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Batteries

Not Included

IS FO
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FE ED
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Qi Xu, Zhaolong
Gao, Hao Wang,
Jiping He,
Zhi-Hong Mao,
and Mingui Sun

I

mplantable devices have become
increasingly popular in modern medicine. These devices have a wide range
of applications, such as health monitoring, disease prevention, delivery of a
therapeutic regimen, and biomimetic prosthesis.
For example, electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis
of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord
injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders [1]–[5]. Being able to record neural activity from
awake animals with observable behavior has greatly
advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms
that mediate behavior. Conventional microelectrode
recording techniques typically require a percutaneous connector, which is associated with infection risks.
Generally, in order to obtain stable recordings, animals
must be trained to accept some degree of restraint (e.g.,
head fixation). Not only is the mobility of the animal
subject limited, but the results obtained under such
restricted conditions may not reflect the full repertoire
of brain activity that occurs during natural behaviors
[2]. This issue can be addressed with implantable electronics to record neural activity and wirelessly transmit
this data through the skin to an external device. A wire-

© artville

less technique is then required to transmit both data
and power, connecting the external system and the
implanted devices.
There has been substantial previous work on
miniaturized, implantable electronic circuits that
record neural data and stimulate neuronal networks
during free movement in different animal models [3]–[7]. Many designs use radio-frequency (RF)
transmission of raw or digitized physiological data
to a remote computer for storage and analysis. However, the high power consumption of continuous RF
transmission in these battery-powered systems limits the duration of experiment to a few hours [3]–[4].

Qi Xu (xuqi@hust.edu.cn), Zhaolong Gao (zhaolong.gao@gmail.com), and Jiping He (jiping.he@asu.edu) are with the Key Laboratory of Image
Processing and Intelligent Control of Education Ministry, Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and
Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Jiping He is also with the Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University, Tempe 85284, USA.
Hao Wang (wangh86@gmail.com) and Zhi-Hong Mao (zhm4@pitt.edu) are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Mingui Sun (drsun@pitt.edu) is with the Departments of Neurological Surgery,
Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2012.2234640
Date of publication: 6 March 2013

