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FM _ Frequency Modulation : Bin iu tn s.


AC _ Alterating Current : Dng in xoay chiu.
DC _ Direct Current : Dng in mt chiu.
FCO _ Fuse Cut Out : Cu ch t ri
LBFOC _ Load Breaker Fuse Cut Out : Cu ch t ri c ct ti
CB _ Circuit Breaker : My ct.
ACB _ Air Circuit Breaker : My ct bng khng kh
MCCB _ Moduled Case Circuit Breaker : My ct khi c dng ct > 100A
MCB _ Miniature Circuit Breaker : B ngt mch loi nh
VCB _ Vacuum Circuit Breaker : My ct chn khng.
RCD _ Residual Current Device : Thit b chng dng in d.

DF : Distortion Factor : h s mo dng


THD : Total Harmonic Distortion : mo dng tng do sng hi
BJT: Bipolar Junction Transistor
MOSFET: metal-oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect transistor
FET : field efect transistor l transistor hiu ng trng
reference input : tn hiu vo , tn hiu chun
controlled output : tn hiu ra
SISO : single input single output : h thng 1 ng vo 1 ng ra
MIMO : multi input multi output : h thng nhu ng vo , nhu ng ra

Air distribution system .................................: H thng iu phi kh


Ammeter .................................................. .: Ampe k
Busbar .................................................. ....: Thanh dn
Cast-Resin dry transformer ............................: My bin p kh
Circuit Breaker ............................................: Aptomat hoc my ct

Compact fluorescent lamp..............................: n hunh quang


Contactor .................................................. : Cng tc t
Current carrying capacity ...............................: Kh nng mang ti
Dielectric insulation ......................................: in mi cch in
Distribution Board .........................................: T/bng phn phi in
Downstream circuit breaker .............................: B ngt in cui ngun
Earth conductor ...........................................: Dy ni t
Earthing system ...........................................: H thng ni t
Equipotential bonding ....................................: Lin kt ng th
Fire retardant ..............................................: Cht cn chy
Galvanised component ...................................: Cu kin m km
Impedance Earth ..........................................: in tr khng t
Instantaneous current ...................................: Dng in tc thi
Light emitting diode ......................................: it pht sng
Neutral bar .................................................. : Thanh trung ho
Oil-immersed transformer .................................: My bin p du
Outer Sheath ...............................................: V bc dy in
Relay .................................................. ........: R le
Sensor / Detector ...............................: Thit b cm bin, thit b d tm
Switching Panel ............................................: Bng ng ngt mch
Tubular fluorescent lamp .................................: n ng hunh quang
Upstream circuit breaker ..................................: B ngt in u ngun
Voltage drop .................................................: St p
accesssories .................................................: ph kin
alarm bell .................................................. ....: chung bo t ng
burglar alarm .................................................. : chung bo trm

cable .................................................. ..........: cp in


conduit .................................................. .......: ng bc
current .................................................. .......: dng in
Direct current .................................................: in 1 chiu
electric door opener .........................................: thit b m ca
electrical appliances .........................................: thit b in gia dng
electrical insulating material ...............................: vt liu cch in
fixture .................................................. .........: b n
high voltage .................................................. .: cao th
illuminance .................................................. ...: s chiu sng
jack .................................................. ............: u cm
lamp .................................................. ............: n
leakage current ...............................................: dng r
live wire .................................................. .......: dy nng
low voltage .................................................. ...: h th
neutral wire .................................................. ..: dy ngui
photoelectric cell .............................................: t bo quang in
relay ............................................. .................: r-le
smoke bell .................................................. ....: chung bo khi
smoke detector ...............................................: u d khi
wire .................................................. ............: dy in
Capacitor .................................................. .....: T in
Compensate capacitor ......................................: T b
Cooling fan .................................................. ...: Qut lm mt
Copper equipotential bonding bar ...................: Tm ni ng th bng ng
Current transformer ..........................................: My bin dng

Disruptive discharge .......................................: S phng in nh thng


Disruptive discharge switch ..............................: B kch mi
Earthing leads ................................................: Dy tip a
Incoming Circuit Breaker ...................................: Aptomat tng
Lifting lug .................................................. ....: Vu cu
Magnetic contact ...........................................: cng tc in t
Magnetic Brake ...............................................: b hm t
Overhead Concealed Loser ...............................: Tay nm thu lc
Phase reversal ................................................: lch pha
Potential pulse ................................................: in p xung
Rated current ........................................... .......: Dng nh mc
Selector switch ..............................................: Cng tc chuyn mch
Starting current ..............................................: Dng khi ng
Vector group .................................................. : T u dy

Punching: l thp c dp nh hnh.


