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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS Analysis and Design of a Wireless Power Transfer System with an Intermediate Coil for High Efficiency SangCheol Moon, Student Member, IEEE, Bong-Chul Kim, Student Member, IEEE, Shin-Young Cho, Student Member, IEEE, Chi-Hyung Ahn, and Gun-Woo Moon, Member, IEEE Abstract— This paper presents a theoretical analysis, an optimal design method and experimental results for a wireless power transfer (WPT) system with an intermediate coil. The analytical expression of the DC voltage transfer function is presented and discussed. In a two coil WPT system, which has low coupling coefficient, the intermediate coil boosts the apparent selfinductance and magnetizing inductance of the primary side at around the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil, so that the apparent coupling coefficient is compensated. The coupling coefficient makes the system efficiency increase and induces bifurcation phenomenon. From the analysis, this paper proposes an optimal design method using the second resonance frequency operation with the bi-furcation phenomenon and presents design procedure for high efficiency. A prototype of the WPT system with the intermediate coil is implemented and experimented to verify the validity of the analysis and the proposed design method. The prototype operates at 100 kHz switching frequency and has an air gap between primary and secondary side of 200mm. An overall system efficiency of 95.57% has been achieved at 6.6kW of output power. Index Terms—Wireless power transfer systems, three coil resonator. W I. INTRODUCTION IRELESS power transfer (WPT) technology has been studied and developed for the last few years, because WPT systems have high reliability, safety and convenience. In applications such as biomedical implants [1], mobile phones [2], electric vehicles (EV) [3]-[4], LED TVs, and lightings [5], WPT is considered as a common interest. Recently, commercial products of mobile phone battery chargers have been successfully launched in the industry. WPT technology can be classified into RF, inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance methods. Because of their high efficiency and simplicity, the inductively coupled WPT and magnetic resonance WPT are the most widely used. In 2007, a theoretical overview of Manuscript received May 10, 2013; revised August 17, 2013; accepted December 09, 2013. Copyright © 2013 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org S. C Moon, S.-Y Cho, and G.-W. Moon are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea (e-mail: caprio@angel.kaist.ac.kr; martin@angel.kaist.ac.kr; gwmoon@ee.kaist.ac.kr). B.-C. Kim, and C.-H. Ahn are with Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon 443742, Korea (e-mail: eebckim@kaist.ac.kr; chih.ahn@samsung.com) magnetic resonance was presented with a non-radiative scheme based on magnetic resonance coupling [6]-[7]. The magnetic resonance method has an operating frequency of several MHz and can transfer energy across a mid-range distance (up to several meters). However, in terms of operating frequency, human safety should be considered since the transmission power is much larger than that used in wireless communications. In particular, the human exposure limits have to comply with international safety guidelines (ICNIRP 1998 [8], IEEE C95.1-2005 [9]). In addition, this method shows relatively low efficiency when compared with that of the inductively coupled method. On the other hand, the inductively coupled WPT method is a well-known method which has been used in transformers with an air gap. This method operates at below MHz frequency (approximately several tens of kHz ~ hundreds of kHz). It shows higher efficiency with a several mm air gap when compared with the magnetic resonance method. However, the efficiency rapidly decreases with a misalignment or an increase in the distance of the air gap between the primary and secondary side coil. This is due to a large circulating current which is induced by an imaginary part of the input impedance. Under these conditions, the mutual coupling of the coils is generally weak so that the leakage inductance is much larger than the magnetizing inductance. To reduce the circulating current, the imaginary part of the input impedance should be designed to be as small as possible. To solve this problem, four compensation topologies using LC resonance have been introduced and analyzed [3], [10]-[12]. In addition, to increase the power transfer distance, the intermediate resonators which receive the magnetic field from the primary coil, then transmit the field to the secondary coil. In [13], the power efficiency of WPT with an intermediate resonant coil is analyzed, [14] investigates a relay effect in the magnetic