By Arun Kumar Upadhyay, C/47, Palaspalli, Bhubaneswar-751020
firstname.lastname@example.org, 09437034172/ 09583492387
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Units of length-8 modern units, 7 Yojanas Structures of Universe Reverse tree of space & image in man Concept & measures of time-9 scales for 9 stages of creation Yugas of 7 types Chronology of historic yuga in third cycle since 61902 BC Veda by Brahmā in 29102 BC & 28 Vyāsa till 3102 BC Period before glacial flood of 10000 BC Sūrya vamśa from Ikṣvāku in 8576 BC Chandra vamśa from Vaivasvata Manu period of 13900 BC 28 Buddhas, Mahāvīra, Śankarāchārya Kings of Magadha in Kali era Mālava-gaṇa (756 BC-456 CB) 4 branches till 1192 AD. Kings of Kashmir from 3450 BC (Rāja-tarangiṇī) Kings of Nepal from 4159 BC (Traditional) Modern cosmology-limitations Vedic cosmology in 3 parts-Puruṣa, Śrī, Yajña. Experimental proof in Homeopathy medicines
7 Yojana and 7 yugas स यु ि त रथमेकच मेको अ ो वहित स नामा (ऋक् , १/१६४/२) –अ यवामीयसू युिजर् योगे, Yujir verb = to add, This forms yuga and yojana-both unite in 7 ways.$ Two Yojanas by Bhāskarāchārya-II for 2 purposes1. Astronomy- Siddhānta-śiromaṇi -earth is standardEquator = 5000 yojanas, 1 yojana = 8 Kms. 2. Human use-Līlāvatī-Angula (finger width) is standard. 1 Yojana = 32,000 hands = 16 Kms. शत योजने ह वा एष (आिद य) इत तपित (कौषीतिक ा ण उपिनषद् ८/३) Sun is at 100 Yojanas. Here, yojana is diameter of sun. It is at 108(about 100) yojanas. Jain astronomy-1 Pramāṇa yojana = 500 Ātmā yojana =1000 Utsedha yojanas Gaja means elephant and measuring rod both, It indicates number 8. Modern Physics-(1) Definitions of Meter(a) 107 part of distance between equator and north pole along Paris. (b) Distance between 2 marks on a rod at zero degree at Paris. ( c) 16,50,763,73 times wave-length of a radiation of Krypton86. (d) linked with second by speed of light-Light travels 2,99,792.458 Kms in 1 second. (2) Foot = length of Human foot = 30.48 Cms. (3) Nautical Mile-1 minute arc on equator = 6076.115 feet or 1852 meter. Astronomical measures-(1) Astronomical unit (AU)-Semi major axis of earth orbit =distance of sun =1.496 x 1011 Meters. (2) Persec (Pc)-This is distance at which 1 AU makes angle of 1 second 1 Persec = 3.0856 x 1016 Meters = 3.26 Light years 6 Kilo-persec (Kpc) = 1000 Pc, Mega-persec (Mpc) = 10 Pc. 15 (3) Light year is distance travelled by light in 1 tropical year = 9.4605 x 10 Meter
Nara yojana = Human measure
Large measures-1 Angula (finger width) is standard. 12 angula = 1 Vitasti (palm spread). 2 Vitasti = 1 Hasta (hand) =45 Cm, 1 angula =1.875 Cm. 1 Daņɖa = 4 hasta. It is also called Puruṭa (man)- height with hands raised=fathom of 6 feet. 4000 Daṇḍa = 1 yojana = 32000 hands =16 kms. Small measures-Bŗhat-samhitā (58/1-2) of Varāhamihira 8 Paramāņu (atom) = 1 Raja or dust particle (Ratha-reṇu as per Mānasāra) 8 Raja =1 Vālāgra (hair end), 8 Vālāgra = 1 Likṣā (lice) 8 Likṣā = 1 Yūka, 8 Yūka = 1 Yava (barley grain width) 8 Yava = 1 Angula (finger width) = 1.875 cm.
1.875 cm = 4.578 ×10 − 4 cm = 4.5micron 4 8 4.578 ×10 −4 1 Paramāṇu = = 7.153 ×10 −6 cm. 2 8
Śrīpati calls it the size of dust particles seen in sun-rays. This is Trasareṇu which has 60 Aṇus (atom) as per Āyurveda.
Thus, 1 atom = 1.2 x10-7Cm.
This is actually radius of Hydrogen atom. Trasareṇu of Tiloya-pannati =1 Angula x 8-9
Lalita-vistara tells Paramāṇu-raja = Angula x 7-10
= 0.6 x 10-7 Cm.
= 1.4 x 10-8 Cm
Any measure is in general called Angula. Puruṣa sūkta-1 tells the whole world as angula. When measure is only 1 angula, it is called Anguṣṭha. Bālakhilya planets are called of 1 Anguṣṭha. Here earth is Puruşa of 96 angulas.
Bhū-Yojana with earth as Standard
Sūrya-siddhānta (1/59)-Diameter = 1600 Yojana Pañcha-siddhāntikā (1/18) Circumference = 3200 yojana Āryabhaṭīya (1/10) and Lalla- Diameter = 1050 Yojanas Siddhānta-śiromaṇi, Golādhyāya, Bhuvana-koşa 52Diameter =1582 1/24 yojanas, Circumference = 4967 Yojana
In space, earth has been called Padma (lotus) of 1000 petals-Padma-purāṇa, Sṛṣṭi khaṇḍa (40/2-3) or Ṛgveda (6/16/13-14). Counting atmosphere as part of earth, its 1000 part is equal to Āryabhaṭa yojana.
Bhāgavata purāṇa, part 5 calls planetary orbit up to Neptune as Disc-shaped earth of 100 Crore yojana diameter. Middle age astronomers have multiplied it by 360 to make It Divya yojana as diameter of Brahmāṇḍa (galaxy). Half part of that is loka (lighted) part of 50 crore yojanas, in which 7 dvīpa (continents) and samudra (ocean) are described as same names found on earth. Remaining part is Aloka (dark) region. Here, 1 yojana = 1000 part of earth diameter = 12.75628 Kms.
Dvīpas Purāņ ņa Dvīpas and Samudras of Bhāgavata Purā
Serial Radius Breadth (in 1000 yojana) Name 1. 50 50 Jambū-dvīpa 2. 150 100 Lavaṇa (salt) samudra 3. 350 200 Plakṣa-dvīpa 4. 550 200 Ikṣu-rasa (sugar cane juice) samudra 5. 950 400 Śālmali-dvīpa 6. 1350 400 Madya (liquor) samudra 7. 2150 800 Kuśa-dvīpa 8. 2950 800 Ghṛta (butter) samudra 9. 4550 1600 Krauñcha-dvīpa 10. 6150 1600 Kṣīra (milk) sāgara 11. 9350 3200 Śaka-dvīpa 12. 12,550 3200 Dadhi (curd) samudra 13. 15,750 3200 Mānasottara-parvata 14. 18,950 3200 Puṣkara-dvīpa 15. 25,350 6400 Madhura-jala (sweet water) samudra 16. 41,100 15,750 Loka-varṣa (bright zone) 17. 1,25,000 83,900 Hiraṇya-varṣa 18. 2,50,000 1,25,000 Aloka-varṣa (dark zone) Mercury Apparent rotation of a planet around earth or its orbit forms Dvīpa Inner radius= radius of earth orbit-planet Outer radius=sum of radii
Comparison of Dv Dvīpa īpa and Samudras with planetary orbits
Name of region Serial-Planet Point Radius(1000 yojana) Radius of Dvīpa Error% 1.Mercury Near 5976.0 6,150 2.1 Kṣīra-sāgara 2.Mercury Far 15,701.1 15,750 0.3 Mānasottara parvata 3. Venus Near 2851.0 2,950 3.5 Ghṛta-sāgara 4. Venus Far 18,813.0 18,950 0.7 Puṣkara-Dvīpa 5. Mars Near 4,090.0 4,550 11.2 Krauñcha-Dvīpa 6.Mars Far 25,736.5 25,350 -1.5 Jala-samudra 7. Jupiter Near 43,422.8 41,100 -5.3 Jana-sthāna 8. Saturn Far 1,21,599.6 1,25,000 2.8 Hiraṇya-varṣa 9. Sun (mean) 10,840.4 10,950 1.0 Mean of Dadhi samudra 10. Ceres* Near 16, 312.8 15,750 -3.4 Mānasottara parvata 11. Ceres* Far 42,683.2 41,100 -3.7 Jana-sthāna 12.Urans Far 2,29,811.0 2,50,000 8.8 Aloka-varṣa Note-1.* Ceres is the main body in the asteroid belt between mars and Jupiter. Its orbit is calculated for figures of 2000 AD. 2. Jambū-Dvīpa of 50,000 yojana radius is extent of gravitational field of earth in which an object will be in orbit. Its axis in direction of earth rotation in Meru of 1,00,000 yojanas. 3. Dadhi-samdra is solid planet zone. Its mean circle is orbit of earth-largest solid planet.
Bha Yojana = Star measure
In astronomy texts, value of yojana is determined by comparing the standard measure of earth in diameter or circumference with modern measure in Kms. Without any reason, we assume that the same measure is used for distance of sun or star planets-which look like stars. There measure needs to be found by comparing sun diameter with current measures.
Sūrya-siddhānta (1/59)-Diameter of earth = 1600 Yojana
It is 12,756.28 Km. (equator) in modern measure. So, this yojana = 12,756.28/ 1600 =7.9727 Km. Sun diameter = 6500 Yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 4/17) It is 13,92,000 Km. in modern measures. So, this yojana = 13,92,000/ 6500 = 214.1538 Km.
Solar yojana/earth yojana =214.1538/7.9727 = 26.86 or 27 approximately. Bha means star and indicates number 27. So, measure of sun (a star) and star-like planets can be called Bha-yojana which means star-measure or 27 (Bha) yojanas. (1) Sun orbit=43,31,500 Yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/86) Diameter = 1.47 x 10 8 Kms., Modern value = 1.50 x 10 8 Kms. (2) Nakṣatra Kakṣā = Sun orbit x 60 (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/80) This is obviously within solar system as size of Brahmāṇḍa is much larger. This is small planets called Bālakhilyas, 60,000 in number rotating round sun. Their size in Anguşţha = 1 angula (Bhāgavata purāṇa 5/21/17) Earth can be taken as a puruṣa of 96 angula = 12,756.28 Km. So, Bālakhilya size is 12,756.28/96 = 135 km. NASA estimate of 2005 is that there are 70,000 Plutonic bodies of more than 100 Km Diameter at 44-65AU distance (60 AU average in Bhāgavata) (3) Brahmāṇḍa circumference = 1.87 x 10 16 Bha-yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/90) Diameter = 1.3 x 10 5 Light year , Modern measure 105 LY.
Measure of solar system is given in Ṛk veda (10/189/3)
ि श ाम िव-राजित वाक् पत गाय धीमिह । ित व तोरह ुिभः ॥ (ऋक् , १०/१८९/३)
For 30 Dhāma brightness is more, which is understood as Vāk =field of Patanga =sun. Each Vasta (location) of Dyu (sky) is measured in Ahar. Ahar and vasta both mean day. Dhāma and yojana both words have been used in Ṛgveda (1/123/8) for measure of Uṣā (twilight)
सदृशीर सदृशीिरदु ो दीघ सच ते व ण य धाम । अनव ाि शतं योजना येकैका तुं पिरयि त स ः ॥ (ऋक् , १/१२३/८)
They (Uṣā) are same today and will be same tomorrow. They spread towards place of Varuņa, one by one. Dhāma of Varuņa are 30 without break. They are ahead of Kratu =sun by 30 Yojanas. 1. Meaning in space-Zone of Varuṇa is galaxy. Within that, there are 30 zones one after other where light of sun is more than the background of galaxy. Light of each zone is more than darkness and less Sun itself and is called Uşā (twilight) of 30 levels in 30 zones called Dhāma. Measure of Dhāma here is not defined. Here measuring rod is earth itself as in Sūrya-siddhānta-
मा छ दः तत् पृिथवी, अि दवता .. (मै ायणी संिहता, २/१४/९३, काठक संिहता, ३९/३९)
Measure of loka has started in Taittirīya upaniṣad (2/8) from Earth-called Manuṣya-loka. Bŗhadāraņyaka upanişad (3/3/2)-
... ाि ংशतं वै देवरथा य ययं लोक तং सम तं पृिथवी ि ताव पयित ताং सम तं पृिथव ि ताव समु ः पयित..... (बृहदार यक उपिनषद् ३/३/२)
= 32 ahar (Plural is aha̅ni) is measure of Deva-ratha, its double in all directions is Pŗthivī (enclosure of solar system), that is surrounded all around by Samudra (ocean) of twice size. Thus all measure starts from earth as measuring rod. But there are 3 Dhāmas within earth, so Dhāma 3 = earth. Distance from center of measure is equal to radius of earth. Radius of Dhāma 4 =2 x earth radius, Radius of Dhāma 5 = 4 x earth radius, and so on.
n-3 D=rx2 r 3 2 1
4 ahargaṇa = 2r
Meaning of Dhāma on earth-Varuņa is lord of west direction. Uşā (twilight) goes up to 30 dhāmas in that direction ahead of place of sun rise. In India, it is taken as 15 degree west of sun-rise. This is called Sandhyā (joint) period and in Kali-yuga of 1200 years, 2 sandhyā are of 100 years each. Thus in a day of 24 hours, it will be of 1 hour each equal to 15 degree rotation of earth. In west, it is taken as 18 degree which is more correct for European latitudes. Thus 1 Dhāma = ½ degree longitude. longitude This will differ for each latitude circle, will decrease as we move away from equator. On equator, it is fixed and can be called a Dhāma-yojana, equal to half degree arc. Thus, 1 Dhāma40,000/ 000/720 = 55. 55.5 kms. kms. Dhāma-yojana = 40,
Kaţha upanişad 1/3/1) gives measure of galaxy in that measure-
ऋतं िपब तौ सुकृत य लोके गुहां िव ौ परमे पराध । छायातपौ िवदो वदि त प ा यो ये च ि णािचके ताः ॥ (कठोपिनषद् १/३/१)
= Persons doing good finally enter the largest cave of size (circumference) of para̅rdha yojana (0.5 x 1017 x 55.5 kms.). Knowers of Brahma call it a combination of light and shadow having 5 Agnis (condensations) called (1) Svayambhu̅ (universe as collection of 1011 galaxies), (2) Parameşţhī maņɖala (galaxy with stars), (3) solar system of 30 dha̅mas (230 x earth size), (4) Cha̅ndra maņɖala (sphere containing orbit of moon), and (5) earth. Out of these, the last 3 are jointly influencing uscalled 3 eyes of Śiva. Chiketa = distinct, Nāchiketa =indistinct, mixed. Here diameter of galaxy comes to 97000 LY, between 100000 and 95000 LY estimates of NASA in 1990 and 2005. Same measure is used in Ŗgveda (1/164/12) etc. where Brahmāņɖa has always been called Pura (structure) of Parārdha size. Yojaana has been used only once in Ŗgveda, so it can have only this meaning.
Earth to 17 ahargaṇa
17 ahargaṇa Mars 15 9 3 Earth
33 ahargaṇa 27 Maitreya 21 Rathantara sāma 17 ahargaṇa Saturn Earth
Solar System-Steps of Viṣṇu
Sun as point
Heat Zone 100 diameter Step 1
1000 D Step 2
5 10 D Step 3
7 10 D
Zones of Solar system
Vaşaţkāra şaţkāra-Vāk (field of Sun) is ṣaṭ (6), so it is called Vaṣaṭkāra. These are zones of 3 to 1. Va şaţkāra 33 at intervals of 6 ahargaṇa each. (a) 3 ahargaṇa = Earth itself. (b) 9 ahargaṇa = earth x 26 = earth x 64. Moon is at 61 radius distance. (c) 15 ahargaṇa = earth x 212 = earth radius x 2.6125 x 107 = Varāha zone.