3p circuit breaker: my ct 3 cc. 3p = 3 poles.
R le Mho: R le tng dn. Ngc li vi r le tng tr, thng dng bo v mt kch thch cho my pht.
Mho l vit ngc ca... Ohm (in dn)
Winding: dy qun (trong my in).
Wiring: cng vic i dy.
Bushing: s xuyn.
Differential amplifyer: mch khuch i vi sai.
Differential relay: r le so lch.
Different gear box: trong xe t, n l cu vi sai.
Autotransformer: hng phi bin p t ng, m l bin p t ngu.
Variac: t ngn gn ca variable autotransformer: bin p t ngu iu chnh c bng cch xoay.
PT: Potention transformer: my bin p o lng. Cng dng VT: voltage transformer.
Cell: Trong c quy th n l 1 hc (2.2 V) Trong quang in th n l t bo quang in. Cn cell phone l in thoi di ng
Fault: s c, thng dng ch s c ngn mch.
Earth fault: s c chm t.
Reactor: trong h thng in th n l cun cm. Trong l phn ng ht nhn th n l b phn khng ch tc phn ng.
Trip: my b ngng hot ng do s c.
Field: trong l thuyt th n l trng. (nh in trng, t trng...). Trong my in n l cun dy kch thch. Trong trit hc
n l lnh vc. thng thng, n l.. cnh ng.
Loss of field: mt kch t.
Coupling: trong in t n l phng php ni tng. Nhng trong c in, n li l khp ni, dng kt ni gia ng c v ti

(bm chng hn).


Orifice: l tit lu.
Oring: vng cao su c thit din trn, thng dng lm kn.
Check valve: van mt chiu

Air distribution system : H thng iu phi kh


Ammeter : Ampe k
Busbar : Thanh dn
Cast-Resin dry transformer: My bin p kh
Circuit Breaker : Aptomat hoc my ct
Compact fluorescent lamp: n hunh quang
Contactor : Cng tc t
Current carrying capacity: Kh nng mang ti
Dielectric insulation : in mi cch in
Distribution Board : T/bng phn phi in
Downstream circuit breaker: B ngt in cui ngun
Earth conductor : Dy ni t
Earthing system : H thng ni t
Equipotential bonding : Lin kt ng th
Fire retardant : Cht cn chy
Galvanised component :Cu kin m km
Impedance Earth : in tr khng t
Instantaneous current : Dng in tc thi
Light emitting diode : it pht sng
Neutral bar : Thanh trung ho
Oil-immersed transformer: My bin p du
Outer Sheath : V bc dy in
Relay : R le

Sensor / Detector : Thit b cm bin, thit b d tm


Switching Panel : Bng ng ngt mch
Tubular fluorescent lamp: n ng hunh quang
Upstream circuit breaker: B ngt in u ngun
Voltage drop : St p
accesssories : ph kin
alarm bell : chung bo t ng
burglar alarm : chung bo trm
cable : cp in
conduit : ng bc
current : dng in
Direct current :in 1 chiu
electric door opener : thit b m ca
electrical appliances : thit b in gia dng
electrical insulating material : vt liu cch in
fixture : b n
high voltage : cao th
illuminance : s chiu sng
jack :u cm
lamp :n
leakage current : dng r
live wire : dy nng
low voltage : h th
neutral wire : dy ngui
photoelectric cell : t bo quang in
relay : r-le