March/April 2013

1527-3342/13/$31.00©2013IEEE

63

A typical witricity system consists of four coils. and finite lifetime. disease prevention. in many applications. to deliver power wirelessly across the skin. the rhesus macaque monkey is a useful animal model as it allows decoding of recorded neural data during coordinated March/April 2013 . including limited energy transmission distance. e. For example. secondary. WPT was achieved with an efficiency of about 40%. these requirements cannot be met. animal models are often utilized to evaluate effects of new therapeutic or prosthetic devices. and load coils. The primary and secondary coils (also called resonators as these coils operate on both their inductive and capacitive properties) are separated by a distance usually several times the geometric average of the coils’ diameters [8]. a novel technology called “witricity” (wireless electricity) was developed. providing a new approach to efficient mid-range WPT for implantable devices via strongly coupled magnetic resonance [8]–[10]. In traditional inductively coupled WPT systems. This system uses inductive coupling between the driver and primary coils as well as between the secondary and load coils. The power-transfer mechanism of the witricity has an attractive property in that two objects with the same intrinsic resonant frequencies tend to exchange energy efficiently. Wireless power transfer (WPT) has distinct advantages over these traditional approaches in enabling implants to operate for an essentially indefinite period of time without the risks of battery replacement surgery or infection from percutaneous wires and allowing the implants to be drastically miniaturized because of the elimination of batteries [5]–[6]. 64 cient power-transfer mechanism is highly desirable in order to provide the required power in a reliable manner with a sufficient capacity while satisfying the size and weight constraints. The WPT system based on witricity can deliver a relatively large amount of power with high efficiency at a mid-range distance. the current inductive method has many drawbacks. Recently. requirement of internal and external coil alignment. mass.Implantable devices have a wide range of applications. However. secondary. it is usually required that the primary and secondary coils are reasonably aligned and their separation distances are maintained [12]–[13]. Therefore. a primary coil and a secondary coil. many promising implantable devices will continue to exist only in research laboratories. Such transcutaneous wires are susceptible to infection and reliability problems. The electromagnetic field produced by the primary coil penetrates the skin and induces a voltage across the terminals of an implanted secondary coil. approximately one million times higher than that achieved by the traditional inductive coupling method [8]. such as health monitoring. in medical research. The coupled-mode theory (CMT) has been utilized to analyze the interaction between resonators in the witricity system. primary. This valuable property reduces interference with the communication channel. At this distance. Particularly in the field of neuroengineering. In addition. driver. Typical witricity system configuration consisting of four coils (driver. researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) illuminated a 60 W light bulb wirelessly from a power source more than seven feet away [8]. For long-term implantation. while two nonresonant objects exchange little energy. For example. a more effi- Driver Coil Primary Coil Secondary Load Coil Coil Magnetic Resonance Figure 1.. potentially toxic composition. and load coils). delivery of a therapeutic regimen. It has become clear that. Thus. primary. This type of WPT system requires two coils. WPT using the witricity approach has an advantage over the traditional inductive coupling in that its bandwidth is fixed and extremely narrow due to the resonant nature of the system. Even rechargeable batteries may have to be replaced too often to be practical. The traditional approaches to this problem have been based on the use of implantable batteries or lead wires through the skin. The inductively coupled WPT has been well studied and utilized to deliver power to implantable devices ranging typically from several microwatts to a few tens of milliwatts [7]. For high-power applications. This property is valuable in medical implant applications since biological tissues are generally nonresonant at the operating frequency of the witricity. providing power to medical implants has been one of the most challenging problems in the system design involving implantable devices. without an effective solution to the wireless transcutaneous power problem. and low-energy transfer efficiency [7]–[8]. as shown in Figure 1. which powers the implant.g. namely. such as artificial hearts. neural prostheses and therapies. Detailed theoretical and numerical analyses have shown that efficient mid-range wireless energy exchange is feasible between two resonators with the same resonant frequency under the condition of strong coupling [11]–[12]. batteries present a problem due to their size. and biomimetic prosthesis.

