You are on page 1of 50

ecobuild Southeast Asia

Technology Symposium
19th September 2014,
Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur

Computer Simulation and Passive
Design to Building Energy Efficiency ,
Part 2 – Computer Simulation
I r . H . P. L o o i ( m e k t r i c o n @ g m a i l . c o m )
B.Eng (Hons), FIEM, Jurutera Gas

M ALAYSIA G REEN B UILDING C ONFEDERATION
w w w.m gbc .or g.m y

2

SYNOPSIS

COMPUTER MODELLING is increasing moving into mainstream commercial
application as cost comes down and computing power increases.
THIS PRESENTATION focuses on computer simulation in the building design life
cycle with the following topical subject:
(1) The building design life cycle
(2) Tools in the building design life cycle
(3) Types of computer simulation
(4) Developing the simulation model
(5) Simulation softwares

19 th September 2014

19 th September 2014

4

THE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE

19 th September 2014

5

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT

The Design Life Cycle traditionally do not include assessment of building
performance at conceptual and design development stage.
Traditional concept development differs from current 3-D Sketchup programs.
19 th September 2014

6 GOOGLE SKETCHUP – PARADIGM SHIFT 19 th September 2014 .

7 THE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE Concept Sketch Architectural eLibrary Visualisation 19 th September 2014 .

8 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Structural Civil Revit for Structural Engineering Structure eLibrary MyCESSM Malaysia Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement 19 th September 2014 .

9 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Electrical Mechanical www.de Fluent MEP eLibrary 19 th September 2014 .dialux.

10 TYPES OF SIMULATION Solar Insolation Façade Modelling Building Energy Thermal Massing Thermal Comfort Day light Simulation Air Flow .CFD Lighting Simulation 19 th September 2014 .

19 th September 2014 .

12 UNDERSTAND COMPONENTS IN BUILDING ENERGY Qin Tin (22°C) 19 th September 2014 .

human traffic Utilities Occupancy pattern. day light pattern Occupancy pattern Building design.13 SIMULATION FOR BUILDING ENERGY UNDERSTANDING PARAMETERS WHICH AFFECT ENERGY PROFILE & COMPONENTS WHICH ARE PASSIVE AND ACTIVE FEATURES Services Air Conditioning (a) Direct solar heat gain through glazing and walls (b) Solar heat gain through roofs and walls Factors System design Thermal Envelope (OTTV). system design 19 th September 2014 . weather data Building leakiness. occupancy pattern (f) Parasitic Load Building security & system design Lighting (a) Artificial Lighting (b) Day Lighting Power / Plug Point Load Lifts System design Occupancy pattern Sun position Occupancy pattern Occupancy pattern. weather data Thermal Envelope (OTTV). weather data (c) Air Infiltration (d) (e) Human population Lighting load (d) (e) Machine load Utilities Time-based human traffic Time-based human traffic.

hotel. (b) Chiller system design which affects performance (such as efficiency. Occupancy pattern can also deemed to be ‘expert’ input in a rigorous energy model.14 BUILDING ENERGY 1. Solar heat gain and transmission: (a) Sun position calculator (b) Building Thermal Mass calculator (OTTV and RTTV) 2. chiller sizing and part-loading. retail. Examples are: (a) Air infiltration due to building design. System Design Issues relating to system design are varied and are usually NOT amenable to mathematically modelling. In case. 3. load profile due to occupancy pattern can be modelled with reasonable accuracy. hydraulic efficiency. air side efficiency etc) 19 th September 2014 . Human occupancy pattern Depending on the building usage type (office. an ‘expert’ system input is required. hospital etc).

Demand kW Average Demand Energy consumed = Area under curve = kWh Hour run/day Time 19 th September 2014 . ENERGY DEMAND PROFILE Demand Diversity Cd Max. Demand (kW) = Connected Load (kW) x Cd Load Diversity CL Total kWh = MD (kW) x Hour Run (hr) x CL Connected Load Transformer capacity Max.15 UNDERSTANDING ENERGY PROFILE ENERGY MODELLING.

