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# PreCalculus Formulas

Sequences and Series:
Binomial Theorem

⎛ n⎞
( a + b) = ∑ ⎜ ⎟ a n− k b k
k =0 ⎝ k ⎠
n

n

Find the rth term

⎛ n ⎞ n−( r −1) r −1
b
⎜ r − 1⎟ a

Functions:
To find the inverse function:
1. Set function = y
2. Interchange the variables
3. Solve for y

Arithmetic Last Term

Geometric Last Term

an = a1 + (n − 1)d

an = a1r

Geometric Partial Sum

Arithmetic Partial Sum

⎛1− rn ⎞
S n = a1 ⎜

⎝ 1− r ⎠

⎛a +a ⎞
Sn = n ⎜ 1 n ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
f -1 (x)

n −1

Composition of functions:

( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x))
( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x))
(f

[r (cosθ + i sin θ )]n = r n (cos niθ + i sin niθ )

r = a 2 + b2
b
θ = arctan
a

x = r cosθ
y = r sin θ

a + bi
i = −1
i 2 = −1

( r ,θ ) → ( x , y )

Determinants:

3 5
4 3

= 3i3 − 5i4

for 3x3 determinants.

−1

f )( x) = x

Algebra of functions: ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) ; ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x)

( f i g )( x) = f ( x)i g ( x) ; ( f / g )( x) = f ( x) / g ( x), g ( x) ≠ 0
Domains:: D( f ( x)) ∩ D( g ( x))
Domain (usable x’s)
Asymptotes: (vertical)
Watch for problems with
Check to see if the
zero denominators and with denominator could ever be
zero.
x
f ( x) = 2
Range (y’s used)
x + x−6
Difference Quotient
Vertical asymptotes at
f ( x + h) − f ( x )
x = -3 and x = 2
h
terms not containing a mult.
of h will be eliminated.

Complex and Polars:
DeMoivre’s Theorem:

Asymptotes: (horizontal)
x+3
1. f ( x) = 2
x −2
top power < bottom power
means y = 0 (z-axis)
4 x2 − 5
2. f ( x) = 2
3x + 4 x + 6
top power = bottom power
means y = 4/3
(coefficients)
x3
3. f ( x) =
None!
x+4
top power > bottom power

Cramer’s Rule:

ax + by = c
dx + ey = f

⎛c

a b⎝ f
d e
1

b a
,
e d

c⎞

f ⎠

Also apply Cramer’s rule to 3 equations with 3
unknowns.

Trig:

Reference Triangles:

o
a
o
sin θ = ; cos θ = ; tan θ =
h
h
a
h
h
a
csc θ = ; secθ = ; cotθ =
o
a
o

BowTie

y0 = start amount. opposite if degree odd) * decrease P or N entries by 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Sum of roots is the coefficient of second term with sign changed.sign of constant (same if degree even. multiply and add…” Depress equation [when dividing by (x . Parabola ( x − h) = 4a ( y − k ) ( y − k ) 2 = 4a ( x − h) 2 Polynomials: Remainder Theorem: Substitute into the expression to find the remainder. asymptotes needed Synthetic Division Mantra: “Bring down. Eccentricity: e = 0 circle 0 < e < 1 ellipse e = 1 parabola e > 1 hyperbola Induction: Find P(1): Assume P(k) is true: Show P(k+1) is true: Rate of Growth/Decay: y = y0 ekt y = end result. Latus rectum lengths from focus are b2/a a→transverse axis b→conjugate axis c→focus where c is the hypotenuse.5). Maximum possible # of positive roots → number of sign changes in f (x) 2. Be sure to find the value of k first. [(x + 3) substitutes -3] Descartes’ Rule of Signs 1. latus rectum length from focus = 2a ( x − h) 2 ( y − k ) 2 + =1 a2 b2 larger denominator → major axis and smaller denominator → minor axis Hyperbola ( x − h) ( y − k) − =1 2 a b2 2 2 Latus length from focus b2/a c → focus length where major length is hypotenuse of right triangle. All Rights Reserved © MathBits. length to directrix = a.Analytic Geometry: Circle Ellipse ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 Remember “completing the square” process for all conics.) LEFT-HAND BEHAVIOR n is even n is odd anxn (same as right) an > 0 RIGHTHAND always positive BEHAVIOR or (opposite right) negative x < 0 positive x > 0 Leading Coefficient Test Product of roots is the constant term (sign changed if odd degree. Far-left/Far-right Behavior of a Polynomial The leading term (anxn ) of the polynomial determines the far-left/far-right behavior of the graph according to the following chart. use +5 for synthetic division] (also use calculator to examine roots) Analysis of Roots P N C Chart Upper bounds: All values in chart are + Lower bounds: Values alternate signs No remainder: Root * all rows add to the degree * complex roots come in conjugate pairs * product of roots . unchanged if even degree). (“Parity” of n Æ whether n is odd or even. multiply and add.com an < 0 always negative positive x < 0 negative x > 0 . Maximum possible # of negative roots → number of sign changes in f (-x) vertex to focus = a.