such as an artificial limb. Moreover. including rats [18]–[19]. An implantable. Although these systems have replaced wires by fixed primary and secondary coils. a resonancebased power mat delivers transcutaneous power to implanted devices when the subject (which is exemplified here as a rat) moves freely on top of the mat. Boston Scientific Precision Plus. facilitating motor function improvement [15]. Other systems have been built with a transcutaneous wireless inductive power source [16]–[17]. A resonance-based mat powering implanted devices within experimental rats moving freely on the mat. These data are then decoded to control a computer or a prosthetic device. wireless devices are often implanted within the brain of primates to record a large amount of neural data. mostly rats. In order to solve these problems. battery-powered stimulator with bidirectional wireless communication has been reported for investigating neural mechanisms of spinal-cord stimulation. This study belongs to a rapidly growing field of research on brain-computer interface (BCI) with a potential to provide an effective treatment for amputees or patients suffering from neurological injury and disease. and the system still requires certain restraints of the animal. In the study of cortical neural prostheses. A significant power supply problem also exists in implantable systems for use with humans. transcutaneous wires were utilized for power and signal links. However. Such a backpack prevents the animal from moving freely. We investigate this new WPT system design using finite-element (FE) simulation to visualize the field distribution of Implanted Device Camera Data D Receiver Rec Power Mat Figure 2. rechargeable stimulators using inductively coupled WPT techniques have been developed.limb movements similar to those of humans. which is more suitable for humans in a living quarter. Besides the use of a primate model. the chargers are often inconvenient for patients since losing power by the implant is often risky [20]. this method results in tremendous ethical concerns since a monkey must be constrained within a primate chair for an extended experimental period (months or years) suffering from tremendous physical and emotional stresses [5]. such as the Medtronic RestoreULTRA 37712. a fully implantable stimulation system has been developed for small laboratory rodents. the transmitting coil must cover a large area of operation and ensure a uniform power delivery to devices regardless of their positions [21]. Note that the same mat can be put within the ceiling (or within both the floor and the ceiling). Traditionally. The mat (or mats) creates a nearly uniformly distributed magnetic field so that the implant within the body can receive wireless power effectively regardless of the location of the subject on the mat. This setup excludes some important behavioral tests and training that require a large open space. a vast majority of the research on neural mechanisms of therapies is currently conducted using the rodent model. Unfortunately. Lately. Jude Medical Eon Mini Implantable Pulse Generator (IPG). The batteries of these implantable devices can be recharged by external wireless chargers. 65 . elevated plus-maze tests and treadmill training. a hexagonally packed transmitter (HPT) mat is designed and utilized in a free-access witricity system for implantable devices. multiple transmitting coils in parallel have been used to reduce the loading effects of multiple receivers [23]. If multiple devices are to be powered or charged simultaneously by a single system. Therefore.g. and St.. while two nonresonant objects exchange little energy. e. and allowing full freedom of motion within a space of sufficient size represents a significant advance in the field of medical implants. nology transmitting both signal and energy. As shown in Figure 2. the limited battery capacity for use in small animals does not support free-behaving experiments for extended periods of time. an important disadvantage of this system is that the animal must be placed in a special chamber of limited freespace surrounded by coils. [14]. a new tech- March/April 2013 The power-transfer mechanism of the witricity has an attractive property in that two objects with the same intrinsic resonant frequencies tend to exchange energy efficiently. In this article. Although important in conducting BCI research. requiring no attachments to the body of humans or animals. A planar contactless battery charging platform using inductive coupling with transmitting coil arrays has been demonstrated to generate a magnetic field of uniform amplitude over the charging surface [22]. However. problems exist because attaching a “backpack” containing an external battery and an electronic unit to the animal is required. Several fully implantable neural stimulators have been developed for freely moving rats.