smoke bell : chung bo khi


smoke detector : u d khi
wire : dy in

Capacitor : T in
Compensate capacitor : T b
Cooling fan : Qut lm mt
Copper equipotential bonding bar : Tm ni ng th bng ng
Current transformer : My bin dng
Disruptive discharge : S phng in nh thng
Disruptive discharge switch : B kch mi
Earthing leads : Dy tip a
Incoming Circuit Breaker : Aptomat tng
Lifting lug : Vu cu
Magnetic contact : cng tc in t
Magnetic Brake : b hm t
Overhead Concealed Loser : Tay nm thu lc
Phase reversal : lch pha
Potential pulse : in p xung
Rated current : Dng nh mc
Selector switch : Cng tc chuyn mch
Starting current : Dng khi ng
Vector group : T u dy
Trm bin p
Power station: trm in.
Bushing: s xuyn.
Disconnecting switch: Dao cch ly.
Circuit breaker: my ct.
Power transformer: Bin p lc.
Voltage transformer (VT) Potention transformer (PT): my bin p o lng.

Current transformer: my bin dng o lng.


bushing type CT: Bin dng chn s.
Winding type CT: Bin dng kiu dy qun.
Auxiliary contact, auxiliary switch: tip im ph.
Limit switch: tip im gii hn.
Thermometer: ng h nhit .
Thermostat, thermal switch: cng tc nhit.
pressure gause: ng h p sut.
Pressure switch: cng tc p sut.
Sudden pressure relay: r le t bin p sut.
Radiator, cooler: b gii nhit ca my bin p.
Auxiliary oil tank: bn du ph, thng gin du.
Position switch: tip im v tr.
Control board: bng iu khin.
Rotary switch: b tip im xoay.
control switch: cn iu khin.
selector switch: cn la chn.
Synchro switch: cn cho php ha ng b.
Synchro scope: ng b k, ng h o gc pha khi ha in.
Alarm: cnh bo, bo ng.
Announciation: bo ng bng m thanh (chung hoc ci).
Protective relay: r le bo v.
Differential relay: r le so lch.
Transformer Differential relay: r le so lch my bin p.
Line Differential relay: r le so lch ng dy.
Busbar Differential relay: r le so lch thanh ci.
Distance relay: r le khong cch.
Over current relay: R le qu dng.
Time over current relay: R le qu dngc thi gian.
Time delay relay: r le thi gian.
Directional time overcurrent relay: R le qu dng nh hng c thi gian.
Negative sequence time overcurrent relay: R le qa dng th t nghch c thi gian.
Under voltage relay: r le thp p.
Over voltage relay: r le qu p.
Earth fault relay: r le chm t.
Synchronizising relay: r le ha ng b.
Synchro check relay: r le chng ha sai.
Indicator lamp, indicating lamp: n bo hiu, n ch th.
Voltmetter, ampmetter, wattmetter, PF metter... cc dng c o lng V, A, W, cos phi...
Phase shifting transformer: Bin th di pha.

Nh my in:
Power plant: nh my in.
Generator: my pht in.
Field: cun dy kch thch.
Winding: dy qun.
Connector: dy ni.
Lead: dy o ca ng h.
Wire: dy dn in.
Exciter: my kch thch.

Exciter field: kch thch ca... my kch thch.


Field amp: dng in kch thch.
Field volt: in p kch thch.
Active power: cng sut hu cng, cng sut tc dng, cng sut o.
Reactive power: Cng sut phn khng, cng sut v cng, cng sut o.
Governor: b iu tc.
AVR : Automatic Voltage Regulator: b iu p t ng.
Armature: phn cm.
Hydrolic: thy lc.
Lub oil: = lubricating oil: du bi trn.
AOP: Auxiliary oil pump: Bm du ph.
Boiler Feed pump: bm nc cp cho l hi.
Condensat pump: Bm nc ngng.
Circulating water pump: Bm nc tun hon.
Bearing: gi trc, b trc, ...
Ball bearing: vng bi, bc n.
Bearing seal oil pump: Bm du lm kn gi trc.
Brush: chi than.
Tachometer: tc k
Tachogenerator: my pht tc.
Vibration detector, Vibration sensor: cm bin rung.
Coupling: khp ni
Fire detector: cm bin la (dng cho bo chy).
Flame detector: cm bin la, dng pht hin la bung t.
Ignition transformer: bin p nh la.
Spark plug: nn la, Bu gi.
Burner: vi t.
Solenoid valve: Van in t.
Check valve: van mt chiu.
Control valve: van iu khin c.
Motor operated control valve: Van iu chnh bng ng c in.
Hydrolic control valve: vn iu khin bng thy lc.
Phneumatic control valve: van iu khin bng kh p.

