Analysis and Design of a Wireless Power Transfer System With an Intermeidate Coil for High Efficiency
Wireless Power
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Analysis and Design of a Wireless Power Transfer
System with an Intermediate Coil for High Efficiency
SangCheol Moon, Student Member, IEEE, BongChul Kim, Student Member, IEEE, ShinYoung Cho, Student
Member, IEEE, ChiHyung Ahn, and GunWoo Moon, Member, IEEE
Abstract— This paper presents a theoretical analysis, an optimal
design method and experimental results for a wireless power
transfer (WPT) system with an intermediate coil. The analytical
expression of the DC voltage transfer function is presented and
discussed. In a two coil WPT system, which has low coupling
coefficient, the intermediate coil boosts the apparent selfinductance and magnetizing inductance of the primary side at
around the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil, so that
the apparent coupling coefficient is compensated. The coupling
coefficient makes the system efficiency increase and induces bifurcation phenomenon. From the analysis, this paper proposes
an optimal design method using the second resonance frequency
operation with the bifurcation phenomenon and presents design
procedure for high efficiency. A prototype of the WPT system
with the intermediate coil is implemented and experimented to
verify the validity of the analysis and the proposed design
method. The prototype operates at 100 kHz switching frequency
and has an air gap between primary and secondary side of
200mm. An overall system efficiency of 95.57% has been
achieved at 6.6kW of output power.
Index Terms—Wireless power transfer systems, three coil
resonator.
W
I.
INTRODUCTION
IRELESS power transfer (WPT) technology has been
studied and developed for the last few years, because
WPT systems have high reliability, safety and convenience. In
applications such as biomedical implants [1], mobile phones
[2], electric vehicles (EV) [3][4], LED TVs, and lightings [5],
WPT is considered as a common interest. Recently,
commercial products of mobile phone battery chargers have
been successfully launched in the industry.
WPT technology can be classified into RF, inductive
coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance
methods. Because of their high efficiency and simplicity, the
inductively coupled WPT and magnetic resonance WPT are
the most widely used. In 2007, a theoretical overview of
Manuscript received May 10, 2013; revised August 17, 2013; accepted
December 09, 2013.
Copyright © 2013 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted.
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S. C Moon, S.Y Cho, and G.W. Moon are with the Department of
Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,
Daejeon
305701,
Korea
(email:
caprio@angel.kaist.ac.kr;
martin@angel.kaist.ac.kr; gwmoon@ee.kaist.ac.kr).
B.C. Kim, and C.H. Ahn are with Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon 443742, Korea (email: eebckim@kaist.ac.kr; chih.ahn@samsung.com)
magnetic resonance was presented with a nonradiative
scheme based on magnetic resonance coupling [6][7]. The
magnetic resonance method has an operating frequency of
several MHz and can transfer energy across a midrange
distance (up to several meters). However, in terms of
operating frequency, human safety should be considered since
the transmission power is much larger than that used in
wireless communications. In particular, the human exposure
limits have to comply with international safety guidelines
(ICNIRP 1998 [8], IEEE C95.12005 [9]). In addition, this
method shows relatively low efficiency when compared with
that of the inductively coupled method.
On the other hand, the inductively coupled WPT method is
a wellknown method which has been used in transformers
with an air gap. This method operates at below MHz
frequency (approximately several tens of kHz ~ hundreds of
kHz). It shows higher efficiency with a several mm air gap
when compared with the magnetic resonance method.
However, the efficiency rapidly decreases with a
misalignment or an increase in the distance of the air gap
between the primary and secondary side coil. This is due to a
large circulating current which is induced by an imaginary part
of the input impedance. Under these conditions, the mutual
coupling of the coils is generally weak so that the leakage
inductance is much larger than the magnetizing inductance. To
reduce the circulating current, the imaginary part of the input
impedance should be designed to be as small as possible. To
solve this problem, four compensation topologies using LC
resonance have been introduced and analyzed [3], [10][12].
