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1. Define hormone.

2. Describe paracrine communication.
3. Identify four mechanisms of intercellular
communication.
4. How could you distinguish between a neural response
and an endocrine response on the basis of response
time and duration?
5. How would the presence of a substance that inhibits
the enzyme adenylate cyclase affect the activity of a
hormone that produces its cellular effects by way of the
second messenger cAMP?
6. What primary factor determines each cell’s hormonal
sensitivities?
7. Identify the two lobes of the pituitary gland.
8. If a person were dehydrated, how would the amount of
ADH released by the posterior lobe change?
9. A blood sample contains elevated levels of
somatomedins. Which pituitary hormone would you
also expect to be elevated?
10. What effect would elevated circulating levels of
cortisol, a steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex,
have on the pituitary secretion of ACTH?
11. Identify the hormones of the thyroid gland.
12. What signs and symptoms would you expect to see in
an individual whose diet lacks iodine?
13. When a person’s thyroid gland is removed, signs of
decreased thyroid hormone concentration do not
appear until about one week later. Why?
14. Describe the location of the parathyroid glands.
15. Identify the hormone secreted by the parathyroid
glands.
16. The removal of the parathyroid glands would result in
a decrease in the blood concentration of which
important mineral?
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17. Identify the two regions of the adrenal gland, and cite
the hormones secreted by each.
18. List the three zones of the adrenal cortex.
19. What effect would ele
20. Identify the hormone-secreting cells of the pineal gland.
21. Increased amounts of light would inhibit the
production of which hormone?
22. List three possible functions of melatonin.
23. Identify the types of cells in the pancreatic islets and
the hormones produced by each.
24. Why does a person with type 1 or type 2 diabetes
urinate frequently and have increased thirst?
25. What effect would increased levels of glucagon have on
the amount of glycogen stored in the liver?
26. Identify two hormones secreted by the kidneys.
27. Identify a hormone released by adipose tissue.
28. Describe the action of renin in the bloodstream.
29. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels, and glucagon
causes glucose levels to rise. What is this type of
hormonal interaction called?
30. The lack of which hormones would inhibit skeletal
formation?
31. Why do levels of GH–RH and CRH rise during the
resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome?
32. Discuss the general role of the endocrine system in the
functioning of other body systems.

(e) releasing hormones from the hypothalamus. (d) bind the hormone–receptor complex to DNA segments. 9. local. (d) ADH and oxytocin. (d) steroid hormones by the adrenal glands. (c) the production of male sex hormones. except that it (a) releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body. (c) produces effects that can last for hours. (c) open ion channels and activate key enzymes in the cytoplasm. (d) changes in the composition of extracellular fluid. 8. and even longer. A cell’s hormonal sensitivities are determined by the (a) chemical nature of the hormone. Discuss the functional relationship between the endocrine system and the muscular system. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the release of (a) thyroid hormones by the hypothalamus. What five primary effects result from the action of thyroid hormones? 14. (b) gonadotropins by the adrenal glands. FSH production in males supports (a) the maturation of sperm by stimulating nurse cells. The use of a chemical messenger to transfer information from cell to cell within a single tissue is referred to as ___________ communication. What three higher-level mechanisms are involved in integrating the activities of the nervous and endocrine systems? 11. Cyclic-AMP functions as a second messenger to (a) build proteins and catalyze specific reactions. 10. 5. brief-duration responses to specific stimuli. (d) produces rapid. (b) activate adenylate cyclase. Endocrine organs can be regulated by all of the following. (e) functions to control ongoing metabolic processes. 2. (c) direct neural stimulation. What six hormones primarily affect growth? 13. (e) thickness of its plasma membrane. (b) estrogen and progesterone.33. 7. (c) GH and prolactin. (c) growth hormones by the hypothalamus. 4. except (a) hormones from other endocrine glands. (b) releases hormones that simultaneously alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs. (a) direct (b) paracrine (c) hormonal (d) endocrine 3. All of the following are true of the endocrine system. (b) quantity of circulating hormone. (d) presence or absence of appropriate receptors. days. The two hormones released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland are (a) GH and gonadotropin. (b) the development of muscles and strength. What effects do calcitonin and parathyroid hormone have on blood calcium levels? . Which seven hormones are released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland? 12. 6. (c) shape of the hormone molecules. (b) changes in the genetic makeup of certain hypothalamic cells. (d) an increased desire for sexual activity.