1 Introduction Nhp mn, gii thiu


2 Philosophy Trit l
3 Linear Tuyn tnh
4 Ideal L tng
5 Voltage source Ngun p
6 Current source Ngun dng
7 Voltage divider B/mch phn p
8 Current divider B/mch phn dng
9 Superposition (Nguyn tc) xp chng
10 Ohm's law nh lut m
11 Concept Khi nim
12 Signal source Ngun tn hiu
13 Amplifier B/mch khuch i
14 Load Ti
15 Ground terminal Cc (ni) t
16 Input Ng vo
17 Output Ng ra

18 Open-circuit H mch
19 Gain H s khuch i (HSK), li
20 Voltage gain H s khuch i ( li) in p
21 Current gain H s khuch i ( li) dng in
22 Power gain H s khuch i ( li) cng sut
23 Power supply Ngun (nng lng)
24 Power conservation Bo ton cng sut
25 Efficiency Hiu sut
26 Cascade Ni tng
27 Notation Cch k hiu
28 Specific C th
29 Magnitude ln
30 Phase Pha
31 Model M hnh
32 Transconductance in dn truyn
33 Transresistance in tr truyn
34 Resistance in tr
35 Uniqueness Tnh c nht
36 Response p ng
37 Differential Vi sai (so lch)
38 Differential-mode Ch vi sai (so lch)
39 Common-mode Ch cch chung
40 Rejection Ratio T s kh
41 Operational amplifier B khuch i thut ton
42 Operation S hot ng
43 Negative m
44 Feedback Hi tip
45 Slew rate Tc thay i
46 Inverting o (du)
47 Noninverting Khng o (du)
48 Voltage follower B/mch theo in p
49 Summer B/mch cng
50 Diffential amplifier B/mch khuch i vi sai
51 Integrator B/mch tch phn
52 Differentiator B/mch vi phn
53 Tolerance Dung sai
54 Simultaneous equations H phng trnh
55 Diode i-t (linh kin chnh lu 2 cc)
56 Load-line ng ti (c tuyn ti)
57 Analysis Phn tch
58 Piecewise-linear Tuyn tnh tng on
59 Application ng dng
60 Regulator B/mch n nh
61 Numerical analysis Phn tch bng phng php s
62 Loaded C mang ti
63 Half-wave Na sng
64 Rectifier B/mch chnh lu
65 Charging Np (in tch)
66 Capacitance in dung
67 Ripple nhp nh
68 Half-cycle Na chu k
69 Peak nh (ca dng sng)

70 Inverse voltage in p ngc (t ln linh kin chnh lu)


71 Bridge rectifier B/mch chnh lu cu
72 Bipolar Lng cc
73 Junction Mi ni (bn dn)
74 Transistor Tran-zi-to (linh kin tch cc 3 cc)
75 Qualitative nh tnh
76 Description (S) m t
77 Region Vng/khu vc
78 Active-region Vng khuch i
79 Quantitative nh lng
80 Emitter Cc pht
81 Common-emitter Cc pht chung
82 Characteristic c tnh
83 Cutoff Ngt (i vi BJT)
84 Saturation Bo ha
85 Secondary Th cp
86 Effect Hiu ng
87 n-Channel Knh N
88 Governing Chi phi
89 Triode Linh kin 3 cc
90 Pinch-off Tht (i vi FET)
91 Boundary Bin
92 Transfer (S) truyn (nng lng, tn hiu )
93 Comparison S so snh
94 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Bn dn -xt kim loi
95 Depletion (S) suy gim
96 Enhancement (S) tng cng
97 Consideration Xem xt
98 Gate Cng
99 Protection Bo v
100 Structure Cu trc
101 Diagram S
102 Distortion Mo dng
103 Biasing (Vic) phn cc
104 Bias stability n nh phn cc
105 Four-resistor Bn-in tr
106 Fixed C nh
107 Bias circuit Mch phn cc
108 Constant base Dng nn khng i
109 Self bias T phn cc
110 Discrete Ri rc
111 Dual-supply Ngun i
112 Grounded-emitter Cc pht ni t
113 Diode-based (Pht trin) trn nn i-t
114 Current mirror B/mch gng dng in
115 Reference Tham chiu
116 Compliance Tun th
117 Relationship Mi quan h
118 Multiple Nhiu (a)
119 Small-signal Tn hiu nh
120 Equivalent circuit Mch tng ng
121 Constructing Xy dng