Difference between radii of Earth and venus orbits = (150-108) x 106 Km. Thus, Varāha zone = (26.125/42) x 100 = 62.2%. (d) 21 ahargaṇa = earth x 218 = Radius of 1672 x 106 Km. Chakra of Ratha of sun has1000 yojana radius. Here, yojana =diameter of sun. So, radius is 13,92,000 x 1000 = 1392 x 106 Km. This is also called Sahasrākṣa zone, where akṣa = sun. Thus 21 crosses ratha and is called Rathantara-sāma. (e) 27 ahargaṇa = earth x 224 = Radius of 1.07 x 1011 Km. This is called Maitreya-maṇḍala. In Viṣṇu purāṇa (2/7) etc. it is stated of 105 yojana. Here, yojana is sun diameter. This is also called Sāvitrī = creative. It is 224 times earth and chhanda of 24 letters is called Gāyatrī . Gāyatrī also means Sāvitrī . (f) 33 ahargaṇa = earth x 230= Radius of 6.848 x 1012 Km. Latest estimate of farthest objects is Oort cloud at distance between 75 to 150 thousand AU. Larger limit =1.5 x 108 x 1.5 x105 Km = 2.25 x1013 Km (g) 34 ahargaṇa is of double size called Prajāpati. 2. Sun centric Triṣṭup chhanda - Triṣṭup chhanda has 4 parts of 11 letters each. 3 parts are 3 zones of solar system called 3 steps of Vişņu. Complete Chhanda is of 44 letters. That is measure of Maharloka. It is taken 43 only as Chhanda can be of 2 letters more or less. It is equal to width of spiral arm of galaxy, called Śeṣa-nāga. It has about 1000 stars called 1000 heads of Śeṣa. The 3 zones or steps of Viṣṇu are zones of heat, brightness and light. 3. Two parts-Planetary zone is called Bṛhaspati, the largest planet. Outer zone is after 1000 Sun-diameters = Sahasrākṣa or Indra-
शं नो इ ो बृह पित शं नो िव णु
Galaxy and its spiral arm
For measure of solar system, diameter of sun itself has been taken as a yojana. It can be also called Ātmā-yojana, as sun is ātmā (soul) of universe (Yajurveda 7/42 etc.) It is seen from Vāyu purāṇa (6/12) where Varāha is stated 100 yojana high and 10 yojana wide. As it is description of solar system, height of from sun is 100 yojana and in its body of 10 yojana, earth is like a dot on its tooth. Thus earth is between 100 and110 yojanas from sun. Taking sun-diameter as unit, it is 108-109 diameters. Examples(1)Heat zone (Tāpa-kṣetra)-Up to 100 yojanas from sunशत योजने ह वा एष (आिद य) इत तपित (कौषीतिक ा ण उपिनषद् ८/३) स एष (आिद यः) एक शतिवध त य र मयः । शतिवधा एष एवैक शततमो य एष तपित (शतपथ ा ण १०/२/४/३) (2) Bright zone (Raśmi-kṣetra)-Up to 1000 yojanas from sun-यु ा य (इ य) हरयः शतादशेित । सह ं हैत आिद य य र मयः (इ ः=आिद यः) जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ा ण १/४४/५) असौ य ता ो अ ण उत ब ुः सुम गलः । ये चैनं ा अिभतो िद ु ि ताः सह ोऽवैषां हेड ईमहे ॥ (वा.यजु.१६/६) (3) Maitreya Maṇḍala -1 lakh yojanas-Viṣṇu purāṇa (2/8) Wheel of ratha -1000 yojana = zone of Indra (Sahasrākṣa, akṣa or chakṣu = eye which is sun, Sahasra =1000)-This is grand cycle of planetary motions up to Saturn, so it is wheel. That Is basis of yugas in which revolution of planets are stated (Bhagaṇopapatti) Ratha = Diameter 9000 yojana. Radius = 4500 yojana, up to orbit of Pluto. Īṣā-daṇḍa (axle rod)-Extent of solar wind up to 9000 yojana. Its middle zone is at 6750, Which is Nakṣatra-kakṣā (orbit of small bodies, Bālakhilya = small planets at end) at 60 AU i.e. 60 times distance of sun (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/80) Spread of Solar Ratha (=body)-157 lakh yojanas x 1392000 kms.= 2 LY diameter
Prakāśa Yojana-Length by Speed of Light
But this is not a definition of unit-hardness and width of rose-petal, sharpness of needle and force applied to it are unspecified. Bhāgavata purāṇa (3/11/5) defines it as time taken by light to cross 3 Trasareṇu or 3 units larger than it which are missingजालाक र यवगतः खमेवानुपत गात् । सरे णु ि कं भु कते यः कालः स ुिटः मृतः (भागवत पुराण ३/११/५) Both can be explained by the fact that earth is called a big lotus in space – प ां भूिमः-पु ष सू , यजुवद (३१/१३) Last step of creation is earth, so it is foot. It is base (foot, pada) of life, so it is padma (lotus). This is the lotus coming from navel of Sun as Viṣṇu. Seen from earth, it is at focus of the apparent orbit of sun. That focus is navel (nābhi). Truṭi is 33750 parts of 1 second. It is time taken by light to cross a yojana, which may be 1000 or 1600 parts of its diameter. Examples(1) Radius of solar system is distance travelled by light in 1 year. That was the region whose material started creation of sun, so it is Āditya. Thus is called samvatsara (year)संव सरः वगा (= सौर े ) -कारः (तैि रीय ा ण २/१/५/२) वाक् (= सौर े ) संव सरः (ता महा ा ण १०/१२/७) Within this region, devas are created- जापितः (शतपथ ा ण १/६/३/३५, १०/२/६/१, ऐतरे य ा ण १/१, १३,२८,२/१७, ४/२५ आिद) संव सरो वैदव े ानां ज म (शतपथ ा ण ८/७/३/२१) After samvatsara is Varuņa region- संव सरो व णः (शतपथ ा ण ४/४/५/१८ आिद) (2) Tapah loka of Brahmā is the region which receives light (or heated) from other parts. It is Called visible universe in modern physics. ा तपिस ( िति तम्) ऐतरे य ा ण ३/६, गोपथ ा ण उ र३/२), तपोऽिस लोके ि तम् । तेजसः ित ा। (तैि रीय ा ण ३/११/१/२) (3) Vijñāna ātmā in heart region is connected up to Brahma-randhra by lanes in individual bodies. (Bṛhadāraṇyaka upaniṣad 4/4/8,9; Chhāndogya upaniṣad 8/6/1,2,5; Brahma-sūtra 4/2/17-20) From that it goes to Sun at speed of light. Ṛgveda (3/53/8) tells that this link goes and returns 6 times in a muhūrtta (48 minutes). Light travels 3 lakh kms. In 1 second. It will take 500 seconds or 8 minutes to reach. It will go and return 3 times in 8 x 6= 48 minutes.अथ या एता दय य ना ः…।१। त था महापथ …आिद यात् ताय ते … नाड़ी यः ताय ते ॥२॥ …रि मिभ वमा ामते …॥३ ॥ (छा दो यउपिनषद् ८/६/१-३) ि यि वःपिरमु मागात् वैम ैरनृतुपा ऋतावा (ऋक् ३/५३/८)
Truṭi has been defined as time taken by a sharp needle to pierce a petal of rose. -Vaṭeśvara-siddhānta, madhyamādhikāra,7; Siddhānta-śiromaṇi, madhyamādhikāra, 26
Pramā āṇa Yojana Pram
Jain Astronomy By S.S. Lishk-Vidyasagar Publication, Delhi-53, Pages 28,291 Pramāṇa yojana = 500 Ātmā yojana = 1000 Utsedha Yojana. Here Sun is ātmā of universe, so its diameter is ātmā-yojana. …… सूय आ मा जगत थुष (यजुवद ७/४२) Each start of measure is earth, next loka is Pramā measured in Pramāṇa yojana . Lower divisions of standard earth are utsedha yojana divided into 1000 parts. मा छ दः, तत् पृिथवी…। मा छ दः, तद तिर म् । (मै ायणी संिहता २/१४/९३, काठक संिहता ३९/३९) Bhāgavata purāṇa, part 5, Vişņu purāņa 2/7 etc give the following measures of 7 lokas(1)Bhū-loka (Earth) 1000 yojana. In utsedha yojana = 1000 parts of earth. (2) Bhuvar loka -1 lakh yojana. In earth yojanas, it is Varāha of 1000 times bigger spread. (3)Svar loka-It is solar system whose ratha size is 157 lakh yojans = 157,00,000 x 1392000 kms = about 2 light years diameter. (4) Mahar loka is 1 crore yojana. It looks smaller than solar system of 1.57 crore size, but it is in Pramāṇa yojana = sun diameter x 500) Thus, radius of mahar-loka =1 crore yojana = 107 x 500 sun diameters =6.96 x 1015 Kms. = 735 Light years. This is a sphere of width of spiral arm of galaxy near sun. (5) Janah loka -Radius is 2 crore yojanas in unit again bigger by 500 times. Thus it is 6.96 x 1018 Kms. =73,500 LY. (6) Tapah loka radius is 4 times bigger in unit 500 times bigger than that of mahar-loka. Radius is 14.7 crore LY, i.e. 45.1 Mpc which is distance of local super-clusture. (7) Satya-loka is 12 crore yojanas in still 500 times bigger unit. I.e. its radius = 98 billion LY. Visible world (called Bhūmi) is of 1/10 size of Puruṣa, as per in Puruṣa-sūkta, 1 Visible world = 9.8 billion LY. Modern estimates range from 8 to 18 billion LY.
Maņɖ Maņɖala ņɖala
Universe 1011 galaxies
Reverse tree of World Figure God Element
Space Human body
Chakra in spinal cord
Parameṣṭhī Maṇḍala Galaxy, Ākāśa-gangā Brahmāṇḍa,1011 stars
Sphere of moon orbit
= Cool, rare = Dense
Here order of Svādhiṣṭhāna and Maņipūra is reversed in order of creation, called sṛṣṭi-krama. That is in order of Māheśvara-sūtras-अइउण् । ऋऌक् ।….हयवरट् । लण् । It is in Saundarya-laharī -9. मह मूलाधारे कमिप मिणपूरे तवहं, ि थतं वािध ाने िद म तमाकाशमुपिर । मनोऽिप ूम ये सकलमिप िभ वा कु लपथं, सह ारे प े रहिस सह प या िवहरिस ॥९॥
Lokas and Viśva
Higher Lokas-- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
(Varāha) (Solar system)
Parama Dhāma Trilokī (Dhāma) Rodasī (Avama) Krandasī (Madhyama) (of Rudra = weeping, lower) (Viṣṇu, tears, middle) Ocean Sāvitrī Sarasvatī Water Mara Ambha
sphere of spiral (Galaxy) Visible arm width Universe
Niyatī Ap= Rasa
Higher spheres are 4, successively bigger than man by 107 . Chāndra-maṇḍala is affecting us, so that too is a world. Thus higher world are 5, given in World-tree1. Svāyambhuva-maṇḍala (universe), 2. Parameṣṭhī-maṇḍala (galaxy), 3. Saura-maṇḍala, (Solar system), 4. Chāndra-maṇḍala (sphere of moon orbit), 5. Bhū-maṇḍala (Earth) Man is world no. 6-Average of length-width-height=1.28 Meters= 107 parts of earth diameter. Lower Worlds are 7, successively smaller than man by 105 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Cell) (Atom) (Nucleus) (Moving particles) (Quarks ?) (Proto-type) (Strings) -5 -10 10-25 Meter 10-30 Meter 10-35 Meter Size 10 Meter 10 Meter 10-15 Meter 10-20 Meter Total worlds are 13, so Viśva means 13. Viśva is any system which is closed, complete and independent.
Lower worlds (१) किलल-सव धातुं कलनीकृ तः, अ
In womb, cell starts collecting all materials, so it is called kalila.
िव हः (त मात् किलल) चरक संिहता, शरीर थान (४/९)
वाला मा ं दय य म ये िव ं देवं जात पं वरे यं (अथविशर उपिनषद् ५) अना न तं किलल य म ये िव य ारमनेक पम् । िव यैकं पिरवेि तारं ा वा देवं मु यते सव पाशैः ॥ ( ेता तर उपिनषद्, ५/१३)
A cell also is a Viśva, which is enclosed (pariveṣṭita).
(२) वाला शत साह ं त य भाग य भािगनः ।त य भाग य भागाध त (३) ऋिष यः िपतरो जाताः िपतॄ यो देव दानवाः । देवे य
Starting from man, hair-end is first smaller Viśva 100 thousand times smaller. There are 6 more levels smaller by same ratio. Smallest is Nirañjana (not perceived by any instrument, or mind) From Ŗşis, pitars were born; then Deva-dānava. All jagat was from Deva only. Devas are 33, Asuras are 99, so created universe is one-fourth only (Puruşa-sūkta 3,4). Jagat= moving particles are of 3 types-Chara =lepton, Sthāṇu =Baryon, Anu-pūrva = Mesonic link particles. Assume 100 parts of 100th part of hair end (micron size)= 10-10 Meter. That is Jīva, not destroyed in any chemical change-all Kalpa =or creation is recombination of atoms only.
ये तु िनर नम् ॥ ( यानिव दु उपिनषद् , ४)
जग सव चरं था वनुपूवशः॥ (मनु मृित, ३/२०१)
(४) वाला शत भाग य शतधा कि पत य च ॥ भागो जीवः स िव ेयः स चान याय क पते ॥ ( ेता तर उपिनषद्, ५/९) (५) ष च िन पण, ७-एत या म यदेशे िवलसित परमाऽपूवा िनवाण शि ः को ािद य काशां ि भुवन-जननी कोिटभागैक पा । के शा ाितगु ा िनरविध िवलसत .. ।९। अ ा ते िशशु-सूयकला च य षोडशी शु ा नीरज सू म-त तु शतधा भागैक पा परा ।७। (६) अस ा ऽइदम ऽआसीत् । तदाहः – िक तदासीिदित । ऋषयो वाव तेऽ ेऽसदासीत् । तदा ः-के ते ऋषय इित । ते य पुराऽऽ मात् सव मािददिम छ तः मेण तपसािरषन्-त मादृषयः (शतपथ ा ण, ६/१/१/१)
Central nerve is 107 parts of hair-end. Kuṇḍalinī is still 100 times smaller, equal to nucleus of atom = 10-15 meters
In beginning, it was Asat (invisible, beyond perception) only. That was Ṛṣi. They pulled with force and energy, so they were called Ṛṣi = Rassi in Hindi (String).
Higher Worlds रिवच मसोयाव मयूखैरवभा यते ।स समु सिर छैला पृिथवी तावती मृता ।३। याव माणा पृिथवी िव तार पिरम डलात् । नभ ताव माणं वै ास म डलतो ि ज ।४। (िव णु पुराण, २/७/३,४)
(3) The zone lighted by sun and moon is Pŗthivī (earth) and in all the earths-ocean, rivers and mountains are stated as on planet earth. (a) Planet earth-It is lighted by sun and moon both and it has all-ocean, rivers and mountains. (b) Maitreya-maṇḍala -It is the zone exclusively lighted by sun. Zones formed by planetary orbits are described as continents and oceans of same name as on earth. (c) Galaxy-This is the last limit up to which sun can be seen as a point- Definition of Brahmāņɖa in Sūrya-siddhānta (12/90). In this earth also, central rotating disc is called a river-Ākāśa-gangā. (4) Whatever is the size of earth by diameter and circumference, the same is diameter and circumference of its sky, starting from earth.. Stated by Maitreya to Parāśara, addressed as Dvija (Brāhmaṇa). (a) Planet earth-Its measure should start from human size, which is implied but not stated. Earth is limit (Koţi) of world for man and its size is 107 times, so Koṭi = 107 . For earth also, its Koṭi of world is solar system which is its sky and is 107 times bigger. (b) For Maitreya-maṇḍala, its sky or Koṭi is galaxy and is 107 times bigger. ( c) For the largest earth galaxy, its sky is universe. This is infinite, but is taken in same ratio of Koṭi = 107 . Thus the 5 levels of Viśva starting with man are successively 107 times bigger. 107 = 224 and 24 is number of letters in Gāyatrī chhanda, so it is said that is measure of all the Lokas. x 107 = 224 x 107 = 224 x 107 = 224 x 107 = 224 Man Earth Solar system Galaxy Universe
इयमेव (पृिथवी) गाय ी-जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ा ण, १/५५/३, शतपथ ा ण, १/४/१/३४, ता ७/३/११) गाय या वै देवा इमान् लोकान् ा ुवन् (ता महा ा ण, १६/१४/४)
महा ा ण,
Time is perception of change of world. Change is of 3 types defining 3 types of time = Kāla. (1) Nitya Kāla (Eternal time)-All physical bodies are always decaying. Changes are irreversible. Whatever has gone can not come back. So, it is also called Death (Mṛtyu). (2) Janya Kāla (Creative time)-This is related to Yajña which is creation of useful things in a cycle. Measure of that cycle is unit of time. There are 9 cycles of creation called 9 sargas. In Bhāgavata Purāņa, 10 sargas are stated including Avyakta (abstract, formless). Time of that is Parātpara.
Concept of Time
कालोऽि म लोक यकृ
वृ ो (गीता ११/३२)
(3) Akṣaya-kāla (conserved time)-This is time of a system which follows 5 types of conservation laws In physics-mass, momentum, energy, angular momentum, and parity or charge.
सहय ाः जाः सृ वा पुरोवाच जापितः । अनेन सिव य वमेषवोऽि व कामधुक् ॥१०॥ एवं विततं च ं नानुवतयतीह यः ….॥१६॥ (गीता, ३) कालः कलयतामहम् ॥(गीता, १०/३०)
अहमेवा यः कालो (गीता, १०/३३)
(4) Parātpara Kāla-This is time of abstract source of Universe, and is beyond any perception. It is described in Bhāgavata Purāṇa (3/16). From this abstract 9 levels are created, when forms and changes are perceived. It is called Day of Brahmā.
Puruṣa also is of 4 types-(1) All bodies with form (boundary is called Chhanda) are constantly decaying. That is called Kṣara. Despite decay, the functions of the body remain the same, called Akṣara. It is known by same identity, which is invisible (Kūṭastha). As a part of surrounding, it is constant, called Avyaya. At ultimate source, there is no difference-it is Parātpara. Puruşa Time Puruşa 1. Kṣara Nitya 2. Akṣara Janya 3. Avyaya Akṣaya 4. Parātpara Parātpara 9 scales of time for 9 Sargas (stages of creation). Bhāgavata purāṇa counts 10 including abstract source. Source matter spread like ocean of water is Rasa (ultimate), Ap (creative), Ambha (galaxy), Salila (fluctuation), Mara (Solar system). Created structure within boundary is Earth of 3 levels-planet earth, solar field, galaxy. Initial stages for 3 Dhāma are 3 Āditya-Aryamā (Universe), Varuṇa (Galaxy), Mitra (Solar system) Intermediate stages are Varāha (cloud = water +air, or boar = animal of land+water). For 9 stages-9 clouds. 5 Varāha in space-Ādi, Yajña (of galaxy), Śveta (light from sun), Bhū (matter of which cindensed into earth), Emūṣa-atmosphere
अ ा यः सव भव यहरागमे । रा यागमे लीय ते त ैवा Time and Puru Puruşa şa
सं के ॥ (गीता, ८/१८)
Measures of Timeūrya-siddhānta (14/ Time-Sūrya 14/1)
(1) Brāhma-His day is time period of creation of 9 stages from formless stage. 1 Yuga = 12, 000 Divya-year. In astronomy, Divya year = 360 solar year 1 day of Brahmā =1000 yugas =1000 x 12000 x 360 = 4,32,00,00,000 years.
Same period is night, when all merge in same formless source. In modern terms, 1 day-night of 8.64 billion LY is radius of visible universe and also cycle of creation. (2) Prājāpatya-Prajāpati is Creator. His work started with creation of galaxy. Axial rotation period of galaxy is called Manvantara. Galaxy element is called Manu. It has 1011 stars which is equal to number of cells in human brain. So Brain element is called mana (mind). 1 Manvantara = 71 yugas =30.68 crore years (3) Divya-1 Divya year =360 solar years. It can have 3 meanings(a) Rotation period of imaginary planet at distance of 60 AU(called Nakśatra-kakśā in Sūrya-siddhānta (12/80) (b) In 1 day-night cycle, sun makes a circle at horizon. Similarly cycle of north-south motion is taken as 1 Divya day, and 360 such days make divya-year. ( c) This is cycle of historic changes called Parivarta-yuga in Vāyu-purāņa in list of 28 Vyāsas. It includes current generation with past and next =120 x3 years. (4) Jupiter year-It is period of 361.0486 days taken by jupiter with mean motion in 1 sign. In north India, this is actual time in 1 sign (Sūrya-siddhānta) . In south India, solar year is taken as Jupiter year (Pitāmaha-siddhānta) (5) Solar year-1rotation of sun (apparent) is 1 year. 12 part is 1 month. 30 part f month is day. (6) Lunar-Month is synodic rotation of moon in 29.5 days of 2 equal parts-new moon to full is bright half. (7) Pitara-They live on opposite side of moon. So, lunar month is 1 day of Pitaras. 30 days are 1 month and 12 such months are year. (8) Sāvana (Civil)-Sunrise to next sunrise is day. 30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year. (9) Nākṣatra (sidereal)-Axial rotation period of about 23 hrs 56 minutes is 1 day. Sunrise to next rise period is bigger by 4 minutes as earth has to move 1 degree more covered by sun in annual motion. 30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year.