resonance, [15] presents a design procedure to maximize efficiency in the 2-, 3-, 4-coil inductive links based on the reflected load theory, and [16] provides guidelines for magnetic field repeaters to maximize their benefits. However, circuit modeling and analysis of WPT systems with intermediate coils which provide optimal design guidelines of the resonators are still lacking. In this paper, the analytical expression of the DC voltage transfer function of the three coil resonator system is presented and discussed. In Section II, the series-series (SS) compensated two coil resonator system which shows higher efficiency when compared with the other topologies is analyzed, and then the analysis is expanded to three coil 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS resonator systems. In Section III, an optimal design method for high efficiency with the intermediate coil is proposed. Finally, experimental results obtained with a 6.6 kW prototype are presented to verify the validity of the analysis and the proposed design method with an air gap of 200 mm. II. ANALYSIS OF SERIES-SERIES COMPENSATED RESONATOR SYSTEMS Tv  V1  j L1 I1  j MI 2  V2  j MI1  j L2 I 2 (1) N2  V1  j ( Llkp  Lm ) I1  j Lm N I 2  1  2 V  j L N 2 I  j ( L N 2  L ) I m m lks 1 2 2  2 N1 N1 (2) where L1 and L2 are the self-inductances, Llkp and Llks are the leakage inductances, N1 and N2 are the number of turns of the primary and secondary side, M is the mutual inductance, and Lm is the magnetizing inductance, respectively. From (1) and (2), the relations between the two models are obtained by: N M  Lm 2  k L1 L2 N1 VRI F F  n  Vo Vin  3 Rac s C1 Rac  An inductively coupled resonator is usually illustrated as a coupling inductor model in Fig. 1(a). Although it is useful to analyze the input and output impedances as well as the transfer efficiency, the transformer model as depicted in Fig. 1(b) can be more efficient for explaining the input to output transfer function. The voltages and currents of the input and output ports of the coupling inductor model and transformer model are expressed as follows: nVRO sC2 n 2 C2 n Lm 2  (1  s C1 ( Lm  Llkp ))  s C1 2 4  Llkp Lm )  s C1 ( Lm  Llkp )  s 2 2 C2 n 2 C2 n 2 (4) ( n Llks Lm  n Llks Llkp 2 2 ( n Llks  Lm )  1 2 where VRIF and VROF are the fundamental components of the resonator input and output voltages, C1 and C2 are the primary and secondary side resonance capacitances, and n is turns ratio. To maximize the transfer efficiency of the resonator, the imaginary part of the input impedance should be eliminated. To achieve this, many studies have suggested that the resonance frequency of C1 and L1 should be equal to the secondary resonance frequency as follows: 1 1 . (5) 0   L1C1 L2 C2 where L1 is equal to Llkp+Lm as given by (3). This means that n2Llks and C2/n2 can be substituted for Llkp and C1, respectively. Therefore, (4) can be simplified by: (a) Coupling inductor model L1  Llkp  Lm L2  Lm N2 2 N1 2  Llks (3) (b) Transformer model Fig. 1 Two models of the inductively coupled resonator Llkp  (1  k ) L1 Llks  (1  k ) L2 where k is the coupling coefficient between the primary and secondary side. A. Two Coil Resonator System Fig. 2 shows a two coil WPT system using the transformer model with a full bridge inverter. It consists of a square wave generator, a resonator, and an output rectifier, where VRI and VRO are the resonator input and output voltages, respectively. By using the fundamental approximation and the AC equivalent load resistance Rac, the AC equivalent circuit of the system is obtained as shown in Fig. 3. From the AC equivalent circuit, the input to output voltage transfer function is obtained by: Fig. 2 The two coil WPT system with full-bridge inverter Fig. 3 The AC equivalent circuit 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS 3 Tv  n  Vo Vin Rac s C1  Rac  sC2 n 2 C2 n 2 3  Lm . (6)  (1  s C1 ( Lm  Llkp ))  (12) C1 ( Lm  Llkp ) 2 nVo Vin (1  s C1 Llkp ))(1  s C1 (2 Lm  Llkp )) 2 2 The denominator of (6) shows that the two coil resonator system has three resonance frequencies. To analyze these resonance frequencies, the Norton equivalent circuit of the resonance system is illustrated in Fig. 4. When all of the inductances and capacitances resonate together, as shown in Fig. 5, the first resonance occurs at the pole frequency ω1 of Z2. The values of Z2 and ω1 are obtained by: 1 2 ( sLlkp  )  s C1 Lm sC1 (7) Z2  2 1  s C1 (2 Lm  Llkp ) 1  1 1 C1 (2 Lm  Llkp ) . (8)   3 Rac  3C1 1  3 C1 Llkp 2  Rac  3 C1 k . Fig. 4 Norton equivalent circuit of the system 2 Z3  2  1 C1 Llkp . (9) Fig. 5 Equivalent circuit at the first resonance frequency (10) The other resonance occurs when C1 resonates with Llkp and Lm. The equivalent circuit is illustrated in Fig. 7. This resonance frequency ω3 which is equal to (5) is widely used as the operating frequency