122 Emitter follower Mch theo in p (cc pht)


123 Common collector Cc thu chung
124 Bode plot Gin (lc ) Bode
125 Single-pole n cc (ch c mt cc)
126 Low-pass Thng thp
127 High-pass Thng cao
128 Coupling (Vic) ghp
129 RC-coupled Ghp bng RC
130 Low-frequency Tn s thp
131 Mid-frequency Tn s trung
132 Performance Hiu nng
133 Bypass Ni tt
134 Deriving (Vic) rt ra (cng thc, mi quan h, )
135 Hybrid Lai
136 High-frequency Tn s cao
137 Nonideal Khng l tng
138 Imperfection Khng hon ho
139 Bandwidth Bng thng (di thng)
140 Nonlinear Phi tuyn
141 Voltage swing Bin in p (dao ng)
142 Current limits Cc gii hn dng in
143 Error model M hnh sai s
144 Worst-case Trng hp xu nht
145 Instrumentation amplifier B/mch khuch i dng c (trong o lng)
146 Simplified n gin ha
147 Noise Nhiu
148 Johnson noise Nhiu Johnson
149 Shot noise Nhiu Schottky
150 Flicker noise Nhiu hng, nhiu 1/f
151 Interference S nhiu lon
152 Noise performance Hiu nng nhiu
153 Term Thut ng
154 Definition nh ngha
155 Convention Quy c
156 Signal-to-noise ratio T s tn hiu-nhiu
157 Noise figure Ch s nhiu
158 Noise temperature Nhit nhiu
159 Converting Chuyn i
160 Adding Thm vo
161 Subtracting Bt ra
162 Uncorrelated Khng tng quan
163 Quantity i lng
164 Calculation (Vic) tnh ton, php tnh
165 Data D liu
166 Logic gate Cng lun l
167 Inverter B/mch o (lun l)
168 Ideal case Trng hp l tng
169 Actual case Trng hp thc t
170 Manufacturer Nh sn xut
171 Specification Ch tiu k thut
172 Noise margin Bin chng nhiu
173 Fan-out Kh nng ko ti

174 Consumption S tiu th


175 Static Tnh
176 Dynamic ng
177 Rise time Thi gian tng
178 Fall time Thi gian gim
179 Propagation delay Tr lan truyn
180 Logic family H (vi mch) lun l
181 Pull-up Ko ln
182 Drawback Nhc im
183 Large-signal Tn hiu ln
184 Half-circuit Na mch (vi sai)
185 Visualize Trc quan ha
186 Node Nt
187 Mesh Li
188 Closed loop Vng kn
189 Microphone u thu m
190 Sensor Cm bin
191 Loudspeaker Loa
192 Microwave Vi ba
193 Oven L
194 Loading effect Hiu ng t ti
195 rms value Gi tr hiu dng
196 figure of merit Ch s (khng th nguyn)
197 Visualization S trc quan ha
198 Short-circuit Ngn mch
199 Voltmeter Vn k
200 Ammeter Ampe k
201 Scale Thang o
202 Fundamental C bn
203 Product Tch
204 Derivation S rt ra
205 Level Mc
206 Simplicity S n gin
207 Conceptualize Khi nim ha
208 Phasor Vect
209 Terminology Thut ng
210 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio T s kh (tn hiu) cch chung
211 Voltage-dependent Ph thuc in p
212 Current-dependent Ph thuc dng in
213 Fraction Mt phn
214 Quadrant Gc phn t
215 Breakdown nh thng
216 Avalanche Thc l
217 Graphical analysis Phn tch bng th
218 Emission S pht x
219 Thermal (Thuc v) nhit
220 Approximation S xp x
221 Generalization S khi qut ha
222 Topology S
223 Topologically Theo s
224 w.r.t So vi
225 Threshold Ngng

226 Quiescent Tnh (im lm vic)


227 Swing Bin dao ng
228 Power dissipation Tiu tn cng sut
229 Transcendental Siu vit
230 Numerator T s
231 Denominator Mu s
232 Asymptote Tim cn
233 Leakage R (r)

Low Voltage (LV) :............. H th


Medium Voltage (MV) :............. Trung th
High Voltage (HV) :............. Cao th
Extremely High Voltage (EHV) :............. Siu cao th
in p danh nh ca h thng in.............Nominal voltage of a system)
Gi tr nh mc.............Rated value)
in p vn hnh h thng in (Operating voltage in a system)
in p cao nht (hoc thp nht) ca h thng (Highest (lowest) voltage of a system)
in p cao nht i vi thit b (Highest voltage for equipment)
Cp in p (Voltage level)
lch in p (Voltage deviation)
st in p ng dy (Line voltage drop)
Dao ng in p (Voltage fluctuation)
Qu in p (trong h thng) (Overvoltage (in a system))
Qu in p tm thi (Temporary overvoltage)
Qu in p qu (Transient overvoltage)
Dng in p (Voltage surge)
Phc hi in p (Voltage recovery)
S khng cn bng in p (Voltage unbalance)
Qu in p thao tc (Switching overvoltage)
Qu in p st (Lightning overvoltage)
Qu in p cng hng (Resonant overvoltage)
H s khng cn bng (Unbalance factor)
Cp cch in (Insulation level)
Cch in ngoi (External insulation)
Cch in trong (Internal insulation)
Cch in t phc hi (Self-restoring insulation)
Cch in khng t phc hi (Non-self-restoring insulation)
Cch in chnh (Main insulation)
Cch in ph (Auxiliary insulation)
Cch in kp (Double insulation)
Phi hp cch in (Insulation co-ordination)
Truyn ti in (Transmission of electricity)
Phn phi in (Distribution of electricity)
Lin kt h thng in (Interconnection of power systems)
im u ni (Connection point)
S h thng in (System diagram)
S vn hnh h thng in (System operational diagram)
Quy hoch h thng in (Power system planning)
n nh ca h thng in (Power system stability)
n nh ca ti (Load stability)
n nh tnh ca h thng in (Steady state stability of a power system)

n nh qu (n nh ng) ca h thng in (Transient stability of a power system)


n nh c iu kin ca h thng in (Conditional stability of a power system)
Vn hnh ng b h thng in (Synchronous operation of a system)
Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia (National load dispatch center)
H thng SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition system)
Tiu chun vn hnh (Operation regulation)
Qun l nhu cu h thng (System demand control)
D bo qun l h thng in (Management forecast of a system)
Tng cng h thng in (Reinforcement of a system)
Khong cch lm vic ti thiu (Minimum working distance)
Khong trng cch in ti thiu (Minimum insulation clearance)
Khi ng lnh t my nhit in (Cold start-up thermal generating set)
Khi ng nng t my nhit in (Hot start-up thermal generating set)
Kh nng qu ti (Overload capacity)
Sa thi ph ti (Load shedding)
Cng sut sn sng ca mt t my (hoc mt nh my in) (Available capacity of a it (of a power station)
Cng sut d phng ca mt h thng in (Reserve power of a system)
D phng nng (Hot stand-by)
D phng ngui (Cold reserve) I.1.79. D phng s c (Outage reserve)
D bo ph ti (Load forecast)
D bo cu trc pht in (Generation mix forecast)
Ch xc lp ca h thng in (Steady state of a power system)
Ch qu ca h thng in (Transient state of a power system)
Trng thi cn bng ca li in nhiu pha (Balanced state of a polyphase network)
Trng thi khng cn bng ca mt li in nhiu pha (Unbalanced state of a polyphase network)
tin cy cung cp in (Service reliability)
an ton cung cp in (Service security)
Phn phi kinh t ph ti (Economic loading schedule)
S cn bng ca li phn phi (Balancing of a distribution network)
A/M Automatic/Manual
AAAC All Aluminum Alloy Conductor
AAC All Aluminum Conductor
ACAR Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced
ACB Air Circuit Breaker
ACSR Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced
AFC Approved For Construction
AFD Approved For Design
AHU Air Handling Unit
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APFR Automatic Power Factor Regulator
AR Auto Reclose (Relay)
ASAP As Soon As Possible
ATS Automatic Transfer Switch
AUX Auxiliary
AVR Automatic Voltage Regulator
AWA Aluminum Wire Armoured (Cable)
AWG American Wire Gauge
BB Bus Bar (Protection)
BCT Bushing Current Transformer
BFP Boiler Feed-water Pump
BHP Brake Horse Power