In addition, to increase the power transfer distance, the
intermediate resonators which receive the magnetic field from
the primary coil, then transmit the field to the secondary coil.
In [13], the power efficiency of WPT with an intermediate
resonant coil is analyzed, [14] investigates a relay effect in the
magnetic resonance, [15] presents a design procedure to
maximize efficiency in the 2, 3, 4coil inductive links based
on the reflected load theory, and [16] provides guidelines for
magnetic field repeaters to maximize their benefits. However,
circuit modeling and analysis of WPT systems with
intermediate coils which provide optimal design guidelines of
the resonators are still lacking.
In this paper, the analytical expression of the DC voltage
transfer function of the three coil resonator system is presented
and discussed. In Section II, the seriesseries (SS)
compensated two coil resonator system which shows higher
efficiency when compared with the other topologies is
analyzed, and then the analysis is expanded to three coil
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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
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resonator systems. In Section III, an optimal design method
for high efficiency with the intermediate coil is proposed.
Finally, experimental results obtained with a 6.6 kW prototype
are presented to verify the validity of the analysis and the
proposed design method with an air gap of 200 mm.
II.
ANALYSIS OF SERIESSERIES COMPENSATED
RESONATOR SYSTEMS
Tv
V1 j L1 I1 j MI 2
V2 j MI1 j L2 I 2
(1)
N2
V1 j ( Llkp Lm ) I1 j Lm N I 2
1
2
V j L N 2 I j ( L N 2 L ) I
m
m
lks
1
2
2
2
N1
N1
(2)
where L1 and L2 are the selfinductances, Llkp and Llks are the
leakage inductances, N1 and N2 are the number of turns of the
primary and secondary side, M is the mutual inductance, and
Lm is the magnetizing inductance, respectively. From (1) and
(2), the relations between the two models are obtained by:
N
M Lm 2 k L1 L2
N1
VRI
F
F
n Vo
Vin
3
Rac s C1
Rac
An inductively coupled resonator is usually illustrated as a
coupling inductor model in Fig. 1(a). Although it is useful to
analyze the input and output impedances as well as the
transfer efficiency, the transformer model as depicted in Fig.
1(b) can be more efficient for explaining the input to output
transfer function. The voltages and currents of the input and
output ports of the coupling inductor model and transformer
model are expressed as follows:
nVRO
sC2
n
2
C2
n
Lm
2
(1 s C1 ( Lm Llkp )) s C1
2
4
Llkp Lm ) s C1 ( Lm Llkp ) s
2
2
C2
n
2
C2
n
2
(4)
( n Llks Lm n Llks Llkp
2
2
( n Llks Lm ) 1
2
where VRIF and VROF are the fundamental components of the
resonator input and output voltages, C1 and C2 are the primary
and secondary side resonance capacitances, and n is turns ratio.
To maximize the transfer efficiency of the resonator, the
imaginary part of the input impedance should be eliminated.
To achieve this, many studies have suggested that the
resonance frequency of C1 and L1 should be equal to the
secondary resonance frequency as follows:
1
1
.
(5)
0
L1C1
L2 C2
where L1 is equal to Llkp+Lm as given by (3). This means that
n2Llks and C2/n2 can be substituted for Llkp and C1, respectively.
Therefore, (4) can be simplified by:
(a) Coupling inductor model
L1 Llkp Lm
L2 Lm
N2
2
N1
2
Llks
(3)
(b) Transformer model
Fig. 1 Two models of the inductively coupled resonator
Llkp (1 k ) L1
Llks (1 k ) L2
where k is the coupling coefficient between the primary and
secondary side.
A. Two Coil Resonator System
Fig. 2 shows a two coil WPT system using the transformer
model with a full bridge inverter. It consists of a square wave
generator, a resonator, and an output rectifier, where VRI and
VRO are the resonator input and output voltages, respectively.
