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Assignment 1

BFF 1811
MACHINING 2

Lecturer : Mr. Shahanzair Bahrom
NAME
Mohamad Radzi B. Mohd Sojak

MATRIX NO.
FB14009

Introduction
What is Milling Machine, Milling machines are tools designed to machine metal,
wood, and other solid materials. Often automated, milling machines can be positioned in
either vertical or horizontal orientation to carve out materials based on a pre-existing
design. These designs are often CAD directed, and many milling machines are CNC-operated
(computer numerical control),

Although manually and traditionally-automated milling devices are also common. Milling
machines are capable of dynamic movement; both of the tool and the work piece, and many
milling machines can perform multi-axis machining. Because of variations in orientation,
operation and application, milling machines have varying functions and different operating
principles.
We will focus about milling machine base on these 6 topics:a) Safety
b) Types of milling machines and its component’s function
c) Processes perform or operation by milling machines
d) Cutting Tools for milling operation
e) Clamping technique
 Work piece clamping
f) Type and method of cutting fluid use in milling processes
g) Relation of the parameter e.g cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut

Before making adjustments and measurements or before cleaning swarf accumulations switch off and bring the machine to a complete standstill. 5. . 2. 3. Never leave the machine running unattended. Set the correct speed to suit the cutter diameter. Ensure cutter is in good condition and securely mounted. 7. Check that machine guards are in position. Do not leave equipment on top of the machine. 4. immediately report suspect machinery. Faulty equipment must not be used. 3. Ensure no slip/trip hazards are present in workspaces and walkways. Locate and ensure you are familiar with the operation of the ON/OFF starter and E-Stop (if fitted). 4. the depth of cut and the material. OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS 1.keep overhangs as small as possible and check work piece is secure.SAFETY List of standard procedure before operate or using the milling machines PRE-OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS 1. Check coolant delivery system to allow for sufficient flow of coolant. 2. Follow correct clamping procedures. Keep clear of moving machine parts. 5. 6.

Remove milling cutters and store them safely.  table is free of stock.  bolts used to hold down work clear the tooling.HOUSEKEEPING 1. tools or other loose material.  work is properly secured in place. 2. 3.  the cutter is rotating in the right direction.  handles on all feed screws are in neutral.  table stops are secured properly.hair/clothing entanglement Eye injury Skin irritation Metal splinters and burrs Flying debris Before starting.  the arbor and arbor support are clear of the work. Leave the machine and work area in a safe. make sure that:  all guards are in place. . clean and tidy state.  tooling and supporting pieces are properly tightened in position. POTENTIAL HAZARDS       Sharp cutters Moving components . Switch off the machine.

Knee and Column Type Milling Machines Universal Horizontal Milling Machines Vertical Knee and Column Type Milling Machine Fixed Bed Type Milling Machines Bridge Type Milling Machines Special Milling Machines Knee and Column Type Milling Machines Column and knee type milling machines are the most common milling machines. 2. 3. The spindle to which the milling cutter is may be horizontal (slab milling) or vertical (face and end milling). 4. 5. . The knee is a massive casting that rides vertically on the milling machine column and can be clamped rigidly to the column in a position where the milling head and milling machine spindle are properly adjusted vertically for operation. Knee-type milling machines are characterized by a vertically adjustable worktable resting on a saddle which is supported by a knee.Types Of Milling Machines And Its Component’s Function There are several types of milling machines:1. 6.

