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Continuous T-Beam Example

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References

Text: Sections 4.1 4-8, 5.1 5.4, 9.3, 10.1 10.5

Topic

ACI

Section

Page

in 2011 Edition

calculated:

not supporting partitions damaged by deflections

Table 9.5(a)

supporting partitions damaged by deflections

Table A-9, text

127

1094

8.3

109

7.7

93

Minimum reinforcement

10.5.1

140

10.3.5

138

9.3.2.2

123

10.6.4

142

10.6.6

142

8.12.2

115

7.6.1

92

7.12.2.1

7.12.2.2

102

Approx. d a/2 = 0.85 d at supports, = 0.9 d at midspan

Cover

Standard bar details (cut-off locations) for slabs & beams

Design Procedure

1.

Select the depth of the beam (h). Beam service-load deflections must be computed and

checked against allowable deflections specified in ACI Table 9.5(b) (pg 129) unless the

minimum thicknesses specified in ACI Table 9.5(a) (pg 127) are used. The beam depth

must also be sufficient to resist shear (covered later) and to provide sufficient flexural

strength ( Mn). Typically, a good first approximation to beam depth can be made based

on deflection (Table 9.5(a)), and then increased as necessary to provide sufficient flexural

strength at the section with the largest factored moment (Mu)usually the exterior face of

the first interior support.

Continuous T-Beam Example

2/4

2.

Determine beam-stem width (bw). Try for a depth to width ratio between 1.5 to 2.0. Since

moment capacity is affected more by beam depth than by beam width, designers typically

try to minimize the beam-stem width to reduce self-weight. Increasing bw slightly can

sometimes reduce the number of reinforcement layers, which increases beam efficiency (d

is increased). If the structures owner wishes to minimize story height, the engineer can

specify wide beams (depth to width ratio down to 1.0).

3.

Calculate the moments due to factored load (Mu) at each design section. Reduce the live

load according to the tributary area of the span using the equation below. For flexure at

interior supports, the tributary area of both spans adjacent to the support can be used.

Check that the ACI Moment Coefficients can be used (ACI 8.3.3) and use the coefficients

to calculate Mu at each of the design sections.

15

Lreduc _ factor 0.25

0.5

2 AT

Do not reduce live loads > 100 psf

4.

Calculate the effective flange width (bf) at sections with positive moment. The

compressive stresses in the flange are not uniformly distributed due to shear lag. For

design, stresses are assumed to be uniformly distributed over an effective width (beff), as

specified in ACI 8.10.2.

The compressive stress in the flange decreases toward the flange ends (see figure below).

For design, the total compressive force in the flange is assumed to be distributed uniformly

over a flange width called the "effective" flange width, beff.

beam spacing

beam spacing

Isometric view

Top view

Actual Compressive Stress Distribution

Isometric view

Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution

Top view

Continuous T-Beam Example

3/4

4.

Design the flexural reinforcement at each section (at supports and midspan). The flexural

reinforcement must a) supply sufficient flexural strength ( Mn) to resist the factored

moment (Mu), b) provide for a ductile failure, and c) distribute the reinforcement to

prevent excessive cracking. At each section, the following steps are followed.

4.1

Select As to that Mn > Mu. As described in the Slab Design handout, this is essentially a

trial-and-error process. And as for slab design, we will learn how to calculate an estimate

of the minimum required As, and to construct a list of rebar sizes and number sorted in

order of increasing As.

In positive moment sections, the designer must check that the reinforcing steel can fit

within the web. Minimum clear distance between bars is specified in ACI 7.6.1 and 7.6.2

(pg 92).

min. rbend= 2stirrup

2stirrup

rbend

clear

4.2

2 stirrup

max(1, bar)

Stirrup only

Provide Ductile Failure. As for slab design, sufficient reinforcement must be provided to

avoid a sudden failure when the section cracks (As must be >= As_min). Also, specifying too

much reinforcement prevents flexure cracks from opening under overloads which prevents

large deformations that can be observed and that allow for moment redistribution

(described on pages 473-474 of the text).

4.2.1. Under-reinforced. The minimum area of reinforcement for beams is specified in ACI

Section 10.5.1, which can be expressed as:

As , min max[

3 f c'

fy

, 200 ] bwd

4.2.2. Over-reinforced. ACI specifies in Section 10.3.5 that the strain in the extreme layer

of reinforcement (t) must not be less than 0.004. Also, the strength reduction factor ()

decreases from its maximum value of 0.90 when t is < 0.005, decreasing the moment

capacity (Mn) and therefore the efficiency of the beam.

4.3

Distribute reinforcement. Concrete will crack under service loads and due to shrinkage and

thermal contraction. The engineers job is to provide sufficient reinforcement to prevent

Continuous T-Beam Example

4/4

the cracks from opening appreciably. The section above describes the procedure for

specifying a sufficient quantity of reinforcement; this section describes the procedure for

sufficiently distributing the reinforcement. Two ACI sections apply, one for limiting the

spacing between tensile reinforcement in the beam stem (positive moment section), and

one for limiting the spacing between tensile reinforcement in the flange (negative moment

section).

4.3.1 Max. spacing in beam stem. The maximum rebar spacing (s) specified in ACI

Section 10.6.4 is inversely proportional to service load stresses (fs) and concrete cover (cc).

max s min[15

40,000

40,000

2.5 cc , 12

]

fs

fs

where fs can be taken as 2/3 fy and cc is the least distance from the surface of the

reinforcement to the tension face. If there is only one bar in the layer, then s is the width of

the tension face.

4.3.2 Max. spacing in T-beam flange in tension. At supports, the T-beam flange is in

tension and ACI limits the width over which the tension reinforcement can be placed to one

tenth the clear span (ln / 10). This is to prevent tension cracking in the slab near the web. If

ln / 10 is appreciably less than the flange width, then other reinforcement should be

provided in the flange outside the ln / 10 region. The temperature and shrinkage

reinforcement for the slab will normally serve this function.

5.

Design the shear reinforcement. Design of shear reinforcement (typically stirrups) will be

explained later in the semester.

6.

Check the development lengths and design bar cutoffs. Development length will be

discussed later in the semester. For now, the recommended cut-off lengths in text Figure

A-5 will be used.

7.

Check if need web side-face reinforcement. ACI 10.6.7 specifies that if the overall depth

of a member (h) exceeds 3 feet, longitudinal skin reinforcement must be provided.

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