By using the fundamental approximation and the AC
equivalent load resistance Rac, the AC equivalent circuit of
the system is obtained as shown in Fig. 3. From the AC
equivalent circuit, the input to output voltage transfer
function is obtained by:
Fig. 2 The two coil WPT system with fullbridge inverter
Fig. 3 The AC equivalent circuit
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3
Tv
n Vo
Vin
Rac s C1
Rac
sC2
n
2
C2
n
2
3
Lm
.
(6)
(1 s C1 ( Lm Llkp ))
(12)
C1 ( Lm Llkp )
2
nVo
Vin
(1 s C1 Llkp ))(1 s C1 (2 Lm Llkp ))
2
2
The denominator of (6) shows that the two coil resonator
system has three resonance frequencies. To analyze these
resonance frequencies, the Norton equivalent circuit of the
resonance system is illustrated in Fig. 4.
When all of the inductances and capacitances resonate
together, as shown in Fig. 5, the first resonance occurs at the
pole frequency ω1 of Z2. The values of Z2 and ω1 are obtained
by:
1
2
( sLlkp
) s C1 Lm
sC1
(7)
Z2
2
1 s C1 (2 Lm Llkp )
1
1
1
C1 (2 Lm Llkp )
.
(8)
3
Rac 3C1
1 3 C1 Llkp
2
Rac 3 C1
k
.
Fig. 4 Norton equivalent circuit of the system
2
Z3
2
1
C1 Llkp
.
(9)
Fig. 5 Equivalent circuit at the first resonance frequency
(10)
The other resonance occurs when C1 resonates with Llkp and
Lm. The equivalent circuit is illustrated in Fig. 7. This
resonance frequency ω3 which is equal to (5) is widely used as
the operating frequency of the fullbridge inverter, because of
both the maximum power transfer and high transfer efficiency.
At this frequency, Llkp and C1 act like a voltage divider. Thus
the voltage gain of the system is varied with Rac. In addition,
the system has a current follower characteristic at ω3, because
the load current becomes constant by Vin/Z1 regardless of load
variations. Z4, ω3, and the voltage gain can be expressed as:
1
( sLlkp
) sLm
sC1
(11)
Z4
2
1 s C1 ( Lm Llkp )
(13)
Since the input impedance has a zero phase angle (ZPA) and
no imaginary part at ω3, the resonator shows maximum
transfer efficiency. However, as Rac decreases or k increases, a
polesplitting phenomenon occurs. As a result, the input
impedance has three ZPA frequencies instead of just one. It is
often called a bifurcation phenomenon [17]. The article
shows that if the quality factor of the primary side is much
lower than that of the secondary side, the phenomenon occurs.
Finally, ω1, ω2, and ω3 are depicted for an ideal case with
load variations in Fig. 8. This shows that the voltage gain is
unity at ω1 and ω2, and that it decreases as the load resistance
decreases at ω3 which is presented in the circuit analysis.
When Rac equals 5 ohm, because of a low load resistance, the
polesplitting occurs. As a result, the voltage gain becomes a
double peak curve and the input impedance has another two
ZPA frequencies around ω1 and ω2.
At this frequency, Z2 becomes infinite so that the input voltage
Vin equals the reflected output voltage nVo. Therefore, the
voltage transfer function always becomes unity regardless of
load variations. Since the reflected output voltage follows the
input voltage, the system shows the voltage follower
characteristic.
The second resonance occurs when Llkp resonates with C1.