A hormone is a chemical messenger that is secreted by one cell and travels through the bloodstream to affect the activities of cells in other parts of the body. The four mechanisms of intercellular communication are direct. This suggests that the target cells (a) are impermeable to insulin. (c) testosterone. What is an endocrine reflex? Compare endocrine reflexes and neural reflexes. and what is the importance of each hormone? 17. (b) secretion of PTH. 6. (c) retention of calcium by the kidneys. Neural responses occur within fractions of a second and are of short duration. (d) estrogen. paracrine. endocrine. (e) aldosterone. the enzyme that converts ATP to cAMP. (c) cannot convert insulin to an active form. Page 603 4. Conversely. (d) osteoclast activity. Increased blood calcium levels would result in increased (a) secretion of calcitonin. insulin levels are frequently normal. In type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5. would block the action of any hormone that requires cAMP as a second messenger. What three zones make up the adrenal cortex. and what kind of hormones does each zone produce? 16. How would blocking the activity of phosphodiesterase affect a cell that responds to hormonal stimulation by the cAMP second-messenger system? 23. yet the target cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin. 25. (e) both b and c. What are the four opposing effects of atrial natriuretic peptide and angiotensin II? 18. A substance that inhibits adenylate cyclase. A cell’s hormonal sensitivities are determined by the presence or absence of the receptor complex needed to bind a given hormone. How does control of the adrenal medulla differ from control of the adrenal cortex? 24. In what ways can a hormone modify the activities of its target cells? 21. What four cell populations make up the endocrine pancreas? Which hormone does each type of cell produce? LEVEL 2 Reviewing Concepts 19. endocrine responses are slow to appear but last for minutes to days.15. Chapter 18 Answers to Checkpoints Page 596 1. 3. The hormone being studied is probably (a) a steroid. and synaptic. 22. Page 608 7. (b) may lack enough insulin receptors. The two lobes of the pituitary gland are the anterior lobe and the . A researcher observes that stimulation by a particular hormone induces a marked increase in the activity of G proteins in the target plasma membrane. 26. Paracrine communication is the use of chemical messengers to transfer information from cell to cell within a single tissue. (d) have adequate internal supplies of glucose. What is the primary difference in the way the nervous and endocrine systems communicate with their target cells? 20. 2. (e) excitability of neural membranes. (b) a peptide. Which two hormones are released by the kidneys.

Most of the body’s reserves of the thyroid hormones. Therefore. Melatonin secretion is influenced by light–dark cycles. 18. protects against free radical damage. The parathyroid glands are embedded in the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland. 25. promoting thirst and triggering the secretion of ADH. Increased levels of glucagon stimulate the conversion of . The three zones of the adrenal cortex from superficial to deep are the zona glomerulosa. 24. hydrocortisone. 22. zona fasciculata. and an increase in the size of the thyroid gland (goiter). Page 622 23. Pinealocytes are the special secretory cells in the pineal gland.posterior lobe. Increased amounts of light would inhibit the production (and release) of melatonin from the pineal gland. In dehydration. some glucose is lost in urine. Elevated circulating levels of cortisol inhibit the endocrine cells that control the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Page 619 17. 10. the medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. a poor response to physiological stress. The two regions of the adrenal gland are the cortex and medulla. less water can be reclaimed by osmosis. which receives neural input from the optic tracts. 20. The cortex secretes mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone). Because the urine contains high concentrations of glucose. 13. Increasing the amounts of vitamin D and calcium in the diet could counteract the effects. One function of cortisol is to decrease the cellular use of glucose while increasing both the available glucose (by promoting the breakdown of glycogen) and the conversion of amino acids to carbohydrates. Somatomedins mediate the action of growth hormone. beta cells (insulin). and calcitonin are hormones associated with the thyroid gland. Melatonin inhibits reproductive functions. and zona reticularis. are bound to blood-borne proteins called thyroid-binding globulins. which would stimulate the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland to release more ADH. so ACTH levels would decrease. delta cells (GH–IH). decreased body temperature. Thyroxine (T4). As a result. This is an example of a negative feedback mechanism. blood osmotic concentration is increased. triiodothyronine (T3). 21. Because these compounds represent such a large reservoir of thyroxine and T4. An individual whose diet lacks iodine would be unable to form the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol. and corticosterone). 16. The water losses reduce blood volume and elevate blood osmotic pressure. Elevated levels of growth hormone typically accompany elevated levels of somatomedins. 15. and F cells (pancreatic polypeptide). and influences circadian rhythms. thyroxine and T4. 9. The removal of the parathyroid glands would result in a decrease in the blood concentration of calcium ions. you would expect to see signs and symptoms associated with their deficiency: decreased metabolic rate. The hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands is parathyroid hormone (PTH). it takes several days after removal of the thyroid gland for blood levels of thyroxine and T4 to decline. Page 614 11. the net result of elevated cortisol levels would be an elevation of blood glucose. and androgens. The cells of the pancreatic islets (and their hormones) are alpha cells (glucagon). Page 615 14. 12. An individual with type 1 or type 2 diabetes has such high blood glucose levels that the kidneys cannot reabsorb all the glucose. 19. 8. so the volume of urine production increases.