16 IDENTIFYING PARAMETERS IN MODEL What is the Building Model ? Identify the Parameters and Boundary Conditions Define the Building Model Interpret Results Maths Model / Expert System Redefine Parameters & Boundary Conditions 19 th September 2014 .

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Boundaries defining the building model e.17 IDENTIFYING PARAMETERS IN MODEL Explanation of Terms. 19 th September 2014 . INTERNAL BOUNDARIES EXTERNAL BOUNDARIES Walls. ceiling. windows. Sky conditions.g. floors: Parameters Uvalues. humidity. roofs. Sun position: Outdoor temperature. surfaces delimiting a zone. reflectance. PARAMETERS Values affecting energy use.

5.18 UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS IN MODELLING Explanation of Terms – Mathematical Modeling. The behaviour of a system which can be defined by a mathematical model and then automatically calculated to predict its behaviour. HYDRAULIC LOSS (FLUID FLOW). 2. 4. 3. SOLAR IRRADIANCE (ENERGY/HEATING) VALUE CALCULATED BASED ON SUN POSITION AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS (LINKE INDEX). AIR SIDE LOSS (STATIC LOSS). THE SOLAR SHADING COEFFICIENT OF A SHADING DEVICE BASED ON ITS GEOMETRY AND SUN POSITION. THE ENERGY CONSUMED BASED ON CHILLER COP AND LOADING PATTERN. 19 th September 2014 . AIR LEAKAGES ETC. HEAT TRANSMISSION BASED ON (WEATHER DATA) TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL BETWEEN A BOUNDARY AND UVALUE OF BOUNDARY. SUN POSITION (SOLAR AZIMUTH AND HORIZONTAL) BASED ON TIME OF DAY AND LATITUDE. 1.

The behaviour of a system which CANNOT be modelled mathematically but react based on a ‘table of conditions and reaction’. 2. A SIMPLIFICATION ‘DIVERSITY FACTOR’ MAY BE APPLIED. E. APPLIANCES.G. DIVERSITY OF ELECTRIC LOADS ETC. LIFTS.19 UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS IN MODELLING Explanation of Terms – Expert System. PUMPS. 19 th September 2014 . 4. E. OTHER LOADS CONTRIBUTING TO ENERGY DEMAND.G. INSTEAD OF RIGOROUSLY CALCULATING THE ENERGY DEMAND OF AC SYSTEM DUE TO HYDRAULIC LOSSES AND STATIC HEAD. PARAMETERS WHICH ARE SIMPLIFICATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING E. DEFINING LOAD PROFILE BASED ON AN UNDERSTANDING OF SPACE USAGE AND BUILDING TYPE. THE VALUES ASSIGN TO THIS PARAMETER IS AN ‘EXPERT SYSTEM’ DECISION. 1. VALUES FOR ‘PLUG-LOADS’.G. 3. ASSIGNING VALUES FOR PARAMETERS WHICH ARE ESSENTIALLY EMPIRICAL IN NATURE.

2. Summary of Energy Consumption 1. AIR CONDITIONING (COOLING) – 40% TO 60%. LIFTS AND ESCALATORS – 2% TO 8% 5. 3.20 UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS IN MODELLING The Main Parameters in Energy Modeling. LIGHTING – 15% TO 25%. PLUG-LOAD (POWER OUTLETS) – 5% TO 15% 4. PUMPS AND HYDRAULICS – HYDRAULICS 19 th September 2014 .

RTTV.21 UNDERSTANDING ENERGY PROFILE Services Factors affecting kWh usage Parameters in design ACMV Heat Transmission through walls/roof Weather Data Solar irradiance OTTV. glare control Power/ Plug Load Human Traffic Occupancy Pattern Utility Usage Pattern Lighting 19 th September 2014 . day light factor Machine load Occupancy Pattern Utility Human traffic Occupancy Pattern Day Lighting Sun Position. Sun position & shading calculation Air Infiltration Weather data Human population/traffic Time-based traffic Lighting load Human traffic.

19 th September 2014 .