At this frequency ω2, Z3 becomes short circuited as shown in
Fig. 6. Thus the voltage transfer function is also unity, which
is similar to that of the first resonance case. Z3 and ω2 are as
follows:
1 1 s C1 Llkp
sC1
2
Fig. 6 Equivalent circuit at the second resonance frequency
Llkp
Vin
Z1
C1
Llkp
Lm
Rac
nVo
C1
Fig. 7 Equivalent circuit at the third resonance frequency
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6
Llkp
ω3
5
Llks
Lm
4
Rac=30Ω
3
Rac=20Ω
C3
Llkt
ZL1
Effective
inductance
Rac=10Ω
2
ω1
m :1
ω2
1
0
n :1
Rac=5Ω
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
Fig. 9 The Three coil resonator with the intermediate coil
130
140
150
Frequency (kHz)
Fig. 8 The voltage gain graph of two coil system for ideal case,
when n=1, Llkp=50 μH, Lm=10 μH, C1=C2= 50nF, and k=0.1667
B. Expansion to Three Coil Resonator Systems
Since the intermediate coil provides the benefits of
increasing the apparent coupling coefficient, the transfer
distance and the wide operating frequency range, three and
four coil resonator systems have been studied. The three coil
resonator system in [16] suggests the optimum position of the
intermediate coil for maximum power transfer, maximum
efficiency, and a wide ZPA frequency range. For high
efficiency, the study suggests that the optimum position of the
intermediate coil is one that is close to the primary coil.
When the intermediate coil is coupled with the primary coil,
as shown in Fig. 9, the physical parameters (selfinductance,
coupling coefficient) between the primary and secondary coils
are the same with the two coil system. However, it boosts the
apparent self and magnetizing inductance of the primary side
at around the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil.
This results in increasing the effective inductance ZL1 and the
apparent coupling coefficient. As a result, the transfer
efficiency of the resonator increases. The resonance frequency
ωt of the intermediate coil is given by:
1
(14)
t
Lm
C3 ( Llkt 2 )
m
where Llkt is the leakage inductance of the intermediate coil, m
is turns ratio between the primary and intermediate coils, and
C3 is resonance capacitance of the intermediate coil.
Fig. 10 shows an equivalent circuit of ZL1 of the primary
side. Since the reflected impedance from the intermediate coil
affects the primary side, ZL1 is obtained by:
3
Z L1
C3
s ( Llkp ( m Llkt Lm ) m Lm Llkt )
2
2
s ( m Llkt Lm )
2
2
m
C3
m
2
2
s ( Lm Llkp )
(15)
Fig. 10 The equivalent circuit of the effective inductance
At the pole frequency of ZL1, which is equal to the resonance
frequency of the intermediate coil of (14), ZL1 becomes infinite.
Fig. 11 shows the simulation and measurement results of ZL1
with the practical resonator parameters that are used in the
experiment in Section IV. According to the operating
frequency, the measurement follows simulation results well.
This graph also shows that ZL1 increases at around the
resonance frequency of the intermediate coil as presented in
the mathematical analysis. If the operating frequency is set
within recommended operating region, in which the slope of
ZL1 increases slowly, the apparent coupling coefficient can be
properly increased. For example, when the coupling
coefficient is 0.191 in the two coil resonator with fs=100 kHz,
L1=186.55 μH, Llkp=150.96 μH, Lm=35.59 μH, and Llks=106.54
μH. However, when the two coil resonator is converted to a
three coil resonator with an intermediate coil (Llkt=37.49 μH,
C3=41.21 nF), the apparent coupling coefficient increase to
0.408 at fs=100 kHz, and ZL1 increases to 270.61 μH, as shown
in Fig. 11.
The three coil WPT system with the intermediate coil is
illustrated in Fig. 12. The intermediate coil is coupled with the
primary and secondary coils. In the AC equivalent circuit, as
shown in Fig. 13, the reflected impedance of the intermediate
coil is added to the two coil system. Therefore, in the voltage
transfer function Tv2 of the three coil system, the intermediate
coil effect is added to the voltage transfer function of the two
coil system as follows:
Tv 2
F
nVRI
Vd
F
n Vo
Vin
Intermediate coil effect
Tv
Z6
Z 6 Z1 Lm ( Z 5 Rac )
1
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(16)
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Fig. 12 The three coil WPT system with the intermediate coil
Fig. 11 Simulation and measurement results of the effective inductance
when Llkp=137.22 μH, Lm=49.32 μH, Llkt=37.49 μH, C3=41.21 nF, m=1.9131
where, Tv is the voltage transfer function (6) of the two coil
system. According to the denominator of the intermediate coil
effect, the voltage gain may increase or decrease when
compared with (6). The voltage gain and the phase of Zin of
the three coil system are illustrated in Fig. 14 with practical
parameters.