C i) a i (t) + or in matrix form [as in (2) shown below]. each hexagonal cell consists of seven planar spiral coils (PSCs) constructed using either wires or flexible printed circuits. N +1 ao N +1 (t) = ( j~ 0 . Transmitter 0. but also nonmedical systems where mobile devices and appliances can be powered or recharged automatically anywhere within a certain space without electric cables. Since the resonant match of the coils is critical in system performance. C i s are the intrinsic loss rates of resonators due to absorption and radiation. the energy contained in each resonator can be represented as a i 2 . and a load coil. an HPT mat. N  N i =1 Figure 4. where a i (t). f. the goal of obtaining a uniform power output becomes finding a uniform a N +1 within the WPT space. N ( j~ 0 .5 cm Mat 2. fi s are the inputs to the transmitter resonators. Note that a i s are also known as positive frequency components in terms of CMT. Theoretical Analysis of Mat-Based Witricity System The power-mat-based WPT system includes a drivercoil array. the first eigenmodes of the transmitter and receiver resonators corresponding to the natural frequency ~ 0 . In CMT. 1 a jl N +1. f. Each cell consists of seven PSCs. i a i (t) (1) (b) R ao (t) V R( j~ .. we study the variation of resonant frequency resulting from the moving implant by simulation and experimental measurements. the first eigenmode is used to analyze a resonant system. and j is the imaginary unit. The differential equations describing the system are given by x z Driver-Coil Array y (a) 42 cm the transmitter coil array. (2*) VR a (t) V R f (t) V g jl 1N jl 1.e. The resonant energy exchange system with a single transmitter and a single receiver has been analyzed using the CMT [24]. Using the CMT concept. all fi s are the same. i = 1. and the power output of the system is 2C L a N +1 2 .. l im s are pairwise coupling coefficients between resonators. m = 1. f1 = f2 = g = fN = f. (b) Dimensions of PSC.C N +1 . The approximation by the first eigenmode is quite accurate under the condition that the system operates in strong coupling [24]. This structure allows nearly even power delivery to freely moving object(s) on either (top or bottom) side of the power mat. j 2 =-1 . respectively. Decomposing the HPT mat further. N +1 WS a N (t) W S fN (t)W g jl N +1. e. i. a receiver coil.y x Figure 3. Each cell is a 66 / jl im a m (t) + fi (t). 2 T N +1 X T ao i (t) = ( j~ 0 . and a N +1 (t) are.C N +1 . m ! i i = 1. We introduce the following matrix/vector notation to express (2) in a more compact form: vao = Ava +vf. and C L represents the rate of energy going into the load. 3-D model of the transmitter mat in FE simulation. Among these components.C 2) S ao 1 (t) W S jl 21 S h W =S h h S W S jl N2 S ao N (t) W S jl N1 So (t)W S jl N +1.2 cm witricity transmitter that emits power either individually or synchronously with other cells.g. Although a i (generally complex valued) does not represent a voltage or current directly.C ) jl 12 1 S 1 W S 0 ( j~ 0 . We expect our WPT system design to spur new interests in not only medical implants. Let the system consist of N transmitters (indexed from 1 to N) and a single receiver (indexed by N + 1 ).C N) jl N.C L) a N +1 (t) + / jl N +1. In this article. N +1 WS 1 W S 1 W g jl 2N jl 2. we extend the same concept and write CMT into a vector form to allow the study of multiple transmitters. In our case.C L)WSa N +1 (t)W S 0 W XT X T X March/April 2013 . the HPT mat has a novel design containing a single or an array of hexagonal cells (dashed hexagons in Figure 3). Power mat structure with multiple HPT cells. The geometry and the number of turns of the PSCs can be designed flexibly. N . N +1 WS a 2 (t) W S f2 (t) W WS h W + S h W j h h WS W S W (2) g ( j~ 0 . (a) A single HPT cell consisting of seven PSCs was driven by the driver-coil array.

3652e-001 1. N +1 VW g jl 1N jl 2.6846e-005 0 500 1e+003 (mm) (a) H_Field_Zcompab 1.4627e-001 1.7773e-002 7. N -C N +1 . 2 jl 1.4374e-001 6.7166e-001 1.8774e-002 3.7523e-002 8.5770e-001 4.g. Substituting this form to (2*). 1 N +1.9024e-002 2.1491e-001 4.1536e-001 8.8653e-001 6.2932e-001 5.7212e-001 5. f. N +1 W g -C N g jl N +1. Distribution of the z-component of the magnetic field in a plane (a) 16 cm and (b) 42 cm above the HPT mat at the resonant frequency of 29.0095e-001 7.2677e-001 1. e.7245e-002 3. the positive frequency component has the form of va (t) = vae j~ t in the steady state.8 MHz.5266e-005 500 0 1e+103 (mm) (b) Figure 5.8024e-002 6.8274e-002 5.1445e-001 5. If the WPT is driven by a sinusoidal input. vf (t) = Fe j~ t [1. 1.. N +1 W g jl 2N W.(3) R -C 1 jl 12 S -C 2 S jl 21 B =S h h S jl N2 S jl N1 S jl jl T N +1.7750e-003 2.0049e-001 3.5815e-001 8. 0] T .C LW X 67 .9275e-002 1.5602e-001 1.H_Field_Zcompab 9.8608e-001 2.4328e-001 2.2887e-001 1.0727e-001 9. h h j W jl N.1702e-001 1. we can solve for va (t) where 0 0 March/April 2013 vao (t) =-B -1 +vf (t) .9525e-002 9.8524e-002 4.