4.23 FIRST STEP You need to build up a 3-D model of your building. 23 19 th September 2014 . Import 3-D model from the architect OR 2. Simulate regions /zones of your building in piece-meal fashion. 3. 1. Develop from scratch a 3-D model. Simplify your building model. Developing a complex 3D model is time consuming! A complex 3D model may also require too much from your PC and may take too long to calculate.

24 BIM – COLLABORATIVE MODELLING Courtesy of Autodesk 24 19 th September 2014 .

25 BIM – COLLABORATIVE MODELLING Information Reuse Parametric Integration Representation 25 19 th September 2014 .

26 19 th September 2014 . 2. Collecting and managing library of standard objects. in BIM walls are objects which may have levels of complexity while in traditional CAD walls are a collection of lines and planes.g. BQ extraction. Extraction of DATA for analysis e.26 BIM – COLLABORATIVE MODELLING Building Information Modelling (BIM) 1.g. 4. Collaborative design by disparate design team members 5. E. 3D Modelling is the norm. arcs and planar objects). 3. clash analysis 6. drawing elements are collection of lines. Cross platform exchange of data (This is still a PROBLEM). Drawing is a collection of objects and models (in traditional CAD.

27 THE 3-D MODELLING PROBLEM Building Information Modelling • Building elements. Thermal space are closed and bounded by surfaces. Most CFD software generates surface-mesh from surfaces.e. 3D. . roof. 19 th September 2014 .colour etc). Elements bounding a zone/space (walls. Simplify surfaces. Air Flow Simulation (CFD) • Model recognises surfaces. In outdoor air flow. • Building orientation and location is essential.) have parameters such as U and SC values. • BIM model with too much architectural detailing may slow down the simulation Lighting simulation • Model recognise surfaces only and surfaces has values related to lighting and optics (reflectance. • Surfaces which are too complex will burden the model e. glazing etc. niche and columns in walls etc. Energy simulation • Model recognises 3D space (zones) only. slabs. Complex surface slows down calculation (simplify surface as much as possible). walls. • Building orientation and local weather data is essential for the model. • Shading devices and reflectors must be properly tagged for recognition. 4D or 5D • Data extraction for ALL building elements possible. • Architectural complexities are not recognised. ground surfaces are also recognised • Issues of importing 3-D files from CAD software.g. ceilings etc are objects. e. These objects may also have levels of complexities depending on the BIM model i.g.

bsim.autodesk.my http://www.ac.edsl.com http://www.autodesk.lbl.acem.net/main/ http://www.com.gov/ ESPr IES VE TAS BSims DOE-2 Public domain Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial http://www.gov/ Ecotect Commercial http://usa.energyplus.uk http://www.gov/buildings/energ y10.nrel.html http://www.com 19 th September 2014 .iesve.com http://www.esru.com Energy Software BEIT Energy 10 Free Public domain Energy Plus Public domain http://www.sketchup.strath.28 BUILDING ENERGY SOFTWARE 3D Model Revit Google SketchUp Commercial Public domain http://usa.dk http://simulationresearch.

lbl.com/ CFD Fluent FloVent ANSYS CFX Commercial Commercial Commercial List of CFD Softwares (free and commercial) http://www.29 BUILDING ENERGY SOFTWARE Lighting & Day Lighting.com/ http://www.de http://radsite.com/products/fl uid-dynamics/cfx/ http://www.com http://www.cfdonline.iesve.dial.ansys.html http://www.com/Wiki/Codes 19 th September 2014 . Dialux Radiance Free Public domain Rayfront Commercial http://www.flovent.gov/radiance/HOM E.schorsch.

19 th September 2014 .

Each thermal space is calculated and the total thermal load for the building added.31 TRADITIONAL MANUAL CALCULATION Traditionally building heat load is manually calculated using a spread sheet type calculator. This model assumes a ‘worst case basis’. 19 th September 2014 .

32 TRADITIONAL MANUAL CALCUATION A painstakingly more rigorous method may calculate energy consumption based on usage pattern which fluctuates with the time of day. 19 th September 2014 .