7 Yugas -Smaller
(1) Sanskāra-yugas-This is period taken by a man in completing his education. This is of 5 types(a) Gopada-yuga-Like 4 feet of a cow, it has 4 years. It starts with Go-dhūli, i.e. sun set when dust Is raised due to cows returning after grazing. Year 1 is Kali (start of count) which will end at midnight after 365 days-hence Kali is called sleeping. Year 2 is Dvāpara (dvā = 2), which will end after 366 Days at sunrise. Thus is called awaken. Year 3 is Tretā (tri =3), which ends after 365 days at noon when people are standing. Cycle is completed in year 4, called Kṛta (=completed) again at sun-set.
(b) 5 year yuga- Yājuṣa- jyotiṣa gives 5 year yuga. 5 such yugas have 6 omitted years, making a bigger yuga of 19 years. ( c) 12 year yuga-It is rotation period of Jupiter and is taken as standard for teaching of Vedas. (d) 19 year yuga -Ṛk-jyotiṣa gives 19 year yuga with 7 extra lunar months which tallies with solar year within 2 hours (See Vedānga jyotiṣa by P.V. Holay, Nagpur, 1985) (e) Eclipse yuga- this is by joint motion of sun and Rāhu in 18 years 10.5 days. Its half period of 3339 tithis is also cycle of eclipse indicated in Ṛk (3/9/9, 10/52/6). (2) Human yuga-(a) Normal working period of life is 60 years. This is cycle of Jupiter years in which Jupiter and Saturn make 5 and 2 revolutions. This is called Angirā period in Vedas.
किलः शयानो भवित सि हान तु ापरः । उि
न् ेता भवित कृ तं स प ते चरन् । (ऐतरे य ा ण, ७/१३)
ीिण शतािन ीिण सह ा यि ि श देवा नव चा सपयन् । (ऋक् , १०/५२/६)
Here, Āditya =12, Pañcha-hotā = 5 x 12 = 60 years. (b) Century year-It is indicated by Saptarṣi, who remain 100 years in one star. The line joining 2 eastern stars joins zodiac in point whose location is star of Saptarṣi . It moves back @1 star (13020’) in 100 years. This is also obtained by combining yugas of Ŗk of 5 x 19 =95 years when moon comes in same nakṣatra. Adding 5 year yuga ofYājuṣa –moon will be 1 more. Rājatarangiṇī has called it Laukika era. (c) 120 years cycle is taken in cycle of periods of planets in astrology. (3) Parivarta Yuga-It is Divya year of 360 years. Vāyu purāṇa (23/114-226) or Kūrma (chapter 52) has called it parts of Dvāpara or Parivarta. Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa (1/2/29/19) tells Yuga of 2600 years and at (1/2/9/36,37) Calls the same as manvantara of 71 yugas where 1 yuga = 360 years.
आिद या ह वा आि गरस वग लोके ऽ पध त-वयं पूव ए यामो, वयिमित । ते हाऽऽिद याः पूव वग लोकं ज मुः, प ेवाि गरसः ष ां वा वषषु (ऐतरे य ा ण, १८/३/७) आिद या ाि गरस सुवग लोके ऽ पध त …त आिद या एतं प होतारमप यन् (तैि रीय ा ण, २/२/३/५)
षड् िवशित सह ािण वषािण मानुषािण तु । वषाणां युगं ेयं….. ( ा ड पुराण,१/२/२९/१९) त यैकस ित युगं म व तरिमहो यते ( ा ड पुराण,१/ २/९/३६,३७)
71 x 360 =25,560 or about 26,000 years.
(4) Sahasra yuga-(a) Bhāgavata purāṇa (1/1/4) tells a session(satra) of 1000 years by Śaunaka. Human life is only of 100 years, but standards of moral remain for thousand years, which is a satra of that period. 3000 years after that, Vikramāditya re-edited Purāņas which is continuing now for 2000 years. (Bhaviṣya purāṇa, 3/3/1/2-4) (b) Saptarşi-vatsara is of 2700 divya (solar year) or 3030 Mānuṣa years (12 revolutions of moon in 327 days)
Here , 2700 Divya years = 2700 x 365,25 days, 3030 Mānuṣa years = 3030 x 327 days. Both are equal. (c) Romaka siddhānta has used a yuga of 2850 years which is 150 times Ṛk yuga of 19 years. (5) Dhruva or Krauñcha yuga-(a)Dhruva samvatsara is of 9090 Mānuşa years or 8100 solar years. (Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa, 1/2/29/18). Vāyu purāṇa, (57/18) has called it Krauñcha-samvatsara. (b) Jupiter Yuga-Jupiter years in north India follow Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 4, where 361.0486 days is time taken by Jupiter in 1 sign by mean motion. In 85 solar years, there are 1 more i.e. 86 Jupiter years. In south India by Pitāmaha siddhānta, solar year is taken as Jupiter year. 60 years cycles in both systems will join in 60 x 85 =5100 solar years which makes 1 Jupiter Yuga. Rāma was born on 11-2-4433 BC at 10-47-48 LMT. Then it was Prabhava year in both systems (Viṣṇu-dharmottara purāṇa, 82/7,8). 5100 years prior to that, Prabhava year was at time of Matsya incarnation in 9533 BC. As per Iliad of Homer last island of Atlantis had submerged in 9564 BC. Persian tales tell it in 9844 BC. Glacial floods lasted about 1000 years. (6) Ayana-yuga-Manvantara of 26000 years is the precession cycle of earth’s axis in reverse direction. But historic cycle follows cycle of Glacial floods and ice eras. That is joint effect of rotation of Apogee in 1,00,000 years and precession in reverse direction in 26000 years (Milankovich Theory, 1923). When north pole is inclined away from sun, it gets less heat. Heat is further reduced when sun is farthest at apogee (mandoccha). That is period of glacial ice. At perigee, when north pole is towards sun, it gets maximum heat 1 1 1 and is Glacial floods. That is cycle of 21,600 years= + 21,600 26,000 1,00,000 Middle value of 24,000 years is taken in India with 12000 years period of Avasarpiṇī in order of Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara, Kali of 4,3,2,1 parts. Second half is Ustasrpiṇī in reverse order of yugas. This is cycle of correction Taken from tradition by Brahmagupta (Brhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta, Madhyamādhikāra, 60-61) and Bhāskara-2 (Siddhānta-śiromaṇi, Bhū-paridhi, 7-8) (7) Astronomical era is of 12000 Divya years each equal to 360 solar years, i.e. of 43,20,000 years. It has 3 meanings-(d) Combined cycle of planets within wheel of solar Ratha, up to Saturn (b) Cycle of change in eccentricity of earth orbit, (c) Cycle of magnetic pole reversal. These depend on (a).
ीिण वष सह ािण मानुषेण माणतः । ि शदिधकािन तु मे मतः स िष व सरः ( ा ड पुराण, १/२/२९/१६, वायुपुराण, ५७/१७) स िवशित पय ते कृ े न म डले । स षय तु ित ते पयायेण शतं शतम् (वायु पुराण, ९९/४१९)
Glacial cycle (modern value) Cycle Order BC years of start Yuga 61,902 Satya Glacial ice 69,200 (Tretā of previous cycle) Avasarpiṇī 57,102 Tretā Glacial flood 58,100-Maņijā era, some sūktas in (descending) 53,502 Dvāpara that period-Veda-kāla-nirṇaya-Dinanath Chulet, 1925. Kali Dark era (first) 51,102 49,902 Kali Utsarpiṇī 48,702 Dvāpara (ascending) 46,302 Tretā Glacial ice 45,500 42,702 Satya 37,902 Satya Avasarpiṇī 33,102 Tretā Glacial floods 31,200 29,502 Dvāpara Ādya Tretā-Brahmā-Varāha Kalpa Ādya-yuga 27,102 Kali 29,102 (Svāyambhuva) 25,102 Kali 27,376-Dhruva-0 (Brahma-dina 2) 24,702 Dvāpara 43 x 360 = 16,000 Utsarpiņṇī 22,302 Tretā Glacial Ice-20,000 19,276-Dhruva-1 18,702 Satya 13,902 Satya 13,102-Vaivasvata Manu Avasarpiṇī 9,102 Tretā Glacial floods 9,200 11,176-Dhruva-2 5,502 Dvāpara 28 x 360 = 10,000 8,476-Ikṣvāku-1 Vaivasvata 3,102 Kali 3,102-Kali 5,776-Saptarṣi-2 (Current,day-3) 1,902 Kali Mahāvīra birth 1905, Buddha (18886-1805) 3076-Laukika-3 702 Dvāpara 756-Śūdraka, Śākambharī śaka -612, Śrī-Harṣa-456 Utsarpiṇī 1,699 AD Tretā 1700AD-Industrial revolution 5,299 AD Satya 2000 AD-End of Tretā-sandhyā-Information era.
Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa (1/2/6/6-8) tells that the current kalpa or day of Brahmā is called Varāha-kalpa. Parts of yuga are counted only for this kalpa. In list of 28 Vyāsas, each part of a yuga has been called parivarta. 1 parivarta = 360 years (Paridhi = circumference divided into 3600, parivartana = change). 1 Tretā = 3600 years = 10 Parivarta Yuga. Start of Tretā was in 22,302 and in 9,102 BC. These had 10 +10 = 20 parivarta or parts. Even after second Tretā ended in 5,502 BC, this counting continued till age of Rāma (birth on 11-2-4433 BC as per horoscope in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa) as era of advancement continued. Vāyu purāṇa, chapters (70, 86, 98) mentions these partsAsura king Bali-3rd Tretā –This count should start from 22,302 BC, but this yuga-system itself started after Vaivasvata Manu, hence it should more properly be counted 3600 years before 13,902 BC, i.e. from 17,502 BC. Second Tretā will be completed in 16,802 BC and the third will continue till 16,442 BC. In this period of Bali, Vāmana had achieved supremacy of 3 lokas for Indra. But Asuras thought that they could have defeated Devas in war and continued attacks. Finally Kārttikeya defeated them convincingly. In his period, pole star had shifted from Abhijit to Dhaniṣṭhā and in consultation with Brahmā, he started year with entry of sun in Dhanişţhā (Mahābhārata udyoga parva, 230/8-10). That should be in 16,000 BC. Bali period is 1 saptarṣi = 2700 years after completion of Dhruva cycle in 19,276 BC, i.e. after 16,576 BC when Asura empire based in Krauñcha Dvīpa (north America) was most powerful.. Year started with south ward motion of sun, or varşā (rains), so year itself was called varṣa. Dattātreya -10thTretā,-It appears to be in 9102 BC when second Tretā started after end of glacial floods. Māndhātā - 15th Tretā-started in 9102-4 x 360 =7,662 BC and continued till 7,302 BC. 18 generation after him was Bāhu, who had been defeated by Yavanas with help of Haihaya, Tālajangha, Śaka, Pārada, Kāmboja, and Pahlavas (Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa, 2/3/63/119-120). Megasthenes, Arian, Solin and other Greek authors have given the date of this first Yavana attack by Dionysus (Bacchus) as 6451 years 3 months before Alexander, i.e. in 6,777 BC. Paraśurāma-19th Tretā - It started in 5502 + 2 x 360 = 7222 BC. After his death, Kalamba (Kollam) samvat started in 6,177 BC which still continues in Kerala. As incarnation of Vişņu, he has been called Hercules (as sun or Viṣṇu, he
holds the earth). He was 15 generations after Dionysus as per Greek writers. He destroyed kings (kingdoms) 21 times, which has been called republic era for 120 years by the Greeks. This should start 120 years before the death of Paraśurāma in 6297 BC, when he must have been about 30-35 years. Thus, he lived up to at least 155 years of age, so he is famous as long lived. Rāma-24th Tretā- This actually started 3 parivartas after end of Tretā, i.e. 5502-3 x 360 = 4422 BC, i.e. when he was 11 years of age. Thus his life was mostly in 24th Tretā.
Parts of Yuga
in kali year 25, i.e. in 3076 BC when Saptarṣis left Maghā after 100 years stay in that star. 3 Saptarşi cycles i.e. 8100 years are cycle of Dhruva starting after death of King Dhruva, grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu as per Bhāgavata purāņa. It was called Krauñcha year, when Asura kings up to Bali were supreme in that continent. Brahmā-There were 7 human Brahmā as per Mahābhārata, śānti parva (chapters 348, 349)1. Mukhya –From mukha (mouth) of Nārāyaņa) or main Brahmā-He taught Vaikhānasa. 2. From eyes-He was taught by Soma and himself taught Bālakhilyas. 3. From Vāṇī – He has been called Apantaratamā, son of Vāņī in Mahābhārata, śānti parva (349/39). He taught Trisuparṇa Ṛṣi. As per purāṇas, he lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī). The suparṇa, is stated to have entered sea-tending coastal land has been called Reḷhi (Ŗgveda 10/114/4), so farmers in Andhra are still called Reddi. Brāhmī script of 64 letters still continues as Telugu and Kannada having vowels of 1, 2, 3 meters. 4. In ādi kṛta yuga (37902-33102 BC)- Brahmā was from ears. He taught Vedas with Āraṇyaka, Rahasya, and Sangraha to Svārochiṣa Manu, Śankhapada, dikpāla Suvarṇābha. 5. In ādi kŗta yuga -From nose of Nārāyaṇa-He taught Vīraṇa, Raibhya Muni, and Kukṣi (Dik-pāla = Ruler of a region). 6. Aņɖaja Brahmā-taught Barhiṣad Muni, Jyeṣṭha Sāmavratī, king Avikampana. 7. Padmanābha Brahmā taught Dakśa, Vivasvāna, Ikṣvāu-This could not have been a single man from Vivasvān in 14000 BC to Ikṣvāku in 8576 BC. This appears to be institution of Brahmā who was first consulted by Kārttikeya for new calendar. His tradition appears to have continued till 9,500 BC at time of Ṛṣabhdevajī after glacial floods. He might have been in east Himalayas. Catchment of Brahmaputra river is called Brahmaviṭapa in Triviṣṭapa (Tibet), or at Maṇipura which means navel (of Nārāyaṇa) giving birth to Brahmā, adjacent country.
Saptarṣi era-As per, Rājatarangiņṇ,1/50-52), Laukikābda started with death of Yudhiṣṭhira era
Saptarṣi era and 7 Brahmās
Kaśyapa, and Manus
In astronomy, 7th Manu period is running and 7 more are yet to come. These are periods of geological changes which has been also described in purāņas and Vedas. But in historic era, all 14 Manus have passed. There were 7 main Manus and their 7 cousins, called Sāvarṇi in same periodsSl. No. Main Manu Sāvarṇi Manu 1. Svāyambhuva Meru Sāvarṇi 2. Svārochişa Dakśa Sāvarṇi 3. Uttama Brahma Sāvarṇi(Kaśyapa) 4. Tāmasa Dharma Sāvarṇi 5. Raivata Rudra Sāvarṇi 6. Chākśuşa Rauchya 7. Vaivasvata Bhautya Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa (1/2/36/65) tells that 4 Manus- Svārochişa, Uttama, Tāmas, Raivata were descendants of Priyavrata, elder son of Svāyambhuva Manu. Mother of Svārochişa was Ākūti who was daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu and was married to Ruchi Prajāpati, father of Rauchya Manu. The other 3 were sons of Priyavrata. Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa (3/4/1/23-24) tells that the other 5 Sāvarṇi Manus were sons of Priyā (Kriyā), daughter of Dakśa Prajāpati. Harivamśa purāṇa (2/15) tells that Chākśuşa Manu was son of Ripu, grandson of King Dhruva. Almost same exists in Vāyu purāṇa (4/100, 58/30). Prior to Vaivasvata Manu, list of kings is scanty. That gives 52 kings from Svāyambhuva to Chākśuṣa and then 12 kings up to Vaivasvata Manu. Kaśyapa influence is for 5 generations from Chākṣuşa Manu to Pŗthu, between them came Vṛ, Anga, Vena.
Svāyambhuva…………………………….. Chākṣuşa ……………………………. Vaivasvata
40 generations 12 generations 52 generations (incomplete list) = 15,120 years. 1 generation = 15,120 52 = 290 years. Period of Kaśyapa and Chākṣuşa = 29102(Svāyambhuva) - 40 x 290 = 17,500 BC. Pṛthu period = 17,500 – 5 x 290 = 16,050 BC. Thus, Kaśyapa period is from 17,500 to 16,050 BC. It may be noted that Institute of Brahmā from Svāyambhuva Manu continued till glacial ice period in 20,000 BC. Then, it was revived by Kaśyapa. After that, period of each Vyāsa till Ṛṣabhadeva can be taken as 2 parivarta = 720 years. Period of 6thVaivasvata-Yama is taken as 4 parivarta = 1440 years as there was deluge in his period. After Ṛṣabhadeva , period of all Vyāsa is taken as 1 parivarta = 360 years.
Mahāvīra, Mahāvīra , Buddha etc
Jain scriptures are unanimous that Mahāvīra was at the end of avasarpiṇī , thus he has to be before 1902 BC. The horoscope given in astrology book tallies with the date 11-3-1905 BC which was Chaitra śukla 13th. . Date of Siddhārtha Buddha is known more accurately-Birth 31-3-1886 BC, Vaiśākha śukla 15th, i.e. pūrṇimā till 5-24 ghaṭī. Departure for Kapilavastu-29-5-1859 BC, Sunday, āşāɖha śukla 15. Achieving Buddha stage-3-4-1851 BC, Vaiśākha pūrṇimā till 11 ghaṭī before sunrise. Death of his fatherŚuddhodana 25-6-1848, śrāvaṇa pūrṇimā, Saturday. Nirvāṇa (death) of Buddha-27-3-1807, Tuesday, Vaiśākha pūrṇimā, slightly before sunrise. Rāma birth at Ayodhyā at 81024’ east, 26048’ north, on 11-2-4433 BC at local time 10-47-48 h/m/s. lagna-9000’1”, sun-900’0’’, moon-9000’1”, mars-29800’0”, mercury-2100’0”, Jupiter- 9000’1”, venus-35700’0”, Saturn-20000’0”, Rāhu-12004’26”, balance in period of Jupiter-4 years. Kṛṣṇa birth at Mathurā 27025’ north, 77041’ east, on 17-7-3228 BC at midnight. Sun-139048’, moon-47042’, mars-9106’, mercury-152048’, Jupiter-148054’, venus-102054’, Saturn-224042’, rāhu 106024’, lagna-500. Śankarāchārya at Kālaţī 10040’ north, 760 east, on 4-4-509 BC, Tuesday, 2252 hrs LMT, vaiśākha śukla 5 till 1132 hrs, punarvasu star from 4-4-509 BC -0139 hrs till 5-4-509, 0406 hrs. Lagna-261024’, sun-25038’, moon-90068’, mars-305019’, mercury-44034’, Jupiter-247045’, venus-67053’, Saturn-343022’, rāhu-31047’.