and so forth. An adjustable overhead arm containing one or more arbor supports projects forward from the top of the column. cutting dovetails and keyways. The milling machine is excellent for forming flat surfaces. The plain horizontal milling machine's column contains the drive motor and gearing and a fixed position horizontal milling machine spindle. The universal knee and column milling is very similar to the plain knee and column milling machine. Supports can be moved along the overhead arm to support the arbor where support is desired depending on the position of the milling cutter or cutters.The plain vertical machines are characterized by a spindle located vertically. The milling machine's knee rides up or down the column on a rigid track. The largest difference being the swivelling table housing. The table may be manually controlled or power fed. forming and fluting milling cutters and reamers. Angular cuts to the horizontal plane may be made with precision by setting the head at any require d angle within a 180" arc. The swivelling table housing allows the table to be swivelled at an angle to the axis of the spindle. parallel to the column face. vertical positioning screw beneath past the milling cutter. The saddle rests upon the knee and supports the worktable. . Modern vertical milling machines are designed so the entire head can also swivel to permit working on angular surfaces. The knee is used for raising and lowering. A heavy. The saddle moves in and out on a dovetail to control cross feed of the worktable. and mounted in a sliding head that can be fed up and down by hand or power. Many special operations can be performed with the attachments available for milling machine use. cutting gears. The turret and swivel head assembly is designed for making precision cuts and can be swung 360° on its base. The arm and arbor supports are used to stabilize long arbors. The worktable traverses to the right or left upon the saddle for feeding the work piece past the milling cutter.

The universal machine can be fitted with various attachments such as the indexing fixture. This permits the table to swing up to 45° in either direction for angular and helical milling operations. slotting and rack cutting attachments. rotary table. and various special fixtures.Universal Horizontal Milling Machines The basic difference between a universal horizontal milling machine and a plain horizontal milling machine is the addition of a table swivel housing between the table and the saddle of the universal machine. Vertical Knee and Column Type Milling Machine Ram Style Knee and Column Type Vertical Milling Machine. .

parallel to the face of the column. The table can move in a longitudinal and a transverse direction. The vertical position of the spindle. On either side of the bed are two vertical columns connected at the top by a brace. Fixed Bed Type Milling Machines The most distinguishing aspect of the fixed bed type milling machine is the absence of the knee. The fixed bed construction of this style of milling machine minimizes deflection and allows very heavy cuts to be taken. The cross rail houses . The table is mounted on the bed. The head is mounted on a ram that can be swivelled or brought forward. The ram style knee and column type milling machine is a light duty milling machine. This type of machine is well suited for a variety of tool room work as well as other light duty operations. is obtained by moving the head up and down along the column of the machine.A vertical type knee and column milling machine has the spindle located vertically. Bridge Type Milling Machines The construction of the Bridge Type milling machine resembles that of a bridge. and perpendicular to the top of the table. This allows the head to be brought into an operating position over most of the table. with respect to the work table. Fixed bed style milling machines can be used for general purpose work although many people look upon them as high production machines. A cross rail is mounted on the brace. CNC Vertical Spindle Bed-Type Milling Machine.

Bridge type milling machines are typically used to machine large pieces such as castings. Special Milling Machines Extrusion Screw milling Machine There are a number of types of special milling machines. . The specialty milling machine in Figure 9 is used to mill screws used in large extruding machines.the spindle head. Special milling machines are designed specifically for one particular part or family of similar parts. CNC Vertical Bridge-Type Milling Machine. Specialty milling machines are used extensively in the automotive and aeronautics industry. machine tables and housings.

Drilling operations are done primarily in drill presses but sometimes on lathes or mills.Processes Perform Or Operation By Milling Machines The three principal machining processes are classified as turning. Other operations falling into miscellaneous categories include shaping. For example. saws. and grinding machines. round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling.     Turning operations are operations that rotate the work piece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. . Miscellaneous operations are operations that strictly speaking may not be machining operations in that they may not be swarf producing operations but these operations are performed at a typical machine tool. Burnishing is an example of a miscellaneous operation. Lathes are the principal machine tool used in turning. Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the work piece. mill. so that a cutting tool can cut metal away. broaching and sawing. or drill press. Other tools that may be used for various types of metal removal are milling machines. A lathe is a machine tool that can be used to create that diameter by rotating a metal work piece. a work piece may be required to have a specific outside diameter. planning. A finished product would be a work piece that meets the specifications set out for that work piece by engineering drawings or blueprints. Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the work piece. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking. Burnishing produces no swarf but can be performed at a lathe. An unfinished work piece requiring machining will need to have some material cut away to create a finished product. creating a smooth. boring. A drill can be used to remove metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. drilling and milling.