of the full-bridge inverter, because of both the maximum power transfer and high transfer efficiency. At this frequency, Llkp and C1 act like a voltage divider. Thus the voltage gain of the system is varied with Rac. In addition, the system has a current follower characteristic at ω3, because the load current becomes constant by Vin/Z1 regardless of load variations. Z4, ω3, and the voltage gain can be expressed as: 1 ( sLlkp  )  sLm sC1 (11) Z4  2 1  s C1 ( Lm  Llkp ) (13) Since the input impedance has a zero phase angle (ZPA) and no imaginary part at ω3, the resonator shows maximum transfer efficiency. However, as Rac decreases or k increases, a pole-splitting phenomenon occurs. As a result, the input impedance has three ZPA frequencies instead of just one. It is often called a bi-furcation phenomenon [17]. The article shows that if the quality factor of the primary side is much lower than that of the secondary side, the phenomenon occurs. Finally, ω1, ω2, and ω3 are depicted for an ideal case with load variations in Fig. 8. This shows that the voltage gain is unity at ω1 and ω2, and that it decreases as the load resistance decreases at ω3 which is presented in the circuit analysis. When Rac equals 5 ohm, because of a low load resistance, the pole-splitting occurs. As a result, the voltage gain becomes a double peak curve and the input impedance has another two ZPA frequencies around ω1 and ω2. At this frequency, Z2 becomes infinite so that the input voltage Vin equals the reflected output voltage nVo. Therefore, the voltage transfer function always becomes unity regardless of load variations. Since the reflected output voltage follows the input voltage, the system shows the voltage follower characteristic. The second resonance occurs when Llkp resonates with C1. At this frequency ω2, Z3 becomes short circuited as shown in Fig. 6. Thus the voltage transfer function is also unity, which is similar to that of the first resonance case. Z3 and ω2 are as follows: 1 1  s C1 Llkp  sC1 2  Fig. 6 Equivalent circuit at the second resonance frequency Llkp Vin Z1 C1 Llkp Lm Rac nVo C1 Fig. 7 Equivalent circuit at the third resonance frequency 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS 6 Llkp ω3 5 Llks Lm 4 Rac=30Ω 3 Rac=20Ω C3 Llkt ZL1 Effective inductance Rac=10Ω 2 ω1 m :1 ω2 1 0 n :1 Rac=5Ω 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Fig. 9 The Three coil resonator with the intermediate coil 130 140 150 Frequency (kHz) Fig. 8 The voltage gain graph of two coil system for ideal case, when n=1, Llkp=50 μH, Lm=10 μH, C1=C2= 50nF, and k=0.1667 B. Expansion to Three Coil Resonator Systems Since the intermediate coil provides the benefits of increasing the apparent coupling coefficient, the transfer distance and the wide operating frequency range, three and four coil resonator systems have been studied. The three coil resonator system in [16] suggests the optimum position of the intermediate coil for maximum power transfer, maximum efficiency, and a wide ZPA frequency range. For high efficiency, the study suggests that the optimum position of the intermediate coil is one that is close to the primary coil. When the intermediate coil is coupled with the primary coil, as shown in Fig. 9, the physical parameters (self-inductance, coupling coefficient) between the primary and secondary coils are the same with the two coil system. However, it boosts the apparent self and magnetizing inductance of the primary side at around the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil. This results in increasing the effective inductance ZL1 and the apparent coupling coefficient. As a result, the transfer efficiency of the resonator increases. The resonance frequency ωt of the intermediate coil is given by: 1 (14) t  Lm C3 ( Llkt  2 ) m where Llkt is the leakage inductance of the intermediate coil, m is turns ratio between the primary and intermediate coils, and C3 is resonance capacitance of the intermediate coil. Fig. 10 shows an equivalent circuit of ZL1 of the primary side. Since the reflected impedance from the intermediate coil affects the primary side, ZL1 is obtained by: 3 Z L1  C3 s ( Llkp ( m Llkt  Lm )  m Lm Llkt )  2 2 s ( m Llkt  Lm )  2 2 m C3 m 2 2  s ( Lm  Llkp ) (15) Fig. 10 The equivalent circuit of the effective inductance At the pole frequency of ZL1, which is equal to the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil of (14), ZL1 becomes infinite. Fig. 11 shows the simulation and measurement results of ZL1 with the practical resonator parameters that are used in the experiment in Section IV. According to the operating frequency, the measurement follows simulation results well. This graph also shows that ZL1 increases at around the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil as presented in the mathematical analysis. If the operating frequency