first. For example, the motto of the Los Angeles Police Department, "To Protect and Serve." reflects this philosophy of service. One suspects these leaders are rare in business.

Defination of leadership by different authors:

Leadership is the process by which an executive imaginatively directs guides and influences the work of other in attaining specified goals. -Theo Haimann Leadership is the ability of a superior to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. -Koontz and O’Donnell Leadership is the quality of behavior of individual whereby they guide people or their activities in organizing efforts.

-Chester.I.Branard

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