Mālavagaṇa756-456 BC Mālava -gaṇa -756Śūdraka was born as Indrāṇīgupta in Brāhmaņa family and was king of Mālavā (Ujjain). He united 4 main royal families in a yajña at Abu (Arbuda parvata) performed by Viṣṇu incarnation Buddha born as son of Ajina in Kīkaṭa (Magadha). Śūdraka-śaka was started in 756 BC on that occasion indicated in Jyotişa-darpaņa of Yallaya. For uniting 4 kings, he was called Śūdraka as honour and his era was called Kṛta (satya) yuga. These 4 families-Pratihāra, Paramāra (Pramara), Chālukya, Chāhamāna (Chauhāna)-took lead in protecting the country against attack by Asuras (Assyria),so they were called of Agni-kula. Agni normally means fire, but Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (2/2/4/2) defines it as agni (agrī) =agraṇī =leader. Pratihāra, and Paramāra stopped Asuras and Chālukya continued to block, but decisive victory was by king Chāhamāna who completely routed Asura capital Nineve in 612 BC. This has been indicated in Bible as final destruction of Asura empire by king of Medes east of Indus river (= Madhya-deśa between Gangā and Himālaya). Chāhamāna were devotees of Śākambharī whose blessing for destroying Asuras in Kali era is indicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/49). Era was started on that occasion has been indicated by Varāhamihira in Bṛhat-samhitā (13/3). After Chāhamāna, there was temporary incursion by Śakas of central Asia who were trounced by Śrī-Harşa of Mālavā, in 456 BC and set up a pillar (Viṣṇu-dhvaja = Kutub-minar), called pillar of Hercules by Megasthenes. It has also been indicated by Ibn-Batuta, traveler from Morocco in 13th century. This samvat has been mentioned by Al-Biruni and Abul-Fazal. The 300 year period of Mālava-gaṇa has been stated by Greek writers like Megasthenes as 300 years of democracy.
28 Buddhas are listed in Bauddha text-Stūpa (Thūpa) vamśa. Vişņu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha) slightly before Śūdrala-śaka i.e. in about 800 BC. He was not among 28 Buddhas. Mañjuśrī Buddha was born in China-he might be among 7 Brahmā, and was called Fan. Kaśyapa Buddha was in 17,500 BC. Pūraņa Kaśyapa was in Kasap (Rohtas district in west Bihar) in time of Siddhārtha Buddha. Amitābha Buddha was in China at time of Rāma whose teaching to Rāvaņa is called Lankāvatāra sūtra. In Yoga-Vāsiṣṭha, Nirvāṇa khaṇḍa, chapters 14-17, he has been called Kākabhuśuṇḍī, who was north east from Meru, i.e. in China. Vasiṣṭha had gone to him for learning. His views have been criticised in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Ayodhyā kāṇḍa, chapters 108-109. In verse (109/34) he has been called Budha, Buddha, Tathāgata, Śakyatama (Śākya). Sumedhā Buddha taught Paraśurāma after Dhanuṣa yajña at Mithilā when Rāma was married. He lived at Mahendragiri where a place named Baudha still exists which is a district. His teaching to Paraśurām is called Tripurā-Rahasya. He is the same ŗşi who taught Durgā Māhātmya to king Suratha. His explanation of śakti as 10 Mahāvidyā is called 10 Prajñā-pāramitā in Baddha texts. Śākya sinmha Buddha had gone to Nepal just before Mahābhārata in time of king Jitedasti. Fahien has described times and places of 3 Buddhas just before Siddhārtha Budda. Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni and Kaśyapa. Stūpa of Kanakamuni had been doubled by king Ashok in14th year of his rule. After Siddhārtha, there were 3 Lokadhātu Buddhas, out of which 2 were in Kashmir-at time of Ashoka, 48 th king of Gonanda vamśa (1400 BC), and in time of 53 rd king Kaniṣka (1505 BC). Maitreya Buddha was in Dhānya-Kaṭaka which is Cuttack in Orissa, a region of dhānya (paddy) with places as Chauliaganja, Dhānamaṇḍal, Salepur, etc. As per Fahien, he was about 300 years after death of Siddhārtha Budda (1807 BC) i.e in1500 BC. Dīpankara Buddha was after Sumedhā. Orissa king Indrabhūti was his disciple. His son Padmasambhava started Lama tradition in Tibet. Siddhārtha has named 3 more Buddhas whose teachings did not survive in absence of written textVipaśyī, Śikhi, Viśvabhū.
Sri Kunvar Lal Jain “Vyāsa-śişya” books (Purāņon men Vamśānukramika Kāla-krama, and Purāṇon men Aitihāsika Parivarta Yuga-Itihas Vidya Prakashan, Delhi, 1990) has indicated period of 28 Vyāsas given in many purāņas (Vāyu, Brahmāņɖa, Kūrma etc). This is quoted by 18 Vol. Indian History by Sripad Kulkarni from BHISHMA, Thane, Mumbai-in vol. 4). 1. Svāyambhuva Manu (Brahmā)-(29,102-17,500 BC)-Svārochişa, Tāmasa, Raivata also were in this period. 2. Kaśyapa (Brahma-Sāvarṇi Manu)-(17,500-16,050 BC)-Chākśuşa, and other Sāvarṇi Manus. Pŗthu (17,050 BC) was most important king who did extensive mining all over the world-so earth was called Pŗthvī. Deva and Asuras joined for samudra-manthana which was world-wide joint exploration of minerals. Vena was father of Pṛthu and possibly a jaina Tīrthankara as he has been blamed as Jaina in many Purāṇas. 3 Ūśanā Kāvya or Śukrāchārya (16,050-15,330 BC)-Son of Bhŗgu. Atharva-veda was by Bhŗgu-Angirā. Guru (Preceptor) of Asura, Daitya, Dānava. Treatises on Rājanīti (politics+ economics), Dhanurveda, Āyurveda, Purāṇas were written. Kārttikeya starts new calendar in 15,800 BC with year from entry of sun in Dhaniṣṭhā star. 4. Bṛhaspati -(15,330-14,610 BC)-Complete form of Vedas. He explained grammar for each word separately is still used in China- where there is separate sign for each word. 5. Vivasvāna (Savitā)- (14,610-13,900 BC)-New calendar and yuga-system as per Sūrya-siddhānta. Year started from Āśvina month with entry of sun in meşa sign and crossing of equator in north motion of sun. Avasarpiṇī yuga started with Satya yuga. Then Tretā, Dvāpara came and ended after (4800 +3600 +2400 years) in 3102 BC. 6. VaivasvataVaivasvata-Yama (13,900-12,460 BC)-He was Ahur-Mazda (Asura-Mahādeva) of Zend-Avesta. Deluge in his period. He had explained the secrets of death to Nachiketā (Kaṭhopaniṣad), so he is called Śrāddha-Deva also. He is called younger brother of Vaivasvata-Manu, but in action only.. His place was called Yama-loka, place of dead with capital at Sanyamanī Purī. These are now called Yaman, Amman, Sana, Dead sea etc. 7. IndraIndra-Śatakratu (12,460-11,740 BC)-Śata =100, Kratu = yajña = science of producing desired objects in cycles. There were many Indras in 3600 years supremacy of Devas, but 14 among them were important who ruled for 100 years each-and were called Śatakratu . Most of the sūktas of Vedas were written at time of 7th IndraVaikunţha. Indra was Lokapāla (ruler) of east direction (from center of India). With assistance of Marut (Lokapāla of north-west) who was expert in science of sound-he made Deva-nāgarī script with 49 letters for 49Maruts-still used in north India from east (Indra) to West (Marut). Vasiṣṭh (11,740-11,020 BC)-He was son of Mitra (Sun-Iran)) and Varuṇa (Ahur-Mazda in Arab) both-may be 8.Vasiṣṭha link between two regions. 8th maņɖala of Ṛk-veda is by him. 9.Apāntaratamā or Sārasvata (11,020-10,300 BC)-Son of Sarasvatī-Alambuṣā in gotra (family) of DadhyaņAtharvaṇa. He lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī) where Brāhmī script is still current as Telugu and Kannaḍa. 10.Tridhāmā or Mārkaṇḍeya (10,300-9,580 BC)-Dattātreya taught Yoga-tantra and Mārkaṇḍeya taught purāṇa.
Vyāsa after Floods
11. ṚṣabhaṚṣabha-deva ji (9,580-8,860 BC)-After deluge he brought back supremacy of Bhārata as its Chakravartī . Incarnation of of Vişņu). He was the first jaina-Tīrthankara of the current avasarpiņī. In name of his son Bharata, was called Bhārata. Earlier, it was named Ajanābha-varṣa. In his period, Maya-Asura of Mexico revised Sūrya-siddhānta of Vivasvān which developed errors due to slowing down of axial rotation of earth in deluge. The international conference was at Romakapattana, 900 west of Ujjain (Rabat in Morocco). Ṛṣabha-deva ji restored the civilization started by Svāyambhuva Manu, so he is called his descendant. As teacher (Ṛṣabha = source of knowledge), he was 9th Śiva (Kūrma-purāṇa). 12. Atri (8,860-8,500 BC)-Bhauma-Atri (of India, Bhūmi or Bhūloka among 3 lokas of Indra) was āchārya (propounder) of āyurveda. He also made shorter method of solar eclipse. Sānkhya-Atri went to north-west direction where his Roman script has 25 (or 26 with extra-x) letters is still used, for 25 elements of Sānkhya. 13.Dharma or Nara-Nārāyaņa (8,500-8,140 BC) - He taught Vedas in Badarikāśrama. Guru tradition of Śankarāchārya starts with this Nārāyaṇa. This is period of Kāṇva-Medhātithi ṛṣi and king Duṣyanta and his son Bharata. 14. Suchkṣaṇa or Suchkṣu (8,140-7,780 BC)-Period of Marutta, Avikṣita, Karandhama and ṛṣis Gautama, Vāmadeva. 15. Tryāruṇa (7,780-7,420 BC)-Period of king Māndhātā in line of Ikṣvāku, and king Angāra of Gāndhāra. 16.Dhanañjaya (7,420-7,060 BC) Ṛṣi Bharadvāja was contemporary-Dāśa-rāja war in about 7,200 BC. Attack by 17. Kṛtañjaya (7,060-6,700 BC) Gayāsura or Asita-Dhanvā on India in 6,777 BC- Dionysus, or Bacchus) as per 18. Ṛtañjaya (6,700-6,340 BC) Megasthenes. 19. Bharadvāja (6,340-5,980 BC)-Purohita (advisor) of emperor Chāyamāna (of Persia) and Divodāsa (of Kāśī)-both. 20.Gautama (5,980-5,620 BC)-He resided on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī)-wrote sūtras of Nyāya-darśana. Period of Jamadagni, Hariśchandra. Paraśurāma, Kārttavīrya Arjuna. 21. Vāchaspati or Niryantara (5,620-5,260 BC)-Yavanas were expelled by king Sagara, supremacy on oceans. His grandson Bhagīratha brought down Gangā (some glaciers of Himālaya merged with it. 22. Sukalyāṇa or Somaśuşņa (5,260-4,900 BC)-Ṛṣis Pulastya and Viśravā. Institute of Paraśurāma ends with tretā. 23. Tṛṇavindu (4,900-4,540 BC)-He was emperor. His daughter married to Pulastya, father of Rāvaņa, Kubera. 24.Vālmīki (4,540-4,180 BC)-Period of Rāma, son of Daśaratha (4433-4262 BC). Also of Rāvaṇa, Hanumān. 25. ŚaktiŚakti-Vāsiṣṭha (4,180-3,820 BC)-Method of Veda-pāţha (recitation). 26. Jātūkarņya (3,820-3,460 BC)-Student of Parāśara, but period is before him. Kaṇāda wrote Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. 27. Parāśara (3,460-3,100 BC)-Teacher of Vişņu-purāņa. Divided Purāņa-samhitā in 100 crore verses into 18 purāṇas of 4 lakh verses. 2 streams of astronomy-of Āryabhaṭa (Svāyambhuva or Pitāmaha) and Parāśara (Sūrya SūryaSūrya siddhānta or Maitreya mentioned in Viṣṇu-purāṇa). 28. VedaVeda-Vyāsa (from 3,100 BC till today)-Son of Satyavatī (later on married to king Śantanu) and ParāśaraKṛṣṇa-Dvaipāyana. Wrote Bhāgavata purāṇa, Brahma-sūtra, commentary on Yoga-sūtra of Patañjali. Divided Vedas into many branches to preserve the knowledge. There was no further Vyāsa , so it is still called 28th kali.
SūryaSūrya-vanśa started with rule of Ikṣvāku on 1-11-8576 BC. He has been called son of Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC)
but could have been descendant, or he re-established his system of calendar and polity. In Kish-chronicle of Iraq, his son or descendant Vikukṣi has been called Ukusi in 8,320 BC. (1) Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC), (2) Ikṣvāku (1-11-8576 BC), (3) Vikukṣi (Ukusi in 8320 BC), (4)Purañjaya or Kakutstha also called Āḍībaka =hump of bull)-He defeated Sujambha, second son of Prahlāda in sixth Deva-asura war. (5) Anenā, (6) Pŗthu-not the earlier king of Kaśyapa period, (7) Viśvagaśva, (8) Ārdra, (9) Yuvanāśva-1, (10) Śrāvasta (set up Śrāvastī town), (11) Bṛhadaśva, attacked by Dhundu Asura. (12) Kuvalayāśva did the job, so he was called Dhundhumāra. Firdausi (Persian poet) has called him Keraspa in his Shāhanāmā. (13) Dṛḍhāśva, (14) Pramoda, (15) Haryaśva-1, (16) Nikumbha, (17) Samhatāśva, (18) Kṛśāśva, (19) Prasenajita, (20) Yuvanāśva-2, (21) Māndhātā-About his kingdom saying was famous that sun always sets and rises in his kingdom (Vāyu purāṇa 88/68, Viṣṇu purāṇa 4/2/65, Mahābhārata, Droṇa parva 62/11). Subordinate kings were-Angāra (Gāndhāra), Marutta, Asita (Asita-Dhanvā in Śatapatha brāhmaṇa 13/4/3/12 was an Asura king-not Dionysus but his predecessor), Gaya, Anga-Bṛhadratha, Janamejaya, Sudhanvā, Nṛga. His 3 sons ruled different states, and main line continued at Ayodhyā. (22) Purukutsa (23) Trasadasyu (24) Sambhūta (25) Anaraṇya (26) Trasadaśva, (27) Haryaśva-2, (28) Vasumāna, (29) Tridhanvā, (30) Tryāruṇa, (31) Satyavrata or Triśanku-He was being set by yajña of Viśvāmitra to Svarga, but was stopped midway by Indra. (32) Hariśchandra-He donated entire kingdom to Viśvāmitra and worked as chāṇḍāla at Kāśī. (33) Rohitāśva, (34) Harita, (35) Chañchu, (36) Vijaya, (37) Ruruka, (38) Vṛka, (39) Bāhu-He was defeated and killed in combined attack of Yavana, Kāmboja, etc in 6,777 BC. (40) Sagara-He took back the whole empire and spread influence over seas due to which they were called sāgara. He punished Persians by making their beard goat-shaped and expelled Yavanas from Arab when the settled in Greece which was called Ionia (Herodotus). His 60,000 sons were burnt by sage Kapila, who might have been author of Sānkhya-sūtras. In Gītā, he has been named as foremost Siddha and Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 12 tells Siddhapura at 1800 east of Ujjain, so many persons take his place at California (assumed to be Kapilāraṇya). (41) Asamañjasa was expelled. (42) Anśumāna-grandson of Sagara became king. (43) Dilīpa, (44) Bhagīratha succeeded in bringing Gangā from Himālaya which was called Bhāgīrathī. (45) Śruta, (46) Nābhāga-was a relation, not son. (47) Ambarīṣa-2, (48) Sindhu, (49) Ayutāyu, (50) Ṛtuparṇa, (51) Sarvakāma, (52) Sudāsa, (53) Kalmāṣapāda (His feet became black due to curse of Śakti, son of Vasiṣṭha), (54) Aśmaka, (55) Urukāma, (56) Mūlaka-He was at time of Paraśurāma and was hidden among women for saving him, so he was named Nārī-kavacha. (57) Śataratha, (58) Iḍaviḍa, (59) Kṛśakarma, (60) Sarvakāma, (61) Anarāya (or Anaraṇya), (62) Nighna, (63) Anamitra or Raghu-1, (64) Dulīḍuha, (65) Viśvamahat, (66) Dilīpa. (67) Raghu-2-He is the hero of Raghuvamśa, epic of Kālidāsa. On his name, the clan was called Raghuvamśa. Whole of ancient India was under him. (68) Aja, (69) Daśaratha, (70) Rāma was his most famous son (4433-4372 BC) who killed Rāvaṇa and set up world empire. His rule is still considered standard for propriety.
ūryaSūrya -Vamśa after Rāma
(71) Kuśa, (72) Atithi, (73) Niṣadha, (74) Nala (different from famous Nala of Niṣadha), (75) Nabha, (76) Puṇṛarīka, (77) Kḍemadhanvā, (78) Devānīka, (79) Ahinagu, (80) Ruru, (81) Pariyātra, (82) Śala, (83) Dala, (84) Bala, (85) Uktha, (86) Sahasrāśva, (87) Chandrāvaloka, (88) Tārāpīḍa, (89) Chandragiri, (90) Bhānuchandra, or, Bhānumitra, (91) Śrutāyu, (92) Ulūka, (93) Unnābha, (94) Vajranābha, (95) Śankhana, (96) Vyuşitāśva, (98) Hiraṇya-nābha-He learnt yoga from Yājñavalkya and spread it. (99) Kauśalya, (100) Brahmiṣṭha, (101) Putra, (102) Puṇya, (103) Arthasiddhi, (104) Sudarśana, (105) Agnivarṇa, (106) Śīghraga, (107) Maru, (108) Prasuśruta, (109) Sandhi, (110) Pramarṣaṇa, (111) Mahasvān, (112) Sahasvān, (113) Viśvabhava, (114) Viśvasva, (115) Prasenajita, (116) Takṣaka, (117) Bṛhadbala-He was killed in Mahābhārata war (3139 BC) by Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. After Mahābhārata-(1) Bṛhatkśaņa, (2) Uruyakṣa, (3) Vatsavyūha, (4) Prativyoma, (5) Divākara, (6) Sahadeva, (7) Bṛhadśva, (8) Bhānuratha, (9) Pratitasva, (10) Supratīka, (11) Marudeva, (12) Sunakṣatra, (13) Kinnara, (14) Antarikṣa, (15) Suparṇa, (16) Amitrajita, (17) Bṛhadbhāja, (18) Dharmī, (19) Kṛtañjaya, (20) Raṇañjaya, (21) Sañjaya, (22) Śākya, (23) Śuddhodana, (24) Siddhārtha -Buddha (1887-1806 BC), (25) Rāhula, (26) Prasenajita, (27) Kṣudraka, (28) Kundaka, (29) Suratha, (30) Sumitra-ended in 1634 BC.