Common high-speed steel milling cutters include the staggered tooth cutter. . A face-milling cutter with wedge-clamped indexable inserts  Side milling cutter — Has a cutting edge on the sides as well as on the periphery. To aid it in this function. It is used for milling shoulders. High-speed steel (HSS) shell end milling cutter.  Periphery milling cutters — Periphery milling cutters are usually arbor-mounted to perform various operations. convex milling cutter.  Face-milling cutters with indexable inserts and wedgeclamped milling carriages. while wide ones have helical teeth. Half-side milling cutter — Same as the one previously described except that cutting edges are provided on a single side. single-angle milling cutter. concave milling cutter. plain-milling cutter. others are carbide tipped and many are replaceable or indexable inserts. Narrow cutters have straight teeth. and corner-rounded milling cutter. • Heavy-duty plain mill — Similar to the light duty mill except that it is used for higher rates of metal removal. Milling cutters are made from High Speed Steel (HSS). This allows the cutter to mill slots. • Light-duty plain mill — A general-purpose cutter for peripheral milling operations. double-angle milling cutter. Cutters are made in a large range of sizes. side-milling cutter. the teeth are more widely spaced and the helix angle is increased to about 45 degrees.Cutting Tools For Milling Operation The variety of milling cutters available helps make milling a versatile machining process. Two cutters of this type are often mounted on a single arbor for straddle milling.

heavy-duty cuts to be taken. the orientation of the tooth face. o Tooth — The tooth is the part of the cutter starting at the body and ending with the peripheral cutting edge. such as shell end mills and fly cutters. Two flute end mills can be fed directly along their longitudinal axis into solid material because the cutting faces on the end meet. o Outside diameter — The diameter of a circle passing through the peripheral cutting edges. It has a hole through it for a bolt to secure it to the spindle. . The exact contour of the cutting edge of a form mill is reproduced on the surface of the workpiece. Solid end mills are made from high-speed steel or sintered carbide.     Indexable-insert ball-nosed milling cutters using the screw clamping method Form mill — A peripheral cutter whose edge is shaped to produce a special configuration on the surface. or more flutes and cutting edges on the end and the periphery. • Angle cutters — The peripheral cutting edges lie on a cone rather than on a cylinder. o Root diameter — This diameter is measured on a circle passing through the bottom of the fillets of the teeth. Other types. A single or double angle may be provided. Milling cutter nomenclature — As far as metal cutting action is concerned. • Shell endmill — Has peripheral cutting edges plus face cutting edges on one end. This allows deep. It is the dimension used in conjunction with the spindle speed to find the cutting speed (SFPM). End-milling cutters — End mills can be used on vertical and horizontal milling machines for a variety of facing. consist of cutting tools that are bolted or otherwise fastened to adapters. Three and four fluted cutters with one end cutting edge that extends past the center of the cutter can also be fed directly into solid material. three. four. Solid end mills — Solid end mills have two. slotting and profiling operations. and the relief to prevent rubbing on the land. Replaceable teeth are called inserts. the pertinent angles on the tooth are those that define the configuration of the cutting edge.• Stagger-tooth side mill — Same as the sidemilling cutter except that the teeth are staggered so that every other tooth cuts on a given side of the slot. One example is the gear tooth cutter.

Land — The area behind the cutting edge on the tooth that is relieved to avoid interference is called the land. Fillet — The fillet is the radius at the bottom of the flute. where the chip slides during its formation.o o o o o Tooth face — The tooth face is the surface between the fillet and the cutting edge. Clamping Technique The workpiece should be clamped in the machine vice as shortly as possible above the clamping jaws to prevent the workpiece from being torn out or from changing its position during the milling operation. 3 parallel pieces The following work-holding fixtures are used essentially for milling parallel surfaces:     Machine vice Magnetic chuck Direct clamping on table Clamping fixtures (single and multi-piece clamping) When clamping the workpieces in the machine vice for milling parallel surfaces it is absolutely necessary to place the contact surfaces on ground parallel pieces. 2 workpiece. provided to allow chip flow and chip curling. The following prerequisites have to be fulfilled:   The grade of parallelism depends on the planeness of the surface worked first. . The workpiece has to be clean (free from chips) and deburred. Clamping the workpiece in the machine vice 1 vice. Flute — The flute is the space provided for chip flow between the teeth. Gash angle — The gash angle is measured between the tooth face and the back of the tooth immediately ahead.