BIL Basic Impulse Level


BKR Breaker
B/L Bill of Lading
BM(BOM) Bill of Material
BOO Build Own Operate
BOP Balance Of Plant
BOT Build Own Transfer
BS British Standards (institute)
BSDG Black Start Diesel Generator
C&F Cost & Freight
CAR Construction All Risk (Insurance)
CBF Circuit Breaker Fail (Protection)
CBM CuBic Meter (M)
CCPD Coupling Capacitor Potential Device
CCPP Combined Cycle Power Plant
CCW Counter Clock Wise
CED Chiep Executive Director
CEO Chiep Executive Officer
CFO Chiep Financial Officer
CFR Cost,and Freight
CHU Chiller Handling Unit
C/I Commercial Invoice
CIF Cost Insurance and Freight
CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To
CLR Current Limiting Reactor
CM Construction Management
C/O Certificate of Origin
COS Cut Out Switch
CPT Carriage Paid To
CS Control Switch
CT Current Transformer
CTT Current Transformer Test Terminal
CUB Cubicle
CVT Capacitive Voltage Transformer
CU Copper conductor
CW Clock Wise
C/W Certificate of Weight
CWP Cooling Water Pump (Circulating Water Pump)
DAF Delivered At Frontier
D/G Diesel Generator
DCS Distributed Control System
DEF Delivered Ex Ship
DIFB Biased Differential (Relay)
DIFF. Differenfial (Relay)
DO Diesel Oil
DOL Direct On Line (Motor starting)
DS Disconnecting Switch
DTR Digital Transient Recorder
EF Earth Fault (Relay)
EFF. Efficiency
E/L Export License
ELCB Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

ELR Earth Leakage Relay


EM Engineering Manager / Earth Mast
EMS Energy Management System
EOCR Electronic Over Current Relay
EPC Engineering Procurenment Construction
ES Earthing Switch
ESD Emergency Shut Down
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
ETD Estimated Time of Departure
EX Excitor
EXW Ex Works
FAS Free Alongside Ship
FAT Factory (or Field or Final) Acceptance Test
FCA Free Carrier
FD Forced Draft ID(Induced Draft)
FDR Feeder
FL Fluorescent Light (Lamp)
FOB Free On Board
FOR Forced Outage Rate / Free On Rail
FRLS Flame Retardent(or Fire Resistant) Low Smoked
FSA Fuel Supply Agreement
FSD Fire Shut Down
GCB Gas Circuit Breaker
GEN Generator
GIS Gas Insulated Switchgear
GIS Geographic Information System
GPS Global Positioning System
GPT Grounding Potential Transformer
GT(G) Gas Turbine (Generator)
GTY Gantry
HFO Heavy Fuel Oil
HPS High Pressure Sodium
HRSG Heat Recovery Steam Generator
HVAC Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
I/C Inspection Certiviate
ICT Interposing CT
ID Induced Draft FD(Induced Draft)
IDMT Inverse Definite Minimum Time
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IFA Issued For Approval
IFC Issued For Construction
IFD Issued For Design
IOM Inter Office Memorandum
I/P Inusrance Policy
IPB Isolated Phase Busduct
IPP Independant Power Producer
ISF Instrument Safety Factor
ITB Invitation To Bid
ITP Inspection (and) Test Plan
JB(J/B) Junction Box
JCS The Japanese Cable Manufacturer's Association Standard

JEC Standard of the Japanese Electrotechnical Committee


JEM The Standard of Japan Electrical Manufacturer's Association
JIS Japanese Industrial Standards
L.O. Lube Oil
L/C Letter of Credit
L/I Letter of Intent
LA Linghtning Arrester
LC Load Center
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LCP Local Control Panel
LCS Local Control Station
LE / LE Lead Engineer / Loss of Excitation (Relay)
LED Light Emitting Diode
LFO Light Fuel Oil
LOR Lock Out Relay
LRC Load Ratio Controller
LT Line Trap
LTG Lighting
M/H Man Hour
M/M Man Month
MC Magnetic Contactor
MCC Motor Control Center
MDF Main Distribution Frame
MF Maintenance Free / Multiplying Factor
MK Marshalling Kiosk
MMI Man-Machine Interface
MOF Metering Outfit
MOM Minutes Of Meeting
MOU Memorandom Of Understanding
MOV Motor Operating Valve
MPR Motor Projection Relay / Monthly Progress Report
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
MTO Material Take Off
MVR Manual Voltage Regulator
NEC National Electrical Code
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturer's Association
NGR(NER) Neutral Grounding Resister(Neutral Earthing Resister)
NGT(NGTR) Neutral Grounding Transformer
NLTC No Load Tap Changer
NPS Negative Phase Sequence (Relay)
NSPB Non Segregate Phase Busduct
NVD Neutral Voltage Displacement
O&M Operation & Maintenance
OCB / MOCB Oil Circuit Breaker / Minmum Oil Circuit Breaker
OCR Over Current Relay
OJT On the Job Training
OLTC On Load Tap Changer
ONAN/ONAF Oil Nature Air Nature / Oil Nature Air Forced
OV Over Voltage (Relay)
P&ID Piping and Instrument Diagram
P.U Pressurization Unit / Per Unit
P/O Purchase Order

PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchanger


PB Push Button
PC Procurement Coordinator
PCB Poly Chlorinated Bi-phenyl / Printed Circuit Board
PCS Pieces
PD Project Director
PE Project Engineer
PFD Process Flow Diagram
PI Post Insulator
PJT Project
P/L Packing List
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLCC Power Line Carrier Communication
PM Project Manager
PMT Project Management Team
PN Plant North
PNL Panel
PPA Power Purchase Agreement
PQ Pre-Qualification
PS Purchase Specification
PSS Power System Stabilizer
PT Potential Transformer
PTT Potential Transformer Test Terminal
PVC Poly Vinyl Chloride
R/L Remote/Local
RCP Remote Control Panel
REF Restriced Earth Fault (Relay)
RFQ(RFP) Request For Quotation (Proposal)
RIV Radio Inflenced Voltage
RM. Ringgit Malaysia
Rp. Rupiah
RP Reverse Power (Relay)
RPM Revolution Per Minute
Rs. Rupees
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
RTU Remote Terminal Unit
RY Relay
S.C Static Condenser
S.R Series Reactor
S/S Substation
SA Surge Arrester
SBEF StandBy Earth Fault (Relay)
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier / Short Circuit Ratio
SCS Substation Control System
SER Sequence Event Recorder
SIL Surge Impedance Loading
SLD Single Line Diagram
SLS Synchronizing Switch
SPB Segregated Phase Busduct
SPST Single Pole Single Throw
SS Selector Switch or Syncro Switch

SSTD Solid State Trip Device


ST(G) Steam Turbine (Generator)
STP Sewage Treatment Plant
SW Switch
SWA (Galavinized) Steel Wire Armoured (Cable)
SWGR SWITCHGEAR
SWYD SWITCHYARD
SYN Synchronizing
T/L Transmission Line
TB Terminal Board
TBE, TBA Technical Bid Evaluation (Analysis)
TBN Turbine
TCS Trip Circuit Supervision (Relay)
TCU Tele Counting Unit
TE Electrical reset Trip (Relay)
TEFC Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
TEWAC Totally Enclosed Water (to) Air Cooled
TLP Transformer Local Panel
TPN Triple Pole Neutral
TR Transformer
TRV Transient Recovery Voltage
UPS Uninterruptable Power Supply
UV Under Voltage (Relay)
VCB Vacuum Circuit Breaker
VCS Vacuum Combination Starter
VRO Voltage Restrained Overcurrent (Relay)
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
VT Voltage Transformer
WHRH Waste Heat Recovery Boiler
XLPE Cross Linked Poly Ethylene (Insulation)
Y2K Year 2000 (millenium bug)
ZCT Zero-phase Current Transformer