(1) Soma (=Chandra) was son of Atri, (2) Budha was son of Soma, (Tāṇya-mahā-brāhmaṇa 24/18/6, Mahābhārata, udyoga parva 147/3). (2) Budha was married to Iḷā, daughter of Vaivasvata-Manu. Son of Iḷā was (3) Aila Pururavā, first emperor in this line. His basic name was Puru. As son of Iḷā, he was Aila. He started institution of yajña (3 agnis for that). He was like vṛṛabha (bull) of yajña and was making rava (vibration). So, he was called ravā. This means that he was capable of production, hence ravā is still used as word for respect around Kashi. (4) Āyu, (5) Nahuṣa had held the post of Indra also for some period when Indra had to leave after Brahma-hatyā by killing of Vṛtra. Later on, had to become serpent (a tribe of men where he ruled) by curse of a ṛṣi. First son of Nahuşa was Yati who became sanyāsī (renunciate), so second son Yayāti became the king. 6. Yayāti -His first wife Devayānī was daughter of Śukrāchārya (Kāvya in Kaaba, Arab) who had 2 sons- Yadu, Turvasu. Second wife Śarmiṣṭhā was daughter of Asura (Dānava) king Vṛṣa-parvā (vṛṣa = Taurus, parvata = mountain-in Turkey). She had 3 sons-Druhyu, Anu, Puru. Due to fraudulent second marriage, Śukrāchārya cursed Yayāti to become old. Then the youngest son Puru only agreed to take his old state, so he was given main kingdom, and in his name the clan was called Puru-vamśa. Yadu got north east part-in that line Kṛṣṇa (3228-3102 BC) was born. Druhyu got west part, Anu north (Ānava = yavana) and Turvasu in south -east. One branch of Yadu clan is stated to have gone under Ezypt rule where they were called Yid =Yahud (Jew)escaped to Israel. (7) Puru, (8) Janamejaya-He did 3 Aśvamedha-yajña. (9) Prāchīnavān or Aviddha, (10) Pravīra, (11) Manasyu or Namasyu-He rules from Sindhu river to east ocean and Vindhya mountain to Himālaya. (12) Abhayada or Subhrū, (13) Subvanta or Dhundhu, (14) Yavuyāna or Bahugva, (15) Samyāti, (16) Ahamyati, (17) Raudrāśva, (18) Rucheyu-One of his 10 sisters was married to Atri whose son was Svasti. He had 3 sonsSoma (different from the first of Chandra line), Datta (Dattātreya), and Durvāsā. His daughter Apālā also was seer of mantra of Ṛgveda. (19) Matināra, in time of Māndhātā in about 7,300 BC (20) Apratīrtha-His son ṛṣi Kāṇva Medhātithi was seer of many mantras. Her sister Gaurī’s son was Māndhātā-famous world emperor of Sūrya-vamśa. (21) Tamsu or Sumati, (22) Īlina, or Sudyumna , (23) Duşyanta-from his wife Śakuntalā was born famous emperor (24) Bharatahero of Abhijñāna-śākuntalam-famous play of Kālidāsa. Ṛṣis of his time were-Ṛchīka, Jamadagni, Viśvāmitra, and Bharadvāja. Bharata was married to Sunandā, daughter of Sarvasena, king of Kāśī. From her, a son (25)Bhūmanyu was born by niyoga (artificial birth) by Bharadvāja. (26) Bṛhatkṣtra (27) Suhotra (28) Hasti made a town in his nameHastināpura, As this became capital of kings of India, Chinese called this country as elephant (hasti) kingdom. East and south parts of India adjacent to China are in shape of elephant head, whose trunk (śuṇḍa) has gone to the end of Indonesia after which there is strait of śuṇḍā.. After Hasti, his son (29) Vikuṇṭhana became king. All his 3 sonsAjamīḍha, Purumīḍha, Dvimīḍha-were brāhmaṇas, but on order of sage Bharadvāja, eldest son (30) Ajamīḍha became king. He was contemporary to Sūrya-vamśa king Tridhanvā. After that, the list is in-complete.
Chandra-vam vamśa śa after Samvara Samvaraṇ ṇa Chandra
List after Ajamīḍha is incomplete and different names are found in Purāņas. This line regained power with Samvaraṇa –wife Tapatī (4159-4071 BC). Their son was Kuru-wife Śubhāngī (4071-3999 BC). His descendants were in two lines(1) Hastināpura line- Abhisvān-9 kings as per Bhāgavata purāṇa- Parīkṣita-Janamejaya-Bhīmasena-Their periods are not known. Pratīpa (3370-3310 BC) was the first important king. His second son Śāntanu (3310-3251 BC) became king. Eldest son Devāpi went to Himalaya for Tapa and will re-start civilization after destuction by Kalki. Bāhlīka became king of west part-Balkha of Iran. Śāntanu had 2 wives-From first wife was Devavrata, who took terrible oath of remaining unmarried and was given long life as per wish, so he was called Bhīṣma (3238-3218 BC). Second wife Satyavatī had a son before marriage with sage Parāśara, called Kṛṣṇa-Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. After marriage Chitrāngada (3248 BC) and Vichitravīrya (up to 3238 BC) were born. His elder son was blind, so second son Pāṇḍu (3218-3213 BC) ruled. After his death, again blind son Dhṛtarāṣṭra (3213-3174 BC) ruled and made his son Duryodhana (3174-3138 BC) a king. After Mahāhbhārata war, Dharmarāja Yudhiṣṭhira (3138-3102 BC), son of Pāṇḍu became king. Kings after Dharmarāja Yudhiṣṭhira in kali- All sons of Pāṇḍavas were killed in Mahāhbhārata war. His younger brother Arjuna had a son Abhimanyu from wife Subhadrā, sister of Kṛṣṇa. Abhimanyu also was killed, but his son in womb of Uttarā was miraculously made alive by Kṛṣṇa after he was killed by brahmāstra used by Aśvatthāmā after war. He became first king after Kṛṣṇa left the world at start of kali. (1) Parīkṣita (3102-3041 BC)-he was son of Abhimanyu, He was killed by Takṣaka, Nāga king, probably from Takṣkaśilā. (2)Janamejaya retaliated against Nāgas, called (nāga-yajña) and their region turned into mass-graveyard, now called Moin-jo-daro (place of dead) and Harappā (place of bones) After that he gave land grants on 27-11-3014 BC on occasion of solar eclipse as repentence of mass deaths. (3) Śatānīka, and his son (4) Aśvamedhadatta arranged revision of purāņas at institute (mahāśālā) of Śaunaka at Naimiṣāraņya. (5) Adhisīmakŗşņa, (6) Nichakśu-In his period there was a great natural upheaval which submerged Hastināpura in Gangā due to which capital had to be shifted to Kauśāmbī. Probably this was at same time as drying up the great river Sarasvatī in west India. The kingdom remained for name sake only and King of Kāśī had to take charge of managing the country. Probably, he was also named Yudhiṣṭhira, but after 5 years of rule, he took sanyāsa as Pārśvanātha (23rd Jaina Tīrthankara) in 2634 BC, when Jainas take start of Yudhiṣṭhira śaka. (7) Ūṣṇa (Bhūri), (8) Chitraratha, (9) Śuchidratha, (10) Vṛṣṇimāna, (11) Suśeṇa, (12) Sunītha, (13) Nichakṣu-2, (14) Rucha, (15) Sukhabala, (16) Pariplava,(17) Sunaya, (18) Medhāvī, (19) Nṛpa (Ripu-)ñjaya, (20) Durva, (21) Tigmātmā, (22) Bṛhadratha, (23) Vasudāna, (24) Śatānīka, (25) Udayana (Hero of plays by Bhāsa, in time of Pradyoota, mentioned in epic Meghadūta of Kālidāsa), (26) Vaśīnara, (27) Daņɖapāņi, (28) Niramitra,(29) Kśemaka -ended in 1634 BC by Magadha king Mahāpadmananda. (2) Magadha line- Sudhanvā (3999-3919 BC) Suhotra (3919-3826 BC) Chyavana (3826-3788 BC) Kṛmi or Kṛti (3788-3751 BC) Uparichara Vasu (3751-3709 BC) (Pratīpa or Chaidya) Bṛhadratha (3709-3637 BC)-capital at Girivraja (Rājagṛha =Rajgir now)Kuśāgra (3637-3567 BC) Ṛṣabha (3567-3497 BC) Satyahita (3497-3437 BC) Puṇya or Puṣpavanta (3427-3394 BC) Satyadhŗṛi (3394-3351 BC) Sudhanvā (3351-3308 BC) Sarva (3308-3265 BC) Jarāsandha (3222-3180 BC) Sahadeva (3180-3138 BC).
Magadha kings in Kali
1.Bārhadratha vamśa-Started with Somāpi, son of Sahadeva killed in Mahābhārata war. (1) Somāpi (Mārjāri)-(3138-3080 BC), (2) Śrutaśravā (3080-3016 BC), (3) Apratīpa (3016-2980 BC), (4) Niramitra (2980-2940 BC), (5) Sukṛta (2940-2882 BC), (6) Bṛhatkarman (2882-2859 BC), (7) Senajita (2859-2809 BC), (8) Śrutañjaya (2809-2769 BC), (9) Mahābala (2769-2734 BC), (10) Śuchi (2734-2676 BC), (11) Kṣema (2676-2648 BC), (12) Aṇuvrata (2648-2584 BC), (13), Dharmanetra (2584-2549 BC), (14) Nirvṛtti (2549-2491 BC), (15) Suvrata (2491-2453 BC), (16) Dṛḍhasena (2453-2395 BC), (17) Sumati (2395-2362 BC), (18) Suchala (2362-2340BC), (19) Sunetra (2340-2300 BC), (20) Satyajita (2300-2217 BC), (21) Vīrajita (2217-2182 BC), (22) Ripuñjaya (2182-2132 BC)-Sl. Nos. 12 to 15 look like disciples of Pārśvanātha. Total-22 kings for 1006 years (Brahmāņɖa purāṇa 2/3/74/121, Viṣḍu purāṇa 4/23/12 etc) 2. Pradyota vamśa-Last Bārhadratha king was Ripuñjaya killed by his minister Śunaka (or Pulaka) and made his son-in-law Pradyota, as king (Brahmāņɖa purāṇa 2/3/74/122, Skanda purāṇa 12/2 etc). (1) Pradyota (2132-2109 BC), (2) Pālaka (2109-2085 BC), (3) Viśākhayūpa (2085-2035 BC), (4) Janaka (2035-2014 BC), (5) Nandivardhana (2014-1994 BC)-Total 5 kings for 138 years. 3. Śiśunāga vamśa- (Kaliyuga Rāja Vṛttānta 2/2, Bhāgavata purāṇa 12/2/8 etc.)-(1)Śiśunāga (1994-1954 BC), (2) Kākavarṇa or Śakavarṇa (1954-1918 BC), (3) Kṣemadhanvā (1918-1892 BC), (4) Kṣatrauja (1892-1852 BC), (5) Vidhisāra (Bimbisāra) or Śreṇika (1852-1814 BC), (6) Ajātaśatru (1814-1787 BC), (7) Darśaka (17871752 BC), (8) Udāyi (1752-1719 BC), (9) Nandivardhana (1719-1677 BC), (10) Mahānandi (1677-1634 BC). In this period Siddhārtha, son of Śuddhodana became Buddha, who was incarnation of māyā and moha, not of Viṣṇu (Viṣṇu purāṇa 4/23 etc). He was 5 years younger to Bimbisāra and died in 8th year of Ajātaśatru’s rule in 1806 BC. Udāyi in 4 year of his rule established Pāţaliputra on confluence of Son and Gangā (Vāyu purāṇa 119/318). Ten kings of this dynasty ruled for 360 years. 4. Nanda vamśa- Mahā-Padma-Nanda was the son of last Śiśunāga king Mahānandi by his śūdrā wife. After death of his father he became king 1500 years (more accurately 1534 years after birth of Parīkṣita in 3138 BC) stated in all purāṇa as a landmark of history. He won most of India by exterminating all kṣatriya kings like second Paraśurāma. (Viṣṇu purāṇa 4/24/104, Bhāgavata purāṇa 12/1/10). He ruled for 88 years followed by 8 sons for 12 years (Matsya purāṇa 270/20, 273/23)-a total of 100 years from 1634 to 1534 BC.
Maurya and Śunga vamśa
Maurya vamśa-Kauţṭlya Chāṇakya destyoed and made Chandragupta as king. His family belonged to Murā town (in Sambalpur of Orissa, now submerged in Hirakud reservoir) which was center of iron ore called mura (murrum). So the family was called Maurya. 12 Maurya kings ruled for a total of 316 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vṛttānta 3/2, Matsya purāṇa 270/32, Vāyu purāṇa etc.)- (1) Chandragupta (1534-1500 BC), (2) Bindusāra (1500-1472 BC), (3) Aśoka (1472-1436 BC), (4) Supārśva (Suyaśa, or Kuṇāla)- (1436-1428 BC), (5) Daśaratha (Bandhupālita) -(1428-1420 BC), (6) Indrapālita (1420-1350 BC), (7) Harṣavardhana (1350-1342 BC), (8) Sangata (1342-1333 BC), (9) Śāliśūka (1333-1320 BC), (10) Soma (Deva-) śarmā (1320-1313 BC), (11) Śatadhanvā (1313-1305), (12) Bṛhadratha (Bṛhadaśva)-(1305-1218 BC). There was another Aśoka in Gonanda-vamśa (43rd king) in (1448-1400 BC) who had become Bauddha due to which Bauddhas from central Asia destroyed the kingdom. Many of the inscriptions in name of Aśoka are by him (Rājatarangiṇī , 1/101-102). No inscriptionincluding one at Hathi-gumpha mentions that had become Buddhist. Only mention is in Bauddha text Divyāvadāna (chapter Aśokāvadāna) that Aśoka was a good Bauddha because he had killed 12,000 Jaina monks on victory over Kalinga. This is too high a figure for a normal war. There is no
basis of figure of 1,50,000 killed, 350,000 injured and 550, 000 arrested. This exceeds the population of the then Kalinga and more than current strength of Indian army. Alexander Army was only 120,000 with 20,000 horses, which was afraid of Magadha army of 600,000. Only possibility maybe that Jainas might be powerful in Kalinga administration which was lost after war. Another fallacy is spread that Magadha empire was destroyed due to adoption of non-violence by Aśoka. Actually, non-violence is feature of Yoga-sūtra and more stressed in Jainism. Rather, Bauddha themselves including Siddhārtha Buddha himself were strongly opposed to vegetarian food even for Bhikṣus. It is surprising as to how Buddha was moved by sacrifice of animals in yajña, which is for food, not for God. Maurya kings were never against Brāhmaṇas, minister of Last king Puṣyamitra was himself a Brāhmaṇa who killed king and became king himself. ŚungaŚunga-Vamśa-10 Śunga kings ruled for 300 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vṛttānta, Matsya, Vāyu purāṇa). (1) Puṣyamitra (1218-1158 BC), (2) Agnimitra (1158-1108 BC), (3) Vasumitra (1108-1072 BC), (4) Sujyeṣṭha (2) (1072-1055 BC), (5) Bhadraka (1055-1025 BC), (6) Pulindaka (1025-992 BC), (7) Ghoṣavasu (992-989 BC), (8) Vajramitra (989-960 BC), (9) Bhāgavata (960-928 BC), (10) Devabhūti (928-918 BC).
Kaṇva and Āndhra Vamśa
Kaṇva-Vamśa-4 Kaņva kings ruled for 85 years ((Viṣṇu purāṇa 4/24/39-42 etc). (1) Vāsudeva (918-879 BC), (2) Bhūmimitra (879-855 BC), (3) Nārāyaṇa (855-843 BC), (4) Suśarmā (843-833 BC). Āndhra-Vamśa-33 Āndhra kings ruled for 506 years. During that rule, saptarṣi-cycle of 2700 years started in time of kingYudhiṣṭhira (saptarṣi in Maghā from 3176 BC)-(Matsya purāṇa chapter 270 etc.). Detailed list is in Kaliyuga Rāja Vṛttānta, list in other purāṇas miss some names. (1) Śimukha (Sindhuka or Sumukha)-(833-810 BC), (2) Śrīkṛṣṇa Śātakarṇī (810-792 BC), (3) Śrīmalla Śātakarṇī (792-782 BC), (4) Pūrṇotsanga (782-764 BC)-In his time Kalinga king Khārāvela became independent from Magadha which was suffering under attack from west Asia. He repaired Prāchī canal in 5th year of his rule (Prāchī inscription) which was 803 (Tri-vasu-śata ) years after coronation of Nanda (1634 BC), thus his rule started in 1634-(803-4) = 835 BC. (5) Śrī Śātakarṇī (764-708 BC), (6) Skandha-stambin (Śrīvasvanī)-(708-690 BC), (7) Lambodara (690-672 BC), (8) Āpilaka (672-660 BC), (9) Megha-Svāti (660-642 BC), (10) Śāta-Svāti (642-624 BC), (11) Skanda-Svāti (624-617 BC), (12) Mŗgendra-Svāti-Karṇa (617-614 BC), (13) Kuntala (614606 BC), (14) Saumya (606-594 BC), (15) Śata-Svāti-Karṇa (594-593 BC), (16) Pulomāvi-1 (593-557 BC), (17) Megha (557-519 BC), (18) Ariṣṭa (519-494 BC), (19) Hāla (494-489 BC)-author of Gāthā-sapta-śatī, contemporary of Śankarāchārya. (20) Maṇḍalaka (489-484 BC), (21) Purandara-Sena (484-463 BC)- saptarşicycle completed in 476 BC in his period. (22) Sundara- Śātakarņī (463-462 BC), (23) Chakra-Vāsişţhī-Putra and Mahendra (462-461 BC), (24) Śiva-1 (461-433 BC),(25) Gautamī-Putra- Śātakarṇī (433-408 BC), (26) Pulomāvi-2 (408-376 BC), (27) Śiva-2 (376-369 BC), (28) Śivakoṇḍā ( 369-362 BC), (29) Yajñaśrī (362-343 BC), (30) Vijayaśrī (343-337 BC), (31) Chandraśrī (337-334 BC), (32) Pulomāvi-3 (334-327 BC)-He was a child son of Chandraśrī whose queen had links with commander Chandragupta who killed the king and kept his infant son as namesake king. His father Ghaṭotkacha-Gupta was commander to 2 kings-(30) Vijayaśrī and (31) Chandraśrī. Finally, Chandragupta killed the son also and became the king himself.
