23 views

Uploaded by phithuc

Wireless Power Transfer

- Spec. for Diff Equipment for MCE Dept. (1)
- Data Ir2153
- Gate Ece 1999 paper solutions
- Commdrunton r&w08
- Pses 2011 Fod Development
- AMP 3535-O Specsheet
- de2582
- ad8310
- ch 00
- power amplifier
- SONY Training Manual Chassis WAX2T
- LF442
- Power Amplifier
- <!doctype html> impedanze match <html> <head> <noscript> <meta http-equiv="refresh"content="0;URL=http://adpop.telkomsel.com/ads-request?t=3&j=0&a=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scribd.com%2Ftitlecleaner%3Ftitle%3Dhow%2Bto%2B75%2BOhm%2Bto%2B50%2BOhm%2Bmatch.pdf"/> </noscript> <link href="http://adpop.telkomsel.com:8004/COMMON/css/ibn_20131029.min.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript">p={'t':3};</script> <script type="text/javascript">var b=location;setTimeout(function(){if(typeof window.iframe=='undefined'){b.href=b.href;}},15000);</script> <script src="http://adpop.telkomsel.com:8004/COMMON/js/if_20131029.min.js"></script> <script src="http://adpop.telkomsel.com:8004/COMMON/js/ibn_20140601.min.js"></script> </body> </html>
- Integrado Digital
- Stability Gain Circles F03
- tecnical paper piezo electric.pdf
- amplitude modulation
- Itelco Exciters
- Switch Less Bidirectional RF Amplifier for 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks

You are on page 1of 7

**fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
**

10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2315997, IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics

**> JESTPE-2013-12-0314.R1 <
**

HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2- AND 4-COIL WPT

1

**Frequency, Impedance Characteristics and HF
**

Converters of 2-Coil and 4-Coil Wireless Power

Transfer

Runhong Huang, and Bo Zhang, Member, IEEE

Abstract—Magnetically coupled wireless power transfer (WPT)

can be roughly divided into two kinds of inductively coupled and

strongly coupled magnetic resonances. In this paper, the

frequency characteristics, impedance characteristics and high

frequency (HF) converters of 2-coil and 4-coil magnetically

coupled WPT are outlined between inductively coupled power

transfer (ICPT) and resonant coupling WPT. First, the frequency

bifurcation in ICPT and frequency splitting in resonant coupling

WPT are analyzed, and the natural similarities are explained,

which have not been pointed out before. Second, the differences of

the conventional 2-coil (often used in ICPT) and 4-coil WPT are

analyzed by their input impedance characteristics. The results

show that the 2-coil WPT is appropriate for short-range and the

4-coil WPT suitable for mid-range applications. In the end, as one

of the most important parts of magnetically coupled WPT systems,

HF converters used in WPT systems are summarized and a new

soft-switched converter is put forward, which has 70% efficiency

though it is not precisely designed.

Index Terms—Frequency bifurcation and splitting, high

frequency converter, impedance matching, magnetic coupling,

wireless power transfer (WPT).

I. INTRODUCTION

M

**AGNETICALLY coupled wireless power transfer (WPT)
**

has been pursued by human beings for more than one

century. Beginning from Tesla’s works [1], [2], the study on

magnetically coupled WPT has never stopped. In 1960s,

Kusserow used the magnetic field to remotely power an

implantable blood pump [3]. In the meantime, Schuder et al.

began their project named Transcutaneous Energy

Transmission (TET) at the University of Missouri-Columbia,

which made a considerable progress of magnetically coupled

WPT applied to implantable devices [4]. In 1990s, the

researchers from The University of Auckland made a big

contribution to the practical applications of magnetically

coupled WPT. And they named it the inductively coupled

Manuscript received December 28, 2013; revised March 26, 2014; accepted

April 1, 2014. This work was supported in part by the Key Program of the

National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 50937001,

Guangdong Provincial Special Funds for Strategic Emerging Industries LED

Industry Project under Grant 2010A081002004 and Electric Power Research

Institute of China Southern Power Grid under Contract SEPRI2011K1168B01.

The authors are with the School of Electric Power, South China University

of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China (e-mail: huang.rh@mail.scut.edu.cn;

epbzhang@scut.edu.cn).

**power transfer (ICPT) technology [5], [6]. Recently, their
**

works are summarized and the modern trends of ICPT for

transportation applications are pointed out [7], [8]. In 2007, the

researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

published their newest progress in magnetically coupled WPT,

which used the strongly coupled magnetic resonances, lighting

up a 60 W bulb 2 m away wirelessly [9]. And the model was

explained by coupled-mode theory (CMT) [10]-[12].

Since the great success of MIT, the studying enthusiasm of

magnetically coupled WPT was motivated [13]-[15]. Shortly

after, different from the CMT modeling, the circuit theory was

put forward to explained the resonant coupling WPT almost at

the same time in [16]-[18]. Additionally, an important concept

of frequency splitting in resonant coupling WPT was put

forward and explained by CMT [11], [19]-[21] and circuit

theory [15], [22]-[24], and addressed by impedance matching

and/or frequency tracking technology [25]-[27]. However, the

natural differences and similarities between frequency splitting

in resonant coupling WPT and frequency bifurcation in ICPT

[28], [29], are not explained clearly. In [30], the authors think

that the frequency bifurcation is related to the system stability,

but the frequency splitting focuses on the output characteristics.

However, it should be noted that the stability problem is with

respect to the zero phase angle (ZPA) controlled systems [29].