. work-holding plates.1 magnetic chuck. The depth of cut must not exceed a maximum of 2. fences having at least 2/3 of the workpiece height must be available.5 operating elements Due to the geometrical form or the workpiece size. 4 fence. The following prerequisites are to be considered when work-pieces are clamped and milled on a magnetic chuck:      The surface machined first must be clean. To secure the workpiece position. No. 2 workpieces. Only ferriferous workplaces (steel and cast materials) are permitted to be machined on the magnetic chuck. It serves as contact and reference surface.). direct clamping on the milling machine table is used as well. etc.5 mm.No. Same height of parallel pieces is necessary. 3 parallel pieces. clamping fixtures are employed in the form of clamping bolt.  The exact workpiece rest can be checked by the tight seat of the parallel pieces. In this case. No. No. deburred and plane. Clamping on magnetic chuck No. clamping iron and clamping base as well as special auxiliaries (stop rails. Contact surface width must at least correspond to the height of the workpiece.

Lean concentrations (more water-less oil) provide better cooling but less lubrication.Clamping elements No. When a great number of pieces are produced. and corrosion characteristics. Chemical Fluids Chemical coolants are also miscible cutting fluids. Chemical cutting fluids are preconcentrated emulsions that contain very little oil. No. . Chemical fluids mix very easily with water. the employment of multi-piece clamping fixtures is economically substantiated. Emulsifiers are soap-like materials that allow the oil to mix with water. water miscible fluids. bacterial control. 2 nut. rust.more oil) have better lubrication qualities but poorer cooling. An emulsion is a suspension of oil droplets in water. No. 4 clamping iron. There are several types of chemical coolants available. Soluble oils are mineral oils that contain emulsifiers. 1 clamp bolt. Type and method of cutting fluid use in milling processes Cutting fluids can be broken into four main categories: straight cutting oils.5 step block (workholding base) Fixtures for milling parallel surfaces are used in those cases where a definite positioning and securing of the position of the workpiece is not possible with common clamping means. No. 3 washer. Emulsions (soluble oils) when mixed with water produce a milky white coolant. gasses. No. including coolants for extreme cutting conditions. and paste or solid lubricants Emulsions Emulsion is a term that describes soluble oils. Rich concentrations (less water. The chemical components in the fluid are used to enhance the lubrication.

vegetable. Blends of mineral oils are also used in grinding operations to produce high surface finishes on ferrous and nonferrous materials. Active chemical fluids include wetting agents. Semi-chemical Coolants Semi-chemical fluids are a combination of a chemical fluid and an emulsion. They are widely used in thread cutting. They are recommended for tough low carbon and chrome-alloy steels. Carbon dioxide. Compressed air and inert gasses are sometimes used. This makes the oil droplets much smaller. They are also good for grinding as they help prevent the grinding wheel from loading up. chlorine. Very little sulfur is released in the machining process to react with the work piece. They have excellent rust inhibition and moderate lubrication and cooling properties. but are not very good at heat dissipation (removing heat from the cutting tool and work piece). such as aluminum. The sulfur is released during the machining operation to react with the work piece. Straight Cutting Oils Straight cutting oils are not mixed with water. and magnesium. high cooling. Gasses Cutting oils and water miscible types of cutting fluids are the most widely used. Sulfur. Special blends with higher sulfur content are available for heavy duty machining operations. They have a lower oil content but more emulsifier. Freon. . and phosphorous are sometimes added to improve the extreme pressure characteristics. These oils have good lubrication and cooling properties. Sulfur. and nitrogen are also used sometimes. They have moderate lubrication and cooling and high rust inhibition properties. There are two main types of straight oils: active and inactive. and phosphorous compounds are sometimes added to improve the lubrication qualities of the fluid for extreme pressure applications. This increases the life of the grinding wheel. and low lubrication qualities.Inactive chemical cutting fluids are usually clear fluids with high rust inhibition. Active Straight Cutting Oils Active oils contain sulfur that is not firmly attached to the oil. Gasses are sometimes use. Mineral oils are an example of straight oils. chlorine. Inactive Straight Cutting Oils Inactive oils contain sulfur that is very firmly attached to the oil. or marine oils to improve the wetting and lubricating properties. Cutting oils are generally mixtures of mineral oil and animal. Mineral oils provides excellent lubrication. Mineral oils are particularly suited to nonferrous materials. Some contain sulfur or chlorine additives for extreme pressure cutting applications. brass.