is set within recommended operating region, in which the slope of ZL1 increases slowly, the apparent coupling coefficient can be properly increased. For example, when the coupling coefficient is 0.191 in the two coil resonator with fs=100 kHz, L1=186.55 μH, Llkp=150.96 μH, Lm=35.59 μH, and Llks=106.54 μH. However, when the two coil resonator is converted to a three coil resonator with an intermediate coil (Llkt=37.49 μH, C3=41.21 nF), the apparent coupling coefficient increase to 0.408 at fs=100 kHz, and ZL1 increases to 270.61 μH, as shown in Fig. 11. The three coil WPT system with the intermediate coil is illustrated in Fig. 12. The intermediate coil is coupled with the primary and secondary coils. In the AC equivalent circuit, as shown in Fig. 13, the reflected impedance of the intermediate coil is added to the two coil system. Therefore, in the voltage transfer function Tv2 of the three coil system, the intermediate coil effect is added to the voltage transfer function of the two coil system as follows: Tv 2  F nVRI  Vd  F  n  Vo Vin Intermediate coil effect    Tv  Z6 Z 6  Z1  Lm  ( Z 5  Rac ) 1 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. (16) This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS Fig. 12 The three coil WPT system with the intermediate coil Fig. 11 Simulation and measurement results of the effective inductance when Llkp=137.22 μH, Lm=49.32 μH, Llkt=37.49 μH, C3=41.21 nF, m=1.9131 where, Tv is the voltage transfer function (6) of the two coil system. According to the denominator of the intermediate coil effect, the voltage gain may increase or decrease when compared with (6). The voltage gain and the phase of Zin of the three coil system are illustrated in Fig. 14 with practical parameters. In the three coil system, the intermediate coil boosts the apparent coupling coefficient. It increases the system efficiency and induces the bi-furcation phenomenon, as shown in Fig. 14. In this system, the conventional design method with the operating frequency ω3 shows several disadvantages. Firstly, there is voltage gain error at ω3, because of the limitation of the fundamental approximation. Therefore, it is hard to predict the output voltage. Second, resonance frequency mismatch between the primary and secondary side occurs in practical applications due to components tolerances. As a result, the system cannot operate at the ZPA frequency, as shown in Fig. 14. This reduces the transfer efficiency. Finally, the operating point of the full-bridge inverter can be changed from the ZVS region to the ZCS region with load variations due to the bi-furcation phenomenon. This may increase the stress of the inverter switches. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an optimal design method using the second resonance frequency operation with the bifurcation phenomenon. III. THE PROPOSED DESIGN METHOD AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS In the proposed design method, as shown in Fig. 15, the operation frequency is designed at around the second resonance frequency ω 2 which has a low fundamental approximation error, while it is designed at around ω3 in the conventional method. Thus it is easy to predict output voltage and design overall system. In addition, the bi-furcation phenomenon makes 3 ZPA frequencies so that the second resonance frequency is located at around the other ZPA frequency. Therefore, the proposed design method has the advantage of a predictable output voltage with high transfer efficiency due to the quasi ZPA frequency operation. Fig. 13 The AC equivalent circuit with the intermediate coil Fig. 14 The voltage gain and the phase of Zin of the three coil systems, when Llkp=137.22 μH, Lm=49.32 μH, Llks=96.85 μH, Llkt=37.49 μH, C1=19.43 nF, C2=25.082 nF, C3=41.21 nF, n=1.1903, m=1.9131, and Ro=24.24 Ω However, since a design that includes an intermediate coil is complicated, proper design guidelines should be provided. In this section, the design procedure is presented step by step. A. Define the WPT system As a first step, the WPT system specifications are defined as follows:       Power supply : three phase AC source; Nominal Vin : 540 VDC (output of PFC stage); Rated output : Po=6.6 kW, Vo=200~400 VDC, Io=16.5 A, Ro=12.12~24.24 Ω; Estimated overall system efficiency : ηest=90%; Switching devices of the full-bridge inverter : Si MOSFET; Operating frequency fs of the inverter : 100 kHz; 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Gain (Vo / Vin) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS Fig. 16 Resonator design voltage gain equation (13) at ω3, C1 is determined by: Phase of Zin (°) C1  Fig. 15 The proposed design method B. Determine the 3rd resonance frequency f3 Generally, WPT systems have a weak coupling coefficient around 0.2~0.3 between the primary and secondary coils. With this coupling