we have studied the dynamics of the system involving an array of resonators using the CMT approach [26]. Although the receiver resonant coil can have an arbitrary size and shape. Energy was injected into the driver coil array to maintain resonance in the presence of losses and energy drawn from the magnetic field by the receiver coil. the coefficient of variation (COV). the goal of the HPT mat design was to obtain a nearly uniform magnetic field within an extended region to support WPT to moving targets.The geometry and the number of turns of the PSCs can be designed flexibly. as limited by the computational complexity. we can compute a i (t) analytically by (3). which formed an equilateral triangle. Figure 6 shows the COVs of the magnetic field in the z-direction above the HPT mat at distances from 10 cm to 70 cm. It can be observed that the COV achieved a value less than 8% when the distance was larger than the size of the transmitter coil. for simplicity we utilized a receiver coil that was identical to the transmitter PSCs in our simulation.5 cm in conductive trace width. a more uniform magnetic field distribution was observed [Figure 5(b)]. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of the magnetic field generated by the HPT mat at the resonant frequency in order to evaluate the WPT performance.6 MHz. To study the motion effect of the receiving resonator and answer the critical question whether the receiver resonator can harvest sufficient amount of power at different locations over the HPT mat. the magnitude of the magnetic field was the highest (peak) at the center of each coil. When the distance to the HPT mat was increased to 42 cm. N) change. This simulation does not cause a loss of generality because the results of multiple HPTs 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Distance (cm) Figure 6. In order to evaluate the evenness of distribution quantitatively. It can be observed that the receiver PSC distorted the magnetic field slightly in both cases. and fi .. Variation in COV of vertical field distribution as a function of distance above the HPT mat at the resonant frequency of 29. a smaller value of the COV indicates a more uniform distribution. at z = 16 cm [Figure 5(a)]. which was defined as the standard deviation of the field values divided by the mean. For example. and the lowest (valley) at the junction of three coils. It can be seen that. Given C i . Figure 5 shows the z-component distribution of the magnetic field 16 cm and 42 cm. f. and the variations of both these coefficients and the system behavior are difficult to be determined analytically. 68 can be obtained simply by superposition of single cell results. We excited the seven PSCs simultaneously using a common RF power source. As stated previously. rather than optimizing power transfer efficiency. respectively. Moreover.e. we describe a simulation study on the HPT mat using commercial FE software HFSS (Ansys Corp. Although the previous studies have shown that CMT well characterizes the temporal behavior of the system. The CMT approach provides a powerful analytical tool for the witricity based WPT system. The input power was set at 1 W. l im . we constructed a FE model and performed numerical simulations. it has clear limitations when the system parameter changes. the X–Y plane). As in the previous case.. was utilized. This loading effect is expected because of the interactions between the transmitter and receiver resonators [26]. i (i = 1. Color indicates the magnitude of the magnetic field in the z-direction. we simulated only the single HPT cell case consisting of seven seven-turn PSCs. For example. where each PSC was 42 cm in outer diameter. all seven transmitter PSCs were excited simultaneously. 0. when the receiving resonator moves over the HPT mat. The receiver coil was placed at different locations within a planer region 42 cm above the HPT mat. above the HPT mat (i. and 2. The witricity-based WPT system achieves the best performance if the intrinsic frequencies of the transmitters and receivers are identical and the natural March/April 2013 . it has been utilized to maximize the efficiency of power transfer and investigate the relay effect by inserting one or more resonators between the transmitter and receiver [25]. Pittsburgh. Finite Element Simulation of Mat-Based Witricity System COV (%) In this section. respectively. Figure 4 shows the three-dimensional (3-D) model of the HPT mat utilized in the simulation. PA). the coupling coefficients l N +1. Thus. Figure 7 shows the field distribution at z = 42 cm at two positions off [Figure 7(a)] and at the center of the HPT mat [Figure 7(b)].2 cm in trace spacing.8 MHz. The input power and resonant frequencies of the mat were set at 1 W and 29. For a clear illustration of the design principle of the mat-based witricity system.

