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The following scientific skills are tested in Question 1:
QUESTION : State two observations….
ANSWER : Write down what can be observed only. Do not do any analysis, comparison or
conclusion. For most experiments, the observation can be written in the form:
The ….(responding variable) ….. at …..(manipulated variable)… is (state reading of measuring
( Write the observation for the highest and lowest value of the responding variable.)
State one inference which corresponds to each observation. An inference is a brief explanation
of the observation, based on scientific knowledge which you already know.
(But in Physics, the scheme demands that inferences be written as follows: The (responding
variable) is determined by/affected by/ influenced by/ controlled by/ changed by (manipulative
Record the reading of thermometer, stopwatch, measuring tools , ruler etc. from the given
diagram. Be careful of the number of decimal places which you should have in your readings.
Construct the table using the given titles, record the relevant data or calculation. Units of
measurements should be written together with table titles, not with readings.
Explain / state the relationship between manipulated and responding variables as obtained from a
graph of the results.

Method to handle the variables
(MUST USE VERB and state the
Use / ….
Record / measure using ….
(Observe/ read/ are not accepted)
Use the same…/ Maintain …

PREDICTING QUESTION : If the experiment is repeated …. MAKING HYPHOTHESIS Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following criteria:  State the manipulated variable  State the responding variable  Relate the manipulated variable and the responding variable (When relating mv and rv. 8. Hence the operational definition is : A strong acid causes the pH meter to show a smaller magnitude reading when the bulb of the pH meter is immersed in each of the samples of various concentrations of the acid. The operational definition of photosynthesis would be: Photosynthesis is the process where green leaves in the presence of light.. DEFINING OPERATIONALLY This is a definition in the context of the experiment. the (responding variable) will be higher / lower than (the value in the first experiment) 9. The operational definition of photosynthesis would then be: Photosynthesis is the process where green plants release bubbles in the presence of light. (You must have a phrase which includes the context of the experiment / experimental conditions. carbon dioxide and water. EXAMPLE 2: An experiment is carried out to investigate photosynthesis and leaves are tested with iodine solution for the presence of starch. (Note: The operational definition is supposed to tell a person (whom you assume does not know a single thing about the chemical principles in the first place) what to observe as the responding variable and the conditions in which the experiment is taking place (tell what is the fixed variable and the how the manipulated variable is represented) . EXAMPLE 1: An experiment is carried out to investigate photosynthesis and the number of bubbles released is counted. produce starch which turns iodine solution dark blue. carbon dioxide and water. given that the volume of the tested acids is the same and all acids are of the same type. do not use neutral relationships like ‘affects’ or ‘influence’ or ‘changes with’. say the question is asking you concerning Operational Definition of Strong Acids.7. and not the textbook definition. predict the observation …… ANSWER : One number or relevant statement e.) Or even simpler: To define operationally.. and the manipulative variable is the acid with various pH value and the responding variable is The Reading of The pH meter.g. Commit yourself to one of the following relationship terms: ‘increases with’ / ‘decreases with’ .

. the other being non-vulcanised rubber. Hence. the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid. and their respective original lengths" given that the two rubber strips have the same initial length but are of different types of rubber. one vulcanised. 11. Note that I have inverted comma-ed the 'responding variable---the factor we are supposed to observe'. we define the 'Rate of Reaction' as follows: The rate of reaction is operationally defined as "The time taken for the cross 'X' to disappear" when the "sodium thiosulphate solution is heated to various temperatures" and then reacted with dilute sulphuric acid. the other non-vulcanised. H2SO4 hence. given that both the "dilute sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate solutions are of standard volumes and concentrations". USING SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP State the changes of the responding variable with time. Use relationship words like increases with / decreases with / remains constant with / increases proportionately with / etc.e. 10. the 'manipulative variable---the variable being obviously manipulated here' and also the 'fixed variable---the variable being clearly controlled here'. Do not use neutral relationship terms like affects / influences / changes with. one being vulvanised rubber. If the table is not provided.Another example is: The elasticity of vulcanised rubber Given the experiment is the experiment comparing the elasticity of two strips of rubber. CLASSIFYING Students must complete the given table according to the title . construct the table according to the classification given . the operational definition of 'the Elasticity of Rubber' is given as: The Elasticity of Rubber is operationally defined as the "Difference between final lengths of the respective rubber strips after the weight used to stretch is removed. Another example: define operationally the Rate of Reaction (based on the experiment on this Factor: Temperature of reaction mixture) i.

. PROBLEM STATEMENT Must be written in the form of a question – remember to end with a question mark. Presentation of data 9. HYPOTHESIS Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following criteria:  State the manipulated variable  State the responding variable  Relate the manipulated variable and the responding variable (Remember – no neutral relationship terms)  4. State the specific name of the technique where applicable. Technique used 7. Hypothesis 4. write down what is observed or measured (include the instrument used). 2. Students must have all of the following : 1. Example : (i) Measure and record the volume of fruit juices needed to change blue DCPIP to colourless. AIM Write down the aim as given in the question. Variables 5. using a syringe. List of apparatus and materials 6. TECHNIQUE In a complete sentence. 3. Conclusion 1. Aim of investigation 3. Problem statement 2.PAPER 3 : QUESTION 2 This question tests students ability to plan an experiment in a given format. VARIABLES Write down all 3 variables (one of each) 5. Experimental procedure or method 8. (ii)Measure and record the initial and final temperature of the water in the boiling tube using a thermometer.

CONCLUSION Repeat or modify the hypothesis sentence. It is not required to write the phrase “therefore the hypothesis is accepted / rejected" (since you are planning an experiment and have not carried it out. 8. without results / readings). 9. K5 – Precautionary steps which ensure safety / improve accuracy of readings. PROCEDURE / METHOD Write down each step clearly and systematically (include precautionary steps) . K2 – Steps where you describe how the controlled variable is maintained K3 – Steps where you describe how the manipulated variable is altered K4 – Steps where you describe how the responding variable is measured and the instrument to be used.) . PRESENTATION OF DATA Construct the table with the correct titles and units (Table is to be left blank. Your steps should include the following: K1 – Steps where you describe how apparatus and materials are handled. procedures should be written as a set of instructions and not in passive speech. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS List down at least 3 materials and 3 apparatus . (Since this is a planning of an experiment to be carried out. 7.6.