coefficient, the 3rd resonance frequency f3 is far from f2 as follows: 0.83 f s k  0.3  f3  0.89 f s k  0.2 L2  f  f2 C2  Rac  8n 2 2  Ro . (19) Therefore, n and Rac are designed to be 1.21 and 28.76 Ω, respectively. D. Design C1 and L1 The next step is the design of resonance capacitance C1 and self-inductance L1 of the primary side, in Fig. 16. Using the (20) L1 (21) n2 1 L23 2 . (22) Therefore, C2 and L2 are designed to be 28.59 nF and 122.61 μH, respectively. F. Design C3 and L3 In the intermediate coil, the self-inductance L3 can be designed by a quality factor Q3 at operating frequency as follows: (18) where n is the effective turns ratio. When there is diameter difference between the primary and secondary coils, the real number of turns cannot represent the turns ratio. The AC equivalent load resistance under the full load condition can be calculated by: . where L2 is measured with other coils open-circuited. To increase the transfer efficiency, the resonance capacitance C2 can be calculated by using (5): nd n   est  Vin / Vo Rac  3 Experimentally, M is recommended to be around 1.5 to achieve high efficiency. L1 is given by (3) and (12). Thus C1 and L1 which is measured with other coils open-circuited are designed to be 19.53 nF and 179.51 μH, respectively. E. Design C2 and L2 In the secondary resonator, the self-inductance L2 of the secondary coil is easily obtained by: (17) where the switching frequency fs is designed to the 2 resonance frequency f2 in the proposed design method. Typically, the 3rd resonance frequency can be set at 10~20% below fs. Therefore, f3 is designed as 85 kHz. C. Determine the turns ratio and Rac As described in Section II-A, the system shows the voltage follower characteristic at f2. Thus while considering the system efficiency ηest, the turns ratio is given by: M k L3  Q3 re (23) s where re is the AC resistance of the intermediate coil. To minimize the conduction loss of the intermediate coil, the quality factor becomes about 500~600. In the design of C3, the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil can be determined by placing it about 10% above of the operating frequency as follows: C3  1 L3 (1.1 s ) 2 . (24) This induces boosting of the apparent L1 at fs by 20~40%. Therefore, C3 and L3 are designed to be 39.86 nF and 52.52 μH, respectively. 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS G. Verify the apparent L1 with the intermediate coil, and Vo/Vin and the phase of Zin of the overall system The next step is checking L1 at fs. In Fig. 11, L1 is 186.55 μH without the intermediate coil. However, the apparent L1 increases to 270.61 μH with the intermediate coil at fs. If the apparent L1 is boosted a little, C3 needs to be increased. Since the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil goes to fs, the apparent L1 is increased a lot. This also increases apparent coupling coefficient. Finally, in Fig. 15, the voltage gain Vo/Vin and the phase of Zin of the overall system are simulated. This is to verify if the system can operate in the ZVS region at fs with load variations. From the design procedure, it is verified that none of coils are tuned at the operating frequency of 100 kHz unlike the conventional design method. The primary and secondary coils are tuned at 85 kHz, and the intermediate coil is tuned at 110 kHz. This is one of the main features of the proposed design method. I. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A prototype of a WPT system with an intermediate coil is implemented with the proposed design method and the specifications are shown in Table I. The prototype operates at 100 kHz switching frequency. IPW65R037C6 MOSFETs are used for the full-bridge inverter, and 6.6 kW of power is transferred to the output load. In the resonator, the real parameters which are measured with other coils open-circuited are similar to the designed parameters in Section III. Fig. 17 shows a block diagram of the prototype of a 6.6 kW WPT system which has an air gap between the primary and secondary side coil of 200 mm. The intermediate coil is located inside of the primary coil. From the three phase AC source, the power is transferred though the full bridge inverter, the resonator, and the output rectifier. The stand-by flyback converters supply the operating current of the PFM controller, the gate drivers, and a fan for cooling. In terms of the voltage gain of the system, shown in Fig. 18, the theoretical analysis in Section II is well matched with the experimental results at around the operating frequency. Therefore, the rated output voltage and current are easily achieved with the proposed design method. However, as the operating frequency goes to ω3, like the conventional design method, the error is gradually increased as expected. Fig. 19 shows the input and output voltages, currents, and powers at the rated load. The input power is measured by a TABLE I. SPECIFICATIONS OF PROTOTYPE 3Φ line voltage Vline (line-line) 400 Vac Input voltage Vin 540Vdc Rated output voltage Vo 400 Vdc Rated output load current Io 16.5 A Rated load resistance Ro 24.24 Ω Rated output power Po 6.6 kW Switching frequency fs (Q1 ~ Q4) 100 kHz Inverter switches Si MOS.(Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) IPW65R037C6 Inverter switches SiC MOS.(Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) Output rectifier diodes (D1, D2, D3, D4) Parameters Designed Param. CMF20120 DSEI120-06A Measured Param. Self-inductance L1 179.51 μH 186.55 μH Self-inductance L2 122.61 μH 131.66 μH Self-inductance L3 52.52 μH 49.83 μH Resonance Cap. C1 19.53 nF 19.43 nF Resonance Cap. C2 28.59 nF 25.08 nF Resonance Cap. C3 39.86 nF 41.21 nF Coupling coeffi. k 0.2 0.191 Turns ratio n 1.21 1.1903 Turns ratio m - 1.9131 Fig. 17 Block diagram of the 6.6 kW WPT system 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS Fig. 20 Current waveforms of the primary, secondary, and intermediate coil 60.9W 0.882% 56.0W 51.1W 0.811% 0.740% 40.7W 0.589% 28.8W 0.417% 23.1W 0.334% 17.3W 0.250% 8.4W 5.0W 0.122% 4.7W 0.068% 0.072% 10.0W clu de ga te dr ive r+ e tc .) 0.145% (In PM3000A precise power analyzer. The prototype has overall system efficiency of 95.57% from the three phase AC source to the output load with the proposed design method. The power consumptions of the gate drivers, the control ICs, and a fan are also considered in the efficiency calculation. The current waveforms of the primary, secondary, and intermediate coils are shown in Fig. 20. Under this load condition, the total losses are illustrated in Fig. 21. The conduction loss of the primary coil shows the biggest loss. The secondary side rectifiers and the MOSFETs switching including the gate driver, and the secondary coil losses also make up a large portion of these losses. Fig. 22 shows the overall system efficiency with load variations for the three coil system which is designed by the proposed method with Si MOSFETs and SiC MOSFETs, and the two coil system with SiC MOSFETs. In the Si and SiC MOSFET comparison, since the turn-on resistance of the Si MOSFET is lower than that of the SiC MOSFET and the switching frequency is only 100 kHz, the Si MOSFET shows higher efficiency. The Si MOSFET and SiC MOSFET have turn-on resistances of 37 mΩ and 80 mΩ, respectively. If the switching frequency increases to above 200 kHz, the SiC MOSFET may show higher efficiency. In the two coil and three coil system comparison, the three coil system shows much higher efficiency due to a higher apparent coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient of the two coil system is 0.191. However, in the three coil system, the apparent coupling coefficient becomes 0.408 as presented in Section II-B. Fig. 21 Loss analysis at 6.6 kW output power 97 3 Coils, Si MOSFET 96 Efficiency [%] 95 94 94.97 94.27 94.72 95.36 95.09 95.33 95.46 95.57 95.04 94.91 94.98 3 Coils, SiC MOSFET 94.18 93 92 2 Coils, SiC MOSFET 91 90 89.80 90.31 90.45 90.23 90.14 89.93 89 88 1.1 kW 2.2 kW 3.3 kW 4.4 kW 5.5 kW 6.6 kW Load Condition Fig. 18 The simulation and experimental results of the voltage gain Fig. 19 Input and output power of the overall WPT system Fig. 22 Overall system efficiency with load variation II. CONCLUSION In this paper, the frequency characteristics of two coil and three coil resonator WPT systems have been presented. In the voltage transfer function of the three coil resonator system, the intermediate coil effect is added to the characteristic of the original two coil resonator system. The intermediate coil boosts the effective self-inductance and magnetizing inductance of the primary side at around the resonance frequency of the intermediate coil, so that the apparent coupling coefficient increases. As a result, the three coil system has higher efficiency with a relatively long distance between the primary and secondary sides. Finally, this paper proposed an optimal design method using the second 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS resonance frequency operation with the bi-furcation phenomenon. The proposed design method has the advantage of a predictable output voltage with high transfer efficiency. It makes the overall system design easy. To verify the analysis and the proposed design method, a 6.6 kW prototype was implemented and experimented on. The results showed that the three coil resonator WPT system with the proposed design method has overall efficiency of 95.57% with a 200 mm air gap at 6.6 kW. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] REFERENCES A. K. Ramrakhyani, S. Mirabbasi, and M. Chiao, “Design and optimization of resonance-based efficient wireless power delivery systems for biomedical implants” IEEE Trans. Bio. Circuits and systems, vol. 5, no.1, pp. 48-63, Feb., 2011. Y. T. Jang. And M. M. Jovanovic, “A contactless electrical energy transmission system for portable-telephone battery chargers” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electronics, vol. 50, no.3, pp. 520-527, Jun., 2003. C. S. Wang, O. H. Stielau, and G. A. 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Electronics, vol. 57, no.9, pp. 3181-3190, Sep., 2010. [22] J. J. Casanova, Z. N. Low, J. Lin, “A loosely coupled planar wireless power system for multiple receivers” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electronics, vol. 56, no.8, pp. 3060-3068, Aug., 2009. [23] A. P. Sample, D. A. Meyer, and J. R. Smith, “Analysis, experimental results, and range adaptation of magnetically coupled resonators for wireless power transfer” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electronics, vol. 58, no.2, pp. 544-554, Feb., 2011. [24] J. Huh, W. Y. Lee, S. Y. Choi, G. H. Cho, and C. T. Rim, “Frequencydomain circuit model and analysis of coupled magnetic resonance systems,”Journal of Power Electronics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp.275-286, Mar., 2013. [25] H. L. Li, A. P. Hu, and G. A. Covic, “Primary current generation for a contactless power transfer system using free oscillation and energy injection control,”Journal of Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp.256263, May, 2011. SangCheol Moon (S’10) was born in Jeju Island, Korea, in 1979. He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Ajou University, Suwon, Korea, in 2005 and the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea, in 2007. He has worked as a system and application engineer in Fairchild Semiconductor, Bucheon, Korea, since 2007. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from KAIST. His research interests are in power electronics including analysis, modeling, control method, power factor correction, LEDs and wireless power transfer circuits. Bong-Chul Kim (S'09) was born in Korea in 1979. He received the B.S. degree from Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea, in 2006 and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea, in 2008 and 2012, respectively. He is currently a Senior Research Engineer in the Device Innovation Division, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Suwon, Korea. His current research interests include power converter, high-powerdensity adapter and wireless power transfer systems. Dr. Kim was a recipient of the Second Prize Paper Award from the International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC) in 2009. 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2301762, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS Shin-Young Cho (S’10) was born in Seoul, Korea, in 1981. He received the B.S degree from Hanyang University, and the M.S degree from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Korea, in 2007 and 2010, respectively, both in electrical engineering. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at KAIST. His research interests are in the areas of power electronics: display driver system and wireless charger including the analysis, modeling, design, and control of power converters. Chi-Hyung Ahn received B.S. from Inha University, Korea and M.S. degree in electronics engineering from Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea, and Ph.D. degree from Texas A&M University at College Station, in 2002, 2004, and 2010, respectively. From 2004 to 2005, he was a visiting researcher with Microwave Electronics Laboratory, UCLA, where he was involved in 2-D metamaterial circuit modeling. From 2005 to 2006, he was employed by Agilent Korea where he worked in technical sales. In 2010, he joined Samsung Electronics at Suwon, Korea and is working on antenna and wireless power transfer device designs. His research interests include wireless power transmission, metamaterial applications, conformal arrays, and microwave filters. Gun-Woo Moon (S’92-M’00) received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, in 1992 and 1996, respectively. He is currently a Professor in the department of Electrical Engineering, KAIST. His research interests include modeling, design and control of power converters, soft-switching power converters, resonant inverters, distributed power systems, power-factor correction, electric drive systems, driver circuits of plasma display panels, and flexible ac transmission systems. Dr. Moon is a member of the Korean Institute of Power Electronics (KIPE), Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers (KIEE), Korea Institute of Telematics and Electronics (KITE), Korea Institute of Illumination Electronics and Industrial Equipment (KIIEIE), and Society for Information Display (SID). 0278-0046 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.