6983e-001 6.5319e-001 4.6 MHz.4761e-001 -6. To study this potential problem.7364e+000 1.3000e-001 -6.1459e+000 -1.2741e-001 -2.1697e+000 1. When the operating and natural frequencies deviate from each other due to certain disturbances. (a) The receiver coil is off the center of the mat. we conducted FE simulation to observe the change of the natural H_Field_Zcompab 2.9530e+000 1.1127e+000 1.6472e+000 1.5197e+000 1.1817e+000 9.4894e-001 7. March/April 2013 69 .7908e-002 -2.5067e-001 1.3655e-001 2.8800e+000 1.3455e+000 2.0799e+000 (b) Figure 7.1991e-002 3.1485e-001 -4.3786e+000 (a) H_Field_Zcompab 2.3863e+000 2.6328e+000 -1.8342e-001 2.3031e+000 1.0865e+000 8.1336e-001 -4.Due to its attractive physical properties.8037e-001 -9.4664e-001 -8.1312e-001 -1.1618e-001 4. (b) The receiver coil is at the center of the mat. Magnetic field distributions on the plane of the receiver coil (42 cm above the HPT mat) at the resonant frequency of 29. a significant reduction in power transfer performance may occur. the witricity enables higher efficiency and longer operating distance for WPT than the traditional inductive coupling methods frequency of the coupled system equals the operating frequency of the excitation signal [24].4145e+000 1.

Changes in the mean resonant frequencies measured in parallel to the X–Y plane as a function of height above the transmitter mat. represented by its centers projected to the HPT cell. only 0. computed using the HFSS software.4 26.7 26. frequency of the coupled system while the receiver coil was moved in the X–Y plane 42 cm above the HPT mat. The resonant frequencies and Q factor of all PSCs were measured to be 29.003% of the mean 29.3 26.0 26.0 0 5 10 15 Distance (cm) 20 25 Figure 11.5 2 1.001  MHz. (b) Computed natural frequencies at the 21 locations in (a). are shown in Figure 8(a). a prototype of a single-cell.5 35 Figure 10. Experimental setup of the mat-based witricity system.072 MHz and approximately 100. In this witricity system. Our results [Figure 8(b)] showed that natural frequencies of the system with the receiver coil at these locations differed only slightly. (a) Each dot denotes a projected location of the receiver coil above the mat.2 cm in outer diameter.5 5 Y (a) 2 3 1 3 5 1 (cm -1-3 -1 ) -3 ) -5 cm X( -7 -7 -5 7 1. The locations of the receiver coil. the natural frequency of the coupled system was 70 To validate the simulation results. indicating a stable performance in energy transfer despite the motion of the receiver. a novel design of the receiver resonator was March/April 2013 .y Voltage (V) x 4 3.5 3 2.2 26.5 3 2.6 mm in trace spacing. Each PSC was made of a printed circuit board (PCB) in a shape of equilateral hexagon of 13.9 mm in conductive trace width. The natural frequency of the system is computed to study frequency detuning as the receiver moves on the X–Y plane 42 cm above the HPT mat.5 26.5 0 7 3. 30 0 20 5 15 0 10 5 0 20 30 (c m ) -10 -20 30 -30 10 Y 0 -30 -20 -10 0 X( 10 cm 20 ) (b) Figure 8. mat-based witricity system was physically constructed as shown in Figure 9.9 26.453 ! 0.1 26. The single HPT cell in this system consisted of seven circular PSCs. Experiment and Results Figure 9. respectively. Transmitter Mat Load Coil Receiver Coil Mean Resonant Frequency (MHz) f0 (MHz) 5 25 27. and 1.8 26. Measured induced peak-to-peak voltage V in the load coil moving in the proximity of the center PSC.5 1 0. 2. At each of the 21 locations.6 26. The standard deviation was 0.581  MHz.