GuptaGupta-VamśaVamśa-They have been called Āndhra-bhŗtya also, as they were serving as commander under them (Matsya purāņa 273/17). Their place is called Śrī-Parvata which should be Śrī-śailam of Andhra Pradesh as
the kings were from that area, not of Nepal as surmised. At start of this rule, Alexander attacked India in 326 BC. His historians have mentioned last kings of Āndhra and first 2 kings of Gupta clan as well as strength of army of Āndhra kings. Names as mentioned by Megasthenes areGhaṭotkacha (Ghaţa = head, Utkacha = remover of hairs) - barber, Chandraśrī. (Chandra-Bīja)—Agrammas (Xandrammas)-31st. Āndhra king Chandragupta-1-Sandrocottus, Samudragupta-Sandrocryptus, Chandragupta-2 was famous as conqueror or Amitrocchedas (= wiping out enemies)-Amitrochades. This was known to R.C Mazumdar, who quoted Megasthenes in –”Ancient India”-page 135 to give strength of army of Āndhra kings. But, he had to retract it in his later book in collaboration with K.K. Dutta and H.C. Raychaudhary. For obedience to British fraud, he was made General editor of 12 Vol. Indian History by Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan. Usmania university also keeps both contradictions-For culture of Andhra Pradesh, Megasthenese had come in Gupta period. For history purpose, he was in Maurya period. Gupta kings adopted titles of earlier great kings of Maurya periodChandragupta-1-Vijayāditya. Samudragupta-Aśokāditya, Chandragupta-2-Vikramāditya. This was only a title. Famous Paramāra king of Ujjain of this name was later on. Śrīgupta-Ghaṭotkacha-Chandragupta-1 (327-320 BC)-Founder
Kacha (320 BC) Rāmagupta
Samudragupta (Aśokāditya (320-269 BC) Chandragupta-2 (Vikramāditya) (269-233 BC) Kumāragupta-1 (233-191 BC) Puragupta (guardian of Budhagupta) Budhagupta (172-166 BC)
Skandagupta (191-175 BC-Issueless)
Vainyagupta (175-174 BC) Kumāragupta-2 (174-172 BC) Narasimhagupta (Bālāditya-1)- (166-126 BC) Kumāragupta-3 (126-85 BC) Viṣṇugupta (85-82 BC)
After Mahābhārata war, Paīkṣita was killed by Nāga Takṣaka of Takṣaśilā in 3042 BC. His Son, king Janamejaya retaliated against Nāgas in 3089 BC in his Nāga-yajña. Many persons were killed, giving names of Moin-jo-daro (=place of dead) and Harappa (heap of bones). India became safe for 2200 years from invasion. But in 833 BC, Mauryan empire broke after fall of Śunga and Kaṇva eras and attacks started from tyrants of Assyria, called Asura In India. Khārāvel of Orissa (835 BC as per his inscription) checked their incursion up to Mathura. But that was in-sufficient and Viṣṇu-incarnation Buddha, son of Brāhmaṇa Ajina of Magadha united 4 leading (Agri=Agni) kings of India-Paramāra, Pratihāra, Chāhamāna, Chālukya under Mālvā king Śūdraka at mount Abu in756 BC (Śūdraka -śaka). For uniting 4 clans, he was called śudra as honour. Paramāra, and Pratihāra checked Asuras for a while, but they were routed by Chāhamāna of Delhi. Bible has stated that king of Medes of east of Indus wiped out Nineve, capital of Assyria in 612 BC (Era as per Bṛhat-samhitā 13/3 of Varāhamihira). His goddess Śākambharī is Indicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/58). King Sudhanvā was 6th from him who setup 4 Pīṭhas of Śankarāchārya in 483 BC. Last descendant was Prithviraj Chauhan, defeated in 1192 AD by Mohammad Ghori. Gardabhilla king Darpaņa of Ujjain had kidnapped Sarasvatī, sister of Jain muni Kālakāchārya (599-527 BC), who went for help to 96 chiefs of Hinduga (Hindukush). Those chiefs had to save themselves from Darius of Persia (550 BC) and with help of Balamitra, king of Saurāşţra, captured Ujjain. Śaka king Nahpāna or Nahasena was made ruler of Ujjain. The Śaka kings and descendants were wiped out by Śrī-harṣa in 456 BC (Harṣa-śaka). After that Paramāra king captured Ujjain. As per Bhaviṣya purāṇa, pratisarga (4/1), they were(1) Pramara (197-191 BC), (2) Mahāmara (191-188 BC), (3) Devāpi (188-185 BC), (4) Devadūta (185-182 BC), (5) Gandharvasena (182-132 BC), (6) Śankha (132-102 BC), (7) Gandharvasena (102-82 BC)-after sudden death of his son Śankha. (8) Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD)-He started Vikrama samvat in 57 BC at Paśupatinātha in Nepal from Chaitra and at Somanātha from Kārttika month. He ruled up to Arab in west and his astrologers certified Jesus as a great man.. He revised Puāņas and had 9 Jewels of men in his court. His son (9) Devabhakta (19-29 AD ) could not control the empire and it was divided into 18 parts. It was attacked from all directions by Tatars, Shakas, Hunas, Chinese etc who looted, raped and kidnapped in mass scale. Finally, grand son(10) Śālivāhana (29-89 AD) chased them west of Sindhu river. Jesus Christ took shelter after resurrection in his kingdom at Shrinagar in Kashmir. His 2 disciples also took shelter in south India. Then 10 kings ruled for 50 years each (11) Śālihotra (80-139), (12) Śālivardhana (13) Śakahantā (189-239), (14) Suhotra (239-289), (15) Havihotra (289-339), (16) Indrapāla (Indrāvatī) (339-389), (17) Mālyavān (Mālyavatī) (389-439), (18) Śambhudatta (439-489), (19) Bhaumarāja (489-539), (20) Vatsarāja (539-589), (21) Bhojarāja (589-639)-He had gone to Balkha with his army, and was contacted by Mohammad, who sought his help in establishing Islam. This is indicated in Islamic history also. Kālidāsa-3 was with him. 10 generations after him was the famous king Bhoja (1018-1060 AD)-Author of Samarāngaṇa-sūtradhāra etc.
Kings of KashmirKashmir-Taranga-1
This is given in Rājatarangiṇī. Taranga (chapter)-1, describes GonandaGonanda-vamśa from 3450 BC. Names of first 5 kings are not known. 6 Gonanda-1 (3238-3188 BC), (7) Dāmodara-1 (3188-3140 BC)-He was killed just before Mahābhārata war, then his queen Yaśomatī ruled. (8) Gonanda-2 (3138-3083 BC)-He was killed by Pāṇḍava king Parīkṣita 20 Pāṇḍava kings-( kings 9) Parīkśita who became 9th king and ruled from (3083-3041 BC), (10) Harnadeva was second son of Parīkśita , (11) Rāmadeva, (12) Vyāsadeva, (13) Droņadeva, (14) Simhadeva, (15) Gopāladeva, (16) Vijayānanda, (17) Sukhadeva, (18) Ramaņadeva, (19) Sindhimāna, (20) Mahānadeva, (21) Kamāandeva, (22) Chandradeva, (23) Ānandadeva, (24) Drupadadeva, (25) Haranāmadeva,(26) Sulakhānadeva, (27) Senāditya, (28) Mangalāditya. Another Kashmir dynasty-(29) Kṣemendra, (30) Bhīmasena, (31) Indrasena, (32) Sundarasena, (33) Galagendra, (34) Baladeva, (35) Nalasena, (36) Gokarṇa, (37) Prahlāda, (38) Bambru, (39) Pratāpaśīla, (40) Sangrāmachandra, (41) Lorikachandra, (42) Bīramachandra,(43) Babighena, (44) Bhagavantī-with these 16 kings-a total of 36 Pāṇḍava kings ruled for 1331 years (3083-1752 BC) GonandaGonanda-vamśa again-(45) Lava (1752-1713 BC), (46) Kuśa or Kuśeśaya, (47) Khagendra, (48) Surendra (Issueless). One relation (44th in Gonanda line) became king named (44) Godhara in 1596 BC. (45) Suvarṇa, (46) Janaka, (47) Śachīnāra died issueless in 1448 BC. (48) Aśoka was grandson of Janaka’s brother. He became king in1448 BC. Under influence of Lokadhātu Buddha, he became Bauddha and was named Dharmāśoka. He made many vihāras and stūpas, many of which are thought to be by Maurya Aśoka. Bauddhas of central Asia captured his kingdom. By grace of a śaiva saint, he got back his kingdom and got a son named Jālauka. He ruled up to 1400 BC and established Śrīnagara town. (49) Jālauka (1400-1344BC), (50) Dāmodara-2 (1344-1294 BC), Again, Bauddhas of central Asia ruled the state for 60 years,3 kings- Huşka, Juşk,a Kaniṣka (1294-1234 BC). GonandaGonanda-vamśa (52) Abhimanyu (1234-1182 BC), -52 Gonanda kings for 2268 years (3450-1182 years. (53) Gonanda-3, (54) Vibhīṣaṇa, (55) Indrajita, (56) Rāvaṇa, (57) Vibhīṣaṇa-2, (58) Kinnara, or Nara, (59) Siddha, (60) Utpalākśa, (61) Hiraṇyakula, (62) Vasukula, (63) Mihirakula (704-634 BC)-These 3 were kashmiri śaivas, not foreigners. (64) Baka, (65) Kṣitinandana, (66) Vasunandana, (67) Nara, (68) Akśa, (69) Gopāditya (417-357 BC)-He built Śankarāchārya temple in 367 BC which is now called Takhta-e-Suleman. (70) Gokarṇa, (71) Kinakhila, (72) Narendrāditya, (73) Andha-Yudhiṣṭhira-he was short-eyed not blind,-73+5=78 kings (3450-272 BC)
Kings of KashmirKashmir-Taranga-2 Relations of Harṣa Harṣa-Vikramāditya-(1) Pratāpāditya, (2) Jalaukasa, (3) Tuṣājina, (4) Vijaya, (5) Jayendra, (6) Sandhimati-(272-80 BC) Gonanda-vamśa vamśa-Descendent of Andha-Yudhiṣṭhira (80) Meghavāhana (80-46 BC), Gonanda (81) Pravarasena, Śreṣṭhasena or Tuñjina (46-16 BC), (82) Hiraṇya-(His younger brother Toramāṇa made coins in his own name-died in jail)-He died issueless-(16 BC-14 AD), 83-Mātṛgupta (Sent by king Vikramāditya of Ujjain)-(14-19 AD), (84) Pravarasena-2-Son of Toramāņa (19-79 AD),(85) Yudhiṣṭhira -2 (79-118 AD)-contemporary of king Śālivāhana, grandson of Vikramāditya of Ujjain, (86) Lakṣmaṇa (Narendrāditya) (118-131), (87) Tuñjina or Rāṇāditya, poet (131-173), (88) Vikramāditya (173-215), (89) Bālāditya (215-252) - end of Gonanda-vamśa. Karkoṭaka-vamśa vamśa-(1) Durlabhavardhana (son-in-law of Bālāditya the last king of GonandaKarkoṭaka vamśa)-(252-288), (2) Durlabhaka or Pratāpāditya (288-338), (5) Lalitāditya or poet Muktāpīḍa (431-467), (6) Kuvalayāditya (467-468), (7) Vajrāditya, Vāpyāyika or Lalitāpīḍa (468-525), (8) Pŗthivyāpīḍa (525-569), (9) Sangrāmapīḍa (7 days), (10) Jayāpīḍa, scholar and poet (569-620), (11) Lalitāpīḍa (620-672)-Chinese traveler Huensang had come in this period, (12) Sangrāmapīḍa -2 (672-729), (13) Chipyata,or Jayāpīḍa (729-781), (14) Ajitāpīḍa (781-837), (15) Anangpīḍa (837-840) (16) Utpalāpīḍa (840-845), (17) Sukhavarmā (845-852) Utpala-vamśa-Avantivarman (town Avantipura in his name) and his son ruled in (852-936). Utpala Poets Ānandavardhana, and Ratnākara in that period. Grand-daughter of Bhīma-śāhī was Diddā who ruled in name of her son Abhimanyu Gupta for (957-971) and countered attack of Mahmud of Gajani. Then Eka and tyrant Harşa ruled in (1086-1110). Shahmir ruled in name of Shamsuddin in 1318. His family ruled till 1561 when Moghul king Akbar captured Kashmir.
This is given because Nepal was always independent and its king list is not distorted. This has important links with other kings of India. Gopāla-vamśa-(1) Bhuktamānāgata Gupta (4159-4071 BC), (2) Jayagupta (4071-3999 BC), Gopāla (3) Paramagupta (3999-3919 BC), (4) Harṣagupta (3919-3826 BC), (5) Bhīṣmagupta (38263788), (6) Maṇigupta (3788-3751 BC), (7) Viṣṇugupta (3751-3709 BC), (8) Yakṣagupta (3709-3637 BC). He died issueless. AhīraAhīra-vamśa-Three kings of India ruled for 200 years-(9) Varasimha, (10) Jayamatasimha, (11) Bhuvanasimha. Kirāta-vamśa-(12) Yalambarā, (13) Pavi, (14) Skandarā, (15) Valamba, (16) Hṛti, (17) HumatiKirāta he had accompanied Pāṇḍavas in forest. (18) Jitedāstī-He died in Mahābhārata war on Pāṇḍava side. This is also described in Kirāta-parva under Vana-parva of Mahābhārata and famous epic Kirātārjunīyam of Daṇḍī. 7 kings ruled for 300 years (3437-3138 BC), (19) Gali (3138-3137 BC). Then 22 kings ruled for 782 years till 2319 BC. (20) Puṣka, (21) Suyarma, (22) Parbha, (23) Svānanda, (24) , (25) Stuvanka, (26) Giighri, (27) Nane, (28) Lāka, (29) Thora (30) Thoko, (31) Varmā, (32) Guja, (33) Puşkara, (34) Keśu. (35) Sunsa, (36) Sammu, (37) Guṇana, (38) Kimbu, (39) Paṭuka, (40) Gasti. SomaSoma-vamśa-(41) Nimiṣa, (42) Mānākṣa, (43) Kākavarman, (44-48)-Unknown, (49) Paśuprekṣa Deva-In his period many persons came from India in 1867 BC (period of Buddha and Mahāvīra in Bihar). These 9 kings ruled for 464 years (2319-1875 BC). (50-51)-Unknown, (52) Bhāskaravarman-He conquered India (some adjacent parts) and without any son. He adopted Aramāna of Sūrya vamśa who became king in 1712 BC in name of Bhūmivarman.
Sūrya vamśa-(53) Bhūmivarman (1712-1645 BC), (54) Chandravarman (1645-1584 BC), (55) Jayavarman (1584-1502 BC), (56) Vŗşavarman (1502-1441 BC), (57) Sarvavarman (1441-1363 BC), (58) Pṛthvīvarman (1363-1287 BC), (59) Jyeṣṭhavarman (1287-1212 BC), (60) Harivarman (1212-1136 BC), (61) Kuberavarman (1136-1048 BC), (62) Siddhivarman (1048-987 BC), (63) Haridattavarman (987-906 BC), (64) Vasudattavarman (906-843 BC), (65) Pativarman (843-790 BC), (66) Śivavṛddhivarman (790-736 BC), (67) Vasantavarman (736-675 BC), (68) Śivavarman (675-613 BC), (69 Rudravarman (613-547 BC), (70) Vṛṣadevavarman (547-486 BC)-In his period Śankarāchārya had come in 486 BC for debate with 12 Bodhisattvas. Due to his blessing the king got a son who was named after the saint. (71) Śankaradeva (486-461 BC), (72) Dharmadeva (461-437 BC), (73) Mānadeva (437417 BC), (74) Mahideva (417-397 BC), (75) Vasantadeva (397-382 BC), (76) Udayadevavarman (382-377 BC),(77) Mānadevavarman ( 377-347 BC), (78) Guṇakāmadevavarman (347-337 BC), (79) Śivadevavarman (337-276 BC), (80) Narendradevavarman (276-234 BC), (81) Bhīmadevavarman (234-198 BC), (82) Viṣṇudevavarman (198-151 BC), (83) Viśvadevavarman (151-101 BC). After him
his son-in-law became king. Ṭhākurīhākurī-vamśavamśa-(84) Amśuvarman (101-33 BC)-Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain came in 57 BC and started his Vikrama-samvat at Paśupatinātha from Chaitra śukla 1st. His son Jiṣṇugupta was king for some months and later devoted his life to astronomy. His son Brahmagupta was famous author of Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta later translated as Al-zabar-ul-muquabla (Algebra) (85) Kṛtavarman (33 BC-54 AD), (86) Bhīmārjuna (54-147 AD), (87) Nandadeva (147-172 AD), (88-89)-Unknown (172-299), (90) Vīradeva (299-394),(91) Chandraketudeva (394-450), (92) Narendradeva (450-516), (93) Varadeva (516-570)- Avalokiteśvara and one Śankarāchārya (of a Pīṭha) came in 522 AD. (94) Naramudi (570-615), (95) Śankaradeva (615-627), (96) Vardhamānadeva (627-640), (97) Balideva (640-653), (98) Jayadeva (653-668), (99) Balārjunadeva (668-685), (100) Vikramadeva (685-697), (101) Guṇakāmadeva (696-748), (102) Bhojadeva (748-756), (103) Lakṣmīkāmadeva (756-778), (104) Jayakāmadeva (778-798).
Śaka and Samvatsara
These are two complementary systems of calendar(1)Śaka is mathematical calendar where calculation is done by calculating number of days from a particular point. (2) Samvatsara is followed by people for daily use, festivals as per lunar tithis and is matched with season cycles. Meaning of śaka -This is derived from 2 root verbs- (a) śakḷ śaktau = to be able (Pāṇini dhātu-pāṭha 5/16), (b) şacha or sacha sechane, sevane cha (1/97) . It is powerful form of Kuśa (reed) which is derived from 2 verbs-(a) Kŗśa tanūkaraņe (41/117)=to become thin or fine, (b) Kṛṣa vilekhane (1/716, 6/6)= to plough or to draw a line. Thus, Kuśa is a thin rod and sign of number 1 in all languages (I). This becomes Śaka (powerful) in 2 ways(a) By being big in size-In north India sal tree is Śaka (Sakhua). Siddhārtha Buddha was born in region of sal tree, so he was called Śākya-muni. In south India, Teak tree is Śaka, so it is called Sāgvān (Śaka-vana). Australia abounds in pillar shaped Eucalyptus trees, so it was called Śaka-dvīpa-stated south east of Jambū-dvīpa (Asia)Mahābhārata (12/14/21-5) and (6/11/4) Rāmāyaṇa (4/10/19-54) and (4/43/12) etc. (b) By joining many thin kuśas-In central Asia including south Europe, many wandering small tribes joined in a Federation, so they were called Śaka. In mathematics (statistics) also, each item is counted by a sign of kuśa (I). After, they become 4, they are bound by the fifth- IIII, IIII, IIII, II ….In any mathematical calculation in astronomy, we count the number of days from a particular reference, called Ahargaṇa (day-count). So, the calendar used for purpose of calculation is called Śaka. Meaning of Samvatsara- (1) This is the exclusive zone of sun where light of sun reaches in 1 year= sphere of 1 Light year radius. Like 6 seasons in 1 year, there are 6 zones (Vaṣaṭkāra) in solar system(Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa (1/7/2/11,21) (2) This is the curved orbit of earth around sun (Tsara Chhadma gatau =to move in curve-1/373), time in orbit (1 year). (3) One of 5 type of lunar years in Vedānga jyotiṣa which matches most closely with solar year. They are Samparidānvita- i.e. pre-fixes sam, pari, idā. Anu, it added to Vatsara. Vatsara is derived from Ut (out, up) + ṣū (to give birth). Thus, vatsa = son, vatsara means son and year born from sun-its zone or period of rotation. (4) System of lunar year which is equalized with solar year by adding extra months after intervals. (5) The year which is followed by people. Sam+ vat+ sarati = moves accordingly. Thus, Jaina tradition calls anniversary as Samavasaraṇa. All major social activities and festivals follow samvatsara-financial year, Educational session, agriculture cycle and all festivals. (6) Time measures of equal measure-Guru, Saptarṣi, Dhruva or Krauñcha-samvatsaras. Thus, all texts of astronomy use Śālvāhana Śaka for calculation purpose, but all festivals are fixed as per Vikrama samvatsara.