It should be flooded so that as much fluid as possible reaches the cutting edges. Many experienced journeymen recommend lard for tapping. pastes. to provide temperature controlled cooling of the cutting tool and work piece. 4140. In applications such as turning. The Use of Cutting Fluids in Drill Press Operations The coolant should be aimed at the area where the tool contacts the work. soaps. especially in high temperature alloys such as titanium. These are generally applied directly to the work piece or tool. The operator should withdraw the tool occasionally to remove the chips. This means that various tools are available that feed the coolant through the tool and directly to the cutting edge.Paste and Solid Lubricants Waxes. It is expressed in metre/min (m/min) . Relation Of The Parameter e. graphite.[citation needed] Existing CNC machines can be retrofitted with this safe and environmentally friendly coolant approach. enough to cause a change of phase into a solid. These solid crystals are redirected into the cut zone by either external nozzles or through-the-spindle delivery. milling or drilling tool life and throughput have been improved substantially. impregnated directly into a tool. The best method is the use of tools that have integral oil holes. steels and plastics.g Cutting Speed. Feed Rate And Depth Of Cut Cutting Speed    Important factor that affected milling operation efficiency In order to work efficiently & economically Its symbol is V.[4] The ChilAire system is one of the pioneers in the application of CO2 as a coolant. CO2 Coolant Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is also used as a coolant. In this application pressurized liquid CO2 is allowed to expand and this is accompanied by a drop in temperature. This also helps wash the chips out of the hole. and molybdenum disulfide may be used. or in some cases. such as a grinding wheel. One example would be lard.

125 40 . will generally produce a better finish and lengthen the life of the cutter since it absorbs heat. use the lower range of the cutting speed and gradually increase to the higher range if conditions permit d) If a fine finish is required. reduce the feed rather than increase the cutter speed e) The use of coolant. use the lower cutting speeds in the recommended range b) Know the hardness of the material to be machined c) When starting a new job.120 150 .60 60 .Formula: Cutting speed = diameter of cutter x π x spindle speed V=dxπxn Selection of proper cutting speed:     Type of material to be machined Type of tool material Rigidity and condition of the machine Types of cutting operations MILLING MACHINE CUTTING SPEEDS CUTTER MAT.35 Aluminium 150 .300 Spindle Speed   defined as the speed at which the spindle of a milling machine rotates per minute Its symbol is n. Machine Steel 20 .300 CARBIDE CUTTER m/min 100 .25 Bronze 20 .20 Cast Iron 15 . It is expressed in revolution/min (rpm) Formula: Selection of proper cutting speed: a) For longer cutter life.30 Tool Steel 18 . HIGH SPEED STEEL CUTTER m/min RAW MAT.60 40 . properly applied. acts as a lubricant and washes chips away .

The design or type of the cutter. The sharpness of the cutter.Feed   defined as the distance in millimeters per minute that the work moves into the cutter Its symbol is f. The power and rigidity of the machine . The workpiece material. The strength and uniformity of the workpiece. It is expressed in mm/min Formula: Factors on which feed rate depends on a) b) c) d) e) f) g) The depth and width of the cut. The type of finish and accuracy required.

p. the type of cutter used and the type of milling performed. L = Total Milling Length D = Milling Cutter Diameter n = r.m of the Cutter Ts = Machining Time (min) f = Rate of Feed (mm/min) Formula: Machining Time = Travelling Distance of the Milling Table (mm) Rate of Feed (mm/min) ts = L f NOTE: The travelling distance depends on the length of the cut to be milled.Machining Time Calculation Formula:         I = Workpiece length to be milled lu = Over travel la = Advance. .