and the coupling between the HPT mat and the moving receiver resonator is almost constant.used where the resonator was in the form of a shallow cylindrical container with the top. the induced RF voltage in the load coil was measured while the center of the secondary coil was moved in the proximity of the central PSC [Figure 8(a)]. It has been shown that. the induced voltages can be utilized to operate the implanted circuit. resonators of large size and relay resonators have been utilized. Each transmitter coil was powered by an individual driver coil but all seven driver coils were connected in parallel to the amplifier in a novel structure described in [27]. especially at larger distances.5%.075  MHz and 61. will be placed below the bottom cover of a fenced cylindrical plastic container in a similar form as the one depicted in Figure 2. Its resonant frequency and Q factor were measured to be 29. The system was driven by an RF power amplifier. This type of design has a clear drawback in that it is suitable only in applications where the target device is stationary. To investigate the frequency detuning effect due to the motion of rats. bottom. It was found that the natural frequency decreased only about 1% as the load coil moves from the edges to the center 5 cm over the center coil area of the mat. varying from 3. To relax this condition to a certain degree and extend the distance of power transfer. a mat-based witricity system for implantable devices was described and analyzed using CMT. At this distance. The experimental rat will be allowed to move freely within the container.6 MHz. The results of our rat experiments using the new WPT system will be published elsewhere. excited by an RF power amplifier. resonant frequencies were recorded as the receiver resonator was placed parallel to the X–Y plane at different heights from the mat. We found that the primary challenge to achieve high performance is to distribute the electromagnetic field evenly over the HPT mat. Considering the body size of rats. the natural frequency of the system was not sensitive to misalignment between the transmitter and receiver resonators. In practice. the peakpeak values of the RF voltage induced in the load coil were measured at the resonant frequency of 26. These properties allow the receiver resonator to be made sufficiently small to fit the limited space for implantation within the body of humans or animals. Therefore. Although there was a significant range of variation. allowing stable WPT to a moving target. computer simulation. they are almost all based on fixed transmitterreceiver configurations. We believe that this concept 71 . The performances of these resonators are still limited to particular hot spots in a room. To determine the position dependence of the flux linkage. The experimental system in Figure 9 is intentionally designed for future BCI and neurostimulation study using rats and other animal models. and experimental validation.24 V in the extreme edge. the receiver resonator (described previously) will be implanted. In this way. battery-powered stimulator with bidirectional wireless communication has been reported for investigating neural mechanisms of spinal-cord stimulation. the distribution of the z-component of the magnetic field must be as uniform as possible to provide consistency in the mutual inductance and coupling rate between the HPT mat and the receiver coil. Although this measurement was performed in the air rather than implantation within a rat.84 V at the center to 1. Within the abdominal cavity or the back under the skin. The decreased standard deviation at an increased distance implies a reduced frequency detuning effect. In this paper. Figure 10 shows the induced peak-to-peak voltages in the load coil. The natural frequency of the system was measured by tuning the RF source frequency until the maximum peak-peak voltage was observed at the load coil. the weight and size of the implantable system can be minimized [27]. The HPT mat. the distance between the implanted receiver resonator and the HPT mat is approximately 5 cm. facilitating motor function improvement. Figure 11 shows the March/April 2013 An implantable. respectively. This paper presents a different approach by creating a nearly uniform magnetic field in an open space. Although a variety of WPT systems have been proposed. Discussion Due to its attractive physical properties. while the electronic circuit will be placed within the resonator. Nevertheless. at a certain distance between the transmitter and receiver. we expect a similar result because biological body does not severely affect magnetic fields. the variation of the natural frequency was no more than 1. the function of any PSC surrounded by six PSCs in a regular mat (Figure 3) can be approximated by that of the central PSC in a single HPT cell. the vertical component of the magnetic field is relatively uniform over the area defined by the HPT mat. in a pattern similar to that of the previous simulation. Specifically. and side surfaces formed by two planar coils and one cylindrical coil [27]. mean and standard deviation of measured natural frequencies for a moving receiver resonator parallel to the X–Y plane at different distances from the HPT mat. Both our computer simulation and experimental results indicated that our design met this challenge. the witricity enables higher efficiency and longer operating distance for WPT than the traditional inductive coupling methods.39 g. The receiver resonator had a size of U25 mm # 7 mm and a weight of 3.

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