In the three coil system, the intermediate coil boosts the
apparent coupling coefficient. It increases the system
efficiency and induces the bifurcation phenomenon, as shown
in Fig. 14. In this system, the conventional design method
with the operating frequency ω3 shows several disadvantages.
Firstly, there is voltage gain error at ω3, because of the
limitation of the fundamental approximation. Therefore, it is
hard to predict the output voltage. Second, resonance
frequency mismatch between the primary and secondary side
occurs in practical applications due to components tolerances.
As a result, the system cannot operate at the ZPA frequency,
as shown in Fig. 14. This reduces the transfer efficiency.
Finally, the operating point of the fullbridge inverter can be
changed from the ZVS region to the ZCS region with load
variations due to the bifurcation phenomenon. This may
increase the stress of the inverter switches. To solve these
problems, this paper proposes an optimal design method using
the second resonance frequency operation with the bifurcation phenomenon.
III.
THE PROPOSED DESIGN METHOD AND DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
In the proposed design method, as shown in Fig. 15, the
operation frequency is designed at around the second
resonance frequency ω 2 which has a low fundamental
approximation error, while it is designed at around ω3 in the
conventional method. Thus it is easy to predict output voltage
and design overall system. In addition, the bifurcation
phenomenon makes 3 ZPA frequencies so that the second
resonance frequency is located at around the other ZPA
frequency. Therefore, the proposed design method has the
advantage of a predictable output voltage with high transfer
efficiency due to the quasi ZPA frequency operation.
Fig. 13 The AC equivalent circuit with the intermediate coil
Fig. 14 The voltage gain and the phase of Zin of the three coil systems, when
Llkp=137.22 μH, Lm=49.32 μH, Llks=96.85 μH, Llkt=37.49 μH, C1=19.43 nF,
C2=25.082 nF, C3=41.21 nF, n=1.1903, m=1.9131, and Ro=24.24 Ω
However, since a design that includes an intermediate coil is
complicated, proper design guidelines should be provided. In
this section, the design procedure is presented step by step.
A. Define the WPT system
As a first step, the WPT system specifications are defined
as follows:
Power supply : three phase AC source;
Nominal Vin : 540 VDC (output of PFC stage);
Rated output : Po=6.6 kW, Vo=200~400 VDC, Io=16.5
A, Ro=12.12~24.24 Ω;
Estimated overall system efficiency : ηest=90%;
Switching devices of the fullbridge inverter : Si
MOSFET;
Operating frequency fs of the inverter : 100 kHz;
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Gain (Vo / Vin)
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Fig. 16 Resonator design
voltage gain equation (13) at ω3, C1 is determined by:
Phase of Zin (°)
C1
Fig. 15 The proposed design method
B. Determine the 3rd resonance frequency f3
Generally, WPT systems have a weak coupling coefficient
around 0.2~0.3 between the primary and secondary coils.
With this coupling coefficient, the 3rd resonance frequency f3
is far from f2 as follows:
0.83 f s
k 0.3
f3 0.89 f s
k 0.2
L2
f f2
C2
Rac
8n 2
2
Ro .
(19)
Therefore, n and Rac are designed to be 1.21 and 28.76 Ω,
respectively.
D. Design C1 and L1
The next step is the design of resonance capacitance C1 and
selfinductance L1 of the primary side, in Fig. 16. Using the
(20)
L1
(21)
n2
1
L23 2
.
(22)
Therefore, C2 and L2 are designed to be 28.59 nF and 122.61
μH, respectively.