33 BEIT (BUILDING ENERGY INDEX TOOL) www.acem.com.my Association of Consulting engineers Malaysia 19 th September 2014 .

The BEIT tool is easy to use and requires simplification of building model (no drafting of complex 3-D model required).34 BEIT (BUILDING ENERGY INDEX TOOL) A simple but effective building energy tool which gives good estimates. The BEIT is useful during design development 19 th September 2014 .

For proposed building at 12% (small building) 19 th September 2014 .6 In Proposed Building we assume (mini) chilled water system with CoP of 3. Navigate back to ‘Input Data’ page (a) Delete costing for glazing.35 BEIT (BUILDING ENERGY INDEX TOOL) CASE 3 – USE CHILLED WATER SYSTEM INSTEAD OF ACPU FOR AC Navigate back to ‘Proposed OTTV’ Change back all U values for Glazing to 5. (b) Scroll down to 7 ACMV In Baseline Building we assume ACPU with CoP of 2.9 We assume water eff.7.

571 per year (c) For investment of RM 285.3 years 19 th September 2014 .36 BEIT (BUILDING ENERGY INDEX TOOL) Navigate to ‘Print Report’ Page We find a summary of report: (a) Based on 38sen/kWh (b) Savings is RM 45.000 RoI is 6.

EnergyPlus  WinAir (CFD)  NIST FDS (CFD smoke)  Radiance / POV Ray 19 th September 2014 . 2. Relatively simple  Dynamic Energy Model  Thermal Simulation  Sun Path  Shading Device  Natural Ventilations  Wind Directions Study  Acoustic Response  Exportable to (FREE) simulation software:  EPS-r. Interoperable with Autodesk ACAD software. 3. Eotect may be the solution for you: 1. BIM model in Autodesk Revit can be exported to Ecotect. Autoesk.37 ECOTECT Autodesk – Ecotect You don’t have a 6-figure budget for a highly sophisticated software like IES (Integrated Environmental Solutions).

38 ECOTECT 19 th September 2014 .

39 ECOTECT – DEVELOPING THE MODEL IN REVIT 19 th September 2014 .

40 EXPORTING REVIT TO ECOTECT GBLXML FORMAT 19 th September 2014 .

41 THE ECOTECT DAYLIGHT MODEL 19 th September 2014 .

WMO#=486470 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 0 HVAC Load 2 4 Conduction 6 8 SolAir 10 Direct Solar 12 14 Ventilation 16 18 Internal 20 22 Inter-Zonal 19 th September 2014 .MYS.KUALA LUMPUR .All Visible Thermal Zones Friday 6th July (187) .42 ECOTECT ENERGY MODEL W HOURLY GAINS .

43 ECOTECT ENERGY MODEL MONTHLY THERMAL LOAD W MONTHLY HEATING/ COOLING LOADS . WMO#=486470 160000000 120000000 80000000 40000000 0 40000000 80000000 120000000 160000000 200000000 Jan Heating Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Cooling 19 th September 2014 .MYS.All Visible Thermal Zones KUALA LUMPUR .

44 REVIT AUTODESK SUN PATH SHADOW 19 th September 2014 .

de 19 th September 2014 . Download  www.dial.45 DIALUX & LIGHTING Dialux is a FREE lighting software.

46 DIALUX & LIGHTING 19 th September 2014 .

47 DIALUX & LIGHTING The following is a simulation of office as shown above. Case 1 normal clear glass 70% VLT and case 2 opaque glass 11% VLT 19 th September 2014 . The front part of the office comprise full glass.

48 DIALUX & LIGHTING 19 th September 2014 .

Other popular software is Fluent. 20 March 2014 19 th September 2014 . WinAir4 etc.49 AIR FLOW CFD OpenFoam is an opensource CFD software. However its GUI is difficult.

Part 2 – Simulation for Building EE I r .ecobuild Southeast Asia Technology Symposium 19th September 2014.m gbc . H .m y . c o m ) B. L o o i ( m e k t r i c o n @ g m a i l . Putra World Trade Centre.or g.Eng (Hons). Jurutera Gas M ALAYSIA G REEN B UILDING C ONFEDERATION w w w. Kuala Lumpur Computer Simulation and Passive Design to Building Energy Efficiency . P. FIEM.