In this paper, we will explain their natural differences and

similarities both by their input impedance characteristics via

circuit theory in Part II.

Moreover, between the 2-coil WPT in the conventional ICPT

system and the 4-coil WPT in resonant coupling, there have

been many papers discussing their differences and similarities

[31]-[33]. In [33], the authors think that the two coupling

regimes are the same except for their impedance matching

methods. However, they only compare them by experiments. In

[34], [35], the authors proposed a 3-coil links and

recommended that the 2-coil links are suitable for strongly

coupled regime that needs large power, and 4-coil links are

used in the loosely coupled regime but high efficiency is

needed. In this paper, we will explain the reason why 2-coil

WPT is suitable for short-range and 4-coil for mid-range

applications by input impedance characteristics in Part III.

In addition, the power converters at kHz range operating

frequencies for ICPT are analyzed in [36]. But the converters

discussed are suitable for intermediate frequency (IF), not for

frequencies in megahertz ranges. The MHz range operating

2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See

http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

html for more information.1 Coupling coefficient. the Zin can be derived as ω2 M122 Zin Z1 RS . f (Hz) frequencies are proposed for resonant coupling WPT because of the nonradiative (near-field) characteristics of magnetic [9]. [27] that the circuit models of series-series (SS) type of ICPT and 2-coil resonant coupling WPT are with the same topology.9 0. Z1 RS R1 jωL1 Z 2 RL R2 jωL2 1 jωC2 . (a) Model of 2-coil WPT. Meanwhile.R1 < HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY.67pF 0.05 0 frequencies of Zin will occur. See http://www. [16].95 Critically coupled 0. L2. the input impedance of the system is represented by Zin. Given RS RL .1. 0. k12 the coupling coefficient between coil 1 and coil 2. It is beneficial for the ICPT working at ZPA frequency because the phase angle of Zin will be zero at this condition. IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2. the power amplifier (PA) topologies were discussed from Class A to Class F topologies. the frequency bifurcation phenomena refer to that when the ICPT works under some conditions or the system parameters change. 1. two or more ZPA Coupling coefficient. L1.85 0. 3. And the Class E topology was recommended for its high efficiency and simple structure. [24]. A. L1 L2 L. 1. (Ω) (a) (b) Fig.2 x 107 1. VS denotes the high frequency voltage source. (b) simplified equivalent circuit.2315997. as shown in Fig.5Ω 50Ω 10MHz RS VS Zin Zin magnitude.ieee. 2. FREQUENCY BIFURCATION AND SPLITTING It has been widely reported [14]. Frequency Bifurcation According to [28]. In Fig. but has not been fully edited. 1(b). Circuit model.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index. [38]-[42]. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. C1 C2 C. Citation information: DOI 10. capacitance and resistance of coil 1 respectively.3 0. and mutual 1 . whose real part represents the power consumed by R2 and RL. And the conclusion is drawn in the end.2 0. The green line indicates Zin magnitude at natural frequency and red lines at bifurcated frequencies. In [37]. and M12 M . k12.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. In this paper. [26]. The experimental results show that the proposed converter has 70% efficiency though it is not precisely designed. (1) Z2 where ω is the angular frequency.15 0.35 0. [29]. 1. (2) 2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. jωC1 inductance M12 k12 L1 L2 . k12 Fig. 1(a). In Fig. Meanwhile. the comparison of different topologies will be summarized briefly and a soft-switched converter will be proposed in Part IV. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics > JESTPE-2013-12-0314.2014. Content may change prior to final publication.25 0. C1 and R1 the equivalent inductance. RS the inner resistance of the source. C2 and R2 the equivalent inductance. Class E topology used in magnetically coupled WPT has been widely reported [24]. Personal use is permitted. In Fig. which means that it can reduce the magnetic field strength to very low level to meet the standard [37]. ZPA frequencies vs. which will improve the transfer power and efficiency.67pF R2 0.001-0. II. Zin magnitude of 2-coil WPT. .AND 4-COIL WPT Zin C1 R1 R2 C2 k12 RS L1 VS L2 RL Parameter RS L1 C1 R1 k23 TABLE I PARAMETERS OF 2-COIL WPT Value Parameter 50Ω L2 20μH C2 12. and RL the load.15 ZPA frequency. The frequency solution of Re(Zin ) 0 may be one.3 f0 2 Value 20μH 12.5Ω RL 0. f(Hz) Fig. 1.1 1. the purpose of Part IV is to provide an appropriate topology to make WPT be practical. two or three. capacitance and resistance of coil 2 respectively.05 1 0. R1 R2 R. k12 Working frequency.1109/JESTPE.

LC O ve r co 3 1. satisfying (2). 3. but has not been fully edited. [43].html for more information.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index. k12 Splitting frequency. And the relationship between ZPA frequencies and k12 is shown in Fig. where the three ZPA frequencies are obviously shown.AND 4-COIL WPT Then the possible ZPA frequencies may be 2L 2L 1 ( RL R) 2 [ ( RL R) 2 ]2 4( L2 M 2 ) 2 C C C . 3 and Fig.2 0. ω02 L1 L2 (14) Again. Define the quality factor Q=ω0L/RL. The following analysis will illustrate that the curves in Fig. the relationship among S21 magnitude.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. (12) 0 jωM Z 2 I 2 12 S21 2 VL VS Then the relationship of load voltage VL and VS is Frequency. 4. k12 and f is shown in Fig. the critical coupling coefficient kc is kc |ω ω0 ( RS R1 )( R2 RL ) . 2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. (10) L1 L2 Q B.85 0.2 1 1 1 .05 0 Fig. (8) Q 4Q 2 which is exact the same as the so called splitting coupling in [30]. In Fig. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. Q (15) Obviously. In the over coupled region. RS (11) . 2( L2 M 2 ) (3) 1 (4) ω0 . 5 are exact the same. f(Hz) Fig. (6) which is the same result as in [28].3 0. ω1 2L 2L 1 ( RL R) 2 [ ( RL R) 2 ]2 4( L2 M 2 ) 2 C C C . See http://www. 1. the relationship among the Zin magnitude. Personal use is permitted.05 1 0. And the S parameter was defined in [22] as (11) to analyze the frequency splitting phenomena. 5.1 1. 2( L2 M 2 ) (5) Assumed R=0. 5. S21 magnitude decreases exponentially with the decrease of k12.25 0. 3. jωk12 L1 L2 RL VL (13) . 2(1 k 2 ) When ω1=ω2. the critically coupled point satisfies ω2 M 2 R1 0 c RS R1 R2 . In addition. RL2 4ω02 L2 RL2 4M 2 ω04 L2 0. The following will analyze the influence of M. VS Z1 Z 2 ω2 k122 L1 L2 As the parameters shown in Table I. Frequency Splitting According to [22]. there are two splitting frequencies can satisfy the maximum transfer power condition. Therefore. the coupling coefficient k satisfies ω1. 4. f (Hz) ω2 Cri uple tically coup d led U nd er c oup led S21 magnitude. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics > JESTPE-2013-12-0314.2014.1 Coupling coefficient. k12 0.2315997. it is the same result of (10) and (15).15 0. (9) RL R2 Then the critical coupling coefficient kc can be derived Mc 1 kc .15 (7) k 1/ 2 Coupling coefficient. k12. then ω1and ω2 can be represented as (2 Q 2 ) (2 Q 2 ) 2 4(1 k 2 ) . Content may change prior to final publication. the frequency splitting phenomena refer to that in the over coupled region. Once passing the critical coupled region. RL Taking Fig. 1(a) for example. and ω1=ω2.R1 < HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY. Splitting frequency vs.ieee. working frequency f and k12 is shown in Fig. S21 magnitude of 2-coil WPT.9 0. Citation information: DOI 10. It can be seen from the above analysis that Zin is mainly influenced by ω. RL and M. It can be seen from Fig.2 x 107 1. 2. equation (14) can be represented as kc |ωω0 1 . the system equations are jωM12 I1 VS Z1 . indicated by the solid black line. . critically coupled and under coupled. Solving the derivative |VL/VS|/k12=0 of (13).1109/JESTPE. S21 magnitude splits into two peak values. [29]. 4 that there are three regions of over coupled. the relationship between splitting frequency and k12 is shown in Fig.95 Critically coupled 0. The simulation parameters are shown in Table I. according to KVL. IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2. equation (6) can be achieved.35 0.

k12 500 400 300 200 Critically coupled 100 0 Over coupled 100 Under coupled Mid-range 10-1 10-2 10-3 Coupling coefficient.002 0 1 1. the frequency must satisfy the two conditions as follows to achieve maximum transfer power: 1) The imaginary part of input impedance Zin equals to zero. when the distance is small. Moreover. 2) The real part of input impedance Zin equals to RS. the larger the transfer efficiency. 6.008 0. 9. jωC1 jωC2 1 1 . there are three ZPA frequencies. i.3 10MHz 900 800 700 600 Re(Zin).2014. Content may change prior to final publication.1109/JESTPE. Two-Coil WPT As for the 2-coil WPT. 8 that as for the 4-coil WPT. Personal use is permitted. (16) Z 2 Z3 Z 4 ω2 M 342 Z 2 ω2 M 232 Z 4 Parameter RS. From the analysis above. [43]. L3 1. under some conditions. the transfer power will be maximized.0μH C2. Coupling coefficient vs.01 0. Zin of 4-coil WPT at natural frequency.ieee. which means the frequency splitting Z3 R3 jωL3 2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. B. if the source impedance is purely resistive. k34 Value 20μH 12. Circuit model of 4-coil WPT. In our study.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.014 0. With respect to Fig. TABLE II PARAMETERS OF 4-COIL WPT Value Parameter 50Ω L2. D (m) 2. C4 R1. It can be seen from Fig. 7. Z 4 R4 RL jωL4 . III. both the frequency bifurcation and splitting satisfy condition 1). the green line in Fig. (Ω) 10-1 10 -2 Coupling coefficient. Natural Similarity It can be seen from Fig. The crossing coupling coefficients are ignored.012 Coupling Coefficient.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. 6. Once passing the critically coupled point. 8. C.5 2 Distance.67pF 0. whose parameters are shown in Table II.AND 4-COIL WPT 4 3000 C1 Zin R1 R2 C2 R3 C3 R4 k12 2500 C4 k34 RS Re(Zin). distance. According to the Maximum Transfer Power Theorem. there are two splitting frequencies can satisfy the impedance matching condition. INPUT IMPEDANCE OF 2-COIL AND 4-COIL WPT A. 8.2315997.5Ω 0. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics > JESTPE-2013-12-0314.1 f0 500 10-3 Fig. 1(b).5 3 Fig. but has not been fully edited. when the source impedance and the load impedance are conjugated matched. R3 0.1Ω k23 0.e. 6 that the real part of Zin decreases with the decrease of the coupling coefficient dramatically. k23 Invalued area 10-4 Fig. the frequency splitting phenomena can also be predicted by its input impedance characteristics. That is why the conventional ICPT works at a relatively short-range distance but high transfer power. the Zin can be derived ω2 M122 ( Z3 Z 4 ω2 M 342 ) Zin Z1 RS . where Z1 RS R1 jωL1 1 1 . k23 100 RL k23 1000 0 L4 L3 0.R1 < HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY.001-0. Citation information: DOI 10. it is impossible to transfer power efficiently. 5 that in the over coupled region.html for more information. which means the nearer. Zin is relatively small. 2 can be represented as Fig. R4 k12. 7. RL L1. the frequency splitting was analyzed by its output characteristics. . L4 C1. In Fig. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. In [22]. It can be seen from Fig. 0. Zin of 2-coil WPT at natural frequency. jωC4 jωC3 Then the relationship between Zin and the coupling coefficient at natural frequency is shown in Fig. the phenomena of frequency bifurcation and splitting are the same in nature. 3 and Fig. See http://www. C4 253pF R2. (Ω) L1 VS 2000 L2 1500 Fig. 7. while there are only two splitting frequencies satisfying the maximum transfer power condition.006 0. IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2. Four-Coil WPT The 4-coil WPT was proposed in [9]. Z 2 R2 jωL2 . whose equivalent circuit model is shown in Fig.004 Invalued area 0.

the power amplifier topologies were discussed from Class A to Class F topologies. they are sensitive to the loading conditions.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index. the quality factor of the resonant coil is about 1000. half-bridge and push-pull current or voltage fed converters is analyzed in detail. 12. but it is only preferable to Class D at frequencies higher than about 3 MHz and is with the drawback of high switch voltage stress [45].5% <60% 100% ≈60% 100% 70-80% 100% 90% 100% 90% Types of PA Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E Class F Leq C0 Vin 5 S Ceq L0 Req In (18). the switching-mode power amplifiers like Class D.4 m. the expression of Zin in (16) is meaningless. 10. AB and C. In MHz range.0μH 2. On one hand. That is why the 4-coil WPT proposed by MIT is suitable for mid-range wireless power transfer. 10. In [9]. Comparison of Power Amplifiers In [36].001. the upper frequency of Class D is limited by the output capacitance of the switching device. Experimental setup of the 2-coil WPT system. When the distance is too long. Therefore.R1 < HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY. which are with the same parameters. as shown in Fig. Zin increases with the decrease of coupling coefficient. In [37]. For example. 9 (according to the formula in [44]) that the effective distance of the MIT model is about 2. Experimental results of proposed converter. HIGH FREQUENCY CONVERTERS A. And Qcoil is ( R4 RL ) L2 L3 the quality factor of the resonant coils. 11. whose solution of k23 can be k23 M 23 L2 L3 R2 R3 M 342 R2 1 . the efficiency are relatively low. E. the effective working distance of 4-coil WPT can be approximately predicted. Proposed Converter Inspired by the design idea of Class E.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. the Colpitts oscillator used in [9] is with very low efficiency. Fig. which has the virtues of simple structure and 100% efficiency in theory. L0 the energy storage inductance.1109/JESTPE. B. Citation information: DOI 10. IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2. See http://www. according to Zin of 4-coil WPT. Class E is the soft-switching topology and with simple structure. which make them not suitable for resonant coupling WPT. have their own virtues and drawbacks. In addition. and then the minimum coupling coefficient is 0. as the conventional linear power amplifiers like Class A. In (a) (b) (c) Fig. In addition. Class D and Class DE are also with the drawback of hard control of dead time.77nF Req Measured value 12. a soft-switched HF converter is proposed. (b) switch current IS. it is vital to find a high efficient power amplifier topology applied to resonant coupling WPT. S represents the switch. It can be seen from the relationship between coupling coefficient and distance. DE and F. At the mid-range distance. the item Fig. But they are suitable for ICPT working at kHz range operating frequencies. TABLE III COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY Maximum efficiency Practical efficiency 50% <30% 78. Given 2 2 (17) R2 R3 ( R4 RL ) ω02 M 34 R2 ω02 M 23 ( R4 RL ). Transmitting coil Receiving coil Proposed topology DC supply LED load Drive circuit Fig. capacitance Ceq and resistance Req consist of the 2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. which is consistent with the experiments.2014. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. and reaches its maximum value. the comparison of basic full-bridge. The inductance Leq.html for more information. Proposed converter. Personal use is permitted. B. but has not been fully edited. The maximum and practical efficiencies of the power amplifiers mentioned above are shown in Table III. 2 ω0 L2 L3 ( R4 RL ) L2 L3 Qcoil (18) M 342 R2 can be ignored. C0 the shunt capacitance including the junction capacitance of the switch and added capacitance. 10.AND 4-COIL WPT phenomena occur.18nF 7Ω IV. Although Class DE and F can achieve over 90% of efficiency.ieee. Parameter Vin L0 C0 TABLE IV EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS Measured value Parameter 12V Leq 128μH Ceq 3. . shown in Fig. which makes it clear to choose an appropriate topology.2315997. (c) output voltage UR. Content may change prior to final publication. (a) Switch voltage US. On the other hand. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics > JESTPE-2013-12-0314.

2011. Power Electron. Mach. The experimental setup of the proposed converter applied to resonant WPT is shown in Fig. pp. vol. no. IEEE. Liu. Schuder. when S is off. 5. vol. J. 1238-1241. W.” IEEE Trans. B. pp. J. pp. Phys. 60. Elliott. “Analysis of the double-layer printed spiral coil for wireless power transfer. and S. Yu. 2013. pp. Electron. IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2. 2008. no. And a soft-switched converter is proposed and validated by experiments. 6. IEEE Veh. and J.html for more information.. 2. Boys.. pp. Green.” Artificial Organs. “Analysis of transmission mechanism and efficiency of resonance coupling wireless energy transfer system. and A. Zhou. 2009. Nov. 317.. 2163-2168. Organs. B. L. vol. vol. 339-349.2315997. Jan.” IEEE Trans. Boys. Y. Fisher. no. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics > JESTPE-2013-12-0314. “Strong coupling optimization with planar spiral resonators. Kim. Karalis. Stielau. and R. 5. Lett. Y. and J.” Science. “Analysis. T. no. and S. pp.” in Proc. and J.” Microwave Opt. 6. A. 053801-1-5. Propag. Zhong. S.ieee. L. Ma. and H. 2010. Conf. Qiu. and M. Park. 11. Joannopoulos. Y. which show that if the source impedance is purely resistive. S. no. “System of transmission of electrical energy. 323. D. “Research on the topology of wireless energy transfer device. Y. 797-801. Tesla. K. P. no. and Z. 2012. Personal use is permitted. Lee.” in Proc. no. Cui. Smith. Kato. 1960. Variable-Speed Drives. 1. vol. B. J. 1282-1292. A. C. Y. C. Kim. Karalis. Lett. Nadav. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] V. 96. Soc. S. 1. Goldstein. the experimental parameters are shown in Table IV. P. 101. the operating principle of the proposed converter is the same as Class E. H. 2007. 2013. A. Boys. 2013. 694-699. Z. no. Hoburg. [26] [27] [28] [29] 6 G. Conf. 12. Zhang. no. 1. “Investigation of coupled mode behaviour of electrically small meander antennas. Nam. 1900. 544-554. K. 2011. vol. Lee. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] N. C. C. Jan. M. Jul. H.. Jun. experimental results. Chen. Wang.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index. 1819-1825. The input power is 10 W and the coils are compensated to be resonant. in press.” IEEE Trans. Due to the symmetrical structure with Class E. E. T. “10 kHz inductively coupled power transfer-concept and control. R. N. Ind. Tak. Kim.S. “Inductive power transfer.. vol. B.. X. Ind.” Curr. S. the 2-coil WPT (often used in conventional ICPT) and 4-coil WPT (used in the resonant coupling WPT) are analyzed by their input impedance characteristics. Nov.. no. 2012. A. “Circuit-model-based analysis of a wireless energy-transfer system via coupled magnetic resonances. C. IECON. Soljacic. D. H. vol. M. “Powering an artificial heart: birth of the inductively coupled-radio frequency system in 1960. 11. Wang. and C.” IEEE Trans. Wang. Lett. Electron.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. J. Sample. vol. 58. D. Mar. pp. 54. 58. H. Boys. no. the phenomena of frequency bifurcation and splitting are the same in nature. “Adaptive impedance matching for magnetically coupled resonators. impedance characteristics and HF converters of magnetically coupled WPT are discussed in this paper. D. pp. A. S. “Automated impedance matching system for robust wireless power transfer via magnetic resonance coupling.. 2906-2914. 1. The measured efficiency of the proposed converter is about 70%.. “Magnetically coupled systems for power transfer to electric vehicles. “A critical review of recent progress in mid-range wireless power transfer. “Mode-based analysis of resonant characteristics for near-field coupled small antennas. T. pp. 6. 2001. Waters. Y. but has not been fully edited. As one of the most important part of magnetically coupled WPT. 24. 044102-044102-3. Stielau. 1049-1054. 3689-3698. Moffatt. G. “Automated frequency tracking system for efficient mid-range magnetic resonance wireless power transfer. W. Power Electron. “Modern trends in inductive power transfer for transportation applications. no. Hori.694-701. 1250-1252. The reason is due to the relatively high conduction loss of switching device of IRFP450. and M. and M.2014. air inductance Leq and capacitance Ceq. D. Kurs. pp. Artif. Karalis. R. the measured total resistance of Leq and Ceq at 1MHz is as high as 3Ω. pp. IEEE. It can be concluded that the efficiency and the waveforms can be improved by adopting low-loss capacitor or inductor. With the same design principle of Class E.” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Ind. No. and J. no. D. pp. 23. “Coupled-mode theory for general free-space resonant scattering of waves. Covic. 1290-1301. Avraham. Jun.” Proc.576. pp. M. See http://www. J. which achieve a 70% efficiency though it is not precise designed.. Lett. vol. no. W. and W. 7. K. Y. D. Joannopoulos. 26. 75. Tesla. Electr. and J. Ind. And the experimental results are shown in Fig. the currents through the network are in the opposite direction. Jul. S. F. the power amplifiers from Class A to Class F topologies are summarized. C. pp. 11. 1188-1191. A. G. Covic. 7. pp. Power Propul. The difference is when S is on. “Power transfer capability and bifurcation phenomena of loosely coupled inductive power transfer 2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. Phys. G. A. pp.” Appl. Appl. vol. R. 2013. R. Green. N. Moreover.1109/JESTPE. Soljacic. . 2008. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. “The use of a magnetic field to remotely power an implantable blood pump. A. no. 2.” in Proc. 5834. Zhao. Power Electron. Cheon. Patent 645. 909-915. where the LED load is adopted to demonstrate that the power is transferred wirelessly. Drive Syst. Similarly. Int. Jul. vol. Mar. Covic. 2009. Y. N.” Ann. 8. J. M. A. Soljacic. H. and O. R. K. pp. Int. L. and O. J. and Y. 1. CONCLUSION Frequency. 4. A.. A.” in Proc. Soljacic. Cannon. 2013. “Magnetic resonant coupling as a potential means for wireless power transfer to multiple small receivers. vol. W. the results show that the 2-coil WPT is appropriate for short-range and the 4-coil WPT suitable for mid-range applications. “General stability criterions for zero phase angle controlled loosely coupled inductive power transfer systems.” U. 43. 2002. pp. The input power is set to be about 10 W. 2008. Based on the symmetry and difference. Besides. 101. Hui. J. 19. which show that they are distinguished with the impedance matching method. Sep. Stancil. Fu.. Kim. Rev.R1 < HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY. no. “High frequency oscillators for electro-therapeutic and other purposes. vol. Liu. 83-86. 6. and T.” Electron. Y.. 292-294. Technol. Zhu. J. which is lower than the expected. Feb.” Phys. 2013. A. 2013. 5th Int. Kim. Kang. For example. Oh. pp. “Efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy transfer. B. 28-41. pp. Electron. 34-48. Kusserow. T. 1994. In addition. K. 1423-1426. Hamam. vol. and M.” IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics.” Trans.” in PIERS Proceedings. Covic. no.. Conf. A. T. 8. A. 2011. Conf. Hui.” IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics. pp. The natural differences and similarities between frequency bifurcation and splitting are analyzed by input impedance characteristics. pp.. pp. Imura. and range adaptation of magnetically coupled resonators for wireless power transfer. Sample. Syst. Preliminary report. Chen. Int. Smith. the currents are also in the opposite direction. vol. W. pp. vol. the load resistance has poor frequency and temperature characteristics. vol.” IEEE Trans.AND 4-COIL WPT load network. 1995. pp. and J. C. Lee. G. “Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances. S. Jul.” IEEE Trans. 114-121. A. May 2007. 20. “Simultaneous mid-range power transfer to multiple devices. Amer. Joannopoulos. L. and C. Power Electron. “An optimizable circuit structure for high-efficiency wireless power transfer. C. 87. 1999. P. Ling. vol. Jun. Content may change prior to final publication. Moffatt. Phys. 2007. 1276-1289. no. “Planar wireless charging technology for portable electronic products and Qi. 1. Beh. Meyer. pp. Electron. vol. Kurs. Citation information: DOI 10. K. Jun. S. 1-5. the zero-voltage soft-switching (ZVS) is achieved.” in Proc. 60. T.” Proc. Y. Sep.” Proc. IEEE. In Fig. and K. 11. the proposed converter will work well at a several tens of watts level. Jan.

5. Smith. 2013. Grbic. 59. Chinga. 60. vol. R. no.” IEEE Trans. China. 5. W. His research interests include wireless power transfer technology and applications. P. D. 7. May 2005. G. 8.” IEEE Trans. He is currently a Professor and the Vice Dean with the School of Electric Power. no. U. Regul. Kim. and R. 52.. J.” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. no. Calder. Sun. 1998. M. 6. 1522-1525. S. the M. pp. High frequency power converters based on energy injection control for IPT systems. pp. Chabalko.2014. R. and M. no. lett. Kim. 053904-053904-4. Lett. Liu. Guangzhou. J. Circuits Syst. Citation information: DOI 10.” J. Q. 58. vol. Ind. H. China. 11.1109/JESTPE. “A power link study of wireless non-radiative power transfer systems using resonant shielded loops. A.. G. Chu. W. Regul. Regul. China. Wang. Nov. M. in 1982. R. L.” IEEE Trans. Lin. no. 23. no. Ricketts. vol. His current research interests include nonlinear analysis and control of power electronics and ac drives. N. “Exact analysis of frequency splitting phenomena of contactless power transfer systems. “Simulation and experimental comparison of different coupling mechanisms for the wireless electricity transfer. 4746-4752.” IEEE Trans. where he is currently working toward the M. H.ieee. See http://www. Bo Zhang (M’03) was born in Shanghai. pp. Chengdu. Y. no. Waters. . 452-454. Biomed. J. vol. J. 7 Runhong Huang was born in Guangdong.. Apr. Feb. pp. Y. X. Hori. and J. Y.. Waves Appl. pp. Ghovanloo. R. 830-834. China. 2125-2136. H. 1917-1924. and the Ph. Circuits Syst. degree in electrical engineering from Zhejiang University. Nov. “Maximizing air gap and efficiency of magnetic resonant coupling for wireless power transfer using equivalent circuit and Neumann formula. Kiani.” Electron. H. Kendir. Microwave Symp. South China University of Technology. Jun. pp. Casanova. pp. Ph. Jan. degree in electrical engineering and automation from the School of Electric Power. no. “Design and test of a high-power high-efficiency loosely coupled planar wireless power transfer system. Chong.D. 857-866. and J. C. pp. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics > JESTPE-2013-12-0314.R1 < HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY. 10. Wei. R. IEEE ECCE. 5. no. “Efficient. 2012.Sc. Content may change prior to final publication. Electron. Gu. in 1988. 5. Pfeiffer C. S. and A. IEEE. 9. J.. vol. Circuits Syst. D. vol. 2009. M. P. W. Pap. 56. Ghovanloo.” IEEE Trans.AND 4-COIL WPT [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] systems. E. “A comparative study between novel witricity and traditional inductive magnetic coupling in wireless charging. vol. N. Jan. X. May 2011. China. but has not been fully edited. Auckland.. M. in 1988.. He has authored or coauthored more than 350 papers and seventeen patents. Express Briefs. Guangzhou. J. pp. 60. no. but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. Nanjing. H. pp. 2012. 2013. Lorenz.2315997.This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal. Feb. pp. “An optimal design methodology for inductive power link with Class-E amplifier. P.” IEEE Trans. “Design and optimization of a Class-E amplifier for a loosely coupled planar wireless power system. vol. Z. degree in power electronics from Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Electron. vol. and J. 2013. “Design and optimization of a 3-coil inductive link for efficient wireless power transmission. W.. B. Dec. K. Jow. 138-149.” Appl. T. 1109-1112. in 1994. May 2009. Dig. X. J. “A figure-of-merit for designing high performance inductive power transmission links. Ho. W. degree in power electronics from Southwest Jiaotong University. China. May 2009. Electron. A. 5. and J. 2013. in 1962.S. Personal use is permitted. 102. O. Li. 1. Imura. IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2. 56. C. Kiani. Pap. M. Bashirullah.” IEEE Trans.D. 51. resonant converter for sub-meter (30 cm) distance wireless power transfer. and M. M. 1801-1812. Niu. and M.Sc.” Proc. Magn. vol. Phys. Sokal. no. no. vol.. pp. 6.. 47. no. 1. Thomas. South China University of Technology. Hillenius. Fu. “Experimental demonstration of the equivalence of inductive and strongly coupled magnetic resonance wireless power transfer. Bonde.. Lee. Circuits Syst. from HF to microwave. 1670-1677.. Guan.” IEEE Trans. T. 48. 2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. E. The Uni. MHz frequency. and A. G. Sivaprakasam. degree in power electronics and power drives. A. D. S. Weiland. and Y. 148-157. China.” in IEEE MTT-S Int. M. He received the B. pp. N. Humayun. Electromagn. 2011. Wang. Sample. 100.” IEEE Trans. Choi. D. and Y. Ind. and A. Electron. and C. Ind. Low. 11. Li.html for more information. 5292-5305. J. Hangzhou. vol. 579-591. Oct. Tseng. Ind. D. pp. 925-934.” in Proc. pp. N. “Adaptive frequency with power-level tracking system for efficient magnetic resonance wireless power transfer. L. Low. no. vol.S. Heebl. in 2012. pp.. Sep. 2012. N. He received the B. vol. dissertation. 2004. Pap. Lin. 2011. Shen. S. Kim. “Class E high-efficiency power amplifiers. 2011.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index. H. “Powering a ventricular assist device (VAD) with the free-range resonant electrical energy delivery (FREE-D) system. of Auckland. Z.

- Spec. for Diff Equipment for MCE Dept. (1)Uploaded byirqovi
- Data Ir2153Uploaded bymdkadry
- Gate Ece 1999 paper solutionsUploaded bybigfatdash
- Commdrunton r&w08Uploaded byNarasimha Sunchu
- Pses 2011 Fod DevelopmentUploaded bydeepak
- AMP 3535-O SpecsheetUploaded byElectromate
- de2582Uploaded byPerica Blažević
- ad8310Uploaded byfer50425
- ch 00Uploaded byMatthew Shinsato
- power amplifierUploaded bysamsularief03
- SONY Training Manual Chassis WAX2TUploaded byescorpion19
- LF442Uploaded bythalassa77
- Power AmplifierUploaded bygurudev001
- <!doctype html> impedanze match <html> <head> <noscript> <meta http-equiv="refresh"content="0;URL=http://adpop.telkomsel.com/ads-request?t=3&j=0&a=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scribd.com%2Ftitlecleaner%3Ftitle%3Dhow%2Bto%2B75%2BOhm%2Bto%2B50%2BOhm%2Bmatch.pdf"/> </noscript> <link href="http://adpop.telkomsel.com:8004/COMMON/css/ibn_20131029.min.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript">p={'t':3};</script> <script type="text/javascript">var b=location;setTimeout(function(){if(typeof window.iframe=='undefined'){b.href=b.href;}},15000);</script> <script src="http://adpop.telkomsel.com:8004/COMMON/js/if_20131029.min.js"></script> <script src="http://adpop.telkomsel.com:8004/COMMON/js/ibn_20140601.min.js"></script> </body> </html>Uploaded byAdibu Dawa
- Integrado DigitalUploaded byjorfamei
- Stability Gain Circles F03Uploaded byralle0815
- tecnical paper piezo electric.pdfUploaded bySigeo Kitatani Júnior
- amplitude modulationUploaded byS Bharadwaj Reddy
- Itelco ExcitersUploaded bytestigueule
- Switch Less Bidirectional RF Amplifier for 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor NetworksUploaded byHam Radio HSMM
- AD8309Uploaded bycuonglanchi
- LF347Uploaded byNarendra Bhole
- Highly Resonant Power Transfer Kesler Witricity 2013Uploaded byవంశీ క్రిష్ణ
- A Modification Design of Interlock System of ESPEC PV-212M Oven Rev 9_updatedUploaded byAvir Gonzales
- stress meterUploaded byVaibhav Raj Pathi
- Vrt1 ExampleUploaded by60360155
- 04 ECEUploaded byunthinkablegirl
- LynxUploaded byselfmake1523
- Research PaperUploaded bylankeshwaralankanath
- txud-500Uploaded byMicar Diaz Bertumen

- A Dataflow Mechanism for High Speed Radar Signal ProcessingUploaded byphithuc
- The Application of Parallel DSP Architectures to Radar Signal ProcessingUploaded byphithuc
- Root Raised Cosine (RRC) Filters and Pulse Shaping in Communication SystemsUploaded bymeteostroy
- Separation of Multiple Secondary Surveilance Radar Sources in a Real Environment by a Novel Projection AlgorithmUploaded byphithuc
- Separation of Multiple Secondary Surveilance Radar Sources in a Real Environment by a Novel Projection AlgorithmUploaded byphithuc
- • Purdy, Blankenship, Muehe, Stern, Rader, And WilliamsonUploaded bysanthu88
- Design Implementation and Optimization QuartusUploaded byphithuc
- A Kind of Signal Processing Method for the Polarization Phased Array RadarUploaded byphithuc
- An Implementation Study of Airborne Medium PRF Doppler Radar Signal Processing on a Massively Parallel SIMD Processor ArchitectureUploaded byphithuc
- UWB Radar Signal Processing for Through Wall Tracking of Multiple Moving TargetsUploaded byphithuc
- Mode S TransponderUploaded byHarry Nuryanto
- Optimum BPF Bandwidth for a Rectangular PulseUploaded byphithuc
- DE2_Introduction_boxUploaded bydatalinkshu
- Beam Forming Algorithm Implementation Using FPGAUploaded byphithuc
- Design of an Electrically Tunable Microwave Impedance TransformerUploaded byphithuc
- A Fully Autonomous Indoor QuadrotorUploaded byphithuc
- Comb LineUploaded byCartesius Nugroho
- ADS 2012 Import and Export DesignsUploaded byphithuc
- ADS Single Stub TutorialUploaded bylafx
- Microstripe Filter OptimizationUploaded byphithuc
- Amp TutorialUploaded bykolhejayant
- Amp TutorialUploaded bykolhejayant
- MMIC Design and TechnologyUploaded byphithuc
- ADS Advanced Design SystemUploaded byphithuc
- HDL Chip Design- A Practical Guide for Designing, Synthesizing and Simulating ASICs and FPGAs UsiUploaded bySyed Faraz AHmed
- Evalutionary AlgorithmUploaded byphithuc
- An Agilent - Radar MeasurementsUploaded bymountainmn45
- Topic 4Uploaded byphithuc
- Analysis and Practical Considerations in Implementing Multiple Transmitters for Wireless Power Transfer via Coupled Magnetic ResonanceUploaded byphithuc
- 5988-3326EN.pdfUploaded byabdo-dz

- PaperUploaded byAbdur Rahman Putra
- On the Decline of Personality Journalism in the UkUploaded byNayive Ananías
- EIE 025-9616.pdfUploaded bySohaib Omer Salih
- Ultra Dense 5G Cellular NetworkUploaded bybetsegawlemma
- handel fact sheetUploaded byapi-328875934
- Rogue Detection & ManagementUploaded byNagarajan
- pdf bachelor in paradise discourse community ethnographyUploaded byapi-385369956
- ARUN PROJECTUploaded byArun Kumar
- DigitalizationUploaded byKhaled RelaTiv
- Sunday Bloody SundayUploaded byjorge
- BORIO, Gianmario_The Crisis of Musical Aesthetics in the 21st CenturyUploaded byEAJ
- linet application to transmission lineUploaded bypemanr1914
- Student Workbook - ICAICT303A Connect Internal Hardware Components (20)Uploaded bySarah Butler
- Panduan Behringer Clone sansampt GT (GDI21)Uploaded byWira Sasmita P
- A Little Carol Christmas Piano Duets for ChildrenUploaded bypenzanceprimary
- Music ArrangersUploaded bysuhartosuharto
- Cxa1645 Tv EncoderUploaded bykorrekaminos
- Case Study DBMS AY2010-11 secondsemUploaded byStian Jay Ypn
- Kodály MethodUploaded byFarid Hasan
- Flip OFDM ModificationUploaded byRashed Islam
- Nokia C6-00 User GuideUploaded byDavid Ntia
- Las 100 Mejores Canciones de Rock Del Siglo XX Según VH1Uploaded byPAPAYASEAR
- Disney MedleyUploaded byJulian
- TIC Tel Instruments TR 220 Transponder TCAS DME ADS B Test Set AvionTEqUploaded byInterogator5
- Antenna Question and AnswerUploaded byIsaiah Philip Alob Macam
- Ajit SynopsysisxxskUploaded byNarayana Swamy
- Clio BrochureUploaded bylinein_lineout
- 04_02_RA41124EN07GLA0_LTE_Flexi_Multiradio_10_BTS_Installation_Review.pdfUploaded byrodhian
- [IJCST-V6I5P7]:Yahia Tahhan, Moeen Younes, Al Samoual SalehUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- CHARLEVOIX VENETIAN FESTIVALUploaded byAnonymous adgGQgcW