F. Design C3 and L3
In the intermediate coil, the selfinductance L3 can be
designed by a quality factor Q3 at operating frequency as
follows:
(18)
where n is the effective turns ratio. When there is diameter
difference between the primary and secondary coils, the real
number of turns cannot represent the turns ratio. The AC
equivalent load resistance under the full load condition can be
calculated by:
.
where L2 is measured with other coils opencircuited. To
increase the transfer efficiency, the resonance capacitance C2
can be calculated by using (5):
nd
n est Vin / Vo
Rac 3
Experimentally, M is recommended to be around 1.5 to
achieve high efficiency. L1 is given by (3) and (12). Thus C1
and L1 which is measured with other coils opencircuited are
designed to be 19.53 nF and 179.51 μH, respectively.
E. Design C2 and L2
In the secondary resonator, the selfinductance L2 of the
secondary coil is easily obtained by:
(17)
where the switching frequency fs is designed to the 2
resonance frequency f2 in the proposed design method.
Typically, the 3rd resonance frequency can be set at 10~20%
below fs. Therefore, f3 is designed as 85 kHz.
C. Determine the turns ratio and Rac
As described in Section IIA, the system shows the voltage
follower characteristic at f2. Thus while considering the system
efficiency ηest, the turns ratio is given by:
M k
L3
Q3 re
(23)
s
where re is the AC resistance of the intermediate coil. To
minimize the conduction loss of the intermediate coil, the
quality factor becomes about 500~600. In the design of C3, the
resonance frequency of the intermediate coil can be
determined by placing it about 10% above of the operating
frequency as follows:
C3
1
L3 (1.1 s ) 2
.
(24)
This induces boosting of the apparent L1 at fs by 20~40%.
Therefore, C3 and L3 are designed to be 39.86 nF and 52.52
μH, respectively.
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G. Verify the apparent L1 with the intermediate coil, and
Vo/Vin and the phase of Zin of the overall system
The next step is checking L1 at fs. In Fig. 11, L1 is 186.55
μH without the intermediate coil. However, the apparent L1
increases to 270.61 μH with the intermediate coil at fs. If the
apparent L1 is boosted a little, C3 needs to be increased. Since
the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil goes to fs, the
apparent L1 is increased a lot. This also increases apparent
coupling coefficient. Finally, in Fig. 15, the voltage gain Vo/Vin
and the phase of Zin of the overall system are simulated. This
is to verify if the system can operate in the ZVS region at fs
with load variations.
From the design procedure, it is verified that none of coils
are tuned at the operating frequency of 100 kHz unlike the
conventional design method. The primary and secondary coils
are tuned at 85 kHz, and the intermediate coil is tuned at 110
kHz. This is one of the main features of the proposed design
method.
I.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
A prototype of a WPT system with an intermediate coil is
implemented with the proposed design method and the
specifications are shown in Table I. The prototype operates at
100 kHz switching frequency. IPW65R037C6 MOSFETs are
used for the fullbridge inverter, and 6.6 kW of power is
transferred to the output load. In the resonator, the real
parameters which are measured with other coils opencircuited
are similar to the designed parameters in Section III. Fig. 17
shows a block diagram of the prototype of a 6.6 kW WPT
system which has an air gap between the primary and
secondary side coil of 200 mm. The intermediate coil is
located inside of the primary coil. From the three phase AC
source, the power is transferred though the full bridge inverter,
the resonator, and the output rectifier. The standby flyback
converters supply the operating current of the PFM controller,
the gate drivers, and a fan for cooling.
In terms of the voltage gain of the system, shown in Fig. 18,
the theoretical analysis in Section II is well matched with the
experimental results at around the operating frequency.
Therefore, the rated output voltage and current are easily
achieved with the proposed design method. However, as the
operating frequency goes to ω3, like the conventional design
method, the error is gradually increased as expected.