Calendar of Brahmā
It started in time of Svāyambhuva Manu (29102 BC) after Glacial floods of 31,200 BC. There are 2 references in Vedas-(1) Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa (3/1/1/11,12) and Devī-bhāgavata purāṇa (9/12/47, 9/1/46-48). The Rāsa in space is due to precession of earth axis in 26000 years. That period is called a manvantara in Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa (2/29/19). It starts from Kṛttikā (scissors) and ends with Viśākhā (2 branches). These stars are 2 points of intersection of equator and ecliptic-at first point they start like 2 branches of scissors and at opposite end 2 branches rejoin. In time of Svāyambhuva and 26000 years later at start of Kali-spring equinox (Viṣuva sankrānti occurred in Kṛttikā star. However, in all periods, calculation of spherical triangle has to be done from first point of intersection. So, Taittirīya samhitā (4/4/10) tells-Kṛttikātah gaṇanā, here gaņanā does not mean counting as assumed by S.B. Dixit, it means calculation. (2) Madhusudan Ojha in Chhandah-samīkṣā has explained motion of sun from 24 degree north to south By chhandas. The same has been stated in Āvaraṇa-vāda quoting Ṛgveda 1/164/1-3,12,13, 1/115/3, 7/63/2 Explained in verses 123-132. Diagram at end is as per Atharva veda (8/5/19-20) Ṛgveda (10/130/4), Vāyu (Chap 2), Brahmāṇḍa (part 1, chap. 22) Viṣṇu (2/8-10)
120S Anuṣṭup 200S Uṣṇik 240S Gāyatrī
240N Jagatī 200N Triṣṭup 120N Pankti 00N Bṛhatī
No. of letters in chhandaGāyatrī 6x4, Uṣṇik 7x4, Anuṣṭup 8x4, Bṛhatī 9x4, Pankti 10x4, Triṣṭup 11x4 Jagatī 12x4
These are the lanes in which sun remains for 1 month each. The same calendar is described in Book of Enoch, chapter 4 in Ethipoean version of Old Testament. The lanes are further divided into 3 each, called Vīthi and nāḍī used for Melāpaka in astrology. This is followed in Vedānga jyotiṣa, also, where longest day length is double of night as letters in jagatī are double of gāyatrī. This was the original system of Brahmā in Taittirīya samhitā. Vivasvān revived Vedas which was called Āditya sampradāya, followed by Yājñavalkya later on. Earlier form was called Brahma- sampradāya. That was followed by Guru Nanak continued by his second son-Śrīchanda ji (Udāsīna- sampradāya. Brahmā is called Vahe-guru. Brahmā =Vah=Big.
Mahābhārata Udyoga parva, chapter 230, Verses 8-10 state that Abhijit Nakṣatra had fallen (from pole position) and a new calendar was started by Kārttikeya in consultation with Brahmā as advised by Indra. In this system, year started with entry of sun in Dhaniṣṭhā in stead of Abhijit. Earlier (in 17500 BC) at time of Kaśyapa Brahmā, Abhijit was the pole star, i.e. highest point from equator. Similarly, in diurnal motion, when sun is highest point from local horizon, it is called Abhijit muhūrtta. In Abhijit period (of Pole star) Brahmā was supreme, so lord of this star is Brahmā . From this period, rise of Devas started. 2 brother Asura kings Hiraṇya-kaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa were killed by Varāha and Nṛsimha incarnations of Viṣṇu. 2 generations later, Vāmana took kingdom of 3 lokas (Russia, China and India) from Bali for Indra. Many Asuras were dissatisfied with deal by Bali and continued war. Compromised was by Kūrma who suggested co-operation for producing mineral wealth-which resulted in Samudra-manthana. Again war erupted over sharing and finally, Kārttikeya defeated Asuras convincingly by destroying Krauñcha mount (north America) by missile. Language of his navy (Mayūra = peacock) occupying pacific
is still spread over all islands spread in largest region. After 17,500 BC entry of sun in Dhaniṣṭhā star will be near summer solstice-to be exact in 15,800 BC. Then year started with month of Māgha which was start of south motion of sun (Dakṣiṇāyana). That was continuation of system in Asura supremacy, merely starting point had been shifted. So, South motion of Sun is called Asura day in Sūrya-siddhānta. Since year started with Varṣā (rains), it was called Varṣa. After victory over Asuras, erected pillar in sea at Koṇārka and started Ratha-yātrā on Māgha-saptamī-that might be exact day of sun entry in Dhanişţhā star. Later on, in new calendar, when year started with entry of sun in Aśvinī star (Chaitra month), the ratha-yātrā shifted to start of rains in Āṣāḍha śukla 2, which is first day of seeing moon in rains (Āṣāḍhasya prathama divase meghamāśliṣṭa sānuh-Meghadūta, 2). That was in time of Vikramāditya (82BC-19 AD) when Kālidāsa wrote his epics. System of Kaśyapa Brahmā and Kārttikeya continued in Vedānga jyotiṣa-where year is assumed to start from north motion of sun in 2983 BC. The Brahmā who was consulted by Kārttikeya was Apāntaratamā. He lived on banks of Godāvarī and had gone to Hariṇa-dvīpa (Magadaskar) for Tapa. His Brāhmī script of 63-64 letters still continues with Kannada and Telugu in his region. Tamil by Kārttikeya is in Tamilnadu.
Vivasvān means sun-He was one of the sons of Aditi-12 Ādityas are widespread in time. His son Vaivasvata was the last historic Manu. He started the calendar with month of Chaitra at time of spring equinox. Yuga system of 12000 years with ascending and descending periods was started by him, not by Brahmā, so time of Brahmā falls in initial Tretā and not Satya yuga. After Vaivasvata Manu- Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara - of (4800
+3600 +2400 =10800) years ended at start of Kali on 17-2-3102 B. Thus, his period was 13902 BC. Vivasvān himself may be in about 14000 BC. Solar dynasties are all over world-In Maya and Inca (Inah = sun), Japan, Ethiopea, Ezypt etc. Places of sun are points of start of time zones in ancient world-at interval of 1 Daṇḍa = 24 minutes, compared to modern system of 30 minute intervals. Reference was from longitude of Lankā, at equator, whose time was called Ku-bera = earth time, as the time of current reference Greenwich is called. The same longitude passed through Ujjain at tropic of cancer then. 4 cardinal points at 900 intervals were marked by major structures-Pillar of Hercules at 900 west, Pyramid of Mexico 1800 west (or end of east as called in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā kāṇḍa, 40/54,64) called Siddhapura in Sūrya siddhānta, and underSea pyramid at Yama-koṭi-pattana at 900 east. That is south west tip of New zealand, it is pair of islands, so called Yama-dvīpa, at same south latitude as Yama star. Koṭi is end of land mass, pattana = port. Other places of sun are Stone-henge in UK (780 west), Hellespont 420 west, Lourdes (Rudreśa-east border of France)) 720 west, Kyoto (old capital of Japan) 600 east, Inca capital in Peru 1500 west. In India itself, Kālahastī (AP) and Lolārka (Varanasi) are 60 east, Puṇyārka (Punarakh) near Patna 90 east, Koṇārka (Orissa) at 120 east, Kālapriya and Mūlasthāna at 00 and 60 west, Puṣkara (Bukhara in Uzbekistan) at 120 west (Viṣṇu purāṇa 2/8/26). Astronomical yugas also are of 12000 Divya years (of 360 years), Divya year in history is solar year. Next Vyāsa after Vaivasvata Manu was Vaivasvata Yama (Jamshed of Zend-Avesta) in whose period glacial floods occurred for about 2000 years. They followed same system and are brothers in that sense. Political and social systems were destroyed. In addition, day length increased due to extra load of water at equator, which increases angular momentum. Due to that, calendar of Vaivasvata Manu developed errors. It was corrected in international conference at Romaka-pattana, 900 west, place of sun called Rabat (Morocco) or Konakry (New Guinee). It was presided by an astronomer of Maya (Mexico) called Maya-Asura. That was held when Alpa (131 years were left in Satya yuga, ending 4800 years after Vaivasvata Manu, i.e. in 9233 BC. That was after revival in Matsya incarnation (9533 BC) when Prabhava Guru year started in both systems-Pitāmaha, Sūrya (Viṣṇu dharmottara purāṇa, chapter 68). After that eleventh Vyāsa Ṛṣabhadeva had established new world order. Vaivasvata manu was 16000 years or 43 yugas after Svāyambhuva Manu and after 28 yuga=10600 years after him was system of Parāśara (Matsya purāṇa, chapter 173).
त ादौ पराशरमतकथने कारणमाह-किलसं े युगपादे पाराशय मतं श तमतः । व ये तदहं त मम मततु ये म यमान ॥१॥ इदान िस ा त य य समयमाह-एति स ा त यमीष ाते कलौ युगे जातम् । व थाने दृक् तु या अनेन खेटाः फु टाः कायाः ॥२॥. Āryabhaṭa-1 himself tells in Āryabhaṭīya, that he was 23 years of age when 6 cycles of 60 years passed in kali yugaष दानां षि भयदा तीता य युगपादाः। यिधका िवशितर दा तदेह मम ज मनोऽतीताः॥३/१०॥ Thus was 23 years in kali 360 = 2742 BC, i.e. born in 327 Kali = 2765 BC. This was in all old manuscripts, but such antiquity was not acceptable to British who forged it to 60 cycles of 60 years. Original verse was changed to ष दानां षि यदा तीता य युगपादाः। He has not mentioned start of Kali itself, as it was near to is time and no other calendar had started. He has mentioned ‘prior to Bhārata’ interpreted as prior to leaving kingship by Yudhiiṣṭhira of Bharata family, at start of Kali. काहो मनवो ढ, मनुयुगाः ख, गता ते च, ना च । क पादेयुगपादा ग च, गु िदवसा , भारता पूवम् ॥१/५॥ Period of Āryabhaṭa in 327-400 Kali is proved by the following(1) Pāṭaliputra was not existing, only the school called Kusumapura (like kindergarten = garden of flowers) existed. Place of observatory was Khagola, which is still a town near Patna. आयभटि वह िनगदित कु सुमपुरेऽ यिचतं ानम् ॥२/१॥ (2) He has not referred to any other śaka except Kali, as none had started between kali and him. (3) He has been quoted by Varāhamihira in Pañcha-siddhāntikā twice who was born on 6-3-95 BC (Yudhiṣṭhira śaka 3042 Chaitra śukla 8). He is ancient source followed by Lāţa etc. (4) Āryabhaṭa was follower of Pitāmaha-siddhānta (opening and last 2 verses) which was the oldest. (5) Number system of Āryabhaṭa is not followed by any of text which were written much later. His 18 digit number system is also used in Mayan astronomy. Difference of is not axial rotation of earth. Earth is taken as fixed merely for calculation and all observations. Real difference is equal division of Kalpa in 14 Manvantaras and equal 4 parts of yugas also. Mahābhārata, śānti parva (301/46) mentions about lost (kṣaya) years also which is not found in any of calendar systems now. That occurs only in Yājuṣa jyotiṣa (Vedānga jyotiṣa by P.V. Holay, Nagpur, 1985) Parāśara mata was dominant because it was followed by Kuru kings. It is given in Viṣṇu purāṇa (2/7-8) as teaching of Maitreya (follower of Vivasvāna) that system has been followed by Brahmagupta as claimed by him. That is essentially Sūrya-siddhānta method. Magadha was strong opponent and become dominant after Kali which appears to follow Ārya-mata, which was honored there as written by Āryabhaṭa.
Āryabhaṭa-2 in his Mahā-siddhānta (2/1-2) has stated that 2 systems were current at Mahābhārata time-Ārya mata and Parāśara mata. View of Parāśara was more popular. These were slightly after start of kali-yuga-
Mahābhārata Mah ābhārata calendar
1. Svāyambhuva Manu -29102 BC- (26000 years or 71 yugas before kali-Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa-1/2/9/36-37 43 yugas of 360 years each before Vaivasvata Manu, 71 yugas before Kali-Matsya purāṇa 273/76,77) 2. Dhruva death- 27,376 BC-Dhruva samvatsara starts with him as per Bhāgavata purāŋa. 3 Dhruva samvatsara of 8100 years each passed till tart of Laukika era in 3076 BC. 3. Kaśyapa-17500 BC approx., King Pŗthu-17050 BC-Approx. 4 Kārttikeya-15,800 BC-Approx. 5. Vaivasvata Manu -13,902 BC. 6. Maya Calender-9,233 BC at Romaka Pattana-90 deg. West of Ujjain. 7. Ikṣvāku-1-11-8576 BC –Tamil tradition-Makara sankrānti day. 8. Paraśurāma-Kalamba samvat (Kadamba is north pole of ecliptic, kalamba is down point and means anchor of ship or port (e.g. Colombo). Kollam samvat is current in Kerala only and started with 824 AD Viṣuva smkrānti by omitting years in 1000’s. Thus Kalamba started after death of Paraśurāma in 6177 BC-(1) He was in 19th Tretā, (2) He was at least 9 generations before Rāma in time of king Mūlaka. (3) He had set up 21 republics-Megasthenes
gives its period as 120 years. Birth of may be 120+35 years before that in 6332 BC. 9. Rāma was born on 11-2-4433 BC as per planet position in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla kāṇḍa. But no era in his name. 10. Yudhiṣṭhira period may be using Kalamba era as Paraśurāma is frequently mentioned. 4 eras started in his time(a) Yudhişţhira-śaka-starts with his coronation on 17-12-3139 BC-5 days after Bhīṣma expired on 22 December on start on north motion of sun. (b) Kali era started 36 years after that on 17/18-2-3102 BC Ujjain midnight when Śrī Kṛṣṇa expired. 2-27-30 h/m/s after that Chaitra śukla 1 started. (c) 6 months 11 days (188 days) after that on 25-8-3102 BC, Jaya samvatsara started when Yudhiṣṭhira left for Abhyudaya, so it is called Jayābhyudaya-śaka used by Janamejaya in 2 land grants of Kedaranath and MuniBrindaraka on Tungabhadra bank in 89 year on Dipavali day. (d) Yudhiṣṭhira expired in kali year 25 when Laukika era started in Kashmir in 3076 C on Meşa-samkrānti. 11. Bhaṭābda of Āryabhaṭa is used by some in Kerala (birth in 327 Kali, or death ?). Buddha nirvāṇa on 27-3-1807 BC. 12. Kauzad (Nāga) era started in 1954 BC after death of Śiṣunāga used in Burma stated in Life of Gautam Buddha by Rev. P Bigandet. 13. Mahāvīra was born on 11-3-1905 BC, but Vīra samvat starts in 527 BC on death of Kālakāchārya of Ujjain. 14. Śūdraka or Mālava-gaṇa samvat in 756 BC. Śākambharī śaka in 612 BC (Bŗhat samhitā 13/3), Śrī-Harşa śaka in 456 BC (Albiruni). This has been called 300 years of democracy by Megasthenes. 15. Vikrama-samvat-By Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD) on Chatra śukla 1, at Paśupatinātha, and on Kārttika śukla 1, at Somanātha. Month started with dark half. 16. Śālivāhana śaka in 78 AD from meṣa-samkrānti. He was grand son of Vikramāditya.
1. Enoch-Book of Enoch-Ethipoean version of Old testament of Bible, Book 3:Astronomy, chapters 72-81 Chap.72-motion in 6 portals-changes of day length in each portal-these are 3 lanes on each side of equator. Chap 74-4 quarters of 91 days each-1 year of 364 days. Last day appears to be year end leave, making 365 days in 1 year. Genesis 5/21-Enoch lived for 365 years. 2.Egypt-It had 12 months of 30 days each and 5 days added at end. Year started in month of Thoth, with Heliacal rising of star Sirius (called Thoth). In cycle of 1460 years, 1 year was excess. 3. Sumerian-Luni solar calendar with year of 354, 355, 383, 384 days. Extra months were added I two waysOctateris-8 tropical year=2921.94 days, 99 lunar months=2923.53 days From 383 BC-19 solar years =6939.60 days, 235 lunar months= 6939.69 days. 4. Jewish era-from 7/8-10-3761 BC (midnight between Sunday-Monday) at 11hr11 1/3 mts. In AD 71, Jew State was destroyed in Anno Mundi 3831. 5. Iranian-(a) Darius (520 BC)-12 solar months of 365 days. Month of 30 days added after 120 years. (b) Tarikh-i-Jelali by Seljuq Sultan Jelal Uddin Melik in1074-75-8 extra days in 33 years of 365 days. (c) Pahlavi-by Riza Shah Pahlavi in 1920-Solar calendar with old Persian names. 6. Nabu Nazir era of Babylon (Assyria) in 747 BC-Its rise was countered by Śūdraka in 756 BC. 7. Seleucideanin 312 BC-Luni solar by Greek copying of Sumerians. 8.Julian-calender of norh Europe was of 10 months of 304 days, as 2 months were frozen periods. Numa Pompius added 2 months in 673 BC-making year of 355 days. January began the year-janus was double faced like Punarvasu, ruled by Aditi-Aditirjātam Aditirjanitvam (śānti-pāţha). 13th month Mercedonius of 22 or 23 days was between february-march after 2 or 3 years. After contact with Ezypt, Julius Caesar introduced calendar in 46 BC. He directed new year to start with north motion of sun, but people started it after 7 days on 1-1-45 BC when Pauşa mnth of Vikrama samvat 11 started. That is only calendar in which month starts with dark half. Planned start of year fell on 25 December called Christmas (kŗşŋa-māsa-longest nights). 9. Islamic-It was originally a luni-solar calendar started on 19-3-622 AD with start of Vikrama samvat and intercalary months were added at end by astronomer family called Qalamma when needed to make it equal to solar year. Accordingly, Hajj was decided. Till death of Prophet Mohammad in 632 AD, 3 extra months were added. Thereafter, the system stopped as there was nobody to enforce it. Month names are in 6 pairs like 6 Vedic seasons of 2 months each. Now it is assumed that Hezira was started on 16-7-622 AD by forgetting 3 extra months in beginning. 10. Gregorian- In 1752, Julian calendar was revised in Britain with 1 leap year in 4 years as before but not in Century years unless divisible by 400. 11 days were omitted by making 3rd September as 14th.