(h) heart. 14. 31. (2) thyroid hormones. (2) zona fasciculata: glucocorticoids. which stimulates both the conversion of glycogen to glucose and the catabolism of fat and protein. The hormones GH–RH and CRH increase the levels of GH and ACTH. (3) insulin. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases (1) thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH). b 10. a 6. thyroid hormone. (i) kidney. (4) parathyroid hormone. renin functions as an enzyme. normal development of the skeletal. d 9. These mechanisms are adjusted through negative feedback loops involving hormones released by peripheral endocrine tissues and organs. respectively. Hormones of the endocrine system adjust muscle metabolism. and nervous systems. Once released into the bloodstream. 30. (j) adipose tissue. Effects of thyroid hormones are (1) increased rate of energy consumption and utilization in cells. (2) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). and (3) zona reticularis: androgens . 32. (g) parathyroid glands. which are critical to normal muscle functioning. (4) accelerated ATP production by mitochondria. Calcitonin decreases the concentration of calcium ions in body fluids. (4) luteinizing hormone (LH). (1) zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids. energy production. d 7. (3) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). in all other body systems. there is a high demand for glucose. skeletal muscles protect some endocrine organs. (6) growth hormone (GH). (2) accelerated production of sodium–potassium ATPase. (l) pancreatic islets (within pancreas). (c) thyroid gland. (a) hypothalamus. (5) prolactin (PRL). 12. especially by the nervous system. (k) digestive tract. Growth is affected by (1) growth hormone. 28. Page 630 29. catalyzing the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. 33. Page 628 26. (f) pineal gland. d 5. The endocrine system adjusts metabolic rates and substrate utilization. The type of hormonal interaction in which two hormones have opposite effects on their target tissues is called antagonism. For their part. Two hormones secreted by the kidneys are erythropoietin (EPO) and calcitriol. b 3.glycogen to glucose in the liver. (b) pituitary gland. 15. which would in turn reduce the amount of glycogen in the liver. and (5) in growing children. Growth hormone mobilizes fat reserves and promotes the catabolism of protein. muscular. parathyroid hormone causes an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in body fluids. Answers to Review Questions Page 635 Level 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms 1. 27. (3) activation of genes coding for the synthesis of enzymes involved in glycolysis and energy production. 11. ACTH increases cortisol. PTH. and (6) the reproductive hormones. Leptin is a hormone released by adipose tissue. (3) The hypothalamus releases ADH and oxytocin into the bloodstream at the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. c 4. (5) calcitriol. (e) adrenal glands. A lack of GH. and the gonadal hormones would inhibit the formation and development of the skeletal system. and growth. (d) thymus. hormones also regulate calcium and phosphate levels. (2) The hypothalamus contains autonomic centers that exert direct neural control over the endocrine cells of the adrenal medullae. During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome. d 8. and (7) melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). 13. (m) gonads 2. (1) The hypothalamus produces regulatory hormones that control secretion by endocrine cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. and regulates growth and development.

24. (2) inhibit the secretion of water-conserving hormones. b 25. and (4) block the effects of angiotensin II and norepinephrine on arterioles. (3) suppress thirst. which stimulates calcium and phosphate absorption along the digestive tract. which converts cAMP to AMP. 23. or somatostatin). the effects are slow to appear and commonly persist for days.‖ and (3) increase the rate of synthesis of a particular enzyme or other protein. A single hormone can alter the metabolic activities of multiple tissues and organs simultaneously. b . (1) alpha cells: glucagon. Natriuretic peptides (1) promote the loss of sodium ions and water at the kidneys. Both neural and endocrine reflexes are typically controlled by negative feedback mechanisms. Inactivation of phosphodiesterase. In endocrine reflexes—the functional counterpart of neural reflexes—a stimulus triggers the production of a hormone. 22. and further by restricting salt and water losses by the kidneys. (2) beta cells: insulin. and (4) F cells: pancreatic polypeptide Level 2 Reviewing Concepts 19. would prolong the effect of the hormone. The kidneys release (1) erythropoietin. (3) delta cells: growth hormone–inhibiting hormone (GH–IH. 17. Angiotensin II opposes these actions by stimulating aldosterone secretion at the adrenal cortex and ADH at the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. a 26. and the effects are extremely quick and short lived. whereas the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the release of ACTH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. 21. 18. Hormones can (1) direct the synthesis of an enzyme (or other protein) not already present in the cytoplasm. 20. The primary difference involves speed and duration. In the nervous system. which stimulates the production of RBCs by the bone marrow. and (2) calcitriol. The adrenal medulla is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. In endocrine communication. the source and destination of communication are quite specific. (2) turn an existing enzyme ―on‖ or ―off.16. such as ADH and aldosterone. Angiotensin II also stimulates thirst and elevates blood pressure.