Fig. 19 shows the input and output voltages, currents, and
powers at the rated load. The input power is measured by a
TABLE I.
SPECIFICATIONS OF PROTOTYPE
3Φ line voltage Vline (lineline)
400 Vac
Input voltage Vin
540Vdc
Rated output voltage Vo
400 Vdc
Rated output load current Io
16.5 A
Rated load resistance Ro
24.24 Ω
Rated output power Po
6.6 kW
Switching frequency fs (Q1 ~ Q4)
100 kHz
Inverter switches Si MOS.(Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4)
IPW65R037C6
Inverter switches SiC MOS.(Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4)
Output rectifier diodes (D1, D2, D3, D4)
Parameters
Designed Param.
CMF20120
DSEI12006A
Measured Param.
Selfinductance L1
179.51 μH
186.55 μH
Selfinductance L2
122.61 μH
131.66 μH
Selfinductance L3
52.52 μH
49.83 μH
Resonance Cap. C1
19.53 nF
19.43 nF
Resonance Cap. C2
28.59 nF
25.08 nF
Resonance Cap. C3
39.86 nF
41.21 nF
Coupling coeffi. k
0.2
0.191
Turns ratio n
1.21
1.1903
Turns ratio m

1.9131
Fig. 17 Block diagram of the 6.6 kW WPT system
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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS
Fig. 20 Current waveforms of the primary, secondary, and intermediate coil
60.9W
0.882%
56.0W
51.1W 0.811%
0.740%
40.7W
0.589%
28.8W
0.417%
23.1W
0.334%
17.3W
0.250%
8.4W
5.0W
0.122% 4.7W
0.068% 0.072%
10.0W
clu
de
ga
te
dr
ive
r+
e
tc
.)
0.145%
(In
PM3000A precise power analyzer. The prototype has overall
system efficiency of 95.57% from the three phase AC source
to the output load with the proposed design method. The
power consumptions of the gate drivers, the control ICs, and
a fan are also considered in the efficiency calculation. The
current waveforms of the primary, secondary, and
intermediate coils are shown in Fig. 20. Under this load
condition, the total losses are illustrated in Fig. 21. The
conduction loss of the primary coil shows the biggest loss.
The secondary side rectifiers and the MOSFETs switching
including the gate driver, and the secondary coil losses also
make up a large portion of these losses.
Fig. 22 shows the overall system efficiency with load
variations for the three coil system which is designed by the
proposed method with Si MOSFETs and SiC MOSFETs, and
the two coil system with SiC MOSFETs. In the Si and SiC
MOSFET comparison, since the turnon resistance of the Si
MOSFET is lower than that of the SiC MOSFET and the
switching frequency is only 100 kHz, the Si MOSFET shows
higher efficiency. The Si MOSFET and SiC MOSFET have
turnon resistances of 37 mΩ and 80 mΩ, respectively. If the
switching frequency increases to above 200 kHz, the SiC
MOSFET may show higher efficiency. In the two coil and
three coil system comparison, the three coil system shows
much higher efficiency due to a higher apparent coupling
coefficient. The coupling coefficient of the two coil system is
0.191. However, in the three coil system, the apparent
coupling coefficient becomes 0.408 as presented in Section
IIB.
Fig. 21 Loss analysis at 6.6 kW output power
97
3 Coils, Si MOSFET
96
Efficiency [%]
95
94
94.97
94.27
94.72
95.36
95.09
95.33
95.46
95.57
95.04
94.91
94.98
3 Coils, SiC MOSFET
94.18
93
92
2 Coils, SiC MOSFET
91
90
89.80
90.31
90.45
90.23
90.14
89.93
89
88
1.1 kW
2.2 kW
3.3 kW
4.4 kW
5.5 kW
6.6 kW
Load Condition
Fig. 18 The simulation and experimental results of the voltage gain
Fig. 19 Input and output power of the overall WPT system
Fig. 22 Overall system efficiency with load variation
II.
