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ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Elliptic Geometry / Riemannian Geometry Postulate (5”) Given a point not on a line, there is no line passing through the point that is not intersecting the given line. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Elliptic Geometry / Riemannian Geometry Postulate (5”) Given a point not on a line, there is no line passing through the point that is not intersecting the given line. Restatement: Any two lines meet on an ordinary point. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Euclidean Model MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Similarly, since illustrating elliptic geometry in euclidean sense would make no sense, we should make use of a different model. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Similarly, since illustrating elliptic geometry in euclidean sense would make no sense, we should make use of a different model. That is, to differentiate elliptic from euclidean geometry, we make use of other concepts of points, lines, and so on. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application We let our elliptic space as any points on the surface of a sphere. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application We let our elliptic space as any points on the surface of a sphere. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application A point on the surface of the sphere is a point in elliptic geometry. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application A point outside and inside the sphere is not a point in elliptic geometry. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application A point outside and inside the sphere is not a point in elliptic geometry. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application A point outside and inside the sphere is not a point in elliptic geometry. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Definition A great circle is any circle on the surface of the sphere that encloses the largest circumference around the sphere. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application A line in elliptic geometry is modeled by any great circle of the sphere. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Any curve which is not a great circle is not a line in elliptic geometry. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Remark -Elliptic lines cut the surface into two equal hemisphere. -There are infinite lines passing through a point and are perpendicular to a line MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Definition A point is called a pole of a line if all lines through the given point is perpendicular to the given line. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Definition A point is called a pole of a line if all lines through the given point is perpendicular to the given line. In the figure, A is a pole of line BF. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Definition A point is called a pole of a line if all lines through the given point is perpendicular to the given line. In the figure, A is a pole of line BF. Note that the definition of pole agrees with the definition of north and south pole with the equator. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Definition A line is called a polar of a point if any point on the line and the given point makes a line that is perpendicular to the given line. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Definition A line is called a polar of a point if any point on the line and the given point makes a line that is perpendicular to the given line. In the figure, BF is a polar of point A . MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Definition A line is called a polar of a point if any point on the line and the given point makes a line that is perpendicular to the given line. In the figure, BF is a polar of point A . Note that the definition of poles and polars is a mutual relationship between elliptic points and lines. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Remark Any two elliptic lines meet on exactly 2 points, particularly, on two poles. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Remark Any two elliptic lines meet on exactly 2 points, particularly, on two poles. Surprisingly, two elliptic lines can enclose a region. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Remark Any two elliptic lines meet on exactly 2 points, particularly, on two poles. Surprisingly, two elliptic lines can enclose a region. Definition Any two sided polygon is called a digon or biangle. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Remark Any two elliptic lines meet on exactly 2 points, particularly, on two poles. Surprisingly, two elliptic lines can enclose a region. Definition Any two sided polygon is called a digon or biangle. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application We now construct other elliptical polygons. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application We now construct other elliptical polygons. Any three sided polygon is called a triangle. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY MATHEMATICS 1 Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY MATHEMATICS 1 Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY MATHEMATICS 1 Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Remark The sum of interior angle of an elliptical triangle is more than 180o . MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Any four sided polygon is called a quadrilateral. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY Parallel Postulate Model Shapes Application Application: NAVIGATION! One big example of elliptic model is our Earth itself. The Equator and the Latitudes serve as elliptic lines. MATHEMATICS 1 NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY