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- Talk5_BasisExpansion.ppt
- Engineering Architecture FINAL MOD FINAL
- Modeling Terms
- Computing the COM From the COP in Postural Sway Movements
- 2
- Generalized Inverse Theorem for Schoenberg Operator
- CS 452 Computer Graphics MurtazaTaj
- 2004 7 Axisymmetric Numerical Integration
- Chapter 4 Curve Manipulations of drawing & engineering
- Mobile Computing Manual
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- PhD thesis - Mark Schenk.pdf
- analysis and comparison of connection in steel structures.pdf
- 041020_1.pdf
- shear center
- 0_von Mises Yield Criterion
- ci_2.pdf
- Minimum weights of pressurized hollow sandwich cylinders with ultralight cellular cores.pdf
- 1_Hill Yield Criterion
- STI03 Yield and Failure

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Last Time:
Curves & Surfaces
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Expected value and variance
Monte-Carlo in graphics
Importance sampling
Stratified sampling
Path Tracing
Irradiance Cache
Photon Mapping
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Questions?
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Today
• Motivation
– Limitations of Polygonal Models
– Gouraud Shading & Phong Normal Interpolation
– Some Modeling Tools & Definitions
• Curves
• Surfaces / Patches
• Subdivision Surfaces
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Limitations of Polygonal Meshes
•
•
•
•
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Can We Disguise the Facets?
Planar facets (& silhouettes)
Fixed resolution
Deformation is difficult
No natural parameterization
(for texture mapping)
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
1
Gouraud Shading
Phong Normal Interpolation (Not Phong Shading)
• Instead of shading with the normal of the triangle,
shade the vertices with the average normal and
interpolate the color across each face
• Interpolate the average vertex normals across
the face and compute per-pixel shading
Illusion of a smooth
surface with smoothly
varying normals
Must be
renormalized
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
1K
facets
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
10K
facets
1K
smooth
10K
smooth
Better, but not always good enough
• Still low, fixed resolution
(missing fine details)
• Still have polygonal
silhouettes
• Intersection depth is
planar (e.g. ray
visualization)
• Collisions problems for
simulation
• Solid Texturing problems
• ...
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Some Non-Polygonal Modeling Tools
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Continuity definitions:
• C0 continuous
– curve/surface has no breaks/gaps/holes
• G1 continuous
Extrusion
Surface of Revolution
– tangent at joint has same direction
• C1 continuous
– curve/surface derivative is continuous
– tangent at join has same direction and magnitude
• Cn continuous
Spline Surfaces/Patches
Quadrics and other
implicit
polynomials
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
– curve/surface through nth derivative
is continuous
– important for shading
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
2
Questions?
Today
• Motivation
• Curves
– What's a Spline?
– Linear Interpolation
– Interpolation Curves vs. Approximation Curves
– Bézier
– BSpline (NURBS)
• Surfaces / Patches
• Subdivision Surfaces
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Definition: What's a Spline?
Interpolation Curves / Splines
• Smooth curve defined by some control points
• Moving the control points changes the curve
Interpolation
Bézier (approximation)
BSpline
(approximation)
www.abm.org
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Linear Interpolation
Interpolation Curves
• Simplest "curve" between two points
• Curve is constrained to pass through
all control points
• Given points P0, P1, ... Pn, find lowest degree
polynomial which passes through the points
Q(t) =
Spline Basis
Functions
a.k.a. Blending
Functions
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
x(t) = an-1tn-1 + .... + a2t2 + a1t + a0
y(t) = bn-1tn-1 + .... + b2t2 + b1t + b0
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
3
Interpolation vs. Approximation Curves
Interpolation vs. Approximation Curves
• Interpolation Curve – over constrained →
lots of (undesirable?) oscillations
• Approximation Curve – more reasonable?
Interpolation
Approximation
curve must pass
through control points
curve is influenced
by control points
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Cubic Bézier Curve
Cubic Bézier Curve
• 4 control points
• Curve passes through first & last control point
• Curve is tangent at P0 to (P0-P1) and at P4 to (P4-P3)
• de Casteljau's algorithm for constructing Bézier
curves
t
t
t
t
t
t
A Bézier curve is
bounded by the convex
hull of its control points.
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Cubic Bézier Curve
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Connecting Cubic Bézier Curves
Asymmetric: Curve goes
through some control
points but misses others
•
•
•
•
Bernstein
Polynomials
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
How can we guarantee C0 continuity?