CONCLUSION
In this paper, the frequency characteristics of two coil and
three coil resonator WPT systems have been presented. In the
voltage transfer function of the three coil resonator system, the
intermediate coil effect is added to the characteristic of the
original two coil resonator system. The intermediate coil
boosts the effective selfinductance and magnetizing
inductance of the primary side at around the resonance
frequency of the intermediate coil, so that the apparent
coupling coefficient increases. As a result, the three coil
system has higher efficiency with a relatively long distance
between the primary and secondary sides. Finally, this paper
proposed an optimal design method using the second
02780046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS
resonance frequency operation with the bifurcation
phenomenon. The proposed design method has the advantage
of a predictable output voltage with high transfer efficiency. It
makes the overall system design easy. To verify the analysis
and the proposed design method, a 6.6 kW prototype was
implemented and experimented on. The results showed that
the three coil resonator WPT system with the proposed design
method has overall efficiency of 95.57% with a 200 mm air
gap at 6.6 kW.
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[14]
[15]
[16]
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SangCheol Moon (S’10) was born in Jeju Island,
Korea, in 1979. He received the B.S. degree in
electrical engineering from Ajou University, Suwon,
Korea, in 2005 and the M.S. degree in electrical
engineering from Korea Advanced Institute of
Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea,
in 2007.
He has worked as a system and application
engineer in Fairchild Semiconductor, Bucheon,
Korea, since 2007. He is currently pursuing the
Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from KAIST.
His research interests are in power electronics
including analysis, modeling, control method, power factor correction, LEDs
and wireless power transfer circuits.
BongChul Kim (S'09) was born in Korea in 1979.
He received the B.S. degree from ChungAng
University, Seoul, Korea, in 2006 and the M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea, in 2008 and
2012, respectively.
He is currently a Senior Research Engineer in the
Device Innovation Division, Samsung Electronics
Co., Ltd., Suwon, Korea. His current research
interests include power converter, highpowerdensity adapter and wireless power transfer systems.
Dr. Kim was a recipient of the Second Prize Paper Award from the
International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC) in 2009.
02780046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS
ShinYoung Cho (S’10) was born in Seoul, Korea,
in 1981. He received the B.S degree from Hanyang
University, and the M.S degree from the Korea
Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
(KAIST), Korea, in 2007 and 2010, respectively,
both in electrical engineering. He is currently
working toward the Ph.D. degree at KAIST.
His research interests are in the areas of power
electronics: display driver system and wireless
charger including the analysis, modeling, design,
and control of power converters.
ChiHyung Ahn received B.S. from Inha
University, Korea and M.S. degree in electronics
engineering from Pohang University of Science and
Technology, Korea, and Ph.D. degree from Texas
A&M University at College Station, in 2002, 2004,
and 2010, respectively. From 2004 to 2005, he was
a visiting researcher with Microwave Electronics
Laboratory, UCLA, where he was involved in 2D
metamaterial circuit modeling. From 2005 to 2006,
he was employed by Agilent Korea where he
worked in technical sales.
In 2010, he joined Samsung Electronics at Suwon, Korea and is working
on antenna and wireless power transfer device designs. His research interests
include wireless power transmission, metamaterial applications, conformal
arrays, and microwave filters.
GunWoo Moon (S’92M’00) received the M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from
the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, in 1992 and 1996,
respectively.
He is currently a Professor in the department of
Electrical Engineering, KAIST. His research
interests include modeling, design and control of
power converters, softswitching power converters,
resonant inverters, distributed power systems,
powerfactor correction, electric drive systems,
driver circuits of plasma display panels, and flexible ac transmission systems.
Dr. Moon is a member of the Korean Institute of Power Electronics
(KIPE), Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers (KIEE), Korea Institute of
Telematics and Electronics (KITE), Korea Institute of Illumination
Electronics and Industrial Equipment (KIIEIE), and Society for Information
Display (SID).
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