1. Anka system-This is used to count years from rule of kings, now used only in Orissa. Years are not counted from coronation but from Vāmana dwādaśī, when Indra became king of 3 lokas. There are 2 systems-in one system, all years are counted. In other system, year numbers ending with 6 and 0 are omitted. That might have been followed in purāṇas, causing different figures of rule by same king. Another reason is that rule of many thousand years has 2 meanings-(a) day is called year, (2) sahasra means 1000 or approximate. 2. Vīra-nirvāṇa-It is actually date of death of Kālakāchārya in 527 BC and starts with Kārttika Ś. 1. 3. Kalachuri or Chedi-Āśvina Śukla 1 in 248 AD. 4. Valabhi bhanga-318 AD Kārttika Ś. 1, when later Guptas in Valabhi were routed. 5. Bengali San-April 14, 1361 AD. 6. Vilayati San -From 16-9-1362 AD. 7. Amali san-From 10-9-1362 AD 8. Newar-in Nepal, from 879 AD, Kārttika Ś. 1. 9. Lakṣamaṇa Sena 1104-im Mithilā from Kārttika Ś. 1. 10. Simha-by Siddharāja Jaisimha in Gujrat in 1113 AD from Āṣāḍha Ś1. 11. Tārikh Ilāhi in 1555 AD by Akbar from vernal equinox. 12. Rāja Śaka -by Śivājī in 1673 from Jyeṣṭha Śukla 13-Amānta months. 13. Kapilendra Śaka in Orissa starting with rule of Kapilendra Deva in 1426 AD starting with vernal equinox. To explain the rules, Kapilendra Bhāsvatī was written on pattern of original (Pañcha-siddhāntika) Bhāsvatī of Śatānanda (1099 AD). Actually, Kapilendra deva had ruled from 1435 AD, but his Ankas are counted from 1426 AD
1. PCP-Perfect Cosmological Principle-It is basic assumption of all theories that the Universe as a whole is homogeneous, isotropic and steady-i.e. same in all places, all directions and all times. The feature with these 3 “Satyas” is called “Satya Loka”. Tri-satya has other meanings also-(a) Nāma, rūpa, guṇa = name, form, actions. (b) 3 modes of truth in verbal logic-yes, no, may be. By combination of these 3, there are 7 fold truths. (c) Similarly, combination of Bhū, Bhuvar, Svah-gives 7 lokas. This is first sentence of Veda (Atharva) ये ि ष ाः पिरयि त िव ाः । It is also in Puruṣa-sūkta- स ा यास पिरधयः ि स सिमधः कृ ताः । Accordingly, Kṛṣṇa himself has been prayed as 3-satyas and 7 more satyasस य तं स यपरं ि स यं, स य य योिन िनिहतं च स ये। स य य स यं ऋत-स य ने , ं स या मकं वां शरणं प े ॥ (भागवत पुराण,१०/२/२६) 2. Universe is not seen uniform, but James Jeans explained in “Mysterious Universe”-1931 that at level of 1000 galaxies, it is uniform. However, recent researches indicate that it is not uniform even at largest scales. Ultimate source of Universe might have been uniform, but it is nowhere seen in created Universe. Thus, no theory based on these assumptions can explain real universe. 3. There is no experimental verification of any theory in astronomy. All mathematical equations and models are conjectures only. 4. In 1931, it was proved by Godel that no mathematical theory can be complete and consistent both. It was expanded by Cohen in 1961. But, All scientists starting with Einstein had craze of Unified Field Theory. Mahesh Yogi also came up with his Unified theory on Vedic concepts. That has resulted in proliferation of theories. Vedas are blamed that their meaning is uncertain. But all human languages are based on physical observations. Similar meaning is assigned to words for cosmic and internal systems. If we analyze text as per cosmic, physical and internal meanings-there is no ambiguity. Currently, there are more than 22 Cosmological theories-none of them explains real universe. 5. We are uncertain about number of dimensions of world. Laplace in his nebular hypothesis assumed 3 dimensional space. Einstein added time to form 4-dimensional space-time-continuum. Before him, Mach made many models of Universe and its observed aspect. There were Thermo-dynamic models by Maxwell and Willard Gibbs. General theory of Relativity (GTR) by Einstein resulted in unstable expanding Universe. To counter that, he inserted an arbitrary constant. But real Universe was explained by 3 models Omitting that constant. Theories of 5, 6, 9, 10.11 dimensions were also developed. 6. Nature of dimensions is not clear. 2 of 10 dimensions are called-Time-like. Some are local and some infinite. 7. Salam, Weinburg etc. developed theories of splitting of 4 fundamental forces from single one, parity aspect and creation of varieties of atomic particles. 8. Ultimate source was assumed primordial strings of 10-35 meter, but next levels are missing and nature of quarks is not clear. 5 types of 10 dimensional string theories were modified by M-string theory-all are guess.
Now we can realize solution of these problems by Vedic model. God as ultimate source of matter, energy or consciousness is one, but it is beyond description. Visible created Universe has variety and can be describe, but description can not be single. No object has any geometrical shape. All stars and planets are assumes spherical, but that is approximate only. Orbits are elliptical with several corrections. Finally all are discrete objects, but mathematical equations are continuous. Vedas do not indicate any Unified theory as assumed by Mahesh Yogi(1) There are opposite pairs of matters and processes-(a) Agni-soma, (b) Puruṣa-Prakṛti, (c) Rasa-Bala, (d) Sañchara –Pratisañchara, (e)Jīva-Māyā, (f) Śiva-Śakti etc. (2) World is created by action of 3 Guṇas. Their combination is of 8 types called 8 Prakṛtis -so there are 8 alternative theories of Vedānta though it was for unification of diverse sūktas by different Ṛṣis in different periods-(a) Śankara, (b) Nimbārka, (c) Rāmānuja, (d) Madhva, (e) Vallabha, (f) AbhinavaGupta, (g) Chaitanya , (h)Tantrāgama (3) There are 6 darśanas to explain Vedic theories. (4) Veda itself has many types of texts-(a) samhitā-collection of mantras, (b) Brāhmaṇa , (c) Purāṇa, (d) Āgama, etc. (5) Four types of samhitā-Ṛk, Yajur, Sāma, Atharva. (6) 4 types of Puruṣa-Kṣara Akṣara, Avyaya, Parātpara. The last is beyond description. (7) Nāsadīya-sūkta describes 10 alternate theories and still tells that ultimate source is uncertain. Definitely, no single theory can explain Vedas or the world. There has to be a combination of theories. How many are needed. At least 2 are needed(1) Puruṣa theory explains sequence of puras (structures) at micro and mega levels. (2) Śrī theory explains field theory about continuous description of space. That is 10 dimensional, but lesser dimensions are sufficient for many purposes. (3) There is a Yajña theory of transformation called creation. It also explains nature of various times. It is doubtful whether this is independent or it can be derived from the earlier 2 theories.
Puruṣ ṣa Theory Puru
Pura is a structure within boundary called Chhanda. The whole world is collection of structures and is a Puruṣa. Man itself is a Puruṣa being image of world in sense that human brain has the same number of cells 1011 as number of stars in our galaxy. Those structures are called Viśva which are complete, closed , and independent. Higher Viśvas (world levels) are successively 107 times bigger-
Man-earth-solar system-galaxy-Universe = 5 levels Lower worlds are successively 105 times smaller(1) Cell- (2) atom- (3) nucleus- (4) particles-(5) Deva-dānava, (6) Pitara (7) Ṛṣi Thus, there is a cross symmetry-when levels are 5, internal ratio is 7, when levels are 7, ratio is 5Levels Inner Ratio 5 Gross 7 (power of 10) 7 Micro 5 (power of 10) Since it is with base 10, Universe should be of 10 dimensions. In no theory of modern cosmology, there is relation between any gross or micro structure. They explain only the average features. Similarly, size of micro-levels up to nucleus only are defined-levels below that are smaller than the measuring rod which is wavelength of light. Levels below atomic particles are not known. There are more than 100 types of atomic particles in 3 groups-Lepton (light), baryon (heavy) and Meson (link). These have been called –Chara, sthāṇu, and Anupūrva. Level below particle (jagat) is Deva-dānava. Devas are 33 and Dānavas are 99. Creation is from Devas only, so created world is only one-fourth (Puruṣa-sūkta, 3,4). Pitar is smaller level and may be prototype for creating higher levels. Smallest level is Ṛṣi whose length of 10-35 meters is called smallest length in modern Quantum Mechanics, called Planck’s Length. Strings (Ŗşi = rassi in hindi) of that length are taken as ultimate source in all String Theories. In higher levels, sphere of Moon orbit also is a world level as it is cause of life forms on earth. Including that, there are 5 bigger worlds, 6th is man and 7 smaller worlds-a total of 13, So the number 13 itself is indicated by ‘Viśva’ in astronomy. Viśva is a complete visible structure, Jagat is the invisible action and life in that. Jagat is of 14 levels called 14 Bhūta-sargas. These are 8 higher, called Sattva. These are average Prāņa levels of each loka and one is common for all, called Brahma. Man is intermediate. Tamo-viśāla are 5-3 types of animals of earth, water, air. Plants are semi-conscious, soil is hidden conscious.
Śrī Śrī Theory
It was evident from Puruṣa theory itself that Universe should be of 10 dimensions. That is indicated By 10 Mahāvidyā, 10 Gurus (Sikh religion), 10 commandments (Bible) and same words for number 10, State and directions-Daśa, Daśā, Diśā. Śānti-pāţha also is 10 fold-
10 dimensions are in many ways-(a) Combination of 3 Guṇas, say-a,b,c, in 10 ways-a,b,c,ab,ac,bc,abc. (b) 5 tanmātrās (mātrā = measures) of Prakṛti in distinct (countable = Gaṇeśa) and 5 in indistinct ways (abstract, non-countable = Sarasvatī). (c) 3 Steps of Viṣṇu in 3 ways-(i) Linear measure (pada) of space, (ii) Boundary of space, (iii) Field of Influence (Vikrama), and (iv) Undisturbed original-Rasa. Nature and names of dimensions are- (1) 0 dimension is point space called Chit. In every such space, something can be felt which is sat, and universal ānanda. This is same as dimension 10 called Rasa or Ānanda. (2) Dimension 1 is line-pada, rekhā, measured in yojana, ahargaṇa. (3) 2-Surface-Pṛṣṭha, (4) 3-Volume-Stoma, āyatana, āyu. (5) 4-Matter-Anna, Brahmā, measured in Aśīti chhandas. (6) 5-Kāla-Perception of change is Śiva. It is 3 types-Nitya-steady decay, janya-cyclic change, Akśayaconserved. (7) 6- Chayana-ordering in space-Viṣṇu, (8) 7-Ṛṣi - it is link between any 2 objects by 4 basic forces, (9) 8-Nāga-It is limiting an object in curved surface. (10) 9-Randhra-Deficit of any matter or energy at a place is cause of change. For different purposes, 5 to 10 dimensions are sufficient, so there are 6 Darśana (Philosophy) and 6 Darśa-Vāk (scripts). Mechanical world described by Physics is 5 dimensional in the sense that 5 basic units are needed for measurement (5 Mā chhandas). Next are 6 levels of consciousness. It is called Chetanā as it does Chayana =ordering. Ordering in space is dimension 6, Link among them is 7, curved boundary is 8, and difference of density is 9. Finally, unique original source is dimension 10. 6 scripts are-(1) 5x5-elements of Sānkhya-Roman script, Avakahaɖā chakra, (2) 6x6 elements of ŚaivaLatin, Arabic, Russian, Gurumukhi. (3) 7x7 Maruts-Devanāgarī, (4) 8x8-Kalā-Brāhmī, (5) (8+9)2 letters in Vijñāna-vāk of Vedas-36 x3 vowels, 36 x5 consonants and one unclassified ॐ. (6) 103 to 104 letters in Chinese beyond Vyoma =Tibet. These divisions of Vāk are indicated in Ṛgveda (1/164/25)-
ौः शाि तर तिर ं शाि तः पृिथवी शाि तरापः शाि तरोषधयः शाि तः । वन पतयः शाि तिव ेदेवाः शाि त शाि तः सव शाि तः शाि तरे व शाि तः सामा शाि तरे िध ॥ (वा.यजुवद ३६/१७)
गौरीिममाय सिललािन त
येकपदी सा ि पदी चतु पदी अ ापदी नवपदी सा बुभूवुषी सह ा रा परमे
Yajña ña Theory Yaj
Yajña in space is creation of 5 levels of world-(1) Svāyambhuva (=Self created, Universe), (2) Parameṣṭhī (= Largest brick, Galaxy), (3) Saura (Solar system), (4) Chāndra (Sphere containing moon orbit), (5) Pṛthivī (Earth planet). This chain of creation is reverse tree (Gītā 15/1) . This chain remains constant called Avyaya Aśvattha or Avyaya Puruṣa. Individual structures are enclosed in a boundary and are always decaying. They are Kṣara Puruṣa. Despite decay they have same hidden identity (Kūṭastha) and function till they remain-it is Akṣara Puruṣa. Formless homogeneous source is Parātpara. As there are 5 levels of creation in space, there are 5 daily rituals and active Brahma (Ka) has 5 forms symbolized by 5 Kakāras in Sikhism. Rudra-yāmala gives 5 daily rituals, same as 5 daily namāja in Islam. There are 5 mahā-yajña (Manusmṛti 3/70) in daily routine-1.Brahma-yajña = study, 2. Pitṛ-yajña =paying back source (predecessors, society, surroundings), 3. Daiva-yajña = Strengthening external and internal Prāṇas whose energy is used by us, 4. Bhūta-yajña = Feeding animals and others helping us, 5. Nŗ-yajña = Serving guests etc. Taittirīya upaniṣad (1/7/1) tells that yajña is 5x5. Brahma-sūtra calls it Pañchī-karaṇa. These 5x5 are1. Pṛthivī, antarikṣa, dyau, diśā, avāntara-diśā, 2. Agni, vāyu, āditya, chandramā, nakṣatra. 3. Āp, Oṣadhi, vanaspati, ākāśa, ātmā, -These 3 are Adhibhūta group. 3 Adhyātma groups are-4. Prāṇa, vyāna, apāna, udāna, samāna, 5. Chakṣu, śrotra, mana, vāk, tvak, 6. Charma, mānsa, snāva, asthi, majjā.
From first 3x5, second 3x5 are fulfilled. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa (1/5) indicates 5x5 classification of yajña1. Anna-pankti-1. Pāka- yajña (guhya = hidden), 2. Iṣṭi, 3. Paśu, 4. Soma (2-4 are Vitāna = spread, sutyā), 5. Agni-Chayana- yajña or Chityā. 2. Haviş-pankti-1. Dhāna, 2. Karambha, 3. Parivāpa, 4. Puroḍāśa, 5. Payasya. 3. Akṣara-pankti-1. Su = ānanda, 2. Mat = mana, 3. Pat = Vijñāna, 4. Vak = Vāk, 5. De = Prāṇa. 4. Narāśansa-pankti-(use of residue product)-1. Prātah-savana-2 narāśansa, 2. Mādhyandina savana2 N, 3. Sāyam-savana-2N= total 5 Narāśansa. 5. Savana pankti-1. Upavasatha Paśu (Agni-somīya paśu), 2. Prātah-savana, 3. Mādhyandina savana, 4. Sāyam-savana, 5. Anubndhyā Paśu (controlled by Maitrā-Varuṇa) These classifications are as per-1. Available materials, 2. Process of consumption, 3. Completion of desires, 4. Consumption of products, 5. Times of using men and materials.
Homeopathy-Process 1. Medicines are always prepared in solution of Ethyl Alcohol-common wine. Saturated solution is called mother tincture. 2. 1 drop of Mother Tincture is dissolved into 99 drops of Ethyl Alcohol. After diluting 100 times, its potency or power becomes1. 3. 1 drop of medicine of potency 1 is dissolved into 99 drops of pure alcohol to make Potency 2. Similarly, by repeating 30 times the 100x dilution of mother tincture, we get Potency of 30. We use potency of 30, 200 and 1000 (called M) only as medicine. Sometimes 1M, 2M………10 M also are used. 4. By diluting a medicine, its power increases. 5. In 30 power medicine, dilution of mother tincture is 1 in 1060. This is same as the number of electron positron pair in solar system. This is found by dividing mass of solar system by mass of electron. Nucleus of lightest atom Hydrogen is only 1 Proton, 1838 times mass of electron. Thus, even in solution quantity equal to solar system, no atom of medicine exists at potency 30. Still, it is effective. Medicines of 200, 1000 and 1M to 10M have no physical meaning. 6. Effect of Homeopathic medicines can be by Placebo effect also, i.e merely due to blind faith that it is real medicine. But, bad effects of medicine are also observed, which is proof that medicines have effect. 7. Medicine is always prepared in alcohol solution, not in water or oil. 8. As per modern science, Homeopathic medicines are fake or non-existent. They can Be effective only as per Vedic model of cosmology, which is its experimental proof. No modern astronomical theory has any experimental verification.
Vedic Cosmology यथा िप डे तथा ा डे = Whatever is in an object, similar is in Universe, Galaxy. Human Brain as image of Galaxy.
Human Brain with 1011 Cells
Massive black hole at centre
1011 suns with their fields
Zones of solar system
Sun Medicine dissolved in alcohol
Alcohol ocean of galaxy
Bṛhadāraṇyaka upaniṣad (3/3/2)-each dhāma is double of the
Taittirīya upaniṣad (2/8)-Ānanda in each dhāma
is 100 times the previous
Ānanda 1002 times
Dhāma 2 = 4r
Dhāma 1 = 2r
Ānanda 100 times
Homeopathic medicine is image of solar systemSaturated solution in alcohol = Earth = Mother Tincture 100 times dilution = Ānanda of Dhāma 1 1002 times dilution = Ānanda of Dhāma 2 10030 times dilution= Ānanda of Dhāma 30 Solar system image is Maṇipūra Chakra in Human body. That controls digestion and gives energy like sun. Linked to most ailments. Curing is reaching stage of higher Ānanda
ि शद् धाम िव-राजित वाक् पत गाय धीयते। ित व तोरह ुिभः॥ (ऋक् १०/१८९/३) Starting with Earth, field of sun is brighter up to 30 dhāmas . Each zone is measured in Ahar.
Link from man to SunEach heart till Brahma-randhra= Aņu patha From earth to Sun- Mahā patha (Bŗhadāraņyaka upanişad -4/4/8,9 Chhāndogya upanişad-8/6/1,2,5 Link from earth to sun is at speed of light. (Brahma-sūtra 4/2/17-20) It goes and returns 3 times in 1 muhūrtta. (Ŗk 3/53/8); 15x 107 kms. @ 3x105 kms/sec. One way- 500 seconds = 8 minutes
Brahma Randhra in each man
Sun-centric view Sun to earth-200 power Till Jupiter-1000 power TillMaitreya - 105 power