How can we guarantee G1 continuity?
How can we guarantee C1 continuity?
Can’t guarantee higher C2 or higher continuity
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
4
Connecting Cubic Bézier Curves
• Where is this curve
– C0 continuous?
– G1 continuous?
– C1 continuous?
• What’s the
relationship
between:
– the # of control
points, and
– the # of
cubic Bézier
subcurves?
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Higher-Order Bézier Curves
• > 4 control points
• Bernstein Polynomials as the basis functions
• Every control point affects the entire curve
– Not simply a local effect
– More difficult to control for modeling
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Cubic BSplines
Cubic BSplines
• ≥ 4 control points
• Locally cubic
• Curve is not constrained to pass through any
control points
• Iterative method for constructing BSplines
A BSpline curve is also
bounded by the convex
hull of its control points.
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Cubic BSplines
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand
Cutler
Shirley, Fundamentals
of and
Computer
Graphics
Cubic BSplines
• Can be chained together
• Better control locally (windowing)
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
5
Connecting Cubic BSpline Curves
BSpline Curve Control Points
• What’s the
relationship
between
– the # of control
points, and
– the # of
cubic BSpline
subcurves?
Default BSpline
BSpline with
Discontinuity
Repeat interior
control point
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
BSpline which
passes through
end points
Repeat end points
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Bézier is not the same as BSpline
Bézier is not the same as BSpline
• Relationship to the control points is different
Bézier
BSpline
Bézier
BSpline
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Converting between Bézier & BSpline
new
BSpline
control
points to
match
Bézier
original
control
points as
Bézier
new
Bézier
control
points to
match
BSpline
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
original
control
points as
BSpline
Converting between Bézier & BSpline
• Using the basis functions:
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
6
NURBS (generalized BSplines)
Questions?
• BSpline: uniform cubic BSpline
• NURBS: Non-Uniform Rational BSpline
– non-uniform = different spacing between the
blending functions, a.k.a. knots
– rational = ratio of polynomials (instead of cubic)
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Today
Tensor Product
• Motivation
• Spline Curves
• Spline Surfaces / Patches
• Of two vectors:
– Tensor Product
– Bilinear Patches
– Bezier Patches
• Subdivision Surfaces
• Similarly, we can
define a surface as
the tensor product
of two curves....
Farin, Curves and Surfaces for
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Bilinear Patch
Computer
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand
and Aided
Cutler Geometric Design
Bilinear Patch
• Smooth version of quadrilateral with
non-planar vertices...
– But will this help us model smooth surfaces?
– Do we have control of the derivative at the edges?
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
7
Bicubic Bezier Patch
Editing Bicubic Bezier Patches
Curve Basis Functions
Surface Basis Functions
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Bicubic Bezier Patch Tessellation
Modeling with Bicubic Bezier Patches
• Assignment 8: Given 16 control points and a
tessellation resolution, create a triangle mesh
• Original Teapot specified with Bezier Patches
resolution:
5x5 vertices
resolution:
11x11 vertices
resolution:
41x41 vertices
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Modeling Headaches
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Trimming Curves for Patches
• Original Teapot model is not "watertight":
intersecting surfaces at spout & handle, no bottom, a
hole at the spout tip, a gap between lid & base
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand
Cutler
Shirley, Fundamentals
of and
Computer
Graphics
8
Questions?
Today
•
•
•
•
•
• Bezier
Patches?
or
Review
Motivation
Spline Curves
Spline Surfaces / Patches
Subdivision Surfaces
• Triangle
Mesh?
Henrik Wann Jensen
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Chaikin's Algorithm
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Doo-Sabin Subdivision
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
http://www.ke.ics.saitama-u.ac.jp/xuz/pic/doo-sabin.gif
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Doo-Sabin Subdivision
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Loop Subdivision
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand
Cutler
Shirley, Fundamentals
of and
Computer
Graphics
9
Loop Subdivision
Questions?
• Some edges can be specified as crease edges
http://grail.cs.washington.edu/projects/subdivision/
Justin Legakis
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Neat Bezier Spline Trick
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Next Tuesday: (no class Thursday!)
• A Bezier curve with 4 control points:
– P0
P1
P2
P3
• Can be split into 2 new Bezier curves:
– P0 P’1 P’2 P’3
– P’3 P’4 P’5 P3
A Bézier curve
is bounded by
the convex hull
of its control
points.
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
Animation I:
Particle Systems
MIT EECS 6.837, Durand and Cutler
10

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